Zimbabwe And Harare 2

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[edit]Government view and international sanctions

Mugabe points to foreign governments and alleged "sabotage" as the cause of the fall of the Zimbabwean economy, as well as the country's 80% formal unemployment rate.[129] Critics of Mugabe's administration blame Mugabe's controversial programme which sought to seize land from white commercial farmers. Mugabe has repeatedly blamed sanctions imposed on Zimbabwe by the European Union and the United States for the state of the Zimbabwean economySony VAIO PCG-51311L battery. According to the United States, these sanctions target only seven specific businesses owned or controlled by government officials and not ordinary citizens.[130]

The Zimbabwean government and its supporters attest that the idea that the loss of 4,000 white farmers led to the financial crises is Western propaganda, and in actuality it was Western policies to avenge the expulsion of their kin that sabotaged the economy, and this was motivated by racism and the wish to maintain white privilege in Zimbabwe.Sony VAIO PCG-51211L battery Cynthia Mckinney, an American congresswoman, responded to this bill in the following fashion:[132]

"There are many de jure and de facto one-party states in the world which are the recipients of support of the United States government. They are not the subject of Congressional legislative sanctions. To any honest observer, Zimbabwe's sin is that it has taken the position to right a wrong, whose resolution has been too long overdue – to return its land to its peopleSony VAIO PCG-41112L battery. The Zimbabwean government has said that a situation where 2 percent of the population owns 85 percent of the best land is untenable. Those who presently own more than one farm will no longer be able to do so. When we get right down to it, this legislation is nothing more than a formal declaration of United States complicity in a program to maintain white-skin privilegeSony VAIO PCG-3A4L battery."

Taxes and tariffs are high for private enterprises, while state enterprises are strongly subsidised. State regulation is costly to companies; starting or closing a business is slow and costly. Government spending was predicted to reach 67% of GDP in 2007. It used to be partly financed by printing money, which led to hyperinflation. The labour market is highly regulatedSony VAIO PCG-3A3L battery; hiring a worker is cumbersome, firing a worker is difficult, and unemployment has risen to 80% (2005).

Since 1 January 2002, the government of Zimbabwe has had its lines of credit at international financial institutions frozen, through U.S. legislation called the Zimbabwe Democracy and Economic Recovery Act of 2001 (ZDERA). Section 4C instructs the Secretary of the Treasury to direct directors at international financial institutions to veto the extension of loans and credit to the Zimbabwean government. Sony VAIO PCG-3A2L battery

In an effort to combat inflation and foster economic growth the Zimbabwean Dollar was suspended indefinitely on 12 April 2009.[136] Zimbabwe now allows trade in the United States Dollar and various other currencies such as the South African rand, euro, Sterling, and Botswana pulaSony VAIO PCG-3A1L battery.

Main article: Demographics of Zimbabwe

A n'anga (or faith healer) of the majority (70%) Shona people, holding a kudu horn trumpet

Zimbabwean women at Kariba. White Zimbabweans currently comprise under 1% of the population.

Zimbabwe's total population is 12 million.[137] According to the United Nations World Health Organisation, the life expectancy for men was 37 years and the life expectancy for women was 34 years of age, the lowest in the world in 2006. Sony VAIO PCG-394L battery An association of doctors in Zimbabwe has made calls for President Mugabe to make moves to assist the ailing health service.[139] The HIV infection rate in Zimbabwe was estimated to be 14% for people aged 15–49 in 2009.[140] UNESCO reported a decline in HIV prevalence among pregnant women from 26% in 2002 to 21% in 2004Sony VAIO PCG-393L battery.

Some 85% of Zimbabweans are Christian; 62% of the population attends religious services regularly.[142] The largest Christian churches are Anglican, Roman Catholic, Seventh-day Adventist[143] and Methodist. As in other African countries, Christianity may be mixed with enduring traditional beliefs. Besides Christianity, ancestral worship is the most practised non-Christian religion, involving spiritual intercessionSony VAIO PCG-391L battery; the Mbira Dza Vadzimu, which means "Voice of the Ancestors", an instrument related to many lamellophones ubiquitous throughout Africa, is central to many ceremonial proceedings. Mwari simply means "God the Creator" (musika vanhu in Shona). Around 1% of the population is Muslim.[144]

Bantu-speaking ethnic groups make up 98% of the population. The majority people, the Shona, comprise 70%Sony VAIO PCG-384L battery. The Ndebele are the second most populous with 20% of the population. The Ndebele descended from Zulu migrations in the 19th century and the other tribes with which they intermarried. Up to one million Ndebele may have left the country over the last five years, mainly for South Africa. Other Bantu ethnic groups make up the third largest with 2 to 5%. These are Venda, Tonga, Shangaan, Kalanga, Sotho, Ndau and Nambya. Sony VAIO PCG-383L battery

Minority ethnic groups include white Zimbabweans, who make up less than 1% of the total population. White Zimbabweans are mostly of British origin, but there are also Afrikaner, Greek, Portuguese, French and Dutch communities. The white population dropped from a peak of around 278,000 or 4.3% of the population in 1975 to possibly 120,000 in 1999 and was estimated to be no more than 50,000 in 2002, and possibly much less. Sony VAIO PCG-382L battery Most emigration has been to the United Kingdom (Between 200,000 and 500,000 Britons are of Rhodesian or Zimbabwean origin), South Africa, Botswana, Zambia, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Mixed-race citizens form 0.5% of the population and various Asian ethnic groups, mostly of Indian and Chinese origin, are also 0.5%Sony VAIO PCG-381L battery.

Language

Main article: Languages of Zimbabwe

Shona, Ndebele and English are the principal languages of Zimbabwe. Despite English being the official language, less than 2.5%, mainly the white and Coloured (mixed race) minorities, consider it their native language. The rest of the population speak Bantu languages such as Shona (70%), Ndebele (20%) and the other minority languages of Venda, Tsonga, Shangaan, Kalanga, Sotho, Ndau and Nambya. Sony VAIO PCG-7185L batteryShona has a rich oral tradition, which was incorporated into the first Shona novel, Feso by Solomon Mutswairo, published in 1956.[151] English is spoken primarily in the cities, but less so in rural areas. Radio and television news now broadcast in Shona, Ndebele and English.

The economic meltdown and repressive political measures in Zimbabwe have led to a flood of refugees into neighbouring countries. An estimated 3.4 million Zimbabweans, a quarter of the population, had fled abroad by mid 2007. Some 3 million of these have gone to South Africa and BotswanaSony VAIO PCG-7184L battery.

Apart from the people who fled into the neighbouring countries, there are up to one million internally displaced persons (IDPs). There is no current comprehensive survey,[154] although the following figures are available:

The above surveys do not include people displaced by Operation Chikorokoza Chapera or beneficiaries of the fast-track land reform programme but who have since been evicted. Sony VAIO PCG-7183L battery

See also: HIV/AIDS in Zimbabwe and Zimbabwean cholera outbreak

Map showing the spread of cholera in and around Zimbabwe put together from several sources.

At independence, the policies of racial inequality were reflected in the disease patterns of the black majority. The first five years after independence saw rapid gains in areas such as immunisation coverage, access to health care, and contraceptive prevalence rate. Sony VAIO PCG-7182L battery Zimbabwe was thus considered internationally to have an achieved a good record of health development.[158] The country suffered occasional outbreaks of acute diseases (such as plague in 1994). The gains on the national health were eroded by structural adjustment in the 1990s,[159] the impact of the HIV/AIDS pandemic[100] and the economic crisis since the year 2000. Zimbabwe now has one of the lowest life expectancies on Earth – 44 for men and 43 for women,[160] down from 60 in 1990. The rapid drop has been ascribed mainly to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Infant mortality has risen from 5.9% in the late 1990s to 12.3% by 2004.Sony VAIO PCG-7181L battery

The health system has more or less collapsed. By the end of November 2008, three of Zimbabwe's four major hospitals had shut down, along with the Zimbabwe Medical School, and the fourth major hospital had two wards and no operating theatres working.[161] Due to hyperinflation, those hospitals still open are not able to obtain basic drugs and medicines. Sony VAIO PCG-7174L battery The ongoing political and economic crisis also contributed to the emigration of the doctors and people with medical knowledge.[163]

In August 2008 large areas of Zimbabwe were struck by the ongoing cholera epidemic. By December 2008 more than 10,000 people had been infected in all but one of Zimbabwe's provinces and the outbreak had spread to Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa and Zambia. On 4 December 2008 the Zimbabwe government declared the outbreak to be a national emergency and asked for international aid. Sony VAIO PCG-7173L battery By 9 March 2009 The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that 4,011 people had succumbed to the waterborne disease since the outbreak began in August 2008, and the total number of cases recorded had reached 89,018. In Harare, the city council offered free graves to cholera victims.[169] There have been signs that the disease is abating, with cholera infections down by about 50 percent to around 4,000 cases a week. Sony VAIO PCG-7172L battery

Maternal and child health care

In June 2011, the United Nations Population Fund released a report on The State of the World's Midwifery. It contained new data on the midwifery workforce and policies relating to newborn and maternal mortality for 58 countries. The 2010 maternal mortality rate per 100,000 births for Zimbabwe is 790. This is compared with 624.3 in 2008 and 231.8 in 1990Sony VAIO PCG-7171L battery. The under 5 mortality rate, per 1,000 births is 93 and the neonatal mortality as a percentage of under 5's mortality is 32. The aim of this report is to highlight ways in which the Millennium Development Goals can be achieved, particularly Goal 4 – Reduce child mortality and Goal 5 – improve maternal health. In Zimbabwe the number of midwives per 1,000 live births is unavailable and 1 in 42 shows us the lifetime risk of death for pregnant womenSony VAIO PCG-7162L battery.

Zimbabwe's adult literacy rate is amongst the highest in Africa.

Zimbabwe has an adult literacy rate of approximately 90%+/- which is amongst the highest in Africa. Since 1995 the adult literacy rate of Zimbabwe had steadily decreased, a trend shared by other African countries. In 2010, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) found that Zimbabwe's literacy rate had climbed to a high of 92% and had, once again, become the highest in AfricaSony VAIO PCG-7161L battery. The education department has stated that 20,000 teachers have left Zimbabwe since 2007 and that half of Zimbabwe's children have not progressed beyond primary school.

The wealthier portion of the population usually send their children to independent schools as opposed to the government-run schools which are attended by the majority as these are subsidised by the government. School education was made free in 1980, but since 1988, the government has steadily increased the charges attached to school enrolment until they now greatly exceed the real value of fees in 1980Sony VAIO PCG-7154L battery. The Ministry of Education of Zimbabwe maintains and operates the government schools but the fees charged by independent schools are regulated by the cabinet of Zimbabwe.

Zimbabwe's education system consists of 2 years of pre-school, 7 years of primary and 6 years of secondary schooling before students can enter university in the country or abroad. The academic year in Zimbabwe runs from January to December, with three terms, broken up by one month holidays, with a total of 40 weeks of school per yearSony VAIO PCG-7153L battery. National examinations are written during the third term in November, with "O" level and "A" level subjects also offered in June.[178]

There are seven public universities as well as four church-related universities in Zimbabwe that are fully internationally accredited.[178] The University of Zimbabwe, the first and largest, was built in 1952 and is located in the Harare suburb of Mount Pleasant. Notable alumni from Zimbabwean universities include Welshman Ncube; Peter Moyo (of Amabhubesi) Sony VAIO PCG-7152L battery; Tendai Biti, Secretary-General for the MDC; Chenjerai Hove, Zimbabwean poet, novelist and essayist; and Arthur Mutambara, President of one faction of the MDC. Many of the current politicians in the government of Zimbabwe have obtained degrees from universities in USA or other universities abroad.

The highest professional board for accountants is the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Zimbabwe (ICAZ) with direct relationships with similar bodies in South AfricaSony VAIO PCG-7151L battery, Canada, the UK and Australia. A qualified Chartered Accountant from Zimbabwe is also a member of similar bodies in these countries after writing a conversion paper. In addition, Zimbabwean-trained doctors only require one year of residence to be fully licensed doctors in the United States. The Zimbabwe Institution of Engineers (ZIE) is the highest professional board for engineersSony VAIO PCG-7148L battery.

Education in Zimbabwe became under threat since the economic changes in 2000 with teachers going on strike because of low pay, students unable to concentrate because of hunger and the price of uniforms soaring making this standard a luxury. Teachers were also one of the main targets of Mugabe's attacks because he thought they were not strong supporters. Sony VAIO VGN-CS26T/P battery

Main article: Media of Zimbabwe

The media of Zimbabwe, once diverse, have come under tight restriction in recent years by the government, particularly during the growing economic and political crisis in the country. The Zimbabwean constitution promises freedom of the media and expression; the media is currently hampered by political interference and the implementation of strict media laws. In its 2008 report, Reporters Without Borders ranked the Zimbabwean media as 151st out of 173. Sony VAIO VGN-CS26T/C battery The government also bans many foreign broadcasting stations from Zimbabwe, including the BBC (since 2001), CNN, CBC, Sky News, Channel 4, American Broadcasting Company, Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) and Fox News. News agencies and newspapers from other Western countries and South Africa have also been banned from the country. In July 2009 the BBC and CNN were able to resume operations and report legally and openly from ZimbabweSony VAIO VGN-CS25H battery. CNN welcomed the move. The Zimbabwe Ministry of Media, Information and Publicity stated that, "the Zimbabwe government never banned the BBC from carrying out lawful activities inside Zimbabwe".[90] The BBC also welcomed the move saying, "we're pleased at being able to operate openly in Zimbabwe once again".Sony VAIO VGN-CS25H/W battery

Privately owned news outlets used to be common; since the 2002 Access to Information and Protection of Privacy Act (AIPPA) was passed, a number have been shut down by the government, including The Daily News whose managing director Wilf Mbanga went on to form the influential The Zimbabwean. As a result, many press organisations have been set up in both neighbouring and Western countries by exiled ZimbabweansSony VAIO VGN-CS25H/Q battery. Because the internet is currently unrestricted, many Zimbabweans are allowed to access online news sites set up by exiled journalists.[183] Reporters Without Borders claims the media environment in Zimbabwe involves "surveillance, threats, imprisonment, censorship, blackmail, abuse of power and denial of justice are all brought to bear to keep firm control over the news."[180] The main published newspapers are The Herald and The Chronicle which are printed in Harare and Bulawayo respectivelySony VAIO VGN-CS25H/P battery.

In 2010 the Zimbabwe Media Commission was established by the inclusive, power-sharing government. In May 2010 the Commission licensed three new privately owned newspapers, including the previously banned Daily News, for publication.[184] Reporters Without Borders described the decisions as a "major advance".[185] In June 2010 NewsDay became the first independent daily newspaper to be published in Zimbabwe in seven years. Sony VAIO VGN-CS25H/C battery

A Zimbabwe market place and bus terminus

Zimbabwe has many different cultures which may include beliefs and ceremonies, one of them being Shona. Zimbabwe's largest ethnic group is Shona. The Shona people have many sculptures and carvings which are made with the finest materials available.

Zimbabwe first celebrated its independence on 18 April 1980.[187] Celebrations are held at either the National Sports Stadium or Rufaro Stadium in HarareSony VAIO VGN-CS23T/Q battery. The first independence celebrations were held in 1980 at the Zimbabwe Grounds. At these celebrations doves are released to symbolise peace and fighter jets fly over and the national anthem is sung. The flame of independence is lit by the president after parades by the presidential family and members of the armed forces of Zimbabwe. The president also gives a speech to the people of Zimbabwe which is televised for those unable to attend the stadium. Sony VAIO VGN-CS23H battery

Main article: Zimbabwean art

Traditional arts in Zimbabwe include pottery, basketry, textiles, jewellery and carving. Among the distinctive qualities are symmetrically patterned woven baskets and stools carved out of a single piece of wood. Shona sculpture has become world famous in recent years having first emerged in the 1940sSony VAIO VGN-CS23H/S battery. Most subjects of carved figures of stylised birds and human figures among others are made with sedimentary rocks such as soapstone, as well as harder igneous rocks such as serpentine and the rare stone verdite. Some of these Zimbabwean artefacts being found in countries like Singapore, China and Canada. i.e Dominic Benhura's statue in the Singapore botanic gardensSony VAIO VGN-CS23H/B battery.

Shona sculpture in essence has been a fusion of African folklore with European influences. World renowned Zimbabwean sculptors include Nicholas, Nesbert and Anderson Mukomberanwa, Tapfuma Gutsa, Henry Munyaradzi and Locardia Ndandarika. Internationally, Zimbabwean sculptors have managed to influence a new generation of artists, particularly Black Americans, through lengthy apprenticeships with master sculptors in ZimbabweSony VAIO VGN-CS23G battery. Contemporary artists like New York sculptor M. Scott Johnson and California sculptor Russel Albans have learned to fuse both African and Afro-diasporic aesthetics in a way that travels beyond the simplistic mimicry of African Art by some Black artists of past generations in the U.S.

Several authors are well known within Zimbabwe and abroad. Charles Mungoshi is renowned in Zimbabwe for writing traditional stories in English and in Shona and his poems and books have sold well with both the black and white communities. Sony VAIO VGN-CS23G/Q battery Catherine Buckle has achieved international recognition with her two books African Tears and Beyond Tears which tell of the ordeal she went through under the 2000 Land Reform.[190] Prime Minister of Rhodesia, the late Ian Smith, has also written two books – The Great Betrayal and Bitter Harvest. The book The House of Hunger by Dambudzo Marechera won an award in the UK in 1979 and the Nobel Prize-winning author Doris Lessing's first novel The Grass Is Singing is set in RhodesiaSony VAIO VGN-CS23G/P battery.

Internationally famous artists include Henry Mudzengerere and Nicolas Mukomberanwa. A recurring theme in Zimbabwean art is the metamorphosis of man into beast.[191] Zimbabwean musicians like Thomas Mapfumo, Oliver Mtukudzi, the Bhundu Boys and Audius Mtawarira have achieved international recognition. Among members of the white minority communitySony VAIO VGN-CS21Z/Q battery, Theatre has a large following, with numerous theatrical companies performing in Zimbabwe's urban areas.

Like in many African countries, the majority of Zimbabweans depend on a few staple foods. "Mealie meal", also known as cornmeal, is used to prepare sadza or isitshwala, as well as porridge known as bota or ilambazi. Sadza is made by mixing the cornmeal with water to produce a thick paste/porridge. After the paste has been cooking for several minutes, more cornmeal is added to thicken the pasteSony VAIO VGN-CS16T/Q battery.

This is usually eaten as lunch or dinner, usually with sides such as gravy, vegetables (spinach, chomolia, spring greens/collard greens), beans and meat that has been stewed, grilled, roasted or sundried. Sadza is also commonly eaten with curdled milk (sour milk), commonly known as lacto (mukaka wakakora), or dried Tanganyika sardine, known locally as kapenta or matembaSony VAIO VGN-CS16T/P battery. Bota is a thinner porridge, cooked without the additional cornmeal and usually flavoured with peanut butter, milk, butter, or jam.[192] Bota is usually eaten for breakfast.

Graduations, weddings, and any other family gatherings will usually be celebrated with the killing of a goat or cow, which will be barbecued or roasted by the family.

Afrikaner recipes are popular though they are a small group (0.2%) within the white minority group. Biltong, a type of jerky, is a popular snack, prepared by hanging bits of spiced raw meat to dry in the shade.[193] Boerewors is served with sadzaSony VAIO VGN-CS13H/Q battery. It is a long sausage, often well-spiced, composed of beef rather than pork, and barbecued.

Since Zimbabwe was a British colony, some people there have adopted some colonial-era English eating habits. For example, most people will have porridge in the morning, as well as 10 o'clock tea (midday tea). They will have lunch, often leftovers from the night before, freshly cooked sadza, or sandwiches (which is more common in the cities) Sony VAIO VGN-CS13H/P battery. After lunch, there is usually 4 o'clock tea that is served before dinner. It is not uncommon for tea to be had after dinner.

Rice, pasta, and potato based foods (french fries and mashed potato) also make up part of the Zimbabwean cuisine. A local favourite is rice cooked with peanut butter which is taken with thick gravy, mixed vegetables and meat. A potpourri of peanuts known as nzungu, boiled and sundried maize, black-eyed peas known as nyembaSony VAIO VGN-CS11Z/T battery, bambara groundnut known as nyimo makes a traditional dish called mutakura. Mutakura can also be the above ingredients cooked individually. One can also find local snacks such as maputi (roasted/popped maize kernels similar to popcorn), roasted and salted peanuts, sugar cane, sweet potato, pumpkin, indigenous fruit like horned melon, gaka, adansonia, mawuyu, uapaca kirkiana, Sugar plum/Mazhanje, and many othersSony VAIO VGN-CS11Z/R battery.

Main article: Sport in Zimbabwe

Saint George's First XV Rugby Team

Football is the most popular sport in Zimbabwe, although rugby union and cricket also have a following, traditionally among the white minority. Zimbabwe has won eight Olympic medals, one in field hockey at the (boycotted) 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, and seven in swimming, three at the 2004 Summer Olympics and four at the 2008 Summer OlympicsSony VAIO VGN-CS11S/Q battery.

Zimbabwe has also done well in the Commonwealth Games and All-Africa Games in swimming with Kirsty Coventry obtaining 11 gold medals in the different competitions. Zimbabwe has also competed at Wimbledon and the Davis Cup in tennis, most notably with the Black family, which comprises Wayne Black, Byron Black and Cara Black. Zimbabwe has also done well in golfSony VAIO VGN-CS11S/P battery.The Zimbabwean Nick Price held the official World Number 1 status longer than any player from Africa has ever done in the 24 year history of the Ranking.[198]

Other sports played in Zimbabwe are basketball, volleyball, netball, and water polo, as well as squash, motorsport, martial arts, chess, cycling, polocrosse, kayaking and horse racing. However, most of these sports don't have international representatives but instead stay at a junior or national level(Sony VAIO VGN-AW11M/H battery).

It was in the Matabeleland region in Zimbabwe that, during the Second Matabele War, Robert Baden-Powell, the founder of Scouting, and Frederick Russell Burnham, the American born Chief of Scouts for the British Army, first met and began their lifelong friendship.[199] In mid-June 1896, during a scouting patrol in the Matobo Hills, Burnham began teaching Baden-Powell woodcraft(Sony VAIO VGN-AW11S/B battery). Baden-Powell and Burnham discussed the concept of a broad training programme in woodcraft for young men, rich in exploration, tracking, fieldcraft, and self-reliance.[200] It was also during this time in the Matobo Hills that Baden-Powell first started to wear his signature campaign hat like the one worn by Burnham.[201]

Scouting in the former Rhodesia and Nyasaland started in 1909 when the first Boy Scout troop was registered(Sony VAIO VGN-AW11Z/B battery). Scouting grew quickly and in 1924 Rhodesia and Nyasaland sent a large contingent to the second World Scout Jamboree in Ermelunden, Denmark. In 1959, Rhodesia hosted the Central African Jamboree at Ruwa. In 2009, Scouts celebrated 100 years of Scouting in Zimbabwe and hundreds of Scouts camped at Gordon Park, a Scout campground and training area, as part of these celebrations.[202]

Besides scouting, there are also leadership(Sony VAIO VGN-AW19/Q battery), life skills and general knowledge courses and training experiences mainly for school children ranging from pre-school to final year high school students and some times bthose beyond High school. These courses and outings, are held at places like Lasting Impressions (Lasting Impressions ~Zimbabwe), Far and Wide Zimbabwe (Far and wide.) and Chimanimani Outward Bound (Outwardbound Zimbabwe), Just to name a few.

The logo of the Zimbabwe Tourism Authority showing the Victoria Falls and the Zimbabwe Bird found at Great Zimbabwe(Sony VAIO VGN-AW19 battery)

Victoria Falls, the end of the upper Zambezi and beginning of the middle Zambezi

Since the Land Reform programme in 2000, tourism in Zimbabwe has steadily declined. After rising during the 1990s, (1.4 million tourists in 1999) industry figures described a 75% fall in visitors to Zimbabwe in 2000. By December, less than 20% of hotel rooms had been occupied.[203] This has had a huge impact on the Zimbabwean economy. Thousands of jobs have been lost in the industry due to companies closing down or simply being unable to pay staff wages due to the decreasing number of tourists(Sony VAIO VGN-AW21M/H battery).

Several airlines have also pulled out of Zimbabwe. Australia's Qantas, Germany's Lufthansa and Austrian Airlines were among the first to pull out and most recently British Airways suspended all direct flights to Harare. The country's flagship airline Air Zimbabwe, which operated flights throughout Africa and a few destinations in Europe and Asia, ceased operations in February 2012.[205] Many light aircraft charter companies operate in Zimbabwe(Sony VAIO VGN-AW21S/B battery), providing a quick and safe means of travel in the region. The biggest of these companies is Executive Air.

Zimbabwe boasts several major tourist attractions. Victoria Falls on the Zambezi, which are shared with Zambia, are located in the north west of Zimbabwe. Before the economic changes, much of the tourism for these locations came to the Zimbabwe side but now Zambia is the main beneficiary. The Victoria Falls National Park is also in this area and is one of the eight main national parks in Zimbabwe,[206] largest of which is Hwange National Park(Sony VAIO VGN-AW21VY/Q battery).

The Eastern Highlands are a series of mountainous areas near the border with Mozambique. The highest peak in Zimbabwe, Mount Nyangani at 2,593 m (8,507 ft) is located here as well as the Bvumba Mountains and the Nyanga National Park. World's View is in these mountains and it is from here that places as far away as 60–70 km (37–43 mi) are visible and, on clear days, the town of Rusape can be seen(Sony VAIO VGN-AW21XY/Q battery).

Great Zimbabwe as featured on the defunct $50 note

Zimbabwe is unusual in Africa in that there are a number of ancient ruined cities built in a unique dry stone style. The most famous of these are the Great Zimbabwe ruins in Masvingo. Other ruins include Khami Ruins, Zimbabwe, Dhlo-Dhlo and Naletale, although none of these is as famous as Great Zimbabwe(Sony VAIO VGN-AW21Z/B battery).

The Matobo Hills are an area of granite kopjes and wooded valleys commencing some 22 miles (35 km) south of Bulawayo in southern Zimbabwe. The Hills were formed over 2,000 million years ago with granite being forced to the surface, then being eroded to produce smooth "whaleback dwalas" and broken kopjes, strewn with boulders and interspersed with thickets of vegetation(Sony VAIO VGN-AW31M/H battery). Mzilikazi, founder of the Ndebele nation, gave the area its name, meaning 'Bald Heads'. They have become famous and a tourist attraction due to their ancient shapes and local wildlife. Cecil Rhodes and other early white pioneers like Leander Starr Jameson are buried in these hills at a site named World's View.[207]

National symbols, insignia, and anthems

The flame lily, national flower of Zimbabwe

Reverse side of the defunct ten cent coin featuring the Zimbabwe Bird

Traditional Zimbabwe Bird design(Sony VAIO VGN-AW31S/B battery)

The two main traditional symbols of Zimbabwe are the Zimbabwe Bird and the Balancing Rocks.

Other national symbols exist, but have varying degrees of official usage, such as the flame lily and the Sable Antelope.

Main article: Zimbabwe Bird

The stone-carved Zimbabwe Bird appears on the national flags and the coats of arms of both Zimbabwe and Rhodesia, as well as on banknotes and coins (first on Rhodesian pound and then Rhodesian dollar). It probably represents the Bateleur eagle or the African Fish Eagle. (Sony VAIO VGN-AW31XY/Q battery)

The famous soapstone bird carvings stood on walls and monoliths of the ancient city of Great Zimbabwe, built, it is believed, sometime between the 13th and 16th centuries by ancestors of the Shona. The ruins, which gave their name to modern Zimbabwe, cover some 1,800 acres (7.3 km2) and are the largest ancient stone construction in Zimbabwe.(Sony VAIO VGN-AW41JF/H battery)

When the ruins of Great Zimbabwe were excavated by treasure-hunters in the late 19th century, five of the carved birds they discovered were taken to South Africa by Cecil Rhodes. Four of the statues were returned to Zimbabwe by the South African government at independence, while the fifth remains at Groote Schuur, Rhodes' former home in Cape Town(Sony VAIO VGN-AW41JF battery).

Main article: Balancing Rocks

Balancing Rocks are geological formations all over Zimbabwe. The rocks are perfectly balanced without other supports. They are created when ancient granite intrusions are exposed to weathering, as softer rocks surrounding them erode away. They are often remarked on and have been depicted on both the banknotes of Zimbabwe and the Rhodesian dollar banknotes(Sony VAIO VGN-AW41MF/H battery). The ones found on the current notes of Zimbabwe, named the Banknote Rocks, are located in Epworth, approximately 9 miles (14 km) south east of Harare.[211] There are many different formations of the rocks, incorporating single and paired columns of 3 or more rocks. These formations are a feature of south and east tropical Africa from northern South Africa northwards to Sudan. The most notable formations in Zimbabwe are located in the Matobo National Park in Matabeleland(Sony VAIO VGN-AW41MF battery).

The ICT sector of Zimbabwe has been growing at a fast pace. A report by the world’s leading mobile internet browser, Opera for June/July 2011 has ranked Zimbabwe as Africa’s fastest growing market.[212]

Main article: National Anthem of Zimbabwe

"Blessed be the Land of Zimbabwe" (Shona: "Simudzai Mureza wedu WeZimbabwe"; Northern Ndebele: "Kalibusiswe Ilizwe leZimbabwe") is the national anthem of Zimbabwe. It was introduced in March 1994(Sony VAIO VGN-AW41XH/Q battery) after a nation-wide competition to replace "Ishe Komborera Africa" as a distinctly Zimbabwean song. The winning entry was a song written by Professor Solomon Mutswairo and composed by Fred Changundega. It has been translated into all three of the main languages of Zimbabwe.

Harare ( /həˈrɑreɪ/;[1] before 1982 known as Salisbury) is the largest city and capital of Zimbabwe. It has an estimated population of 1,606,000 (2009), (Sony VAIO VGN-AW41XH battery) with 2,800,000 in its metropolitan area (2006). Administratively, Harare is an independent city equivalent to a province. It is Zimbabwe's largest city and its administrative, commercial, and communications centre. The city is a trade centre for tobacco, maize, cotton, and citrus fruits. Manufactures include textiles, steel, and chemicals, and gold is mined in the area. Harare is situated at an elevation of 1483 metres (4865 feet) and its climate falls into the warm temperate category(Sony VAIO VGN-AW41ZF/B battery).

Harare is the site of the University of Zimbabwe, the largest institution of higher learning in Zimbabwe, which is situated in the suburb of Mount Pleasant, about 6 km north of the city centre.[3] Numerous suburbs surround the city, retaining the names colonial administrators gave them during the 19th century, such as Warren Park, Borrowdale, Mount Pleasant, Marlborough, Tynwald and Avondale(Sony VAIO VGN-AW41ZF battery).

The Pioneer Column, a military volunteer force of settlers organised by Cecil Rhodes, founded the city on 12 September 1890 as a fort.[4] They originally named the city Fort Salisbury after the 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, then British prime minister, and it subsequently became known simply as Salisbury. The Salisbury Polo Club was formed in 1896.[5] It was declared to be a municipality in 1897 and it became a city in 1935(SONY Vaio VGN-NS38M Battery).

The area at the time of founding of the city was poorly drained and earliest development was on sloping ground along the left bank of a stream that is now the course of a trunk road (Julius Nyerere Way). The first area to be fully drained was near the head of the stream and was named Causeway as a result. This area is now the site of many of the most important government buildings, including the Senate House and the Office of the Prime Minister(SONY Vaio VGN-NS31S Battery), now renamed for the use of President Mugabe after the position was abolished in January 1988.[6]

Salisbury was the capital of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland from 1953 to 1963. After that point, it was the capital of Southern Rhodesia. The government of Ian Smith declared Rhodesia independent from the United Kingdom on November 11, 1965, and proclaimed the Republic of Rhodesia in 1970. Subsequently(SONY Vaio VGN-NS31M Battery), the nation became the short-lived state of Zimbabwe Rhodesia; it was not until April 18, 1980, that the country was internationally recognized as independent as the Republic of Zimbabwe.

Post-independence (1980–1998)

The capital city retained the name Salisbury until 1982.

The name of the city was changed to Harare on April 18, 1982, the second anniversary of Zimbabwean independence, taking its name from the Shona chieftain Neharawa. It is also said the name derived from the European corruption of "Haarari" ("He does not sleep"), the epithet of the chief whose citadel was located in the area known today as the Kopje (SONY Vaio VGN-NS31Z Battery) (pronounced "Koppie"). It was said that no enemy could ever launch a sneak attack on him. Prior to independence, "Harare" was the name of the Black residential area now known as Mbare.

[edit]Economic difficulties and hyperinflation (1999–2008)

In the early 21st century Harare has been adversely affected by the political and economic crisis that is currently plaguing Zimbabwe, after the contested 2002 presidential election and 2005 parliamentary elections. The elected council was replaced by a government-appointed commission for alleged inefficiency(SONY Vaio VGN-NS21Z Battery), but essential services such as rubbish collection and street repairs have rapidly worsened, and are now virtually non-existent. In May 2006 the Zimbabwean newspaper the Financial Gazette, described the city in an editorial as a "sunshine city-turned-sewage farm".[7] In 2009, Harare was voted to be the toughest city to live in according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's livability poll. (SONY Vaio VGN-NS21M Battery)

[edit]Operation Murambatsvina

In May 2005 the Zimbabwean government demolished shanties and backyard cottages in Harare and the other cities in the country in Operation Murambatsvina ("Drive Out Trash"). This caused a sharp reaction in the international community because it took place without prior warning and no advance plans were made to provide alternative housing. It was widely alleged(SONY Vaio VGN-NS21S Battery) that the true purpose of the campaign was to punish the urban poor for supporting the opposition Movement for Democratic Change and to reduce the likelihood of mass action against the government by driving people out of the cities. The government claimed it was necessitated by a rise of criminality and disease. This was followed by Operation Garikayi/Hlalani Kuhle (Operation "Better Living") a year later which consisted of building concrete housing(SONY Vaio VGN-NS12S Battery).

In late March 2010, Harare's Joina City Tower was finally opened after 14 years of on-off construction. It has since changed the city skyline and has been dubbed Harare's new Pride. Nevertheless, the project has encountered financial difficulty; due to ongoing economic problems, occupancy has remained at only 3% as of November 2011. (SONY Vaio VGN-NS12M Battery)

The Economist Intelligence Unit rated Harare as the world's least livable city in 2011.[10]

The city sits on the one of the higher parts of the Highveld plateau of Zimbabwe at an elevation of 1483 metres (4865 feet). The original landscape could be described as a "parkland." [11]

Harare has a pleasant Subtropical highland climate (Köppen Cwb). The average annual temperature is 17.95 °C, rather low for the tropics, and this is due to its high altitude position and the prevalence of a cool south-easterly airflow. (SONY Vaio VGN-NS11Z Battery)

There are three main seasons: a warm, wet season from November to March/April; a cool, dry season from May to August (corresponding to winter in the Southern Hemisphere); and a hot, dry season in September/October. Daily temperature ranges are about 7 °C (44.6 °F) to 20 °C (68.0 °F) in July (the coldest month), about 13 °C (55.4 °F) to 28 °C (82.4 °F) in October (the hottest month) and about 15.5 °C (59.9 °F) to 25 °C (77.0 °F) in January (midsummer) (SONY Vaio VGN-NS11M Battery). The hottest year on record was 1914 19.73 °C (67.5 °F) and the coldest year was 1965 17.13 °C (62.8 °F).

The average annual rainfall is about 825 mm in the southwest, rising to 855 mm on the higher land of the northeast (from around Borrowdale to Glen Lorne). Very little rain typically falls during the period May to September, although sporadic showers occur most years. Rainfall varies a great deal from year to year and follows cycles of wet and dry periods from 7 to 10 years long(SONY Vaio VGN-NS11L Battery). Records begin in October 1890 but all three Harare stations stopped reporting in early 2004.[13]

The climate supports a natural vegetation of open woodland. The most common tree of the local region is the Msasa Brachystegia spiciformis that colours the landscape wine red with its new leaves in late August. Two South American species of trees, the Jacaranda and the Flamboyant, which were introduced during the colonial era(SONY Vaio VGN-NS11J Battery), contribute to the city's colour palette with streets lined with either the lilac blossoms of the Jacaranda or the flame red blooms from the Flamboyant. They flower in October/November and are planted on alternative streets in the capital. Also prevalent is Bougainvillea.

The Northern and North Eastern Suburbs of Harare are home to the more affluent population of the city including president Robert Mugabe who lives in Borrowdale Brooke. These northern suburbs are often referred to as 'dales' because of the common suffix -dale found in some suburbs such as Avondale, Greendale and Borrowdale(SONY Vaio VGN-NS11E Battery).

Harare has been the location of several international summits such as the 8th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement (6 September 1986) and Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 1991. The latter produced the Harare Declaration, dictating the membership criteria of the Commonwealth. In 1998 Harare was the host city of the 8th Assembly of the World Council of Churches(SONY Vaio VGN-NS10L Battery).

In 1995, Harare hosted most of the 6th All-Africa Games, sharing the event with other Zimbabwean cities such as Bulawayo and Chitungwiza. It has hosted some of the matches of 2003 Cricket World Cup which was hosted jointly by Kenya, South Africa and Zimbabwe. Several of the matches were also held in Bulawayo(SONY Vaio VGN-NS10J Battery).

Harare International Airport

City and its environs: The public transport system within the city includes both public and private sector operations. The former consist of ZUPCO buses and National Railways of Zimbabwe commuter trains. Privately-owned public transport comprised licensed station wagons, nicknamed emergency taxis until the mid-1990s, when they were replaced by licensed buses and minibuses, referred to officially as commuter omnibuses(SONY Vaio VGN-NS10E Battery).

Inter-City: The National Railways of Zimbabwe operates a daily overnight passenger train service that runs from Harare to Mutare and another one from Harare to Bulawayo. Harare is linked by long distance bus services to most parts of Zimbabwe.

Air: Harare International Airport serves Harare.

Residents are exposed to a variety of sources for information. In the print media, there is the Herald, Financial Gazette, Zimbabwe Independent, Standard, NewsDay, Daily News and Kwayedza. Since there has been an explosion of online media outlets(SONY Vaio VGN-NS38M/W Battery). These include ZimOnline, ZimDaily, Guardian, NewZimbabwe, Times, Harare Tribune, Zimbabwe Metro, The Zimbabwean,The Zimbabwe Mail [17] and many others; however, a number of factors have combined to effectively eliminate all media except those controlled by the state.

The government controls all the electronic media, though Voice of America, Voice of the people and SW Radio Africa beam broadcasts into the country without the clearance of the regulatory authority(SONY Vaio VGN-NS38M/P Battery).

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