Zambia And Niger 2

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Early historical period

Overlooking the town of Zinder and the Sultan's Palace from the French fort (1906). The arrival of the French spelled a sudden end for precolonial states like the Sultanate of Damagaram, which carried on only as ceremonial "chiefs" appointed by the colonial government.

The Songhai Empire expanded into what is modern Niger from the 15th century, reaching as far as Agadez before its collapse in 1591(Sony VAIO VGN-FW17W battery), from which the modern Zarma and Songhai peoples trace their history. At its fall, portions of the empire and refugees from modern Mali formed a series of Songhai states, with the Dendi Kingdom becoming the most powerful. From the 13th century, the nomadic Tuareg formed large confederations, pushed southward, into the Aïr Mountains, displacing some previous residents to the south(Sony VAIO VGN-FW31E battery). At their peak, the Tuareg confederations ruled most of what is now northern Niger, and extended their influence into modern Nigeria.

In the 18th century, Fula pastoralists moved into the Liptako area of the west, while smaller Zarma kingdoms, siding with various Hausa states, clashed with the expanding Fulani Empire of Sokoto from the south. The colonial border with British Nigeria was in part based on the rupture between the Sokoto Caliphate to the south(Sony VAIO VGN-FW139E battery), and Hausa ruling dynasties which had fled to the north. In the far east around the Lake Chad basin, the successive expansion of the Kanem Empire and Bornu Empire spread ethnically Kanuri and Toubou rulers and their subject states as far west as Zinder and the Kaouar Oases from the 10th to the 17th centuries(Sony VAIO VGN-FW139E/H battery).

The Kaouar escarpment, forming an oasis in the Ténéré desert.

In the 19th century, contact with the West began when the first European explorers — notably Mungo Park (British) and Heinrich Barth (German) — explored the area, searching for the source of the Niger River. Although French efforts at "pacification" began before 1900, dissident ethnic groups, especially the desert Tuareg, were not fully subdued until 1922, when Niger became a French colony. (Sony VAIO VGN-FW465J battery)

Niger's colonial history and development parallel that of other French West African territories. France administered its West African colonies through a governor general in Dakar, Senegal, and governors in the individual territories, including Niger. In addition to conferring French citizenship on the inhabitants of the territories, the 1946 French constitution provided for decentralization of power and limited participation in political life for local advisory assemblies(Sony VAIO VGN-FW31M battery).

Early independence

A further revision in the organization of overseas territories occurred with the passage of the Overseas Reform Act (Loi Cadre) of 23 July 1956, followed by reorganizing measures enacted by the French Parliament early in 1957. In addition to removing voting inequalities, these laws provided for creation of governmental organs, assuring individual territories a large measure of self-government(Sony VAIO VGN-FW31J battery). After the establishment of the Fifth French Republic on 4 December 1958, Niger became an autonomous state within the French Community. Following full independence on 3 August 1960, however, membership was allowed to lapse.

Single party and military rule (1961–1991)

President Hamani Diori and visiting German President Dr. Heinrich Lübke greet crowds on a state visit to Niamey, 1969. Diori's single party rule was characterized by good relations with the west and a preoccupation with foreign affairs(Sony VAIO VGN-FW31Z battery).

For its first fourteen years as an independent state, Niger was run by a single-party civilian regime under the presidency of Hamani Diori. In 1974, a combination of devastating drought and accusations of rampant corruption resulted in a coup d'état that overthrew the Diori regime. Col. Seyni Kountché and a small military group ruled the country until Kountché's death in 1987. (Sony VGN-NR11Z Battery)

He was succeeded by his Chief of Staff, Col. Ali Saibou, who released political prisoners, liberalized some of Niger's laws and policies, and promulgated a new constitution, with the creation of a single party constitutional Second Republic. However, President Saibou's efforts to control political reforms failed in the face of union and student demands to institute a multi-party democratic system. The Saibou regime acquiesced to these demands by the end of 1990(Sony VGN-NR11S Battery).

New political parties and civic associations sprang up, and a national peace conference was convened in July 1991 to prepare the way for the adoption of a new constitution and the holding of free and fair elections. The debate was often contentious and accusatory, but under the leadership of Prof. André Salifou, the conference developed a plan for a transition government(Sony VGN-NR110E Battery).

Third Republic

This caretaker government was installed in November 1991 to manage the affairs of state until the institutions of the Third Republic were put into place in April 1993. While the economy deteriorated over the course of the transition, certain accomplishments stand out, including the successful conduct of a constitutional referendum; the adoption of key legislation such as the electoral and rural codes(Sony VGN-CR11Z Battery); and the holding of several free, fair, and non-violent nationwide elections. Freedom of the press flourished with the appearance of several new independent newspapers.

The results of the January 1995 parliamentary election meant cohabitation between a rival president and prime minister; this led to governmental paralysis, which provided Col. Ibrahim Baré Maïnassara a rationale to overthrow the Third Republic in January 1996(Sony VGN-CR11S Battery).

Military rule and the Fourth Republic

While leading a military authority that ran the government (Conseil de Salut National) during a six-month transition period, Baré enlisted specialists to draft a new constitution for a Fourth Republic announced in May 1996. Baré organized a presidential election in July 1996. While voting was still going on, he replaced the electoral commission(Sony VGN-CR11M Battery). The new commission declared him the winner after the polls closed. His party won 57 percent of parliament seats in a flawed legislative election in November 1996.

When his efforts to justify his coup and subsequent questionable elections failed to convince donors to restore multilateral and bilateral economic assistance, a desperate Baré ignored an international embargo against Libya and sought Libyan funds to aid Niger's economy(Sony VGN-CR11E Battery). In repeated violations of basic civil liberties by the regime, opposition leaders were imprisoned; journalists often arrested, and deported by an unofficial militia composed of police and military; and independent media offices were looted and burned.

As part of an initiative started under the 1991 national conference, however, the government signed peace accords in April 1995 with all(Sony VGN-CR21E Battery), meaning Tuareg and Toubou groups that had been in rebellion since 1990. The Tuareg claimed they lacked attention and resources from the central government. The government agreed to absorb some former rebels into the military and, with French assistance, help others return to a productive civilian life. (Sony VGN-CR21S Battery)

Fifth Republic since 1999

On 9 April 1999, Baré was killed in a coup led by Maj. Daouda Malam Wanké, who established a transitional National Reconciliation Council to oversee the drafting of a constitution for a Fifth Republic with a French style semi-presidential system.

In votes that international observers found to be generally free and fair, the Nigerien electorate approved the new constitution in July 1999 and held legislative and presidential elections in October and November 1999(Sony VGN-CR21Z Battery). Heading a coalition of the National Movement for a Developing Society (MNSD) and the Democratic and Social Convention (CDS), Mamadou Tandja won the election.

The new second term government of the Fifth Republic took office on 30 December 2002. In August 2002, serious unrest within the military occurred in Niamey, Diffa, and Nguigmi, but the government was able to restore order within several days(Sony VGN-CR31S Battery).

A Nigerien rebel fighter during the Second Touareg Rebellion in 2008

The legislature elected in December 2004 contained seven political parties. President Tandja was re-elected in December 2004 and reappointed Hama Amadou as Prime Minister. Mahamane Ousmane, the head of the CDS, was re-elected President of the National Assembly (parliament) by his peers. (Sony VGN-CR31E Battery)

In June 2007, Seyni Oumarou was nominated as the new Prime Minister after Hama Amadou was democratically forced out of office by the National Assembly through a motion of no confidence. From 2007 to 2008, the Second Tuareg Rebellion took place in northern Niger, worsening economic prospects and shutting down political progress(Sony VGN-CR31Z Battery).

In a February 2010 coup d'état, a military junta was established in response to Tandja's attempted extension of his political term through constitutional manipulation. The coup established a junta led by the Supreme Council for the Restoration of Democracy, which then held elections in 2011 that were judged internationally to be free and fair(Sony VGN-CR41Z Battery).

Main article: Politics of Niger

Mahamadou Issoufou, current President of Niger

Niger's new constitution was approved in July 1999. It restored the semi-presidential system of government of the December 1992 constitution (Third Republic) in which the president of the republic, elected by universal suffrage for a five-year term, and a prime minister named by the president share executive power. As a reflection of Niger's increasing population(Sony VGN-CR41S Battery), the unicameral National Assembly was expanded in 2004 to 113 deputies elected for a five-year term under a majority system of representation. Political parties must attain at least 5 percent of the vote in order to gain a seat in the legislature.

The constitution also provides for the popular election of municipal and local officials, and the first-ever successful municipal elections took place on 24 July 2004. The National Assembly passed in June 2002 a series of decentralization bills. (Sony VGN-CR41E Battery) As a first step, administrative powers will be distributed among 265 communes (local councils); in later stages, regions and departments will be established as decentralized entities. A new electoral code was adopted to reflect the decentralization context. The country is currently divided into 8 regions, which are subdivided into 36 districts (departments) (Sony VGN-CR42Z Battery). The chief administrator (Governor) in each department is appointed by the government and functions primarily as the local agent of the central authorities.

On 26 May 2009, President Tandja dissolved parliament after the country's constitutional court ruled against plans to hold a referendum on whether to allow him a third term in office. According to the constitution, a new parliament was elected within three months.[10] This touched off a political struggle between Tandja(Sony VGN-CR42S Battery), trying to extend his term-limited authority beyond 2009 through the establishment of a Sixth Republic, and his opponents who demanded that he step down at the end of his second term in December 2009. See 2009 Nigerien constitutional crisis. The military took over the country and President Tandja was put in prison, charged with corruption(Sony VGN-CR42E Battery).

The military kept their promise to return the country to democratic civilian rule. A constitutional referendum and national elections were held. A presidential election was held on 31 January 2011, but as no clear winner emerged, run-off elections were held on 12 March 2011. Mahamadou Issoufou of the Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism was elected president. A parliamentary election was held at the same time(Sony Vaio VGN-CR11S/L Battery).

Regions, departments, and communes

Administrative subdivisions of the Republic of Niger, 1992–2002.

Main articles: Regions of Niger, Departments of Niger, and Communes of Niger

Niger is divided into 7 Regions and one capital district. These Regions are subdivided into 36 departments. The 36 Departments are currently broken down into Communes of varying types. As of 2006 there were 265 communes, including communes urbaines (Urban Communes: as subdivisions of major cities), communes rurales (Sony Vaio VGN-CR11S/P Battery) (Rural Communes, in sparsely populated areas and postes administratifs (Administrative Posts) for largely uninhabited desert areas or military zones.

Rural communes may contain official villages and settlements, while Urban Communes are divided into quarters. Niger subvisions were renamed in 2002, in the implementation of a decentralisation project, first begun in 1998. Previously, Niger was divided into 7 Departments(Sony Vaio VGN-CR11S/W Battery), 36 Arrondissements, and Communes. These subdivisions were administered by officials appointed by the national government. These offices will be replaced in the future by democratically elected councils at each level.

Foreign relations

Niger's flag waving at the embassy in Paris

Main article: Foreign relations of Niger

Niger pursues a moderate foreign policy and maintains friendly relations with the West and the Islamic world as well as nonaligned countries. It belongs to the UN and its main specialized agencies and in 1980–81 served on the UN Security Council(Sony Vaio VGN-CR11Z/R Battery). Niger maintains a special relationship with former colonial power France and enjoys close relations with its West African neighbors.

It is a charter member of the African Union and the West African Monetary Union and also belongs to the Niger Basin Authority and Lake Chad Basin Commission, the Economic Community of West African States, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa (OHADA) (Sony Vaio VGN-CR13/B Battery). The westernmost regions of Niger are joined with contiguous regions of Mali and Burkina Faso under the Liptako-Gourma Authority.

The border dispute with Benin, inherited from colonial times and concerning inter alia Lete Island in the River Niger was finally solved by the ICJ in 2005 to Niger's advantage.

Further information: Niger Armed Forces(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13/L Battery)

The Niger Armed Forces total 12,000 personnel with approximately 3,700 gendarmes, 300 air force, and 6,000 army personnel. The air force has four operational transport aircraft. The armed forces include general staff and battalion task force organizations consisting of two paratroop units, four light armored units, and nine motorized infantry units located in Tahoua(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13/P Battery), Agadez, Dirkou, Zinder, Nguigmi, N'Gourti, and Madewela. Since January 2003, Niger has deployed a company of troops to Côte d'Ivoire as part of the ECOWAS stabilization force. In 1991, Niger sent four hundred military personnel to join the American-led allied forces against Iraq during the Gulf War.

Nigerien soldiers in 2007

Niger's defense budget is modest, accounting for about 1.6% of government expenditures. France provides the largest share of military assistance to Niger(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13/R Battery). Morocco, Algeria, China, and Libya have also provided military assistance. Approximately 15 French military advisers are in Niger. Many Nigerien military personnel receive training in France, and the Nigerien Armed Forces are equipped mainly with military hardware either sold or donated by France(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13/W Battery).

In the past, U.S. assistance focused on training pilots and aviation support personnel, professional military education for staff officers, and initial specialty training for junior officers. A small foreign military assistance program was initiated in 1983. A U.S. Defense Attaché office opened in June 1985 and assumed Security Assistance Office responsibilities in 1987. The office closed in 1996 following a coup d'état. A U.S. Defense Attaché office reopened in July 2000(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G Battery). The United States provided transportation and logistical assistance to Nigerien troops deployed to Côte d'Ivoire in 2003. Additionally, the U.S. provided initial equipment training on vehicles and communications gear to a select contingent of Nigerien soldiers as part of the Department of State Pan Sahel Initiative(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G/B Battery).

In February 2010, the army of Niger staged another coup d'état that ousted President Tandja Mamadou, who had been behaving in an increasingly dictatorial fashion. The army claims to be acting toward the restoration of democracy.

Main article: Transport in Niger

One of the roads leading to Tahoua, central Niger

Transport is crucial to the economy and culture of this vast landlocked nation, with cities separated by huge uninhabited deserts, mountain ranges(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G/L Battery), and other natural features. Niger's transport system was little developed during the colonial period (1899–1960), relying upon animal transport, human transport, and limited river transport in the far south west and south east.

No railways were constructed in the colonial period, and most roads outside the capital remained unpaved. The Niger River is unsuitable for river transport of any large scale, as it lacks depth for most of the year, and is broken by rapids at many spots(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G/W Battery). Camel caravan transport was historically important in the Sahara desert and Sahel regions which cover most of the north.

View of Diori Hamani International Airport at Niamey

Road transport, especially shared taxis, buses, and trucks, are the primary form of long distance transport for most Nigeriens. There were 10,100 kilometres (6,300 mi) of roads in the nation in 1996, but only 798 kilometres (496 mi) were paved. Most of this total was in large cities and in two main highways. The first major paved highway was constructed in the 1970s(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G/P Battery) and 80s to transport uranium from the far northern mining town of Arlit to the Benin border. (Much of Niger's export economy relies upon ports in Cotonou, Lomé, and Port Harcourt.) This road, dubbed the Uranium Highway, runs through Arlit, Agadez, Tahoua, Birnin-Konni, and Niamey, and is part of the Trans-Sahara Highway system. The paved RN1 ("Routes Nationale") runs east-west across the south of the nation(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G/R Battery), from Niamey via Maradi and Zinder towards Diffa in the far east of the nation, although the stretch from Zinder to Diffa is only partially paved. Other roads range from all-weather laterite surfaces to grated dirt or sand pistes, especially in the desert north. These form a more extensive numbered highway system.

Niger's main international airport is Diori Hamani International Airport at Niamey. Other airports in Niger include Mano Dayak International Airport at Agadez and Zinder Airport near Zinder(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13T/L Battery).

Main article: Economy of Niger

Niamey, Niger's capital and economic hub

The economy of Niger centers on subsistence crops, livestock, and some of the world's largest uranium deposits. Drought cycles, desertification, a 2.9% population growth rate, and the drop in world demand for uranium have undercut the economy.

Niger shares a common currency, the CFA franc, and a common central bank, the Central Bank of West African States (BCEAO) (Sony Vaio VGN-CR13T/P Battery), with seven other members of the West African Monetary Union. Niger is also a member of the Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa (OHADA).[14]

In December 2000, Niger qualified for enhanced debt relief under the International Monetary Fund program for Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and concluded an agreement with the Fund for Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF). (Sony Vaio VGN-CR13T/R Battery) Debt relief provided under the enhanced HIPC initiative significantly reduces Niger's annual debt service obligations, freeing funds for expenditures on basic health care, primary education, HIV/AIDS prevention, rural infrastructure, and other programs geared at poverty reduction.

In December 2005, it was announced that Niger had received 100% multilateral debt relief from the IMF, which translates into the forgiveness of approximately (Sony Vaio VGN-CR13T/W Battery)$86 million USD in debts to the IMF, excluding the remaining assistance under HIPC. Nearly half of the government's budget is derived from foreign donor resources. Future growth may be sustained by exploitation of oil, gold, coal, and other mineral resources. Uranium prices have recovered somewhat in the last few years. A drought and locust infestation in 2005 led to food shortages for as many as 2.5 million (Sony Vaio VGN-CR21/B Battery)

Main article: Agriculture in Niger

The fertile south of Niger near the Niger River

The agricultural economy is based largely upon internal markets, subsistence agriculture, and the export of raw commodities: food stuffs and cattle to neighbors.[15] Niger's agricultural and livestock sectors are the mainstay of all but 18% of the population.[15] 14% of Niger's GDP is generated by livestock production (camels, goats, sheep and cattle), said to support 29% of the population. Thus 53% of the population is actively involved in crop production. (Sony Vaio VGN-CR21E/L Battery)The 15% of Niger's land that is arable is found mainly along its southern border with Nigeria.

Drought has turned farmland into useless soil. A farmer examines the soil in drought stricken Niger during the 2005 famine.

Nomads leaving for Nigeria with their herds, Dakoro Department, Niger, 2005

In these areas, Pearl millet, sorghum, and cassava are the principal rain-fed subsistence crops. Irrigated rice for internal consumption is grown in parts of the Niger River valley in the west. While expensive, it has, since the devaluation of the CFA franc(Sony Vaio VGN-CR21E/P Battery), sold for below the price of imported rice, encouraging additional production. Cowpeas and onions are grown for commercial export, as are small quantities of garlic, peppers, potatoes, and wheat. Oasis farming in small patches of the north of the country produces onions, dates, and some market vegetables for export.

But for the most part, rural residents engaged in crop tending are clustered in the south centre and south west of the nation(Sony Vaio VGN-CR21E/W Battery), in those areas (the Sahel) which can expect to receive between 300 to 600 mm (12 to 24 in) of rainfall annually. A small area in the southern tip of the nation, surrounding Gaya can expect to receive 700 to 900 mm (28 to 35 in) or rainfall. Northern areas which support crops, such as the southern portions of the Aïr Massif and the Kaouar oasis, rely upon oases and a slight increase in rainfall (Sony Vaio VGN-CR21S/L Battery)due to mountain effects. Large portions of the northwest and far east of the nation, while within the Sahara desert, see just enough seasonal rainfall to support semi-nomadic animal husbandry. The populations of these areas, mostly Tuareg, Wodaabe – Fula, and Toubou, travel south (a process called transhumance) to pasture and sell animals in the dry season, north into the Sahara in the brief rainy season. (Sony Vaio VGN-CR21S/P Battery)

Rainfall varies and when it is insufficient, Niger has difficulty feeding its population and must rely on grain purchases and food aid to meet food requirements.[15] Rains, as in much of the Sahel, have been marked by annual variability. This has been especially true in the 20th century, with the most severe drought on record beginning in the late 1960s and lasting, with one break(Sony Vaio VGN-CR21S/W Battery), well into the 1980s. The long-term effect of this, especially to pastoralist populations, remains in the 21st century, with those communities which rely upon cattle, sheep, and camels husbandry losing entire herds more than once during this period. Recent rains remain variable. For instance, the rains in 2000 were not good, those in 2001 were plentiful and well distributed(Sony Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N Battery).

The Kandadji Dam on the Niger River, whose construction started in August 2008, is expected to improve agricultural production in the Tillaberi Department by providing water for the irrigation of 6,000 hectares initially and of 45,000 hectares by 2034.[16]

Uranium is Niger's largest export. Foreign exchange earnings from livestock, although difficult to quantify, are second. Actual exports far exceed official statistics, which often fail to detect large herds of animals informally crossing into Nigeria(Sony Vaio VGN-CR21Z/R Battery). Some hides and skins are exported, and some are transformed into handicrafts. Substantial deposits of phosphates, coal, iron, limestone, and gypsum also have been found in Niger.

Main article: Mining in Niger

The persistent uranium price slump has brought lower revenues for Niger's uranium sector, although uranium still provides 72% of national export proceeds. The nation enjoyed substantial export earnings and rapid economic growth during the 1960s(Sony Vaio VGN-CR23/B Battery) and 1970s after the opening of two large uranium mines near the northern town of Arlit. When the uranium-led boom ended in the early 1980s, however, the economy stagnated, and new investment since then has been limited. Niger's two uranium mines — SOMAIR's open pit mine and COMINAK's underground mine — are owned by a French-led consortium and operated by French interests(Sony Vaio VGN-CR23/P Battery). However, as of 2007, many licences have been given to other companies from countries such as India, Canada and Australia in order to exploit new deposits.

A farmer collecting millet in Koremairwa village in the Dosso department.


Exploitable deposits of gold are known to exist in Niger in the region between the Niger River and the border with Burkina Faso. On 5 October 2004, President Tandja announced the official opening of the Samira Hill Gold Mine in Tera Department and the first Nigerien gold ingot was presented to him. This marked a historical moment for Niger as the Samira Hill Gold Mine represents the first commercial gold production in the country(Sony Vaio VGN-CR23/R Battery).

Samira Hill is owned by a company called SML (Societe des Mines du Liptako) which is a joint venture between two Canadian companies, Societe Semafo and Etruscan Resources. Both companies own 40% each of SML and the Government of Niger owns 20%. The first year's production is predicted to be 135,000 troy ounces (4,200 kg; 9,260 lb avoirdupois) (Sony Vaio VGN-CR23/L Battery) of gold at a cash value of USD 177 per ounce ($5.70/g). The mine reserves for the Samira Hill mine total 10,073,626 tons at an average grade of 2.21 grams per ton from which 618,000 troy ounces (19,200 kg; 42,400 lb) will be recovered over a 6 year mine life. SML believes to have a number of significant gold deposits within what is now recognized as the gold belt known as the "Samira Horizon", which is located between Gotheye and Ouallam. (Sony Vaio VGN-CR23/W Battery)

The parastatal SONICHAR (Société Nigerienne de Charbon) in Tchirozerine (north of Agadez) extracts coal from an open pit and fuels an electricity generating plant that supplies energy to the uranium mines. There are additional coal deposits to the south and west that are of a higher quality and may be exploitable(Sony VAIO VGN-NW21EF/S battery).

A test oil well in the Tenere Desert, January 2008

Niger has oil potential. In 1992, the Djado permit was awarded to Hunt Oil Company, and in 2003 the Tenere permit was awarded to the China National Petroleum. An ExxonMobil–Petronas joint venture was sold sole rights to the Agadem block, in the Diffa Region north of Lake Chad, but never went beyond exploration(Sony VAIO VGN-NW21JF battery).

In June 2008, the government transferred the Agadem block rights to CNPC. Niger announced that in exchange for the US$5 billion investment, the Chinese company would build wells, 11 of which would open by 2012, a 20,000-barrel-per-day (3,200 m3/d) refinery near Zinder and a pipeline out of the nation. The government estimates the area has reserves of 324 million barrels (51,500,000 m3), and is seeking further oil in the Tenere Desert and near Bilma. Niger has said that it hopes to produce its first barrels of oil for sale by 2009. (Sony VAIO VGN-NW21MF battery)

Growth rates

The economic competitiveness created by the January 1994 devaluation of the Communauté Financière Africaine (CFA) franc contributed to an annual average economic growth of 3.5% throughout the mid-1990s. But the economy stagnated due to the sharp reduction in foreign aid in 1999 (which gradually resumed in 2000) and poor rains in 2000. (Sony VAIO VGN-NW21MF/W battery) Reflecting the importance of the agricultural sector, the return of good rains was the primary factor underlying economic growth of 5.1% in 2000, 3.1% in 2001, 6.0% in 2002, and 3.0% in 2003.

In recent years, the Government of Niger drafted revisions to the investment code (1997 and 2000), petroleum code (1992), and mining code (1993), all with attractive terms for investors. The present government actively seeks foreign private investment and considers(Sony VAIO VGN-NW31EF/W battery) it key to restoring economic growth and development. With the assistance of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), it has undertaken a concerted effort to revitalize the private sector.

A market in Maradi.

Economic restructuring and debt

In January 2000, Niger's newly elected government inherited serious financial and economic problems including a virtually empty treasury, past-due salaries (11 months of arrears) and scholarship payments, increased debt, reduced revenue performance, and lower public investment. In December 2000(Sony VAIO VGN-NW21ZF battery), Niger qualified for enhanced debt relief under the International Monetary Fund program for Highly Indebted Poor Countries and concluded an agreement with the Fund on a Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF).[15]

In addition to changes in the budgetary process and public finances, the new government has pursued economic restructuring towards the IMF promoted privatization model. (Sony VAIO VGN-NW31JF battery) This has included the privatization of water distribution and telecommunications and the removal of price protections for petroleum products, allowing prices to be set by world market prices. Further privatizations of public enterprises are in the works.

In its effort to comply with the IMF's Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility plan, the government also is taking actions to reduce corruption and, as the result of a participatory process encompassing civil society(Sony VAIO VGN-NW320F/B battery), has devised a Poverty Reduction Strategy Plan that focuses on improving health, primary education, rural infrastructure, and judicial restructuring.[15] A long planned privatization of the Nigerien power company, NIGELEC, failed in 2001 and again in 2003 due to a lack of buyers. SONITEL, the nation's telephone operator which was separated from the post office and privatised in 2001, was renationalised in 2009(Sony VAIO VGN-NW320F/TC battery).

Critics have argued that the obligations to creditor institutions and governments have locked Niger in to a process of trade liberalization that is harmful for small farmers and in particular, rural women.

A rural mother tends to her malnourished infant at the Maradi MSF aid centre, during the 2005–2006 Niger food crisis. While the Maradi Region is the breadbasket of Niger, the 20th century saw three severe Sahel droughts which brought dramatic food insecurity to even the most fertile regions of Niger(Sony VAIO VGN-NW35e battery).

The most important donors in Niger are France, the European Union, the World Bank, the IMF and other United Nations agencies (UNDP, UNICEF, FAO, WFP, and UNFPA). Other principal donors include the United States, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, Canada, and Saudi Arabia. While USAID does not have an office in Niger, the United States is a major donor, contributing nearly $10 million each year to Niger's development(Sony VAIO VGN-NW11S/S battery).

The U.S. also is a major partner in policy coordination in such areas as food security and HIV/AIDS. The importance of external support for Niger's development is demonstrated by the fact that about 45% of the government's FY 2002 budget, including 80% of its capital budget, derives from donor resources.[15] In 2005 the UN drew attention to the increased need for foreign aid given severe problems with drought and locusts resulting in the 2005–06 Niger food crisis, endangering the lives of around a million people(Sony VAIO VGN-NW11Z/S battery).

2010 famine

Main article: 2010 Sahel drought

In June to August 2010, famine struck the Sahel.[20] Niger's crops failed to mature in the heat and famine developed. 350,000 faced starvation and 1,200,000 were at risk of famine.[21] In Chad, the temperature reached 47.6 °C (118 °F) on 22 June in Faya-Largeau, breaking a record set in 1961 at the same location. Niger tied its highest temperature record set in 1998(Sony VAIO VGN-NW11S/T battery), also on 22 June, at 47.1 °C (117 °F) in Bilma. That record was broken the next day, on 23 June when Bilma hit 48.2 °C (119 °F). The hottest temperature recorded in Sudan was reached on 25 June, at 49.6 °C (121 °F) in Dongola, breaking a record set in 1987.[22] Niger reported diarrhoea, starvation, gastroenteritis, malnutrition and respiratory diseases killed and sickened many children 14 July(Sony VAIO VGN-NW11Z/T battery). The new military junta is appealing for international food aid and has taken serious steps to calling overseas help since coming to office in February 2010. On 26 July, the heat reached near-record levels over Chad and Niger.[24]


Main article: Demographics of Niger

Nigerien children in Tahoua

Over half the population of Niger belong to the Hausa,[25] who also constitute the major ethnic group in northern Nigeria(SONY VGP-BPS10A battery), and the Zarma–Songhai, who also are found in parts of Mali. Both groups, along with the Gourmantche, are sedentary farmers who live in the arable, southern tier of the country.

The remainder of Nigeriens are nomadic or semi-nomadic livestock-raising peoples—Fulani, Tuareg, Kanuri, Arabs, and Toubou—who make up about 20% of Niger's population.[26] With rapidly growing populations and the consequent competition for meager natural resources, lifestyles of agriculturalists and livestock herders have come increasingly into conflict in Niger in recent years. (SONY VGP-BPS10A/B battery)

A Nigerien study has found that more than 800,000 people are enslaved, almost 8% of the population.

Main article: Health in Niger

Niger's high infant mortality rate is comparable to levels recorded in neighboring countries. However, the child mortality rate (deaths among children between the ages of 1 and 4) is exceptionally high (248 per 1,000) due to generally poor health conditions and inadequate nutrition for most of the country's children(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ130E battery). According to the organization Save the Children, Niger has the world's highest infant mortality rate.[31] Nonetheless, Niger has the highest fertility rate in the world (7.52 births per woman according to 2012 estimates[32]); this means that nearly half (49%) of the Nigerien population is under age 15. Niger has the 11th highest maternal mortality rate in the world at 820 deaths/100,000 live births.[33] There were 3 physicians and 22 nurses per 100,000 persons in 2006(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ130E/B battery).

A primary classroom in Niger.

The literacy rate of Niger is among the lowest in the world; in 2005 it was estimated to be only 28.7% (42.9% male and 15.1% female).[35] Primary education in Niger is compulsory for six years.[36] The primary school enrollment and attendance rates are low, particularly for girls.[36] In 1997, the gross primary enrollment rate was 29.3 percent(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ140E/B battery), and in 1996, the net primary enrollment rate was 24.5 percent.[36] About 60 percent of children who finish primary schools are boys, as the majority of girls rarely attend school for more than a few years.[36] Children are often forced to work rather than attend school, particularly during planting or harvest periods.[36] In addition, nomadic children in the north of the country often do not have access to schools. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ15L battery)

Culture and religion

Main article: Culture of Niger

Horsemen at the traditional Ramadan festival at the Sultan's Palace in the Hausa city of Zinder.

A traditional home in Zinder

Nigerien culture is marked by variation, evidence of the cultural crossroads which French colonialism formed into a unified state from the beginning of the 20th century. What is now Niger was created from four distinct cultural areas in the pre-colonial era(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ15M battery): the Zarma dominated Niger River valley in the southwest; the northern periphery of Hausaland, made mostly of those states which had resisted the Sokoto Caliphate, and ranged along the long southern border with Nigeria; the Lake Chad basin and Kaouar in the far east, populated by Kanuri farmers and Toubou pastoralists who had once been part of the Kanem-Bornu Empire; and the Tuareg nomads of the Aïr Mountains and Saharan desert in the vast north(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ15S battery).

Each of these communities, along with smaller ethnic groups like the pastoral Wodaabe Fula, brought their own cultural traditions to the new state of Niger. While successive post-independence governments have tried to forge a shared national culture, this has been slow forming, in part because the major Nigerien communities have their own cultural histories(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ160E battery), and in part because Nigerien ethnic groups such as the Hausa, Tuareg and Kanuri are but part of larger ethnic communities which cross borders introduced under colonialism.

Until the 1990s, government and politics was inordinately dominated by Niamey and the Zarma people of the surrounding region. At the same time the plurality of the population, in the Hausa borderlands between Birni-N'Konni and Maine-Soroa(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ17G battery), have often looked culturally more to Hausaland in Nigeria than Niamey. Between 1996 and 2003, primary school attendance was around 30%,[37] including 36% of males and only 25% of females. Additional education occurs through madrassas.

Islam, spread from North Africa beginning in the 10th century, has greatly shaped the mores of the people of Niger. Between 80 to more than 98 percent of the population is Muslim, with small Animist and Christian communities(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ17L battery), the latter a consequence of missionaries established during the French colonial years, as well as urban expatriate communities from Europe and West Africa.

Approximately 95 percent of Muslims in Niger are Sunni and Sufi;[39] 5 percent are Shi'a.[40] Islam was spread into what is now Niger beginning in the 15th century, by both the expansion of the Songhai Empire in the west, and the influence of the Trans-Saharan trade traveling from the Maghreb and Egypt. Tuareg expansion from the north(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ18E battery), culminating in their seizure of the far eastern oases from the Kanem-Bornu Empire in the 17th centuries, spread distinctively Berber practices.

Both Zarma and Hausa areas were greatly influenced by the 18th and 19th century Fula led Sufi brotherhoods, most notably the Sokoto Caliphate (in today's Nigeria). Modern Muslim practice in Niger is often tied to the Tijaniya Sufi brotherhoods, although there are small minority groups tied to Hammallism and Nyassist Sufi orders in the west(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ18G battery), and the Sanusiya in the far northeast.[39]

A small center of Wahhabite followers have appeared in the last thirty years in the capital and in Maradi.[41] These small groups, linked to similar groups in Jos, Nigeria, came to public prominence in the 1990s during a series of religious riots

Despite this, Niger maintains a tradition as a secular state, protected by law.[45] Interfaith relations are deemed very good, and the forms of Islam traditionally practiced in most of the country is marked by tolerance of other faiths and lack of restrictions on personal freedom. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ18S battery)Divorce and polygyny are unremarkable, women are not secluded, and headcoverings are not mandatory — they are often a rarity in urban areas.[47] Alcohol, such as the locally produced Bière Niger, is sold openly in most of the country.


A small percentage of the population practices traditional indigenous religious beliefs.[40] The numbers of Animist practitioners are a point of contention. As recently as the late 19th century, much of the south centre of the nation was unreached by Islam(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ18T battery), and the conversion of some rural areas has been only partial. There are still areas where animist based festivals and traditions (such as the Bori religion) are practiced by syncretic Muslim communities (in some Hausa areas as well as among some Toubou and Wodaabe pastoralists), as opposed to several small communities who maintain their pre-Islamic religion(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ190E battery).

These include the Hausa-speaking Maouri (or Azna, the Hausa word for "pagan") community in Dogondoutci in the south-southwest and the Kanuri speaking Manga near Zinder, both of whom practice variations of the pre-Islamic Hausa Maguzawa religion. There are also some tiny Boudouma and Songhay animist communities in the southwest. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ19L battery)

Main article: Media of Niger

Niger began developing diverse media in the late 1990s. Prior to the Third Republic, Nigeriens only had access to tightly controlled state media.[48] Now Niamey boasts scores of newspapers and magazines, some, like Le Sahel, are government operated, while many are critical of the government. Radio is the most important medium, as television sets are beyond the buying power of many of the rural poor, and illiteracy prevents print media from becoming a mass medium. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ19VN battery)

In addition to the national and regional radio services of the state broadcaster ORTN, there are four privately owned radio networks which total more than 100 stations. Three of them — the Anfani Group, Sarounia and Tenere — are urban-based commercial-format FM networks in the major towns.[52] There is also a network of over 80 community radio stations spread across(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ20 battery) all seven regions of the country, governed by the Comité de Pilotage de Radios de Proximité (CPRP), a civil society organisation. The independent-sector radio networks are collectively estimated by CPRP officials to cover some 7.6 million people, or about 73% of the population (2005).

Aside from Nigerien radio stations, the BBC's Hausa service is listened to on FM repeaters across wide parts of the country, particularly in the south(SONY Vaio VGN-SR11M Battery), close to the border with Nigeria. Radio France Internationale also rebroadcasts in French through some of the commercial stations, via satellite. Tenere FM also runs a national independent television station of the same name.[52]

Despite relative freedom at the national level, Nigerien journalists say they are often pressured by local authorities.[53] The state ORTN network depends financially on the government, partly through a surcharge on electricity bills, and partly through direct subsidy(SONY Vaio VGN-SR12G/B Battery). The sector is governed by the Conseil Supérieur de Communications, established as an independent body in the early 1990s, since 2007 headed by Daouda Diallo. International human rights groups have criticised government since at least 1996 as using regulation and police to punish criticism of the state(SONY Vaio VGN-SR12G/P Battery).

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