University of York And Aarhus University And Technical University Munich

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The University of York (informally [8] York University, or simply York, abbreviated as Ebor. for post-nominals), is a plate glass university located in the city of York, England. Established in 1963, the campus university has expanded to more than thirty departments and centres, covering a wide range of subjects(SONY PCG-5G2L battery). Despite its relatively young age, the university has quickly forged a strong reputation in less than half a century. York has been named the 8th best young university in the world, and is 1st within the UK,[9] building a "reputation to rival Oxford and Cambridge".[10] The university also places among the top 10 in the country, top 20 universities in Europe, and ranked 96th in the world, according to the 2011 QS World University Rankings. (SONY PCG-5G3L battery) This places York in the top 1% of all higher education institutions across the globe.

In the last Research Assessment Exercise in 2008, York was also named as the 8th[12] best research institution in the United Kingdom. The university was named Sunday Times university of the year in 2003 and Times Higher Education university of the year in 2010. In 2012, The University of York was invited to join the Russell Group in recognition of the institution's world-leading[13] research and outstanding teaching. (SONY PCG-F305 battery)

The University attracts a student body with a wide range of backgrounds (with over 41,016 part-time and full-time student applications in 2010/11), including a large number of international students, and a relatively high number of state school students in comparison to other well-ranked universities according to The Times Good University Guide. Situated to the east of the city of York, (SONY PCG-5J1L battery) the university campus is approximately 200 acres (0.81 km2) in size, incorporating the York Science Park and the National Science Learning Centre. Priding itself on its wildlife, renowned campus lakes and greenery, the institution also occupies buildings in the historic city of York. Every student is allocated to one of the university's eight colleges, as is the case at the traditional collegiate universities of Oxford, Cambridge, and Durham. (SONY PCG-5J2L battery)In May 2007 the university was granted permission to build an extension to its main campus, on arable land just east of the nearby village of Heslington. The land was removed from the green belt especially for the purpose of extending the university.

The Yorkshire Philosophical society

The first petition for the establishment of a university in York was presented to King James I in 1617. (SONY PCG-5K2L battery) In 1903 F. J. Munby and others (including the Yorkshire Philosophical Society) proposed a 'Victoria University of Yorkshire'.[20] The then College of Ripon and York St John also at one time considered purchasing Heslington Hall as part of a proposed new campus.


Oliver Sheldon (1894–1951), co-founder of York Civic Trust, was a driving force behind the founding of the University, according to the Borthwick Institute for Archives. The University of York was opened in 1963, admitting 200 students(SONY PCG-5L1L battery). At the time, the university consisted of three buildings, principally the historic King's Manor in the city centre and Heslington Hall, which has Tudor foundations and is in the village of Heslington on the edge of York. A year later, work began on purpose-built structures on the Heslington Campus (see below), which now forms the main part of the university(SONY PCG-6S2L battery).

Founding principles

Baron James of Rusholme, the university's first Vice-Chancellor, said of the University of York that "it must be collegiate in character, that it must deliberately seek to limit the number of subjects and that much of the teaching must be done via tutorials and seminars".[21] Due to the influence of Professor Graeme Moodie, founding head of the Politics Department(SONY PCG-6S3L battery), students are involved in the governance of the university at all levels, and his model has since been widely adopted.[22]

Reputation and academic rankings

The Times University Guide said of York that "The university is increasingly recognised as a permanent fixture in the top rank of British higher education" and that "No university had a better record for teaching quality"(SONY PCG-6V1L battery). The Sunday Times said, "York is one of Britain's academic success stories, forging a reputation to rival Oxford and Cambridge in the space of 40 years. In some regards – teaching, for example – it has a recent track record better than that of Oxford, according to the official assessments of teaching quality."

On 25 November 2010 York was named "University of the Year" at the Times Higher Education Awards(SONY PCG-6W1L battery), achieving praise from the judges for its "success in combining academic excellence with social inclusion, as well as its record in scientific discovery".[25]

Central Hall

In 1964, work began on the campus facilities in the grounds of Heslington Hall. The marshy land was drained, the winding lake which dominates the campus was built, and the area was landscaped(SONY PCG-7111L battery). The original buildings were designed by architect Andrew Derbyshire, and assembled using the CLASP system of prefabricated construction, hence York's inclusion among the so-called plate glass universities. The buildings are connected by numerous covered walkways and bridges. Most of the university's arts departments occupy premises in the college buildings, while many of the science departments have their own buildings(SONY PCG-71511M battery).

A landmark building is Central Hall, a half-octagonal concert hall used for convocations and examinations, as well as theatrical and musical performances. It has played host to The Wailers, George Melly, Soft Machine, Pink Floyd, and Paul McCartney. Performances by big-name acts have been rarer at the university following a 1985 The Boomtown Rats concert(SONY PCG-6W3L battery), during which the cover of the orchestra pit was damaged.[26] A ban on pop performances, and in particular dancing, in Central Hall was imposed by the university, although it has occasionally been relaxed. Central Hall is still used for classical concerts and, since a rock concert was held there in on 13 March 2010 it has been available again for full booking. It is going to be used as the location for the main Fresher Week event this year(SONY PCG-7113L battery). Public concerts are regularly held in the music department's Sir Jack Lyons Concert Hall, the Arthur Sykes Rymer Auditorium and in some of the colleges. The Raymond Burton Library was also recently nominated for a SCONUL Design award.

The campus lake, which is the largest plastic-bottomed lake in Europe,[27] has attracted a large population of wild and semi-wild waterfowl(SONY PCG-7133L battery). These include greylag, Canada, barnacle and snow geese, coots, moorhens and large numbers of ducks, including mallards, tufted duck, and common pochards. There is also a growing population of black swans and a few great crested grebe. The southern end of the lake has been established as a bird sanctuary. Fishing is permitted in season, on purchase of a licence(SONY PCG-7Z1L battery).

Other parts of the campus support a large rabbit population. On at least one occasion, students have been cautioned by the University for hunting rabbits.[28]

The Heslington campus has both indoor and outdoor sports facilities, including an all weather astroturf pitch and County standard cricket pitch. A large, tent-like structure allows for indoor sport, gymnastics and dance(SONY PCG-7Z2L battery)      .

King's Manor

Main article: King's Manor

Located in York city centre, approximately two miles (three kilometres) from the main Heslington West campus, the historic King's Manor began as the Abbot's House of St Mary's Abbey and went on to become the headquarters of the Council of the North following the dissolution of the monasteries. It is home to the Archaeology, Medieval Studies and Eighteenth Century Studies departments(SONY PCG-8Y1L battery), and is regularly used by other related departments such as History. It has a public restaurant and is used for art displays.

Not far from the King's Manor is the Minster Library, in Dean's Park. Students and staff of the University are able to use the Minster Library, which shares staff and cataloguing with the main University library, and holds the huge collection of early books belonging to the Dean and Chapter of York Minster(SONY PCG-8Y2L battery).


There are eight colleges at the University of York, and every student is a member of a college. Staff may choose to join a college if they wish. All the colleges are of equal status, but each has its own constitution. The day-to-day running of the colleges is managed by an elected committee of staff and student members chaired by the college's Provost(SONY PCG-8Z2L battery). Each college has a Junior Common Room for students, which is managed by the elected Junior Common Room Committee, and a Senior Common Room, which is managed by elected representatives of the college's academic and administrative members. The colleges are deliberately assigned undergraduates, postgraduate students and staff from a wide mixture of disciplines. (SONY PCG-8Z1L battery)

Wentworth College is a postgraduate only college. It originally had undergraduates as well, but became postgraduate only at its refounding in 2001

James College was originally postgraduate only, but changed to accept undergraduates in 1993

Halifax College was originally Halifax Court, but received college status in 2002.

Some of the university's academic departments have their headquarters in one of the college building complexes(SONY PCG-7112L battery).

There are also several off-campus residences, including Constantine House, 54 Walmgate, and Fairfax House.

The Sunday Times noted, "The colleges are tight-knit communities within the university and enjoy a healthy rivalry." The colleges share practical features of the halls of residence of other UK universities, as well as the traditional Oxbridge/Durham colleges(SONY PCG-6W2L battery).

Heslington East campus

In 2003, the university set out plans to create a campus for 5,000 additional students,[29][30] and to introduce a number of new subjects such as Law and Dentistry.[31]

For a number of years, the university's expansion plans were limited by planning restrictions on the Heslington West campus. The City of York planning conditions stipulate that only 20% of the land area may be built upon, and the original campus was at full capacity. (SONY PCG-5K1L battery)

In 2003–04, plans were finalised for a 117 hectare extension to the campus, provisionally called Heslington East, designed to mirror the existing Heslington West campus. The plans set out that the new campus would be built on arable land between Grimston Bar park and ride car park and Heslington village. After a lengthy consultation and a public inquiry into the proposals(SONY PCGA-BP2E battery) in 2006, the Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government gave the go-ahead in May 2007.[34]

Goodricke College, Heslington East campus

In May 2008 the City of York planners approved the design for the first residential college, Goodricke. In The Press on 28 July 2008, Shepherd Construction was named as the preferred contractor for the Goodricke College buildings. (SONY VGP-BPS2 battery) The proposal included landscaping the whole area, constructing a lake with marsh borders, planting light woodland and many specimen trees, and maximising biodiversity. Several departments will move to purpose-built facilities on the extension, with Law and the York Management School being the first(SONY VGP-BPS3 battery).

Construction began in 2008, with the first buildings, including Goodricke college, coming into use in October 2009.[36] The college was officially opened by the Duke of York in April 2010.[37]

In October 2010, several departments moved into new facilities on Heslington East including the Department of Theatre, Film and Television and the Department of Computer Science. (SONY VGP-BPS4 battery)

Support for off-campus accommodation

The University publishes an annual code of practice for student accommodation[39] to help students living off-campus.

Science Park and on-campus organisations

Next door to the university on the York Science Park are organisations including the Higher Education Academy, the Digital Preservation Coalition the National Non-Food Crops Centre, the York Neuroimaging Centre, the York JEOL Nanocentre, the North Yorkshire office of Natural England, the UK head office of AlphaGraphics(SONY VGP-BPS5 battery), the accelerated mass spectrometry specialists Xceleron Ltd (now in administration with debts of £7m), and the Leeds, York & North Yorkshire Chamber of Commerce. In Summer 2011, the Department of Physics moved its Plasma Physics and Fusion Group to the Science Park at the newly created York Plasma Institute. York Conferences are located on the University campus(SONY VGP-BPS5A battery).

Entry standards

Information for entry standards gathered from the 2010–2011 academic year by the HESA shows that the average student at the University of York achieved a UCAS tariff of 450. An A grade at A-Level is equivalent to 120 points, and an A at AS worth 60 points.grade[41] the average entrant can be assumed to achieve three or more A-Levels at grade A.

York has the 15th highest entrant UCAS points of British universities. (SONY VGP-BPS8 battery)

Official teaching statistics

The 2003 QAA report on the institution gave it the best of their three possible outcomes[42] saying that "broad confidence can be placed in the soundness of the university's current and likely future management of the quality of its academic programmes and the academic standards of its awards." (SONY VGP-BPS8A battery)

The latest Teaching Quality Assessment data for the University of York is listed below. In cases before November 1995 a numerical value, out of 24, is not used. In these cases "Excellent" is the highest possible grade followed by "Satisfactory" and then "Unsatisfactory". Under the newer system the quality of teaching is marked out of 24. 22/24 or higher is equivalent to "Excellent" on the old scale 20 out of 23 departments gained an "excellent" rating(SONY VGP-BPL8 battery).

Research assessment

York has an impressive reputation for research with 19 Units of Assessment out of the 23 in the 2000 Research Assessment Exercise receiving a rating of 5 and three 5* (where 1 is the lowest and 5* is the highest possible) ratings in the 2001 Research Assessment Exercise.[46] The Department of English and Related Literature[47] and the Department of Computer Science(SONY VGP-BPS9 battery)were later upgraded from 5* to 6* (indicating successive 5* grades), and the Department of Psychology has been rated 6* for funding. Using these statistics, York was ranked the sixth-best research institution in the UK.[50] The proportion of staff submitted as research active in each Unit of Assessment was above 80%.

York is a founding member of the Worldwide Universities Network which supports worldwide collaboration in teaching and research(SONY VGP-BPS9/S battery). The university has been awarded the Queen's Anniversary Prize four times – in 1997 for the work of the Department of Computer Science; in 2005 for the work of CNAP, the Centre for Novel Agricultural products which explores the potential from the biosphere to reduce the global economy's dependence on fossil reserves and fuel,[51] in 2007 for the work of CHE (the Centre for Health Economics and in 2009 for the work of Social Policy Research Unit(SONY VGP-BPS9A battery) of the Department of Social Policy and Social Work.[53]

Health economics was pioneered at York and the university leads the world in the methodological development of cost-effectiveness analysis of health care technologies, is home to two prominent Health Economics journals and has been home to many prominent names in Health Economics (including current Lead Health Economist at the World Bank Adam Wagstaff(SONY VGP-BPS9A/B battery), ex-deputy chair of NICE Tony Culyer, current ISPOR director Paul Kind, ex-ISPOR president Mike Drummond, current chairman of York Primary Care Trust Alan Maynard OBE, Andrew Briggs, Karl Claxton, Mark Sculpher, Alan Williams, Peter C. Smith and Hugh Gravelle).

There are around eight applications for every undergraduate place, and a low dropout rate of 4% (only Oxbridge, Bristol, and UCL are lower) (SONY VGP-BPS9/B battery).

In 2007 York became the only British University to have an academic department – Chemistry – win the Gold Athena Swan Award for its commitment to the careers of women in science. The Department of Psychology has won a Silver Athena Swan Award, the first in the country to do so, Biology also has silver, and the university as a whole holds the Athena Swan bronze award. (SONY VGP-BPS9A/S battery)

League tables

Traditionally regarded as a 'Top 10 university', York has consistently been present near the top of the UK league tables, coming second only to Cambridge in the Daily Telegraph league tables from 2002 to 2006, beating Oxford into third place. It is one of the youngest Universities in the world to be ranked top 100 in the overall THE-QS World University Rankings(SONY VGP-BPL9 battery), and in the 2010 QS World University Rankings York was ranked 88th in the world (in 2010 Times Higher Education World University Rankings and QS World University Rankings parted ways to produce separate rankings). In the same rankings York is listed as 34th for Life Sciences & Biomedicine. (SONY VGP-BPS10 battery) However in the People and Planet Green League Table it has dropped to 126th in 2012 with the poor environmental performance of the campus and administration resulting in a 'Third class' status.

The Sunday Times released averages of all its tables over 10 years, ranking York as 6th in the country from 1998–2007.[58] In 2000 the Sutton Trust named York as a leading university in the UK, placing it 6th overall(SONY VGP-BPL10 battery).

The university also hosts a number of interdisciplinary research centres, including the Borthwick Institute for Archives, Centre for Renaissance and Early Modern Studies, the Centre for Modern Studies, the Centre for Medieval Studies and the Institute for the Public Understanding of the Past. The Department of Politics hosts the Post-war Reconstruction and Development Unit(SONY VGP-BPS11 battery).

The campus is also home to the National Science Learning Centre. Opened in March 2006 by then-Prime Minister Tony Blair, it serves as the hub for a £51 million national network of centres dedicated to revitalising science teaching in schools. It is operated by the White Rose University Consortium (which comprises the Universities of Leeds, Sheffield and York) together with Sheffield Hallam University(SONY VGP-BPL11 battery).

Student activities

Main article: University of York Students' Union

York Student Television (YSTV) was founded at the University in 1967 and is England's oldest student television station.[100] YSTV once held the world record for longest continuous television broadcast under a single director. It was named the best student television station at the 2012 NaSTA Awards. The University of York Filmmaking Society is a student-run filmmaking group(SONY VGP-BPL12 battery); since 1999 its members have made two feature films and many shorts, some of which have been shown at national film festivals.

University Radio York (URY), the student radio station, is the oldest independent radio station in the United Kingdom, and winner of the Student Radio Awards Best Station Award 2005. Nouse, the oldest student newspaper and longest-running student society on campus(SONY VGP-BPS12 battery), was established in 1964 and was 2005 NUS/Mirror Student paper of the year and 2009 NUS Best Student Media.[102] It has also won multiple Guardian Student Newspaper awards throughout the past decade, for both its pioneering website[103] and outstanding individual journalists. Its rival newspaper, Vision, was named Guardian Student Newspaper of the Year for three consecutive years between 2002 and 2004(SONY VGP-BPS13 battery)—the only time this has occurred in the 27-year history of the prestigious awards—and won it again in 2007.[104] It also won Best Small Budget Publication at the 2006 NUS/Mirror National Student Media Awards.

The Lemon Press, York's satire magazine, was launched in 2009 and has rapidly gained popularity in both its print and online formats(SONY VGP-BPS13Q battery). In 2010 it won the NUS Award for Best Student Media, having existed only one year. The Yorker is a rapidly growing online publication set up by students as an independent company in 2007; it was nominated for the Guardian Student media awards after running for only a few months. The Zahir is a cultural/philosophical magazine that has been running since 2005(SONY VGP-BPS13A/Q battery). In early 2009 Haus Magazine was also launched focusing of fashion and youth culture. Each College has its own JCRC or students' association which provide a variety of services, including college events and student welfare services; they also organise the Freshers' Fortnight activities in their College. The students' union is known as YUSU, but is properly called the University of York Students' Union(SONY VGP-BPS13B/Q battery). Its membership is currently the entire student population of the university. In 2008 YUSU was able to open its first Union-run licensed venue The Courtyard. In addition to the students' union, there is a Graduate Students' Association (the GSA) which performs many of the functions of the Students' Union for postgraduate students, including representing postgraduates on university committees and Council(SONY VGP-BPS13/B battery).

York Student Cinema (YSC), operating since the late 1960s, show around 30 films a term using a professional 35 mm projector and a full size cinemascope screen in one of the largest rooms on campus. It has won the BFFS film society of the year award several times.

Every summer term the students take part in the Roses Tournament, a sports competition against Lancaster University(SONY VGP-BPS13B/B battery). The venue of the event alternates each year between York and Lancaster, and involves numerous sports clubs, including the conventional (football, hockey) and the more extreme (YUCC, ultimate frisbee).

The University of York Music Society and the University of York Drama society are two of the largest student societies on campus; both now collaborate with the Central Hall Musical Society and Happily Ever After Society who each stage an annual musical(SONY VGP-BPS13A/S battery). Other performing societies include the Gilbert and Sullivan Society, PantSoc who stage the biannual student pantomimes, and ComedySoc who run a variety of student comedy events throughout each term. FUSION was recently founded to promote the ever-growing urban music scene and to raise money for charity. In 2004 a student at the university established York Carnival—(SONY VGP-BPS21A/B battery)a day celebrating music and the arts in the centre of York. Its original aim was to encourage links between the University of York and the residents of the historic city and to encourage participation in the arts. It has grown in to a large annual event, attracting crowds of up to 5,000. The Lords of Misrule are a group of current and former graduate students at the Centre for Medieval Studies at(SONY VGP-BPS21B battery) King's Manor who enjoy bringing the theatre of the Middle Ages to life. Since their inception in the 1960s. the Lords have been performing dramas and adaptations of medieval texts in their original languages, frequently in historic locations. Their performances strive to present the spirit of medieval drama to a modern audience. The group's most recent performances were in the York Mystery Plays on 11 and 18 July 2010(SONY VGP-BPS21 battery), performing the Curriers' Pageant of the Transfiguration of Christ.

Non-partisan political societies are well represented at the university, with the York Student Think Tank - which produces research in collaboration with national policy organisations such as IPPR, New Generation Society - an informal debating society, and The York Union Society - which competes in intervarsity debating tournaments against other universities(SONY VGP-BPS21/S battery). There are also very active party political societies on campus with the University of York Labour Club, the University of York Liberal Democrat Society, the University of York Conservative and Unionist Association and the University of York Green group campaigning on issues both on and off campus, as well as organising debates and talks by high profile speakers(SONY VGP-BPS13AS battery). In recent years there have been visits by Ed Miliband, David Davis, Nick Clegg, David Blunkett, Anthony Giddens, Ruth Lea, Dominic Green  Adrian Ramsey Caroline Lucas and David Willets. There is also a branch of People and Planet, which campaigns on environmental and ethical issues(SONY VGP-BPS13S battery).

Provisions for lesbian, gay bisexual and trans (LGBT) students at the university are divided among two distinct organisations. YUSU LGBT is a part of the students' union and represents LGBT students within the union, as well as providing welfare support and conducting awareness raising campaigns on campus. LGBT Social organises social events aimed at LGBT students and their friends. While remaining separate(SONY VGP-BPS13B/S battery), these two groups generally have strong links to each other and to the staff LGBTI forum, which offers largely similar provision to staff members of the university.

Aarhus University (Danish: Aarhus Universitet, abbreviated AU) is a public university located in Aarhus, Denmark. Founded in 1928, it is Denmark's second oldest university[nb 1] with a total of 43,600 enrolled students as of 1 Jan 2012, after a merger with Aarhus School of Engineering(SONY VGP-BPS13B/G battery).

Denmark's first professor of sociology was a member of the faculty of Aarhus University (Theodor Geiger, from 1938–1952), and in 1997 Professor Jens Christian Skou received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his discovery of the sodium-potassium pump. In 2010 Dale T. Mortensen, a Niels Bohr Visiting Professor at Aarhus University, received the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences together with his colleagues Peter Diamond and Christopher Pissarides(SONY VGP-BPS14 battery).

Early developments

Aarhus University was founded on September 11, 1928 as Universitetsundervisningen i Jylland ("University Studies in Jutland") with a budget of 33,000 Dkr and an enrollment of 64 students, which rose to 78 during the first semester. The university was founded as a response to the increasing number of students at University of Copenhagen after World War I(SONY VGP-BPL14 battery). Classrooms were rented from the Technical College and the teaching corps consisted of one professor of philosophy and four associate professors of Danish, English, German, and French. Along with Universitets-Samvirket ("The University Association") which consisted of representatives of Aarhus' businesses, organisations, and institutions, the municipality of Aarhus had fought since 1921 to have Denmark's next university located in the city(SONY VGP-BPS14/B battery).

In 1929, the municipality of Aarhus gave the university an undulating site.[11] The design of the university buildings and 12 ha campus area was assigned to architects C.F. Møller, Kay Fisker and Povl Stegmann who won the architectural competition in 1931. The first buildings housed the Departments of Chemistry, Physics and Anatomy and were opened on September 11, 1933(SONY VGP-BPS14/S battery), the same year the name Aarhus University was first used. The construction of the buildings was funded solely by donations which totaled 935,000 Dkr and the buildings covered an area of 4,190m2.[12] One of the most generous contributors was De Forenede Teglværker i Aarhus ("The United Tilworks of Aarhus") led by director K. Nymark. Forenede Teglværker decided to donate 1 million yellow bricks and tiles worth c. 50,000 Dkr and later decided to extend the donation to all bricks needed to construct the building(SONY VGP-BPS14B battery).

The inauguration was celebrated in a tent on campus and attended by King Christian X, Queen Alexandrine, their son Crown Prince Frederick and Prime Minister Stauning together with 1000 other invited guests.[14] On 23 April, 1934, Aarhus University was given permission to hold examinations by the king and on 10 October 1935, Professor Dr. phil(SONY VGP-BPS22 battery). Ernst Frandsen was appointed the first rector of the university.[15] Since 1939, C. F. Møller Architects has been responsible for building activities of the university which today has a floor area of 246,000m2 in the University Park alone and a series of buildings outside the Park with a total floor area of 59,000m2(SONY VGP-BPS22 battery).


From 1928, Aarhus University offered courses in languages and philosophy, but the students were unable to finish their studies without going to the University of Copenhagen for their final examinations. By request of the Ministry of Education, the Teachers' Association made a draft of how to conduct the final examinations in the humanistic subjects in Aarhus and in the draft(SONY VGP-BPS18 battery), the Association proposed that the faculty was named the Faculty of Humanities by analogy with the corresponding faculties in Uppsala, Lund, and Turku. After negotiations between the faculties in Aarhus and Copenhagen, the King declared on 8 May, 1935 that the final university examinations could be held at the Faculty of Philosophy in Copenhagen as well as at the Faculty of Humanities in Aarhus. This was the first final examinations Aarhus University was allowed to hold(SONY VGP-BPS22/A battery), but on 24 July, 1936 the king granted the Faculty of Humanities the right to hold examinations for the magister degree and in 1940 for the PhD.

Aarhus University had offered courses in basic medical subjects from 1933 and on 10 October 1935 the Faculty of Medicine was formally established.[17] The establishment of a Faculty of Medicine in Aarhus was met with some opposition from the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Copenhagen(SONY VGP-BPS22A battery). The professors thought that the state should not establish a new Faculty until the shortcomings of the old one had been solved. In the end, the professors agreed to sign a recommendation for the new Faculty as long as improvements to the old one were not delayed.[18] By 1953, the Faculty of Medicine had been fully built, complete with lectures, professorship chairs, final exams, research facilities and the hospitals of Aarhus had been expanded to meet the demands of clinical training. (SONY Vaio VGN-CR120E/W battery)In 1992, the Faculty of Medicine merged with the dental school and changed its name to Faculty of Health Sciences.

The university established its Faculty of Economics and Law in 1936, but when it offered courses in political science and in psychology (1959 and 1968, respectively), the faculty changed its name to the Faculty of Social Sciences.[10] The faculty had to be funded solely on private donations and once the university demonstrated it had the needed financial means(SONY Vaio VGN-CR120E/R battery), the Minister of Education recommended the Finance Committee to approve the establishment of the faculty on 27 January, 1936 since the state did not have to grant financial support. The Committee approved and by declaration of the king on 5 November, 1937, the faculty could hold examinations in economics and law.

Courses had been offered in theology since 1932 at the Faculty of Humanities, but in 1942 the Faculty of Theology was formally established. (SONY Vaio VGN-CR120E/P battery) Already on 22 June, 1928, Reverend Balslev of Aarhus had proposed that Universitetsundervisningen i Aarhus (not yet university) taught basic courses in theology. Though the proposal was greeted by the management, the Faculty of Theology in Copenhagen pointed out that it would take 3 full-time teachers of the New Testament, Old Testament and ecclesiastical history(SONY Vaio VGN-CR120E/L battery), respectively as well as education in Latin, Greek and Hebrew by the Faculty of Humanities. At this time, Universitetsundervisningen i Aarhus did not have the financial means to meet these criteria so the case was shelved for the time being. In April, 1931 the case reopened, this time by Bishop Skat Hoffmeyer who proposed free teaching in the required subjects. The management asked the faculty in Copenhagen if this was acceptable(SONY Vaio VGN-CR120E battery), but because the teaching was free, the faculty saw it as tutoring rather than actual teaching and they neither approved or disproved of such an approach though they did not see it as actual university teaching. The municipality of Aarhus did not aid with funds and the management deemed a request of the state to be futile so they decided to disregard getting the teaching approved and start it anyway under the supervision of Skat Hoffmeyer. On 5 September, 1932 Reverend Asmund held the first lecture in theology(SONY Vaio VGN-CR120 battery). This private education in theology continued until the university could hire its own professors in 1938, and in 1942 Aarhus University could at long last establish the Faculty of Theology.

The main building and World War II

Memorial in the main building to honour the ten victims of the 1944 air strike and the two workers killed during construction in 1941.

In 1938, the university management acknowledged it was time to consider an expansion because of lack of space and the overcrowding of the auditoriums(SONY Vaio VGN-CR11H/B battery). The solution was not an administration building, as this was not to be built until 1964. Instead a new main building was planned, containing both the different subject areas as well as the administration. The building was to be organized according to a principle of institutes so that teaching and research took place in certain rooms with their own library and study for the professor(SONY Vaio VGN-CR116E battery).

The construction of the building took place during the German occupation of Denmark (1940–45) during World War II, which affected the process in more than one way. No state funds had been involved in the construction of the first university building and a second building for physiology, biochemistry, and a high voltage laboratory, but because the Nazis were against civil use of material and working force, the state contributed to the building(SONY Vaio VGN-CR116 battery). In 1943, the Gestapo, Sicherheitsdienst, Geheime Feldpolizei and Abwehr set up their regional headquarters in the five student halls of residence on campus. Fearing that the same would happen to the new main building, its completion was delayed. C.F. Møller later wrote that for once there was plenty of time to work on the details of the building, like patterned brickwork, acoustic screens and furniture(SONY Vaio VGN-CR115E battery).

The presence of the Gestapo in Aarhus led to multiple arrests of Danish resistance fighters and the resistance movement soon realized they needed outside assistance. On 15 October, the leader of the illegal Danish underground army in Jutland, Niels Bennike, sent the following telegram to London(SONY Vaio VGN-CR115 battery):

Undergrunden i Jyland ved at blive revet op af Gestapo. Vigtigere at få ødelagt arkiver og bevare vore folk end at bevare arkiver og få ødelagt vore folk. Jeg beder indtrængende om, at kollegium 4 og 5, gentager 4 og 5, må blive ødelagt ved luftangreb. Det er de to vestligste, gentager vestligste, bygninger i universitetskomplekset. Haster, gentager haster(SONY Vaio VGN-CR110EW battery).

("Underground in Jutland getting torn up by the Gestapo. More important to get the archives destroyed and save our people than getting our people destroyed and save the archives. I implore that residence hall 4 and 5, repeat 4 and 5, be destroyed by air strike. They are the two farthest to the west, repeat farthest to the west, buildings of the university complex. Urgent, repeat urgent." (SONY Vaio VGN-CR110 battery))

On October 31, 1944, the Royal Air Force bombed the Gestapo's headquarters in residence halls 4 and 5, also killing ten civilian workers. 2 Group Bomber Command carried out the bombing by using 25 Mosquito planes. The air strike on the University of Aarhus took place in a heavily populated area and the campus was surrounded by three hospitals(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11S battery). To avoid civilian casualties, the RAF prepared with a model of the campus, shooting at residence halls 4 and 5 with chalk bags. The architect C. F. Møller was in the main building during the air strike but survived and was later dug free from the rubble. The reconstructed main building opened on September 11, 1946(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ15T battery).

Recent history

Aarhus University was an independent institution until 1970 and Universitets-Samvirket and the city council had representatives in the management. Hereafter, the university became a state-run institution under the first University Act. Under the next University Act (1992), people outside the university were once again represented in the administration and under 2003 Act(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ15G battery), all Danish universities are governed by a university board. This board appoints rector, deans and heads of departments instead of the students. It commenced in January 2004 for the first time and in August 2005 it appointed a rector.[10][11]

The University Park

The University Park

The main campus is centrally located in Aarhus.

The campus master plan competition was won in 1931 by the collaborative scheme of Danish architects – Kay Fisker, C.F. Møller, and Poul Stegmann in collaboration with landscape architect C.Th. Sørensen(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ4000 battery). The design includes a wide variety of buildings over a large space, but each building is composed of the same yellow brick and roofing tile, giving the whole campus a unified look. Construction commenced in 1932 and has continued into the 21st century. The original main building was one of the first Danish functionalist public buildings and has been included in the Ministry of Culture's canon of Danish architecture(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ460E battery); it is acknowledged as one of the twelve most meaningful architectural works in the cultural history of Denmark. C.F. Møller and his company have continued as architects of the campus ever since.[26] The main buildings of the university are placed in and around a beautiful hilly landscape, The University Park, which has been expanded throughout the years. In a harmonic interplay with the hilly park, the yellow buildings form a beautiful campus, which has received international recognitions(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ440N battery).

Aarhus University also has a small campus in Copenhagen, where the university's programmes in education and pedagogic are taught.[27] In the city of Herning there is also a small campus where a few of the university's business, engineering and technology programmes are taught, the AU Herning division(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ440E battery).

Organisation and administration

The university is governed by the University Board which has 11 members: six members recruited outside the university form the majority of the board, two members are appointed by the academic staff, one member is appointed by the technical/administrative staff, and two members are appointed by the university students.[29] The rector is appointed by the university board(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ430E battery). The rector in turn appoints deans and deans appoint heads of departments. There is no faculty senate and faculty is not involved in the appointment of rector, deans, or department heads. Hence the university has no faculty governance.

Main academic areas

Since January 1, 2011, the university has been organised into four major main academic areas:

Science and Technology – consists of the National Environmental Research Institute of Denmark (NERI), the former Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and the former Faculty of Science(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ280E battery).

Arts – consists of the former Faculty of Humanities, the former Faculty of Theology and the Danish School of Education.

Business and Social Sciences – consists of the former Faculty of Social Sciences and the Aarhus School of Business.

Health – consists of the former Faculty of Health Sciences.

As of October 1, 2011, more than 34,000 students were enrolled in Aarhus University.[31] Each year more than 1000 international exchange students come to Aarhus University to study for one or two terms(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ190 battery). In 2009 close to 3000 international students were enrolled in full degree programmes.[32] Aarhus University is an international university with a large proportion of students at the post-baccalaureate level: over half of its students are enrolled in Master's degree and PhD programmes. In 2011, 59 of the university's 113 Master's degree programmes were taught in English.[33] Talent development of young researchers has been identified as one of the university’s core activities. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ150E battery) This means that highly qualified students have the option of starting their PhD studies before completing their Master's degree. The university's doctoral programmes allow talented students to enroll in a combined Master's/PhD programme either right after completing the Bachelor's degree (the 3+5 track) or one year into their Master's degree programme (the 4+4 track). (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ160 battery)Since 2006 the number of PhD students has risen from approximately 1000 to approximately 1700 in 2010.

International Centre

The International Centre maintains international partnerships and combines a wide range of services for exchange students, international full-degree students, PhD’s and visiting scholars. The International Centre is often the first stop for foreign students at Aarhus University, since the centre offers advice on finding housing and living in Denmark. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ260E battery)

AU Summer University

Starting in 2011 all summer courses offered by Aarhus University for Bachelor's, Master's and PhD students will be gathered together and expanded to provide more diversity in a new framework: AU Summer University. In the summer of 2011 more than 80 courses were offered within the fields of humanities, theology, social sciences, health sciences(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ140E battery), natural sciences, agricultural sciences, business and educational sciences. Summer courses are open to both Danish and international students.

Cheminova controversy and academic freedom at AU

Aarhus University is the owner of the chemical manufacturer Cheminova, who controversially has been selling the methyl parathion pesticide to Brazil farmers. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11L battery)

In 2009, senior researcher Mette Jensen emailed her colleagues at AU, asking whether they thought Cheminova should stop selling the controversial pesticides. For this, the university threatened her with dismissal.[43]

The university's Pro-Vice-Chancellor Søren E. Frandsen denies that the university had made any mistakes or threatened the freedom of speech and academic freedom of its staff(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11Z battery).


MINDLAB was established with a DKK 120 million grant awarded by the Danish Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation. At MINDLab neuroscientists, psychologists, biologists, statisticians and researchers from other fields work together to understand the brain, its disorders, and its development through physical and social interactions – and vice versa. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11M battery)

The Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (founded in 2002 by Professor Flemming Besenbacher) offers a degree programme in nanoscience with an interdisciplinary curriculum covering a broad spectrum of introductory, advanced, and specialised courses, aimed at providing the student with a sufficiently broad basis to conduct interdisciplinary research within nanoscience and at the same time achieve disciplinary depth and specialised skills in selected areas(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ18M battery). Hence, the programme encompasses physics, chemistry, biology, molecular biology, mathematics, and computer science.

The State and University Library on the University Park campus (Statsbiblioteket)

Students from different fields meet in the numerous Friday bars, in the Student House Aarhus [48] and at concerts in the University Park and around the rest of the city. The Friday bars are are often organised by the different departments who set up a small bar in a canteen or classroom where beers and non-alcoholic drinks are served(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ18 battery). The university also has a number of libraries, some of which are open around the clock. Almost every department has its own library, but the main library is the State and University Library. It has an extensive electronic journal database which students and staff can access either at the library or from home.[49] Aarhus University Sports (AUS) is open to all university students and organises a wide range of activities from badminton, to fencing and chess(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ210CE battery).

Student organisations

The largest student organisations at Aarhus University are the Student Union (Studenterrådet) and Studenterlauget. The Student Union represents the main student body at Aarhus University while Studenterlauget is a mainly social organisation at Aarhus School of Business. The Student Union has both student seats on the university board.[50] The Student Union also arranges annual concerts and seminars, and publishes the student magazine Delfinen (The Dolphin) (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31S battery).

There are political students organisations at the university, the largest of which include the Social-Democratic Students (Frit Forum), Conservative Students (Konservative Studenter), and Liberal Students (Liberale Studerende). The Conservative Students union publishes the student magazine Critique. The Liberal Students union publishes the leaflet Minerva(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31Z battery).

Clubs and societies

Aarhus University offers many activities and services for foreign and Danish students.

Aarhus Student House (Studenterhus Århus)

Aarhus University offers a free membership in Aarhus Student House to all exchange students. This is the meeting place for international and Danish students in Aarhus. Aarhus Student House organises social and cultural activities throughout the year, ranging from parties to road trips, to language classes, to weekly international nights (a popular dinner club). (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31E battery)

Like many other university towns, Aarhus has a bustling nightlife. From Irish pubs to jazz cafés, you can probably find a café or bar to fit your taste. Down by the canal, in the pedestrian zone, there are a number of bars and cafés, or you might choose to visit one of the ’Friday bars’ organized by students at the university. You may also want to check out the Aarhus Culture Guide for concert listings as bars often serve as musical venues(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31J battery). In addition the city of Aarhus also offers a variety of cultural experiences. For a complete listing of the activities and events, visit:

Aarhus University Sports (AUS)

AUS is the official sports club of Aarhus University, and is open to all university students. It is an umbrella organisation consisting of 14 independent member clubs, which host a wide range of activities, from badminton to fencing to chess. In addition, AUS also offers independent activities such as indoor soccer tournaments, a well equipped gym and skiing trips. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31M battery)

Dale’s Café is a meeting place for international students and the university’s PhD students that opened in 2011. The café offers quality coffee, sandwiches and a wide selection of beers. It has an informal lounge area where students and young researchers can relax while enjoying snacks and beverages. Like the main building, Dale’s Café is named after Aarhus University’s 2010 Nobel Laureate in Economic Sciences, Dale T. Mortensen(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31B battery). The Dale T. Mortensen Building houses the International Centre, the new PhD House and the IC Dormitory, which contains 28 dorm rooms and two apartments dedicated to recently-arrived international PhD students.[54][55]

Klubben (which means 'The Club' in Danish) is a bar located at the former ASB (Aarhus School of Business), now under the faculty of Business and Social Sciences(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ32 battery).

During regular school hours and weekdays, Klubben is the main socializing area of the former ASB with spaces to study, relax with your friends, play fussball/pool/board games, but on Friday nights, Klubben changes into a club where students meet and have fun until 2AM. Klubben is usually packed with both Danish and international students, and the atmosphere is often amazing. Klubben sells cheap beers and drinks(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ410 battery), which, of course, is a big benefit to any student. Additionally, Klubben opens whenever any larger sports event such as the Champions League, Danish national team fixtures or Super Bowl is on. Due to a limited number o

f allowed visitors, Klubben usually only admits people studying at the faculty of Business and Social Sciences(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21 battery).

Klubben had until spring 2012 the largest turnover in sales of alcohol of any club in Denmark on any given Thursday night. From spring 2012 the night for big parties has been moved to Fridays. Check out the website for pictures from Fridays in Klubben. Klubben is one of the business units of Studenterlauget, the one student union with most people employed in Denmark(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21S battery)


At Aarhus University, Business and Social Sciences (at the former ASB) you find the largest student organisation in Denmark – Studenterlauget. Studenterlauget strives to create the best possible social and professional opportunities for the students at Business and Social Sciences. To do this, they have created a professional student organisation with nine business units, so that they use the students' potential to achieve the highest level of service possible(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21M battery). Studenterlauget has have approximately 4,000 members whom they service through the nine business units. Around 130 people most of whom are students are employed.[56]

Yildiz Akdogan, Danish politician, Member of the Danish Parliament since 2007.

Torben M. Andersen, professor, former Chairman of the Welfare Commission.

Svend Auken, Danish politician. Chairman of the Danish Social Democrats 1987-1992.

Ole Barndorff-Nielsen, Danish statistician(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ38M battery).

Jens-Peter Bonde, Danish journalist, author, politician and Member of the European Parliament 1979-2008.

Jørgen Christensen-Dalsgaard, Danish astronomer.

Aage Frandsen, Danish politician, Member of the Danish Parliament 1971-1975, 1987–1990 and 1994-2005.

John Frandsen, Danish composer, organist and conductor.

Crown Prince Frederik, Crown Prince of Denmark.

Søren Gade, Danish politician, Minister of Defence and Member of the Danish Parliament.

David Gress, Danish-American historian.

Bertel Haarder, Danish politician, Member of the Danish Parliament(Sony VAIO VGN-SZ battery).

Lene Hau, Danish physicist.

Dan Jørgensen, Danish politician. Member of the European Parliament since 2004.

Naser Khader, Danish-Syrian politician and Member of the Danish Parliament. Chairman of the Liberal Alliance 2007-2009.

Johannes Lebech, Danish politician.

Bjørn Lomborg, Danish author, academic, and environmentalist.

Queen Margrethe II, Queen regnant of Denmark since 1972.

Ebbe Nielsen, Danish entomologist.

Helmuth Nyborg, Danish professor of developmental psychology.

Kjeld Philip, Danish economist and politician(Sony VGN-NR11S/S Battery).

Anders Fogh Rasmussen, Prime Minister of Denmark from 2001 until 2009. Secretary General of NATO from August 2009.

Tøger Seidenfaden, Danish journalist. Editor-in-chief at Politiken 1993-2011.

Jens Christian Skou, Danish chemist and Nobel Prize laureate in Chemistry 1997.

Johannes Sløk, Danish philosopher and theologian.

Bjarne Stroustrup, Danish inventor, designer and original implementer of the C++ programming language(Sony VGN-NR11M/S Battery).

Tim Bollerslev, Danish Econometrician. Inventor of the GARCH model.

Nils Malmros, Danish film director and screenwriter.

The Technische Universität München (TUM; University of Technology, Munich; Technical University of Munich)[2] is a research university with campuses in Munich, Garching, and Weihenstephan. It is a member of TU9, an incorporated society of the largest and most notable German institutes of technology(Sony VGN-NR260E/S Battery).

Academic reputation

Technical University Munich has succeeded in defending its top-ranking position in the latest university league tables [3]

International rankings

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering.

In the background, Nuclear Research Reactors FRM I and FRM II

[edit]European Commission ranking

The European Commission compiled a list of the 22 universities in the EU with the highest scientific impact. This ranking was compiled as part of the Third European Report on Science & Technology Indicators, prepared by the Directorate General for Science and Research of the European Commission in 2003 (updated 2004) (Sony VGN-NR260E/T Battery). By this ranking, the EU's top two research universities are Cambridge and Oxford followed by Eindhoven (Netherlands) and Technical University Munich (Germany) at 3rd and 4th places respectively.[4]

From an agricultural state to an industrial state

Lithograph of 1900 ( Colour map )

In its capacity as an academic stronghold of technology and science, the Technische Universität München (TUM) has played a vital role in Bavaria's transition from an agricultural state to an industrial state and Hi-Tech centre. Even to the present day(Sony VGN-NR260E/W Battery), it is still the only state technical university. Numerous excellent TUM professors have secured their place in the history of technology, many important scientists, architects, engineers and entrepreneurs studied there. Such names as Karl Max von Bauernfeind, Rudolf Diesel, Claude Dornier, Walther von Dyck, Hans Fischer (Nobel prize for Chemistry 1930) (Sony VGN-NR11Z/S Battery), Ernst Otto Fischer (Nobel prize for Chemistry 1973), August Föppl, Robert Huber (Nobel prize for Chemistry 1988), Carl von Linde, Heinz Maier-Leibnitz, Walther Meissner, Rudolf Mössbauer (1961 Nobel prize for Physics), Willy Messerschmitt (aircraft designer), Wilhelm Nusselt, Hans Piloty, Friedrich von Thiersch, Franz von Soxhlet are closely connected with the TUM(Sony VGN-NR11Z/T Battery).

The prerequisites for an academic training in engineering were created at the start of the 19th century when the advancement of technology on the basis of exact sciences commenced. There were also calls for a 'university for all technical studies' in Bavaria. The 'polytechnic schools' set up in Augsburg, Munich and Nuremberg, which bridged the gap between middle schools and higher education colleges in their capacity as 'lyceums' (or high schools) (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21E battery), were the first approach. For further qualification purposes, a 'technical college' was set up in 1833 as part of the Faculty of State Finance (Staatswirtschaftlichen Fakultät) of the Ludwig Maximilian University, which had been transferred from Landshut to Munich seven years previously. The experiment failed. Instead, an advanced 'engineering course' was established at the Polytechnic School Munich in 1840, which was the forerunner of what was later to become the 'Technische Hochschule München'(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21Z battery).

Foundation of "Polytechnische Schule München"

University of Technology Munich building old

In 1868, King Ludwig II founded the newly structured Polytechnische Schule München, which had the status of a university, in Munich. It was allowed to call itself 'Technische Hochschule' as from the academic year 1877–78. The first Principal was the former Head of the Engineering Course, Karl Max von Bauernfeind. In the year of its foundation, the college took up residence in the new building in Arcisstrasse, which was designed by Gottfried v. Neureuther(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21J battery). In those days, more than 350 students were taught by 24 professors and 21 lecturers. The college was divided into five sections: I. General Department (Mathematics, Natural Science, Humanities, Law and Economics), II. Engineering Department (Structural Engineering and Surveying), III. Department of Architecture, IV. Mechanical/Technical Department, V. Chemical/Technical Department. (Sony VAIO VGN-FW11 battery) Department VI. (Agriculture) was added in 1872.

Two of the university's long-standing requests were met by the state after the turn of the century: it was granted the right to award doctorates in 1901, and in 1902 the election of the principal by the teaching staff was approved. With an average of about 2,600 to 2,800 students, the TH München ranked ahead of the TH Berlin as the largest German technical college for a while(Sony VAIO VGN-FW11M battery). The first female undergraduate matriculated in architecture in 1905, after the Bavarian government officially allowed women to study at a technical college in the German Reich. However, the proportion of female students remained negligible; women accounted for just 0.6 per cent of the student body in the winter semester of 1913–14.

During the Weimar Republic, the TH München was obliged to make do with low funds and was drawn into radical political struggles in 1918–19 and again between 1928 and 1933(Sony VAIO VGN-FW11S battery). In the winter term of 1930–31, the National Socialist German Student Union (NSDStB) became the strongest group within the AStA general student organisation of the THM for the first time.

[edit]Broadening the spectrum of subjects

The TH München was able to broaden its spectrum of subjects by taking over several smaller colleges that were no longer viable. In 1922, the former commercial college 'Handelshochschule München' became the VII Department of Economics(Sony VAIO VGN-FW21E battery). The former College of Agriculture and Brewing in Weihenstephan was integrated in 1930. Its agricultural unit was absorbed into the Department of Agriculture – which was located in Munich until 1947 before transferring to Weihenstephan, while the brewing section became Department VIII 'Brewing Technology' belonging to the TH München yet located in Weihenstephan(Sony VAIO VGN-FW21J battery). The tradition of the Weihenstephan campus dates back to the agricultural school founded in 1804, which was elevated to the status of an academy in 1895 and a university in 1920.

The eight departments of the TH München were reorganised into six faculties in 1934. This was reduced to five (General Sciences, Structural Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Agriculture, Brewing) in 1940(Sony VAIO VGN-FW21L battery).

During the Third Reich, the 'leadership principle' was imposed on the TH München. Its autonomy suffered considerable restrictions which affected such matters as the appointment procedure (for lecturers), etc. Based on the newly introduced 'Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service', lecturers of non-Aryan descent or those who were married to 'non-Aryans' were removed by the State(Sony VAIO VGN-FW41M battery), likewise politically 'undesirable' professors. The National Socialist German Students' League (NSDStB) and the like-minded German Student Union (Deutsche Studentenschaft) endeavoured to organise and influence the undergraduates with their radical national socialist doctrine.

Similar organisations were in place on the lecturers' level. Jewish students no longer enjoyed the same rights and were barred from matriculation from 1938 onwards(Sony VAIO VGN-FW41M/H battery). The TH München was required to contribute towards the Second World War effort with large-scale armament research. However, top-level basic research was still conducted in numerous institutes. The attitude of the university professors was characterised by opportunistic conformance on the one hand, and critical distancing and inner emigration on the other. A number of individual professors, employees, workers and students dared to demonstrate disobedience and obstruction(Sony VAIO VGN-FW21M battery).

It was under the hardest possible conditions that teaching activities recommenced in April 1946. 80% of the buildings on the main campus had been bombed. For many years, undergraduates actively supported the rebuilding of their university by providing hands-on (voluntary) restoration service. The Department of Economics had to be surrendered to the Ludwig Maximilian University in 1946(Sony VAIO VGN-FW21Z battery).

"Research Reactor Munich" (FRM) third location

With the internationally acclaimed installation of the Research Reactor Munich (FRM) in Garching in 1956/57, the TH München gained third location. The Physics Department building was opened there in 1969, followed by the new building for housing the departments of Chemistry, Biology and Geoscience in 1977(Sony VAIO VGN-FW32J battery).

In December 1957, the university was granted its long-standing request to acquire the status of a 'public legal body'. In the following year, the first constitution drawn up by the university itself came into force. From the 1960s onwards, the university had to cope with an enormous influx of students. When the first economising measures were introduced by the State in the mid-Seventies, the conditions for students began to deteriorate(Sony VAIO VGN-FW17W battery).

A Faculty for Medicine spanning two sites: Munich-Haidhausen (Clinic 'right of the Isar') and Munich-Schwabing (Biederstein, Children's Clinic at Schwabing Hospital) was founded in 1967.

100th anniversary

The university's 100th anniversary fell in the 'hot May' of 1968. Critical tendencies were also in evidence at the TH München, particularly in the Departments of Architecture, Geography, Medicine and Social Sciences. In the 100th year since its foundation(Sony VAIO VGN-FW31E battery), the TH München comprised six faculties, 168 chairs and institutes, about 8,400 undergraduates and somewhere in the region of 5,700 university staff, who were employed in teaching, research, running operations and administration. In 1972, a sports centre with a 'central sports ground' covering an area of 45 hectares, that had previously been used for the Olympic Games was set up in the grounds of the Olympic stadion(Sony VAIO VGN-FW139E battery).

The new designation of 'Technische Universität München' was conferred in August 1970. With the introduction of the Bavarian Higher Education Law in 1974, the six faculties were replaced by eleven smaller departments, which soon resumed the designation of Faculties: 1. Mathematics and Informatics, 2. Physics, 3. Chemistry, Biology and Geoscience, 4. Economics and Social Sciences, 5. Structural Engineering and Surveying, 6. Architecture, 7(Sony VAIO VGN-FW139E/H battery). Mechanical Engineering, 8. Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, 9. Agriculture and Horticulture, 10. Brewing, Food Technology and Dairy Science, 11. Medicine. In addition, several interdisciplinary central institutes were established, initially for regional planning and environmental research, as well as sports sciences. The 'regulated student organisation' was abolished in Bavaria and replaced by structures of student involvement within the context of the newly introduced group representation concept(Sony VAIO VGN-FW465J battery).

Twelve faculties at three locations

Technische Universität München at Garching, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

In 1992, a twelfth faculty 'Informatics' was created by splitting the former Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics into two. Ten years later a Faculty of Sports Science and a Faculty of Economics were set up. The latter incorporated the former 'Faculty of Economics and Social Science(Sony VAIO VGN-FW31M battery). The Mechanical Engineering Faculty and the Faculties of Mathematics and Informatics moved from the main Munich campus to the spacious, well-equipped new buildings in Garching in 1997 and 2002 respectively.

The Weihenstephan campus was restructured for the start of the winter semester 2000/01 and realigned along scientific lines: the former Faculties of Agriculture and Horticulture, Brewing, Food Technology and Dairy Science(Sony VAIO VGN-FW31J battery), as well as the Forestry Faculty that previously belonged to the Ludwig Maximilian University, were collectively accommodated in the newly established Weihenstephan Science Centre for Life&Food Sciences, Land Use and Environment (WZW).

An "Entrepreneurial university"

Numerous other reform procedures have been realised since 1995 under the auspices of TUM's president, Wolfgang A. Herrmann(Sony VAIO VGN-FW31Z battery), such as the introduction of efficient guidance and decision profiles, the resolute expansion of the university's autonomy in keeping with the new philosophy of an 'entrepreneurial university', university-wide core competences in the field of informatics, the establishment of central institutes and research platforms with an interdisciplinary focus, the introduction of numerous(Sony VGN-NR11Z Battery), attractive Bachelor/Masters degree courses, strategic internationalisation, enhanced collaboration with industrial and social partners, stepping up professional fundraising, the inauguration of the Carl-von-Linde Academy to house the Humanities, Cultural and Social Studies.

In 2002, the TUM initiated the setting-up of the very first subsidiary of a German university abroad with its 'German Institute of Science and Technology' (GIST) in Singapore(Sony VGN-NR11S Battery).

The commissioning of the new 'Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Research Reactor Munich' (FRM-II) in 2004 heralded in a new era of neutron research with lots of promising applications in the fields of science, technology and medicine. The high-flux Neutron Source has served to place the TUM among the world's leaders in terms of scientific and technical research(Sony VGN-NR110E Battery).

By the summer semester 2010, the TUM comprised thirteen faculties with more than 26,000 students (about 20 per cent of whom came from abroad), about 460 professors of both sexes and roughly 8,500 members of staff. In 2012, the university has more than 31,000 students (16% international), 475 professors (14% female), and more than 9,000 members of staff(Sony VGN-NR110E/T Battery).


main campus (dark brown building area) aerial view in Munich downtown

TUM’s academic faculties are divided amongst three campuses in the greater Munich area. The Main Campus in central Munich houses the faculties of Architecture, Medicine, Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Civil Engineering, Surveying, Economics, Social and Sports Sciences. A second large campus is located in Garching(Sony VGN-NR110E/S Battery), about 10 km north of Munich. Garching is home to the faculties of Physics, Chemistry, Informatics, Mathematics and Mechanical Engineering, as well as the Garching research reactor. Over the years, several research institutes, including the Max-Planck Society, the Bavarian Academy of Science and the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität of Munich have joined TUM in Garching. The third TUM campus is located 35 km north of Munich in Weihenstephan near Freising(Sony VGN-NR110E/W Battery), and is home to the faculties of Biology, Agricultural Science and Horticulture, Forestry and Resource Management, Brewing and Food Technology, Nutrition, and Landscape Planning and Landscape Architecture. There are also many institutions throughout Munich and the surrounding area that belong to TUM. These include the hospital “Rechts der Isar”, used for training medical students, and the Central University Athletic Complex(Sony VGN-CR11SR Battery).

The TUM, like many German universities, is a “non campus” university. However, with further expansion plans for the Garching site, more and more departments are to be placed into new buildings in Garching. The Garching campus, unlike the downtown area, is set up more like a traditional “quadrangle” style campus with a large grouping of buildings. At the moment, university buildings are spread over four main and several minor locations(Sony VGN-CR11Z Battery):


Faculty of Architecture at the Technical University of Munich (Main Campus)

Faculty of Civil Engineering and Surveying at the Technical University of Munich (Main Campus)

Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology (Main Campus)

Faculty of Economics at the Technical University of Munich (Main Campus)

Faculty of Medicine at the Technical University of Munich (Klinikum rechts der Isar) (Sony VGN-CR11S Battery)

School of Sport and Health Science at the Technical University of Munich, Olympic Park (Munich)

TUM School of Education (since 1 October 2009, Munich)


Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Munich

Faculty of Computer Science of the Technical University of Munich

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering at the Technical University of Munich

Department of Mathematics at the Technical University of Munich

Physics Department of the Technical University of Munich(Sony VGN-CR11M Battery)

Weihenstephan (Freising)

Weihenstephan Center of Food, Land Use and Environment at the Technical University of Munich

TUM operates a subsidiary in Singapore. In 2001, TUM founded the German Institute of Science and Technology (GIST) with its partner universities: the National University of Singapore and the Nanyang Technological University(Sony VGN-CR11E Battery). Today, the GIST is recognized in Singapore as an independent Asia Pte. Ltd. of TUM. The Institute offers both master's programs and training for managers and undertakes research on a contract basis. The GIST acts as a contact for students and young professionals throughout Southeast Asia. This Asian subsidiary leads the major project Electro Mobility for Megacities (2010) at the CREATE Research Campus of the Singapore National Foundation(Sony VGN-CR21E Battery).

Werner-von-Siemens Auditorium Maximum at main campus in downtown Munich.

Extended Board of Management

The Extended Board of Management advises the Executive Board of Management and assists in discharging its duties. Alongside the Chief Executives (President, Chancellor, Vice Presidents), it consists of the Department Deans, the Speaker for the Central Scientific Institutions and the Speaker for the Deans of Studies(Sony VGN-CR21S Battery).

Supervisory Board

The TUM Supervisory Board is the TUM's monitoring body and steering committee, comprising the members of the Senate and the External University Council. The External University Council comprises eight high-ranking representatives from the fields of science, culture, industry and politics. Current members include(Sony VGN-CR21Z Battery):

Susanne Klatten, Member of the Supervisory Board, Altana, BMW AG


The Technische Universität München is one of the most research-focussed universities in Germany and Europe. This claim is supported by relevant rankings, such as the DFG-Förderranking (DFG Funding Rankings) or the research rankings of the Centrum für Hochschulentwicklung (CHE – Center for Higher Education Development). (Sony VGN-CR31S Battery) TUM was one of three universities which were successful in obtaining funding in all three funding lines of the Excellence Initiative in 2006. Along with the International Graduate School of Science and Engineering (IGSSE) and TUM’s participation in five Clusters of Excellence, the strategic plan "TUM. The Entrepreneurial University” was funded. The current round of the Excellence Initiative (funding period 2012-2017) confirmed TUM's strategic concept(Sony VGN-CR31E Battery), the graduate school IGSSE, the clusters of excellence Origin and Structure of the Universe, Munich-Centre for Advanced Photonics, Nanosystems Initiative Munich, Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich and approved the new cluster Munich Cluster for Systems Neurology. In addition, TUM takes part in more than 20 Collaborative Research Centres, of which TUM is the spokesperson in nine. (Sony VGN-CR31Z Battery) In the seventh European Union Research Framework Program, TUM coordinates thus far nine projects and also received six Starting Independent Researcher Grants and five Advanced Investigator Grants.

TUM features a strong, characteristic profile in the fields of Science and Engineering. Alongside the traditional key areas addressed by technical universities(Sony VGN-CR41Z Battery), powerful links have been also established with the life sciences, ranging from nutrition and food sciences, biotechnology and bioinformatics to medicine. Much of its innovative research and teaching has emerged from collaborations between the disciplines.

Through close collaboration with business and industry, TUM provided important contributions to Bavaria’s development from an agricultural land to a center of high-level technology. Even today, successful research collaborations with companies – among them Siemens(Sony VGN-CR41S Battery), BMW, and Audi – contribute to expediting the transfer of knowledge and technology into the economy. More than 30 percent of TUM’s third party funding stems from third party sources such as these. Approximately 600 new research collaborations occur annually.

TUM Graduate School

The TUM Graduate School was founded in May 2009. The goal of this institution is to facilitate all doctorates with further specialist and transferable skills as well as to encourage the building of international and interdisciplinary networks(Sony VGN-CR41E Battery). The TUM Graduate School officiates as the parent organization of the TUM’s Faculty Graduate Center (FGC) and Thematic Graduate Center (TGC), encompassing over 3000 doctorates. Currently 8 FGCs and TGCs officially exist with a further 13 graduate centers in formation. The TUM Graduate School presides over the Graduate Dean. Founding Dean is Professor Ernst Rank who is also the director of the International School of Science and Engineering (IGSSE) (Sony VGN-CR42Z Battery). The TUM Graduate School’s doctorates are supervised by a manager and an administration team.


TUM's first spin-off is the German Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), located in Singapore (together with National University of Singapore and Nanyang Technological University).

TUM has currently over 130 international partnerships, among them(Sony VGN-CR42S Battery):

École Centrale Paris, TU Eindhoven, Technical University of Denmark, Technical University of Vienna,

MIT, Stanford University, University of Illinois, Cornell University, University of Texas at Austin, Georgia Tech

National University of Singapore, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, University of Tokyo(Sony VGN-CR42E Battery),

University of Melbourne, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, and many others.

TUM is also a partner of LAOTSE, an international network for student and senior lecturers among leading European and Asian universities, as well as a member of the TIME network (Top Industrial Managers for Europe) (Sony Vaio VGN-CR11S/L Battery).

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