Warsaw And Vilnius 1

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Warsaw (Polish: Warszawa [varˈʂava] ( listen) (also [varˈʃava]); see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland. It is located on the Vistula River, roughly 260 kilometres (160 mi) from the Baltic Sea and 300 kilometres (190 mi) from the Carpathian Mountains. Its population is estimated at 1,708,491 residents within a greater metropolitan area of 2,666,278 residents(Dell 1691P battery), making Warsaw the 9th most populous city proper in the European Union. The area of the city covers 516.9 square kilometres (199.6 sq mi), while the city's agglomeration covers 6,100.43 square kilometres (2,355.39 sq mi).[4]

Warsaw is an Alpha- global city, a major international tourist destination and an important economic hub in Central Europe. It is also known as the "phoenix city" because it has survived many wars throughout its history(Dell 310-6321 battery). Most notably, the city had to be painstakingly rebuilt after the extensive damage it suffered from World War II, during which 85% of its buildings were destroyed. On 9 November 1940 the city was awarded Poland's highest military decoration for heroism, the Virtuti Militari, for the Siege of Warsaw (1939). Warsaw is the source for naming entities such as Warsaw Confederation, the Warsaw Pact, the Duchy of Warsaw, the Warsaw Convention(Dell 312-0068 battery), the Treaty of Warsaw, the Warsaw Uprising, the Warsaw Ghetto, and the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. The Warszawianka is widely considered the unofficial anthem of the city.

Etymology and names

Warsaw's name in the Polish language, Warszawa (also formerly spelled Warszewa and Warszowa), means "belonging to Warsz", Warsz being a shortened form of the masculine name of Slavic origin Warcisław; see also etymology of Wrocław.[12] Folk etymology attributes the city name to a fisherman Wars and his wife Sawa. According to legend(Dell 312-0078 battery), Sawa was a mermaid living in the Vistula River who Wars fell in love with.[13] Actually, Warsz was a 12th/13th century nobleman who owned a village located at the site of today's Mariensztat neighbourhood.[14] The official city name in full is miasto stołeczne Warszawa (English: "The Capital City of Warsaw").[15] A native or resident of Warsaw is known as a Varsovian(Dell 312-0079 battery).

Other names for Warsaw include Warschau (German and Dutch), װאַרשע/Varshe (Yiddish), Варшава/Varshava (Russian, Bulgarian, Belorussian, Ukranian), Varšava (Slovak, Czech, Latvian, Slovenian, Serbo-Croatian), Varšuva (Lithuanian), Varsó (Hungarian), Varsovia (Spanish and Latin), Varsovie (French), Varsavia (Italian), ורשה/Varsha (Hebrew), Huáshā 華沙 (Mandarin Chinese), and وارسو‎/فرسوفيا Wārsō/Farsōfyā (Arabic) (Dell 312-0305 battery).

For the name of Warsaw in various languages, see wikt:Warsaw.

1411 St. Mary's Church in Warsaw New Town

The first fortified settlements on the site of today's Warsaw were Bródno (9th/10th century) and Jazdów (12th/13th century).[17] After Jazdów was raided, a new similar settlement was established on the site of a small fishing village called Warszowa. The Płock prince Bolesław II of Masovia, established this settlement, the modern Warsaw, about 1300. In the beginning of the 14th century it became one of the seats of the Dukes of Masovia(Dell 312-0326 battery), becoming the capital of Masovia in 1413.[17] 14th-century Warsaw's economy rested on crafts and trade. Upon the extinction of the local ducal line, the duchy was reincorporated into the Polish Crown in 1526.[17]

[edit]16th to 18th centuries

In 1529 Warsaw for the first time became the seat of the General Sejm, permanent from 1569.[17] In 1573 the city gave its name to the Warsaw Confederation, formally establishing religious freedom in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Due to its central location between the Commonwealth's capitals of Kraków and Vilnius(Dell 312-0518 battery), Warsaw became the capital of the Commonwealth, and of the Polish Crown, in 1596, when King Sigismund III Vasa moved the court from Kraków to Warsaw.[17]

Battle of Warsaw in 1656

In the following years the town expanded towards the suburbs. Several private independent districts were established, the property of aristocrats and the gentry, which were ruled by their own laws. Three times between 1655–1658 the city was under siege and three times it was taken and pillaged by the Swedish, Brandenburgian and Transylvanian forces(Dell 312-0566 battery).

In 1700, the Great Northern War broke out. The city was besieged several times and was obliged to pay heavy contributions.[16] Warsaw turned into an early-capitalistic principal city.

Stanisław August Poniatowski, who remodelled the interior of the Royal Castle in Warsaw, also made Warsaw a centre of culture and the arts. This earned Warsaw the name of the Paris of the east. (Dell 312-0585 battery)

Warsaw remained the capital of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth until 1795, when it was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia to become the capital of the province of South Prussia. Liberated by Napoleon's army in 1806, Warsaw was made the capital of the newly created Duchy of Warsaw.[17] Following the Congress of Vienna of 1815, Warsaw became the centre of the Congress Poland, a constitutional monarchy under a personal union with Imperial Russia. (Dell 312-0831 battery) The Royal University of Warsaw was established in 1816.

German airship Schütte Lanz SL2 bombing Warsaw in 1914

Following the repeated violations of the Polish constitution by the Russians, the 1830 November Uprising broke out. However, the Polish-Russian war of 1831 ended in the uprising's defeat and in the curtailment of the Kingdom's autonomy.[17] On 27 February 1861 a Warsaw crowd protesting against the Russian rule over Poland was fired upon by the Russian troops. (Dell BAT30WL battery) Five people were killed. The Underground Polish National Government resided in Warsaw during January Uprising in 1863–64.[23]

Warsaw flourished in the late 19th century under Mayor Sokrates Starynkiewicz (1875–92), a Russian-born general appointed by Tsar Alexander III. Under Starynkiewicz Warsaw saw its first water and sewer systems designed and built by the English engineer William Lindley and his son, William Heerlein Lindley, as well as the expansion and modernisation of trams, street lighting and gas works. (Dell D6400 battery)

“The history of contemporary civilisation knows no event of greater importance than the Battle of Warsaw, 1920, and none of which the significance is less appreciated.     ”

—Sir Edgar Vincent d'Abernon

The Russian Empire Census of 1897 recorded 626,000 people living in Warsaw, making it the third-largest city of the Empire after St. Petersburg and Moscow.

Warsaw was occupied by Germany from the 4 August 1915 until 1918. It then became the capital of the newly independent Poland in 1918(Dell HF674 battery). In the course of the Polish-Bolshevik War of 1920, the huge Battle of Warsaw was fought on the eastern outskirts of the city in which the capital was successfully defended and the Red Army defeated.[25] Poland stopped by itself the full brunt of the Red Army and defeated an idea of the "export of the revolution".[26]

Sea of rubble[27] – over eight out of every ten buildings in Warsaw were destroyed by the end of World War II. In left centre can be seen ruins of Old Town Market Square(Dell N3010 battery).

During World War II, central Poland, including Warsaw, came under the rule of the General Government, a German Nazi colonial administration. All higher education institutions were immediately closed and Warsaw's entire Jewish population – several hundred thousand, some 30% of the city – herded into the Warsaw Ghetto.[28] The city would become the center of urban resistance to Nazi rule in occupied Europe. (Dell Inspiron N4010 battery) When the order came to annihilate the ghetto as part of Hitler's "Final Solution" on 19 April 1943, Jewish fighters launched the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. Despite being heavily outgunned and outnumbered, the Ghetto held out for almost a month. When the fighting ended, almost all survivors were massacred, with only a few managing to escape or hide(Dell INSPIRON 1100 battery).

By July 1944, the Red Army was deep into Polish territory and pursuing the Germans toward Warsaw.[33] Knowing that Stalin was hostile to the idea of an independent Poland, the Polish government-in-exile in London gave orders to the underground Home Army (AK) to try to seize control of Warsaw from the Germans before the Red Army arrived. Thus, on 1 August 1944, as the Red Army was nearing the city, the Warsaw Uprising began. (Dell Inspiron 1200 battery) The armed struggle, planned to last 48 hours, went on for 63 days. Stalin gave orders to his troops to wait outside of Warsaw.[34] Eventually the Home Army fighters and civilians assisting them were forced to capitulate.[33] They were transported to PoW camps in Germany, while the entire civilian population was expelled.[33] Polish civilian deaths are estimated at between 150,000 and 200,000. (Dell Inspiron 1420 battery)

The Germans then razed Warsaw to the ground. Hitler, ignoring the agreed terms of the capitulation, ordered the entire city to be razed to the ground and the library and museum collections taken to Germany or burned.[33] Monuments and government buildings were blown up by special German troops known as Verbrennungs- und Vernichtungskommando ("Burning and Destruction Detachments").[33] About 85% of the city had been destroyed, including the historic Old Town and the Royal Castle. (Dell Inspiron 1464 battery)

On 17 January 1945 – after the beginning of the Vistula–Oder Offensive of the Red Army – Soviet troops entered the ruins of Warsaw, and liberated Warsaw's suburbs from German occupation. The city was swiftly taken by the Soviet Army, which rapidly advanced towards Łódź, as German forces regrouped at a more westward position(Dell Inspiron 1564 battery).

John Paul II's Mass in Victory Square, 1979

In 1945, after the bombing, the revolts, the fighting, and the demolition had ended, most of Warsaw lay in ruins.

After the war, under a Communist regime set up by the conquering Soviets, large prefabricated housing projects were erected in Warsaw to address the housing shortage, along with other typical buildings of an Eastern Bloc city, such as the Palace of Culture and Science(Dell Inspiron 1764 battery). The city resumed its role as the capital of Poland and the country's centre of political and economic life. Many of the historic streets, buildings, and churches were restored to their original form. In 1980, Warsaw's historic Old Town was inscribed onto UNESCO's World Heritage list.[37]

John Paul II's visits to his native country in 1979 and 1983 brought support to the budding solidarity movement and encouraged the growing anti-communist fervor there. (Dell Inspiron 1520 battery)In 1979, less than a year after becoming pope, John Paul celebrated Mass in Victory Square in Warsaw and ended his sermon with a call to "renew the face" of Poland: Let Thy Spirit descend! Let Thy Spirit descend and renew the face of the land! This land![38] These words were very meaningful for the Polish citizens who understood them as the incentive for the democratic changes. (Dell Inspiron 1521 battery)

In 1995, the Warsaw Metro opened. With the entry of Poland into the European Union in 2004, Warsaw is currently experiencing the biggest economic boom of its history.[39] The opening fixture of UEFA Euro 2012 took place in Warsaw, a game in which the co-hosts Poland, drew 1-1 with Greece. (Dell inspiron 1525 battery)

Warsaw seen from SPOT satellite

Warsaw lies in east-central Poland about 300 km (190 mi) from the Carpathian Mountains and about 260 km (160 mi) from the Baltic Sea, 523 km (325 mi) east of Berlin, Germany.[41] The city straddles the Vistula River. It is located in the heartland of the Masovian Plain, and its average elevation is 100 metres (330 ft) above sea level. The highest point on the left side of the city lies at a height of 115.7 metres (379.6 ft) (Dell inspiron 1526 battery) (“Redutowa” bus depot, district of Wola), on the right side – 122.1 metres (400.6 ft) (“Groszówka” estate, district of Wesoła, by the eastern border). The lowest point lies at a height 75.6 metres (248.0 ft) (at the right bank of the Vistula, by the eastern border of Warsaw). There are some hills (mostly artificial) located within the confines of the city – e.g. Warsaw Uprising Hill (121 metres (397.0 ft)), Szczęśliwice hill (138 metres (452.8 ft) – the highest point of Warsaw in general) (Dell Inspiron 1720 battery).

Warsaw is located on two main geomorphologic forms: the plain moraine plateau and the Vistula Valley with its asymmetrical pattern of different terraces. The Vistula River is the specific axis of Warsaw, which divides the city into two parts, left and right. The left one is situated both on the moraine plateau (10 to 25 m (32.81 to 82.02 ft) above Vistula level) and on the Vistula terraces (max. 6.5 m (21.33 ft) above Vistula level) (Dell Inspiron 2000 battery). The significant element of the relief, in this part of Warsaw, is the edge of moraine plateau called Warsaw Escarpment. It is 20 to 25 m (65.62 to 82.02 ft) high in the Old Town and Central district and about 10 m (32.81 ft) in the north and south of Warsaw. It goes through the city and plays an important role as a landmark(Dell INSPIRON 2600 battery).

The plain moraine plateau has only a few natural and artificial ponds and also groups of clay pits. The pattern of the Vistula terraces is asymmetrical. The left side consist mainly of two levels: the highest one contains former flooded terraces and the lowest one the flood plain terrace. The contemporary flooded terrace still has visible valleys and ground depressions with water systems coming from the Vistula old – riverbed(Dell INSPIRON 3800 battery). They consist of still quite natural streams and lakes as well as the pattern of drainage ditches. The right side of Warsaw has a different pattern of geomorfological forms. There are several levels of the plain Vistula terraces (flooded as well as former flooded once) and only small part and not so visible moraine escarpment. Aeolian sand with a number of dunes parted by peat swamps or small ponds cover the highest terrace. These are mainly forested areas (pine forest) (Dell INSPIRON 4000 battery).

Warsaw's climate is humid continental (Koppen Dfb) with cold winters and warm summers, on the border with an oceanic Cfb climate. The average temperature is −3 °C (27 °F) in January and 19.3 °C (66.7 °F) in July. Temperatures may often reach 30 °C (86 °F) in the summer. Yearly rainfall averages 495 millimetres (19.5 in), wettest month being July. Spring and Autumn are usually beautiful seasons(Dell Inspiron 5000 battery), the former crisp and sunny and full of blooms and the latter alternately sunny and misty, and cool but not cold.

Cityscape

Warsaw's mixture of architectural styles reflects the turbulent history of the city and country. During WWII, Warsaw was razed to the ground by bombing raids and planned destruction.[33] After liberation, rebuilding began as in other cities of the communist-ruled PRL. Most of the historical buildings were thoroughly reconstructed(Dell INSPIRON 500M battery). However, some of the buildings from the 19th century that had been preserved in reasonably reconstructible form were nonetheless eradicated in the 1950s and 1960s (e.g. Leopold Kronenberg Palace).[44] Mass residential blocks were erected, with basic design typical of Eastern bloc countries.

Public spaces attract heavy investment, so that the city has gained entirely new squares, parks and monuments. Warsaw's current urban landscape is one of modern and contemporary architecture(Dell INSPIRON 5100 battery).

Main article: Architecture of Warsaw

Warsaw's palaces, churches and mansions display a richness of color and architectural details. Buildings are representatives of nearly every European architectural style and historical period. The city has wonderful examples of architecture from the gothic, renaissance, baroque and neoclassical periods, all of which are located within easy walking distance of the town centre.

Łazienki Palace, also called the Palace on the Water(Dell INSPIRON 510M battery)

Gothic architecture is represented in the majestic churches but also at the burgher houses and fortifications. The most significant buildings are St. John's Cathedral (14th century), the temple is a typical example of the so-called Masovian gothic style, St. Mary's Church (1411), a town house of Burbach family (14th century),[45] Gunpowder Tower (after 1379) and the Royal Castle Curia Maior (1407–1410) (Dell INSPIRON 6000 battery). The most notable examples of Renaissance architecture in the city are the house of Baryczko merchant family (1562), building called "The Negro" (early 17th century) and Salwator tenement (1632). The most interesting examples of mannerist architecture are the Royal Castle (1596–1619) and the Jesuit Church (1609–1626) at Old Town. Among the first structures of the early baroque the most important are St. Hyacinth's Church (1603–1639) and Zygmunt's Column (1644) (Dell INSPIRON 600M battery).

Warsaw University of Technology building courtyard

Building activity occurred in numerous noble palaces and churches during the later decades of the 17th century. One of the best examples of this architecture are Krasiński Palace (1677–1683), Wilanów Palace (1677–1696) and St. Kazimierz Church (1688–1692). The most impressive examples of rococo architecture are Czapski Palace (1712–1721), Palace of the Four Winds (1730s) and Visitationist Church (façade 1728–1761) (Dell Inspiron 6400 battery). The neoclassical architecture in Warsaw can be described by the simplicity of the geometrical forms teamed with a great inspiration from the Roman period. Some of the best examples of the neoclassical style are the Palace on the Water (rebuilt 1775–1795), Królikarnia (1782–1786), Carmelite Church (façade 1761–1783) and Evangelical Holy Trinity Church (1777–1782). The economic growth during the first years of Congress Poland caused a rapid rise architecture(Dell INSPIRON 7000 battery). The Neoclassical revival affected all aspects of architecture, the most notable are the Great Theater (1825–1833) and buildings located at Bank Square (1825–1828).

Bas-relief of an iron forger at MDM neighbourhood, one of prime examples of socialist realism in Polish architecture(Dell INSPIRON 700M battery).

Exceptional examples of the bourgeois architecture of the later periods were not restored by the communist authorities after the war (like mentioned Kronenberg Palace and Insurance Company Rosja building) or they were rebuilt in socialist realism style (like Warsaw Philharmony edifice originally inspired by Palais Garnier in Paris). Despite that the Warsaw University of Technology building (1899–1902) (Dell Inspiron 710m battery) is the most interesting of the late 19th century architecture. Lot of the 19th century buildings is restored in Praga (Vistula’s right bank), though they are in a pretty bad condition. Warsaw’s municipal government authorities have decided to rebuild the Saxon Palace and the Brühl Palace, the most distinctive buildings in prewar Warsaw. (Dell INSPIRON 8200 battery)

Notable examples of contemporary architecture include the Palace of Culture and Science (1952–1955), a Soc-realist skyscraper located in the city centre, and the Constitution Square with its monumental Socialist realism architecture (MDM estate).[48] The central part of the right-bank (east) Praga borough it is a place where very run-down houses stand right next to modern apartment buildings and shopping malls(Dell INSPIRON 8600 battery).

Modern architecture in Warsaw is represented by the Metropolitan Office Building at Pilsudski Square by Lord Foster,[49] Warsaw University Library (BUW) by Marek Budzyński and Zbigniew Badowski, featuring a garden on its roof and view of the Vistula River, Rondo 1 office building by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill and Golden Terraces, consisting of seven overlapping domes retail and business centre(Dell INSPIRON 9100 battery).

It has been said that Warsaw, together with Frankfurt, London, Paris, Moscow, Istanbul and Rotterdam is one of the tallest cities in Europe.[50] Of the 21 tallest skyscrapers in Poland, 18 are situated in Warsaw.

Greenspace covers 25% of the surface area of Warsaw,[51] including a broad range of greenstructures, from small neighborhood parks, green spaces along streets and in courtyards, trees and avenues to large historic parks(Dell INSPIRON 9200 battery), nature conservation areas and the urban forests at the fringe of the city.

Peacocks – one of a number of animal species in the Royal Baths Park.

There are as many as 82 parks in the city which cover 8% of its area.[52] The oldest ones, once parts of representative palaces, are Saxon Garden, the Krasiński Palace Garden, the Royal Baths Park, the Wilanów Palace Park and the Królikarnia Palace Park (See also: Greenery in the city).

The Saxon Garden, covering the area of 15.5 ha(Dell INSPIRON 9300 battery), was formally a royal garden. There are over 100 different species of trees and the avenues are a place to sit and relax. At the east end of the park, the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier is situated. In the 19th century the Krasiński Palace Garden was remodelled by Franciszek Szanior. Within the central area of the park one can still find old trees dating from that period: maidenhair tree, black walnut, Turkish hazel and Caucasian wingnut trees(Dell Inspiron 9400 battery). With its benches, flower carpets, a pond with ducks on and a playground for kids, the Krasiński Palace Garden is a popular strolling destination for the Varsovians. The Monument of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising is also situated here. The Royal Baths Park covers the area of 76 ha. The unique character and history of the park is reflected in its landscape architecture (pavilions, sculptures, bridges, cascades, ponds) and vegetation (domestic and foreign species of trees and bushes) (Dell Inspiron E1505 battery). What makes this park different from other green spaces in Warsaw is the presence of peacocks and pheasants, which can be seen here walking around freely, and royal carps in the pond. The Wilanów Palace Park, dates back to the second half of the 17th century. It covers the area of 43 ha. Its central French-styled area corresponds to the ancient, baroque forms of the palace(Dell Inspiron E1705 battery). The eastern section of the park, closest to the Palace, is the two-level garden with a terrace facing the pond. The park around the Królikarnia Palace is situated on the old escarpment of the Vistula. The park has lanes running on a few levels deep into the ravines on both sides of the palace.

19th century New Orangery houses a palm house.

Other green spaces in the city include the Botanic Garden and the University Library garden. They have extensive botanical collection of rare domestic and foreign plants(Dell Inspiron Mini 9 battery), while a palm house in the New Orangery displays plants of subtropics from all over the world.[53] Besides, within the city borders, there are also: Pole Mokotowskie (a big park in the northern Mokotów, where was the first horse racetrack and then the airport), Park Ujazdowski (close to the Sejm and John Lennon street), Park of Culture and Rest in Powsin, by the southern city border, Park Skaryszewski by the right Vistula bank, in Praga. The oldest park in Praga, the Praga Park(Dell Latitude D400 battery) was established in 1865–1871 and designed by Jan Dobrowolski.[54] In 1927 a zoological garden (Ogród Zoologiczny) was established on the park grounds,[55] and in 1952 a bear run, still open today.

The flora of the city may be considered very rich in species. The species richness is mainly due to the location of Warsaw within the border region of several big floral regions comprising substantial proportions of close-to-wilderness areas (natural forests, wetlands along the Vistula) as well as arable land, meadows and forests(Dell STUDIO 1450 battery). Bielany Forest, located within the borders of Warsaw, is the remaining part of the Masovian Primeval Forest. Bielany Forest nature reserve is connected with Kampinos Forest.[56] It is home to rich fauna and flora. Within the forest there are three cycling and walking trails. Other big forest area is Kabaty Forest by the southern city border. Warsaw has also two botanic gardens: by the Łazienki park (a didactic-research unit of the University of Warsaw) (Dell Vostro 1400 battery)as well as by the Park of Culture and Rest in Powsin (a unit of the Polish Academy of Science).

There is 13 nature reserves in Warsaw – among others, Bielany Forest, Kabaty Woods, Czerniaków Lake. About 15 km from Warsaw, the Vistula river's environment changes strikingly and features a perfectly preserved ecosystem, with a habitat of animals that includes the otter, beaver and hundreds of bird species. (Dell Vostro 1500 battery) There is also several lakes in Warsaw – mainly the oxbow lakes, like Czerniaków Lake, the lakes in the Łazienki or Wilanów Parks, Kamionek Lake. There are lot of small lakes in the parks, but only part of them is permanent – the most of them is being emptied before winter to clean them of plants and sediments(Dell XPS GEN 2 battery).

The Warsaw Zoo covers an area of 40 hectares (99 acres). There are about 5,000 animals representing nearly 500 species.[58] Although officially created in 1928, it traces back its roots to 17th century private menageries, often open to the public.

Historically, Warsaw has been a destination for internal and foreign immigration, especially from Central and Eastern Europe. For nearly 300 years it was known as the "Paris of the North" or "Second Paris".[27] It was always a centre of European culture(Dell XPS M1210 battery), existed as a major European city, and was a destination for many Europeans. Demographically it was the most diverse city in Poland, with a significant numbers of foreign-born inhabitants. In addition to the Polish majority, there was a significant Jewish minority in Warsaw. According to Russian census of 1897, out of the total population of 638,000, Jews constituted 219,000 (Dell XPS M1330 battery) (around 34% percent).[63] Warsaw's prewar Jewish population of more than 350,000 constituted about 30 percent of the city's total population.[64] In 1933 out of 1,178,914 inhabitants 833,500 were of Polish mother tongue.[65] World War II changed all of this, and to this day there is much less ethnic diversity than in the previous 300 years of the city's history.[64] Most of the modern day population growth is based on internal migration and urbanisation(Dell XPS 1340 battery).

Comparison of Warsaw's city boundaries today and in 1939

In 1939, ca. 1,300,000 people lived in Warsaw,[66] but in 1945 – only 420,000. During the first years after the war, the population growth was ca. 6%, so shortly the city started to suffer from the lack of flats and of areas for new houses. The first remedial measure was the Warsaw area enlargement (1951) – but the city authorities were still forced to introduce residency registration limitations(Dell XPS M1530 battery): only the spouses and children of the permanent residents as well as some persons of public importance (like renowned specialists) were allowed to get the registration, hence halving the population growth in the following years. It also bolstered some kind of conviction among Poles that Varsovians thought of themselves as better only because they lived in the capital. Unfortunately this belief still lives on in Poland (although not as much as it used to be) (Dell XPS M170 battery) – even though since 1990 there are no limitations to residency registration anymore .

The municipal government existed in Warsaw until World War II and was restored in 1990 (during the communist times, the National City Council – Miejska Rada Narodowa – governed in Warsaw). Since 1990, the system of city administration has been changed several times – also as the result of the reform which restored powiats, cancelled in 1975(Dell XPS M1710 battery). Finally, according the Warsaw Act, the city is divided into 18 districts and forms one city powiat with a unified municipal government.[69]

Commission Palace, a neoclassical palace at the Bank Square, the house of the city's government.

The basic unit of territorial division in Poland is a commune (gmina).[70] A city is also a commune – but with the city charter.[70] Both cities and communes are being governed by a mayor – but in the communes the mayor is vogt (wójt in Polish), however in the cities – burmistrz. Some bigger cities obtain the entitlements, i.e(Dell XPS M1730 battery). tasks and privileges, which are possessed by the units of the second level of the territorial division – counties or powiats. An example of such entitlement is a car registration: a gmina cannot register cars, this is a powiat's task (i.e. a registration number depends on what powiat a car had been registered, not gmina). In this case we say about city county or powiat grodzki. Such cities are for example Kraków, Gdańsk, Poznań(Dell XPS M2010 battery). In Warsaw, its districts additionally have some of powiat's entitlements – like already mentioned car registration. For example, the district Wola has its own evidence and the district Ursynów – its own (and the cars from Wola have another type of registration number than these from Ursynów). But for instance the districts in Kraków do not have entitlements of powiat, so the registration numbers in Kraków are of the same type for all districts(Dell Latitude E5400 battery).

Legislative power in Warsaw is vested in a unicameral Warsaw City Council (Rada Miasta), which comprises 60 members.[69] Council members are elected directly every four years. Like most legislative bodies, the City Council divides itself into committees which have the oversight of various functions of the city government.[69] Bills passed by a simple majority are sent to the mayor (the President of Warsaw), who may sign them into law(Dell Latitude E5500 battery). If the mayor vetoes a bill, the Council has 30 days to override the veto by a two-thirds majority vote.

Each of the 18 separate city districts has its own council (Rada dzielnicy).[69] Their duties are focused on aiding the President and the City Council, as well as supervising various municipal companies, city-owned property and schools. The head of each of the District Councils is named the Mayor (Burmistrz) and is elected by the local council from the candidates proposed by the President of Warsaw(Dell Latitude E6400 battery).

The mayor of Warsaw is called President. Generally, in Poland, the mayors of bigger cities are called presidents – i.e. such cities, which have over 100,000 people or these, where already was president before 1990. The first Warsaw President was Jan Andrzej Menich (1695–1696).[71] Between 1975 and 1990 the Warsaw Presidents was simultaneously the Warsaw Voivode. Since 1990 the President of Warsaw had been elected by the City council. (Dell Latitude E6500 battery) In the years of 1994–1999 the mayor of the district Centrum automatically was designed as the President of Warsaw: the mayor of Centrum was elected by the district council of Centrum and the council was elected only by the Centrum residents. Since 2002 the President of Warsaw is elected by all of the citizens of Warsaw. (Dell Inspiron Mini 12 battery)

The current President of Warsaw is Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz (since 2006-12-02) – the former president of the National Bank of Poland.[73] The first president elected according these rules was Lech Kaczyński. When he was elected on the President of Polish Republic (December 2005), there was not an additional election in Warsaw, hence formally he was simultaneously the President of Poland and the President of Warsaw(Dell XPS M140 battery).

As the capital of Poland, Warsaw is the political centre of the country. All state agencies are located there, including the Polish Parliament, the Presidential Office and the Supreme Court. In the Polish parliament the city and the area are represented by 31 MPs (out of 460). Additionally, Warsaw elects two MEPs(Dell XPS 13 battery).

The Sejm is the lower house of the Polish parliament. The Sejm is made up of 460 deputies, or Poseł in Polish (literally 'Envoy'). It is elected by universal ballot and is presided over by a speaker called the Marshal of the Sejm (Marszałek Sejmu).

Main article: Transport in Warsaw

Warsaw has seen major infrastructural changes over the past few years amidst increased foreign investment and economic growth. The city has a much improved infrastructure with new roads, flyovers, bridges, etc. (Dell XPS 16 battery)

The city centre – view on Dmowski Roundabout

Warsaw lacks a good circular road system and most traffic goes directly through the city centre. Warsaw ring road has been planned consisting of three express roads: S2, S8 and S17. Currently parts of S2 and S8 are under construction and to be completed up to 2012. However thanks to the A2 motorway stretching west from Warsaw which opened in June 2012, the city now has a direct motorway connection with Łódż, Poznań and ultimately with Berlin(Dell XPS 1640 battery). The city has two international airports, Warsaw Frédéric Chopin Airport, located just 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from the city centre, with Warsaw-Modlin Airport located 35 kilometres (22 mi) to the north is the city's second international airport in July 2012.[75] With around 100 international and domestic flights a day and with over 9,268,551 passengers served in 2007, Warsaw Frédéric Chopin Airport is by far the biggest airport in Poland. (Dell XPS 1645 battery)

Public transport in Warsaw includes buses, trams (streetcars), Metro, light rail Warszawska Kolej Dojazdowa line, urban railway Szybka Kolej Miejska, regional rail Koleje Mazowieckie (Mazovian Railways),[76] and bicycle sharing systems (Veturilo and Bemowo Bike). The buses, trams, urban railway and Metro are managed by Zarząd Transportu Miejskiego (ZTM, the Warsaw Transport Authority) (Dell XPS 1647 battery).

Plac Wilsona metro station

The regional rail and light rail is operated by Polish State Railways (PKP). There are also some suburban bus lines run by private operators.[77] Bus service covers the entire city, with approximately 170 routes totalling about 2,603 kilometres (1,617 mi) long, and with some 1,600 vehicles(Dell Latitude 131L battery).

Currently, the Tramwaje Warszawskie (Warsaw Trams) company runs 863 cars on over 240 kilometres (150 mi) of tracks. Twenty-odd lines run across the city with additional lines opened on special occasions (such as All Saints' Day).

The first section of the Warsaw Metro was opened in 1995 initially with a total of 11 stations.[78] It now has 21 stations running a distance of approximately 23 kilometres.[79] Initially, all of the trains were Russian built(Dell Latitude C400 battery). In 1998, 108 new carriages were ordered from Alstom.[78] The second line running east-west will be about 31 kilometres. The central section is now under construction and will be 6 km. long with seven stations.[78] The main railway station is Warszawa Centralna serving both domestic traffic to almost every major city in Poland, and international connections. There are also five other major railway stations and a number of smaller suburban stations(Dell Latitude C500 battery).

Visualization of the National Temple of Divine Providence (under construction).

Like many cities in Central and Eastern Europe, infrastructure in Warsaw suffered considerably during communism. However, over the past decade it has seen many improvements due to solid economic growth, an increase in foreign investment as well as funding from the European Union. In particular, the city's underground transit system, roads, sidewalks, health care facilities and sanitation facilities have improved markedly. (Dell Latitude C510 battery)

Today, Warsaw has some of the best medical facilities in Poland and Central Europe. The city is home to the Children's Memorial Health Institute (CMHI), the highest-reference hospital in all of Poland, as well as an active research and education center.[80] While the Maria Skłodowska-Curie Institute of Oncology it is one of the largest and most modern oncological institutions in Europe.[81] The clinical section is located in a 10-floor building with 700 beds(Dell Latitude C540 battery), 10 operating theatres, an intensive care unit, several diagnostic departments as well as an outpatient clinic.[81]

Main article: Religion in Warsaw

Throughout its existence, Warsaw has been a multi-cultural city.[82] According to a census of 1901, out of 711,988 inhabitants there were 56,2% Catholics, 35,7% Jews, 5% Greek orthodox Christians and 2,8% Protestants.[83] Eight years later, in 1909, there were 281,754 Jews (36,9%), 18,189 Protestants (2,4%) (Dell Latitude C600 battery)and 2,818 Mariavites (0,4%).[84] This led to construction of hundreds of places of religious worship in all parts of the town. Most of them were destroyed in the aftermath of the Warsaw Uprising of 1944. After the war the new communist authorities of Poland discouraged church construction and only a small part of them were rebuilt. (Dell Latitude C610 battery)

Jazz concert in Tygmont Club.

Several commemorative events take place every year. Gatherings of thousands of people on the banks of the Vistula on Midsummer’s Night for a festival called Wianki (Polish for Wreaths) have become a tradition and a yearly event in the programme of cultural events in Warsaw.[86][87] The festival traces its roots to a peaceful pagan ritual where maidens would float their wreaths of herbs on the water to predict when they would be married(Dell Latitude C640 battery), and to whom.[86] By the 19th century this tradition had become a festive event, and it continues today.[86] The city council organize concerts and other events.[87] Each Midsummer’s Eve, apart from the official floating of wreaths, jumping over fires, looking for the fern flower, there are musical performances, dignitaries' speeches, fairs and fireworks by the river bank. (Dell Latitude C800 battery)

Warsaw Multimedia Fountain Park opened in 2011

The Warsaw Film Festival, an annual festival that takes place every October.[88] Films are usually screened in their original language with Polish subtitles and participating cinemas include Kinoteka (Palace of Science and Culture), Multikino at Golden Terraces and Kultura. Over 100 films are shown throughout the festival, and awards are given to the best and most popular films. (Dell Latitude C810 battery)

Main article: Sport in Warsaw

On 9 April 2008 the President of Warsaw, Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz, obtained from the mayor of Stuttgart Wolfgang Schuster a challenge award – a commemorative plaque awarded to Warsaw as the European capital of Sport in 2008.[89]

The National Stadium, capacity of 58,500 seat football (soccer) stadium, Warsaw's recently demolished 10th-Anniversary Stadium.[90] The national stadium hosted the opening match, 2 group matches, a quarterfinal(Dell Latitude C840 battery), and a semifinal of the UEFA Euro 2012 hosted jointly by Poland and Ukraine.[91]

The Olympic Center in Warsaw

There are many sports centres in the city as well. Most of these facilities are swimming pools and sports halls, many of them built by the municipality in the past several years. The main indoor venue is Hala Torwar, used for all kinds of indoor sports (mainly, indoor skating rink). There is also open-air skating rink (Stegny) and the horse racetrack (Służewiec).

The best of the city's swimming centres is at Wodny Park Warszawianka, 4 km south of the centre at Merliniego Street, where there's an Olympic-sized pool as well as water slides and children's areas. (Dell Latitude CPI battery)

From the Warsovian football teams, the most famous is Legia Warszawa – the army club with a nationwide following play at Polish Army Stadium, just southeast of the centre at Łazienkowska Street. Established in 1916, they have won the country’s championship 8 times (most recently in 2006) and won the Polish Cup 14 times. They have never been relegated divisions. In the Champions League season 1995/96 they reached the quarter-finals, where they lost to Panathinaikos Athens(Dell Latitude D410 battery).

Their local rivals, Polonia Warsaw, have significantly fewer supporters, yet they managed to win Ekstraklasa Championship in 2000. They also won the country’s championship in 1946, and won the cup twice as well. Polonia's home venue is located at Konwiktorska Street, a ten-minute walk north from the Old Town.

Great Theater, home of Poland's National Theatre and Opera.

From 1833 to the outbreak of World War II, Plac Teatralny (Theatre Square) was the country's cultural hub and home to the various theatres. (Dell Latitude D420 battery)

The main building housed the Great Theatre from 1833 to 1834, the Rozmaitości Theatre from 1836 to 1924 and then the National Theatre, the Reduta Theatre from 1919 to 1924, and from 1928 to 1939 – the Nowy Theatre, which staged productions of contemporary poetical drama, including those directed by Leon Schiller. (Dell Latitude D430 battery)

Nearby, in Ogród Saski (the Saxon Garden), the Summer Theatre was in operation from 1870 to 1939,[94] and in the inter-war period, the theatre complex also included Momus, Warsaw's first literary cabaret, and Leon Schiller's musical theatre Melodram. The Wojciech Bogusławski Theatre (1922–26), was the best example of "Polish monumental theatre". From the mid-1930s, the Great Theatre building housed the Upati Institute of Dramatic Arts – the first state-run academy of dramatic art, with an acting department and a stage directing department. (Dell Latitude D500 battery)

Plac Teatralny and its environs was the venue for numerous parades, celebrations of state holidays, carnival balls and concerts.

Warsaw is home to over 30 major theatres spread throughout the city, including the National Theatre (founded in 1765) and the Grand Theatre (established 1778).[95]

Palace of Culture and Science.

Warsaw also attracts many young and off-stream directors and performers who add to the city's theatrical culture. Their productions may be viewed mostly in smaller theatres and Houses of Culture (Domy Kultury), mostly outside Śródmieście (Central Warsaw). Warsaw hosts the International Theatrical Meetings(Dell Latitude D505 battery).

Thanks to numerous musical venues, including the Teatr Wielki, the Polish National Opera, the Chamber Opera, the National Philharmonic Hall and the National Theatre, as well as the Roma and Buffo music theatres and the Congress Hall in the Palace of Culture and Science, Warsaw hosts many events and festivals. Among the events worth particular attention are: the International Frederick Chopin Piano Competition(Dell Latitude D510 battery), the International Contemporary Music Festival Warsaw Autumn, the Jazz Jamboree, Warsaw Summer Jazz Days, the International Stanisław Moniuszko Vocal Competition, the Mozart Festival, and the Festival of Old Music.[96]

The levelling of Warsaw during the war has left gaping holes in the city's historic collections. [97] Although a considerable amount of treasures were spirited away to safety in 1939, a great number of collections from palaces and museums in the countryside were brought to Warsaw at that time as the capital was considered a safer place than some remote castle in the borderlands.[97] Thus losses were heavy. (Dell Latitude D520 battery)

Warsaw Uprising Museum.

As interesting examples of expositions the most notable are: the world's first Museum of Posters boasting one of the largest collections of art posters in the world,[98] Museum of Hunting and Riding and the Railway Museum. From among Warsaw's 60 museums, the most prestigious ones are National Museum with a collection of works whose origin ranges in time from antiquity till the present epoch as well as (Dell Latitude D600 battery)one of the best collections of paintings in the country including some paintings from Adolf Hitler's private collection,[99] and Museum of the Polish Army whose set portrays the history of arms.

The collections of Łazienki and Wilanów palaces (both buildings came through the war in good shape) focuses on the paintings of the "old masters", as are those of the Royal Castle which displays the Lanckoroński Collection including two paintings by Rembrandt.[100] The Palace in Natolin, a former rural residence of Duke Czartoryski(Dell Latitude D610 battery), is another venue with its interiors and park accessible to tourists.

Holding Poland's largest private collection of art, the Carroll Porczyński Collection Museum[101] displays works from such varied artists as Paris Bordone, Cornelis van Haarlem, José de Ribera, William-Adolphe Bouguereau, Pierre-Auguste Renoir and Vincent van Gogh[102] along with some copies of masterpieces of European painting.

17th century Ostrogski Castle houses the Chopin Museum(Dell Latitude D620 battery).

A fine tribute to the fall of Warsaw and history of Poland can be found in the Warsaw Uprising Museum and in the Katyń Museum which preserves the memory of the crime.[103] Museum of Independence host sentimental and patriotic paraphernalia connected with these epochs. Dating back to 1936 Warsaw Historical Museum contains 60 rooms which host a permanent exhibition of the history of Warsaw from its origins until today(Dell Latitude D630 battery).

The 17th century Royal Ujazdów Castle currently houses Centre for Contemporary Art, with some permanent and temporary exhibitions, concerts, shows and creative workshops. The Centre currently realizes about 500 projects a year. Zachęta National Gallery of Art, the oldest exhibition site in Warsaw, with a tradition stretching back to the mid-19th century organises exhibitions of modern art by Polish and international artists and promotes art in many other ways(Dell Latitude D800 battery).

The city also possesses some oddities such as the Museum of Caricature[104] and a Motorisation Museum in Otrębusy.[105] The newly established in 2011 Erotic Museum in Warsaw is the only such museum in Poland and one of the few of a kind in Europe.[106] Over 2,000 exhibits collected by the Erotic Museum, reveals the erotic fascinations of artists from all continents.[106] Museum collections include the 14th century German chastity belts(Dell Latitude D810 battery), erotic Peruvian pottery, Persian miniatures, Tibetan votive paintings, Indian carvings, Chinese porcelain, African folk art, Japanese Shunga paintings, Thai votive penises and many other exhibits.[106]

Main TVP headquarters at Woronicza street.

Warsaw is the media centre of Poland, and the location of the main headquarters of TVP and other numerous local and national TV and radio stations, such as TVN, Polsat, TV4, TV Puls, Canal+ Poland, Cyfra+ and MTV Poland.[107]

Since May 1661 the first Polish newspaper, Polish Ordinary Mercury, was printed in Warsaw. The city is also the printing capital of Poland with a wide variety of domestic and foreign periodicals expressing diverse views(Dell Latitude D820 battery), and domestic newspapers are extremely competitive. Rzeczpospolita, Gazeta Wyborcza, Dziennik Polska-Europa-Świat Poland's large nationwide daily newspapers[108] have their headquarters in Warsaw.

Warsaw also has a sizable movie and television industry. The city houses several movie companies and studios. Among the movie companies are TOR, Czołówka, Zebra and Kadr who is behind several international movie productions. (Dell Latitude D830 battery)

Over the next few years the new Film City in Nowe Miasto, located a mere 80 km from Warsaw, will become the centre of Polish film production and international co-production.[109] It is to be the largest high-tech film studio in Europe.[109] The first projects filmed in the new Film City will be two films about the Warsaw Uprising.[109] Two backlots will be constructed for these projects – a lot of pre-WWII Warsaw and city ruins. (Dell Latitude 2100 battery)

Since World War II, Warsaw has been the most important centre of film production in Poland. It has also been featured in numerous movies, both Polish and foreign, for example: Kanał and Korczak by Andrzej Wajda, The Decalogue by Krzysztof Kieślowski, also including Oscar winner The Pianist by Roman Polański.[110]

Rococo Czapski Palace houses the Academy of Fine Arts.

Higher education in Warsaw[show]

Warsaw holds some of the finest institutions of higher education in Poland. It is home to four major universities and over 62 smaller schools of higher education. (Dell Latitude 2110 battery) The overall number of students of all grades of education in Warsaw is almost 500,000 (29.2% of the city population; 2002). The number of university students is over 280,000.[112] Most of the reputable universities are public, but in recent years there has also been an upsurge in the number of private universities.

The University of Warsaw was established in 1816, when the partitions of Poland separated Warsaw from the oldest and most influential Polish academic center, in Kraków. (Dell Latitude E4300 battery) Warsaw University of Technology is the second academic school of technology in the country, and one of the largest in Central Europe, employing 2,000 professors.[114] Other institutions for higher education include the Medical University of Warsaw, the largest medical school in Poland and one of the most prestigious, the National Defence University, highest military academic institution in Poland, the Fryderyk Chopin Music Academy the oldest and largest music school in Poland, and one of the largest in Europe, (Dell Vostro 1310 battery) the Warsaw School of Economics, the oldest and most renowned economic university in the country, and the Warsaw University of Life Sciences the larges

t agricultural university founded in 1818.

Warsaw University Library

Warsaw has numerous libraries, many of which contain vast collections of historic documents. The most important library in terms of historic document collections include the National Library of Poland. Library holds 8.2 million volumes in its collection.[118] Formed in 1928(Dell Vostro 1320 battery) sees itself as a successor to the Załuski Library, the biggest in Poland and one of the first and biggest libraries in the world.[119][120]

Another important library – the University Library, founded in 1816,[121] is home to over two million items.[122] The building was designed by architects Marek Budzyński and Zbigniew Badowski and opened on 15 December 1999.[123] It is surrounded by green. The University Library garden, (Dell Vostro 1510 battery) designed by Irena Bajerska, was opened on 12 June 2002. It is one of the largest and most beautiful roof gardens in Europe with an area of more than 10,000 m2 (107,639.10 sq ft), and plants covering 5,111 m2 (55,014.35 sq ft).[124] As the university garden it is open to the public every day.[124]

In 2011, Warsaw was ranked the world's 46th most expensive city to live in.[125] It was classified as an Alpha- world city (also known as a "major world city") by the Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) Study Group and Network from Loughborough University(Dell Vostro 1520 battery), placing it on a par with cities such as Amsterdam or Rome.[126] The city also ranked 8th out of 65 cities on Mastercard's Emerging Markets Index (2008).[127]

Warsaw city centre as seen from the Vistula

Warsaw, especially its city centre (Śródmieście), is home not only to many national institutions and government agencies, but also to many domestic and international companies. In 2006, 304,016 companies were registered in the city.[128] Warsaw's ever-growing business community has been noticed globally, regionally, and nationally(Dell Vostro 2510 battery). Mastercard Emerging Market Index has noted Warsaw's economic strength and commercial center. Moreover, Warsaw was ranked as the 7th greatest emerging market. Foreign investors' financial participation in the city's development was estimated in 2002 at over 650 million euro. Warsaw produces 12% of Poland's national income,[129] which in 2008 was 305.1% of the Polish average, per capita (or 160% of the European Union average) (Dell Vostro 1014 battery). The GDP per capita in Warsaw amounted to PLN 94 000 in 2008 (ca. EUR 23 800, USD 33 000).[130] Warsaw leads the region of Central Europe in foreign investment and in 2006, GDP growth met expectations with a level of 6.1%.[131] It also has one of the fastest growing economies, with GDP growth at 6.5 percent in 2007 and 6.1 percent in the first quarter of 2008(Dell Inspiron 1410 battery).

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