University of Virginia And Université de Montréal

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The University of Virginia (often abbreviated as UVA or Virginia) is a public research university in Charlottesville, Virginia, United States. It was conceived and designed by U.S. President Thomas Jefferson and established in 1819. UVA's initial Board of Visitors included former Presidents of the United States Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and James MonroeSony PCG-71313M battery. The initial site of the University was farmland owned by Monroe, whose law office and farmhouse are now the site of Brown College at Monroe Hill, a residential college at UVA.[4] UVA is the only university in the United States to be designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCOSony PCG-71212M battery.

The 2012 edition of U.S. News & World Report ranks the University of Virginia as the 2nd best public university in the United States and the overall 25th best university in the nation.[5] UVA athletes compete in 23 varsity sports within the Atlantic Coast Conference and finished third in the NACDA Directors' Cup rankings in 2010Sony PCG-71311M battery.

History

[edit]1800s

On January 18, 1800, Thomas Jefferson, the Vice President of the United States, alluded to plans for a new college in a letter written to British scientist Joseph Priestley: "We wish to establish in the upper country of Virginia, and more centrally for the State, a University on a plan so broad and liberal and modern, as to be worth patronizing with the public supportSony PCG-71213M battery, and be a temptation to the youth of other States to come and drink of the cup of knowledge and fraternize with us."[7]

In 1802, then serving as President of the United States, Jefferson wrote to artist Charles Willson Peale that his concept of the new university would be "on the most extensive and liberal scale that our circumstances would call for and our faculties meet." Sony PCG-61211M battery Virginia was already home to The College of William & Mary, but Jefferson lost confidence in his alma mater, partly because of its religious stances and lack of courses in the sciences.[9] Although Jefferson flourished under the tutelage of College of William & Mary professors William Small and George Wythe, his concerns with the College became great enough by 1800 that he wroteSony VAIO VPCF24Q1E battery: "We have in that State, a college just well enough endowed to draw out the miserable existence to which a miserable constitution has doomed it."[10] Thus, he began planning a university more aligned with his educational ideals.[11]

The University of Virginia stands on land once owned by President James Monroe, who sold the land when he moved into the White HouseSony VAIO VPCF13M1E/H battery.

The University of Virginia stands on land purchased in 1788 by an American Revolutionary War veteran (and eventual fifth President of the United States), James Monroe. The farmland just outside Charlottesville was purchased from Monroe by the Board of Visitors as Central College in 1817; Monroe was beginning the first of his own two terms in the White HouseSony VAIO VPCF12Z1E/BI battery. Guided by Jefferson, the school laid its first building's cornerstone later in 1817 and the Commonwealth of Virginia chartered the new university on January 25, 1819.

In the presence of James Madison, the Marquis de Lafayette toasted Jefferson as "father" of the University of Virginia at the school's inaugural banquet in 1824. The University's first classes met in March 1825Sony VAIO VPCF12S1E/B battery. Other universities of the day allowed only three choices of specialization: Medicine, Law, and Religion. Under Jefferson's guidance, the University of Virginia became the first in the United States to allow specializations in such diverse fields as Astronomy, Architecture, Botany, Philosophy, and Political Science. Jefferson explained, "This institution will be based on the illimitable freedom of the human mindSony VAIO VPCF13Z8E/BI battery. For here we are not afraid to follow truth wherever it may lead, nor to tolerate any error so long as reason is left free to combat it."[12]

The non-denominational chapel near the Rotunda of the university was established in 1890, beyond the original scope of Jefferson's plans.

Inside the UVA Chapel

An even more controversial direction was taken for the new university based on a daring vision that higher education should be completely separated from religious doctrineSony VAIO VPCF13Z8E battery. One of the largest construction projects in North America up to that time, the new Grounds were centered upon a library (then housed in the Rotunda) rather than a church – further distinguishing it from peer universities of the United States, most of which were still primarily functioning as seminaries for one particular religion or another. Sony VAIO VPCF13M1E/B batteryJefferson even went so far as to ban the teaching of Theology altogether. In a letter to Thomas Cooper in October 1814, Jefferson stated, "a professorship of theology should have no place in our institution" and, true to form, the University has never had a Divinity school or department; it was established independent of any religious sect. Replacing the then-standard specialization in ReligionSony VAIO VPCF1318E/H battery, the University undertook groundbreaking specializations in scientific subjects such as Astronomy and Botany. (However, today UVA does maintain a strong Religious Studies department and a non-denominational chapel, notably absent from Jefferson's original plans, was constructed in 1890 near the Rotunda.) Sony VAIO VPCF13J0E/H battery

Jefferson was intimately involved in the University, hosting Sunday dinners at his Monticello home for faculty and students until his death. So taken with the import of what he viewed the University's foundations and potential to be, and counting it amongst his greatest accomplishments, Jefferson insisted his grave mention only his status as author of the Declaration of Independence and Virginia Statute for Religious FreedomSony VAIO VPCF13E8E battery, and father of the University of Virginia. Thus, he eschewed mention of his Presidency and national accomplishments in favor of being remembered for the newly established university.

The Lawn during winter, with tracks through the snow. At center is the Rotunda, which was the original library building at the head of Jefferson's Academical Village.

In 1826, the nation's fourth President James Madison became Rector of the University of Virginia, at the same time America's fifth President James Monroe made his home on the Grounds Sony VAIO VPCF13E4E battery (at Monroe Hill) and was a member of the Board of Visitors. Both former Presidents stayed at the University until their deaths in the 1830s.

The School of Engineering and Applied Science opened in 1836, making it the first engineering school in the United States to be attached to a comprehensive university.

At the onset of the American Civil War, the University of Virginia was the largest in the Southern United States and second nationwide only to Harvard University in its scope. Sony VAIO VPCF12M1E/H battery Unlike many other colleges in the South, the University was kept open throughout the conflict, an especially remarkable feat with its state being the site of more battles than any other. In March 1865, Union General George Armstrong Custer marched troops into Charlottesville, whereupon faculty and community leaders convinced him to spare the UniversitySony VAIO VPCF12F4E/H battery. Though Union troops camped on the Lawn and damaged many of the Pavilions, Custer's men left four days later without bloodshed and the University was able to return to its educational routines.

Jefferson, ever the skeptic of central authority and bureaucracy, had originally decided that the University of Virginia would have no President. Rather, this power was to be shared by a Rector and a Board of VisitorsSony VAIO VPCF12E1E/H battery. As the 19th century waned, it became obvious this cumbersome arrangement was incapable of adequately handling the many administrative and fundraising tasks that had become necessary to support the growing University.[15]

Father of the University of Virginia, Thomas Jefferson was the first and only President of the United States to found an institution of higher learningSony VAIO VPCF11Z1E/BI battery.

In 1904, Edwin Alderman resigned as President of Tulane University to take the same position at the University of Virginia. As the University's first President, he embarked on a number of reforms for both the University and the state of Virginia's public educational systems in general. A reform specific to the University of Virginia was one of the first school-sponsored financial aid programs in all of higher learning and, though primitive by today's standardsSony VAIO VPCF24M1E battery, it included a loan provision for needy men who were unable to pay. Initially controversial and opposed by many at what had become a very traditional school, Alderman's progressive ideas stood the test of time. He remains the longest-tenured President in the University's history, having served for twenty-six years until his death in 1931Sony VAIO VPCF23S1E battery. Alderman Library, among many popular landmarks at UVA, is his namesake.

During World War II, Virginia was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission.[16]

In 1944 Mary Washington College in Fredericksburg, Virginia became the Women's Undergraduate Arts and Sciences Division of the University of VirginiaSony VAIO VPCF231S1E battery. Until that time, the University of Virginia had not admitted women as undergraduates, except in the education and nursing schools. In 1970 the Charlottesville campus became fully co-educational, and in 1972 Mary Washington became an independent state university.[17] Women were officially allowed to matriculate in 1970 after a court suit prompted the Board of Visitors to adopt full coeducation over a two year periodSony VAIO VPCF23Q1E battery. Coeducation has been marked as enormously successful and women student leaders abound. In 1970, the first class of 450 undergraduate women entered UVA (39 percent), while the number of men admitted remained constant. By 2003 women comprised 55 percent of the undergraduate student body. All-white until 1950Sony VAIO VPCF23M1E battery, with its first African-American undergraduate admitted only in 1961 and legislative and administrative resistance to integration continuing into the late 1960s, the University of Virginia is now exemplary in its diversity.

Pulitzer and Nobel Prize winner William Faulkner became a writer-in-residence at the University in 1957, keeping open office hours until his death in 1962Sony VAIO VPCF22S8E battery. He was also a lecturer at the school, and took the title of "Consultant on American Literature to the Alderman Library". Faulkner donated a large collection of his manuscripts and typesets (a request reaffirmed by his wife and daughter) to the library upon his death.

In 2004, resulting from a stark decrease in state support, the University of Virginia became the first public university in the United States to receive more of its funding from private sources than from the state with which it is associatedSony VAIO VPCF22S1E battery. Thanks to a Charter initiative that passed the Virginia General Assembly and was signed into law by then-Governor Mark Warner in 2005,[18] the University – and any other public universities in the state that choose to do so (currently Virginia Tech and William & Mary) – will have greater autonomy over its own affairs. Sony VAIO VPCF22M1E battery

President James Madison served as the second Rector of the University of Virginia until his death in 1836.

Also in 2004, at the 100th anniversary of Alderman becoming President, UVA announced the AccessUVa financial aid program. This program guarantees the University will meet 100% of a U.S. student's demonstrated need. It also provides low-income students Sony VAIO VPCF22L1E battery (up to 200% of the poverty line – as of 2009, about $44,000 for a family of four) with full grants to cover all of their educational needs, and it caps the level of need-based loans for all other students. This program was the first to guarantee full grants to students of low-income families at any public university in the United States.

Today, minority students are particularly successful at the University of VirginiaSony VAIO VPCF22J1E battery. According to the Fall 2005 issue of Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, UVA "has the highest black student graduation rate of the Public Ivies at 86 percent." The journal goes on to state that "by far the most impressive is the University of Virginia with its high black student graduation rate and its small racial difference in graduation ratesSony VAIO VPCF11S1E/B battery."

The University of Virginia, together with Harvard University and Princeton University, ended its Early Decision and Early Action programs in September 2006, stating that such policies limit poor and middle class students from competing on an equal footing with wealthier applicants. For its part, U.Va. noted that of 947 Early Decision acceptances for the Class of 2010, fewer than 20 of those students had applied for financial aid. Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E/H battery Non-binding early action was instated for the first time for the class of 2016 as “early action did not have the same impact on students of lower socioeconomic means because it is not binding.” [24]

On June 10, 2012, president Teresa A. Sullivan announced that she would resign from the presidency effective August 15, 2012, due to a "philosophical difference of opinion" with the Board of Visitors. Sony VAIO VPCF11D4E battery The resignation was requested by the Board of Visitors and elicited strong protests from faculty and students, including a faculty senate demand for the removal of the Board of Visitors leaders – Rector Helen Dragas and Vice Rector Mark J. Kington[26] – and demands from the student government for an explanation for Sullivan's ouster. In the face of this pressureSony VAIO VPCF11C5E battery, including a mandate from Virginia Governor Robert McDonnell that he would remove the entire board if they failed to resolve the issue at their June 26 meeting, the board unanimously voted to reinstate Sullivan as president.

The Grounds (Campus)

See also: The Lawn, The Rotunda (University of Virginia), and The Range

The Rotunda today

Throughout its history, the University of Virginia has won praise for its unique Jeffersonian architecture. In January 1895, less than a year before the Great Rotunda FireSony VAIO VPCF11C4E/B battery, The New York Times said that the design of the University of Virginia "was incomparably the most ambitious and monumental architectural project that had or has yet been conceived in this century".[30] In the United States Bicentennial issue of their AIA Journal, the American Institute of Architects called it "the proudest achievement of American architecture in the past 200 years".Sony VAIO PCG-31114M battery Today, the University of Virginia remains an architectural landmark and popular tourist destination.

Elevation of The Rotunda drawn by Thomas Jefferson in 1819

Jefferson's original architectural design revolves around the "Academical Village", and that name remains in use today to describe both the specific area of The Lawn, a grand, terraced green space surrounded by residential and academic buildingsSony VAIO PCG-31113M battery, the gardens, The Range, and the larger University surrounding it. The principal building of the design, The Rotunda (RotundaCam), stands at the north end of the Lawn, and is the most recognizable symbol of the University. It is half the height and width of the Pantheon in Rome, which was the primary inspiration for the buildingSony VAIO PCG-31112M battery. The Lawn and the Rotunda were the model for many similar designs of "centralized green areas" at universities across the country.

Most notably designed by inspiration of the Rotunda and Lawn are the expansive green spaces headed by Rotunda-like buildings built at Duke University in 1892, Johns Hopkins University in 1902, Rice University in 1910Sony VAIO PCG-31111M battery, Dallas Hall, the central building at Southern Methodist University (1912), Peabody College of Vanderbilt University in 1915, the Green at the University of Delaware in 1916, Killian Court at MIT in 1916 (which was coincidentally founded by William Barton Rogers, who immediately prior to founding MIT was a Natural Philosophy professor at the University of Virginia for 19 years) Sony VAIO PCG-41112M battery, the "Grand Auditorium" of Tsinghua University in Beijing built in 1917, the campus of Yale Divinity School (the Sterling Quad, 1932), and, indeed, the new grounds of the University's own Darden School of Business (designed by Robert A.M. Stern).

An example of the serpentine wall design

Flanking both sides of the Rotunda and extending down the length of the Lawn are ten Pavilions interspersed with student roomsSony VAIO PCG-41111M battery. Each has its own classical architectural style, as well as its own walled garden separated by Jeffersonian Serpentine walls. These walls are called "serpentine" because they run a sinusoidal course, one that lends strength to the wall and allows for the wall to be only one brick thick, one of many innovations by which Jefferson attempted to combine aesthetics with utilitySONY VAIO PCG-21214V battery. Frank E. Grizzard, Jr., a former scholar at the University, has written the definitive book on the original academic buildings at the University.

Jefferson financed the building of the University through personal loans from James Monroe and General John Hartwell Cocke, II. Monroe, Cocke, and Jefferson each put up 1/3 of the money to procure the land and build the initial buildings. Gen. Cocke was a General in the War of 1812SONY VAIO PCG-21213V battery, a local plantation owner, and friend of Thomas Jefferson. He owned Bremo Plantation, located southwest of Charlottesville near where Bremo Bluff, VA is today. These loans were never repaid by Jefferson.

The Great Rotunda Fire, 1895

On October 27, 1895, the Rotunda burned to a shell because of an electrical fire that started in the Rotunda Annex, a long multi-story structure built in 1853 to house additional classroomsSONY VAIO PCG-21212M battery. The electrical fire was no doubt assisted by the unfortunate help of overzealous faculty member William "Reddy" Echols, who attempted to save it by throwing roughly 100 pounds (45 kg) of dynamite into the main fire in the hopes that the blast would separate the burning Annex from Mr. Jefferson's own Rotunda. His last-ditch effort ultimately failed. (Perhaps ironically, one of the University's main honors student programs is named for him.) SONY VAIO PCG-21211M batteryUniversity officials swiftly approached celebrity architect Stanford White to rebuild the Rotunda. White took the charge further, disregarding Mr. Jefferson's design and redesigning the Rotunda interior – making it two floors instead of three, adding three buildings to the foot of the Lawn, and designing a President's House. He did omit rebuilding the Rotunda AnnexSONY VAIO PCG-51212M battery, the remnants of which were used as fill and to create part of the modern-day Rotunda's northern-facing plaza. The classes formerly occupying the Annex were now moved to the South Lawn in White's new buildings.

Although undoubtedly useful to the University in providing additional classroom space, and not unattractive, if pedestrian in comparison to the Jeffersonian PavilionsSONY VAIO PCG-51211M battery, the White buildings have the effect of closing off the sweeping perspective, as originally conceived by Jefferson, down the Lawn across open countryside toward the distant mountains. The White buildings at the foot of the Lawn effectively create a huge "quadrangle", albeit one far grander than any traditional college quadrangle at the University of Cambridge or University of OxfordSONY VAIO PCG-51112M battery.

In concert with the United States Bicentennial in 1976, Stanford White's changes to the Rotunda were removed and the building was returned to Jefferson's original design. Renovated according to original sketches and historical photographs, a three-story Rotunda opened on Jefferson's birthday, April 13, 1976SONY VAIO PCG-51111M battery.

Inside the Dome Room of the Rotunda

Though student enrollment has grown well beyond the original Lawn facilities, the University further distinguishes itself by extending the original Academical Village ideal with two exclusively First-Year (freshman) living areas: The Old Dorms (Bonnycastle, Dabney, Echols, Emmet, Hancock, Humphreys, Kent, Lefevre, Metcalf, Page), located on McCormick RoadSONY VAIO PCG-81212M battery, and The New Dorms (Cauthen, Courtenay, Dunglison, Dunnington, Fitzhugh, Kellogg, Balz-Doby, Watson-Webb, Woody), adjacent to Scott Stadium, both situated wholly on Grounds and considered integral to establishing peer discourse. The common bonding experience proves such a fixture to the University experience, students often identify themselves by individual "Old" or "New" dormitorySony VAIO PCG-81112M battery. First-Year living areas also include Hereford College, International Residential College, and Brown College at Monroe Hill.

In 2001, John Kluge donated 7,378 acres (29.86 km2) of additional lands to the University. Kluge desired the core of the land to be developed by the University, and the surrounding land to be sold to fund an endowment supporting the coreSONY VAIO PCG-71111M battery. A large part of the gift was soon sold to musician Dave Matthews, of the Dave Matthews Band, to be utilized in an organic farming project. It is unknown what the University will do with its "core" portion of the land.

The Virginia Department of Transportation maintains the roads through the University grounds as State Route 302.SONY VAIO PCG-7196M battery

The University, together with Jefferson's home at Monticello, is a World Heritage Site, one of only three modern sites so listed in the 50 states, the others being the Statue of Liberty and Independence Hall. It was the first collegiate campus worldwide to be awarded the designation.

Modern luminary gatherings and eventsSONY VAIO PCG-7195M battery

The Kennedy brothers appeared at U.Va. in 1958 while John was preparing to run for President. Ted and Robert F. Kennedy were both educated by the School of Law after attending Harvard College as undergrads.

On June 10, 1940, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt came to the University's Memorial Gymnasium to watch his son Franklin D. Roosevelt, Jr. graduate, and to give the commencement addressSONY VAIO PCG-7194M battery. Instead, "in this university founded by the first great American teacher of democracy" he made his impromptu "Stab in the Back" speech denouncing the act of Italy joining beside Nazi Germany to invade France on that day. (Graduation ceremonies are traditionally held on the Lawn, but rain had forced a move to "Mem Gym" for the Class of 1940.) SONY VAIO PCG-7192M battery

Nearly two decades later, in 1958, Senator John F. Kennedy visited and spoke in the same space with brothers Robert Kennedy and Ted Kennedy, the latter of whom was managing JFK's 1958 Senatorial re-election campaign from his dormitory at the University of Virginia.

In the early 1960s, civil rights leaders Martin Luther King, Jr., James Farmer, Aaron Henry, Bayard RustinSONY PCG-8113M battery, and others spoke at the University under the sponsorship of the Virginia Council on Human Relations, a student organization which presented speakers on Grounds who opposed the state's prevailing policy of racial segregation. John Lewis, Chairman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee spoke in 1965 while his head was still bandaged from a police beating he received leading the first march from SelmaSONY PCG-8112M battery.

Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speech at Old Cabell Hall in 1963 met with no resistance of any kind among the student body or administration. He called for a doubling of black registrations at universities in the South. African-American enrollment has since been increased tenfold at the University. Five years later in 1968, when King was shotSONY PCG-7134M battery, the Rotunda flag was flown at half-mast and then-President of the University Edgar Shannon, Jr. led a U.Va. memorial service in Cabell Hall. All classes at U.Va. were made optional during the service.

To commemorate the United States Bicentennial in 1976, Britain's Queen Elizabeth II strolled the Lawn and lunched in the Dome Room of the Rotunda, one of five American sites she publicly visitedSONY PCG-7131M battery.

The Dalai Lama, Archbishop Desmond Tutu, and several other Nobel Peace laureates stayed on Grounds for one week in 1998 while attending the University's historic Nobel Laureates Conference.

Student housing

The housing units that permit families are Copeley Hill Apartments and University Gardens. Copeley Hill is within the Albemarle County Public Schools. Residents of Copeley Hill are zoned to Greer Elementary School, Jouett Middle School, and Albemarle High SchoolSONY PCG-7122M battery . University Gardens is within the Charlottesville City Schools. University Gardens is zoned to Venable Elementary School, Walker Upper Elementary School, Buford Middle School, and Charlottesville High School.

Admissions

High preference among high achievers

Alderman Library includes one of the largest Tibetan collections in the world,[49] one of many special collections housed beneath its "stacks"SONY PCG-7121M battery .

Admission to the University of Virginia is competitive, with 90.2% of admitted applicants ranking in the top 10% of their high school classes.[50] A December 2005 National Bureau of Economic Research study of "high-achieving" undergraduate applicants found U.Va., at twentieth overall, to be the most preferred college located in the state of Virginia, and the second-most preferred in the American South, behind Duke UniversitySONY PCG-7113M battery. The study also revealed the University to be the most preferred public university in the entire United States. The stated purpose of the NBER study was to produce a ranking system that "would be difficult for a college to manipulate" by basing it on the actual demonstrated preferences of highly meritorious studentsSONY PCG-7112M battery.

Admissions statistics

The mark of one out of many secret societies active on Grounds at the University

For the Class of 2011, the University of Virginia received a record 18,013 applications.[52] The University saw increased interest from various groups of students, as applications rose by 13 percent for African American applicants, 20 percent for Asian Americans, 16 percent for Hispanic Americans, and 26 percent for international studentsSONY PCG-8Z3M battery . The University enrolled 70 more first-years than it did the previous year, as it continued to expand the scope of the School of Engineering and Applied Science.

Another record was established for the Class of 2012, with 18,776 applications for 3,170 spots. Applications rose for each of the four undergraduate schools that accept first-year students into their programs: Architecture, Arts & Sciences, Engineering, and NursingSONY PCG-8Z2M battery.

The Class of 2013 saw a tremendous increase to yet another new record high of 21,511 applications. 37% of applicants were accepted. The University continued to see interest from an increasingly diverse pool, as applications increased by another 22 percent for African American students, 56 percent for Hispanic students, 50 percent for international students, and 100 percent for Native AmericansSONY PCG-8Z1M battery.

The record-setting trend of the previous years was continued for the Class of 2014. Application numbers rose to 22,516, of which 32% were offered admission. Average SAT scores (math, critical reading, writing) rose 10 points from the previous year to 1,993 points. 30% of the Class of 2014, or 983 students, identified themselves as members of one or more minority groupSONY PCG-8Y3M battery.

The surge in applications continued for the Class of 2016, which was the first time UVA allowed high school students to apply early action. 11,753 students applied early action and 3,187 were offered admission.[56] Overall applications for both early action and regular decision grew by 17.64% to 28,200, an increase of 4,229 from the year before. SONY PCG-8Y2M battery The average SAT score for admitted students were 1,413 on a 1,600-point scale, and 2,119 on a 2,400-point scale. Plus, 98% of the admitted students were in the Top 10% of their high school class.

Academics

Madison Hall, located across from the Rotunda, has housed General Studies since 1960.

Degrees from the University of Virginia must be earned academically – there has never been an honorary degree offered.[58] The policy was instituted by Thomas JeffersonSONY PCG-7Z1M battery. When the Virginia Legislature's Committee of Schools and Colleges was reconsidering it in 1845, then-U.Va. professor and future Massachusetts Institute of Technology founder William Barton Rogers wrote, "[T]he legislators of the University have, we think, wisely made their highest academic honor – that of Master of Arts of the University of VirginiaSONY PCG-6W2M battery – the genuine test of diligent and successful literary training, and, disdaining such literary almsgiving, have firmly barred the door against the demands of spurious merit and noisy popularity." When MIT was chartered in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1861, Rogers carried the U.Va. policy through to the new instituteSONY PCG-5J5M battery.

The University of Virginia places #1 among state-supported universities in the United States in the production of Rhodes Scholars.[61] The University's 47th Rhodes Scholar was named in 2010.

Tuition is lower for both in-state and out-of-state students than at most other top universities. The student composition of the University is such that it was described in a feature article in the 2006 America's Best Colleges edition of U.S. News and World Report as beingSONY PCG-5K2M battery "chock full of academic stars who turn down private schools like Duke, Princeton, and Cornell for, they say, a better value."[62] Indeed, in 2008 the Center for College Affordability and Productivity named the University the top value among all national public colleges and universities;[63] and in 2009, the University was again named the "#1 Best Value" among public universities in the United States in a separate ranking by USA TODAY and the Princeton ReviewSONY PCG-5K1M battery .

Rankings and recognition

In 1985 and 2000 the University of Virginia was described as a "Public Ivy" by authors Richard Moll, Howard Greene, and Matthew Greene, in reference to a group of public universities offering an education comparable to Ivy League universities. In 2009 and 2010, U.S. News & World Report ranked the University of Virginia as the number two public university among "National Universities" in the United States andSONY PCG-5J4M battery  #130 among the world's best universities. In the 2011 edition, the undergraduate program at U.Va. ranked #2 out of roughly 200 public universities in the United States, tied with UCLA,[74] and #25 overall (including private schools), tied with UCLA, the University of Southern California, and Wake Forest University. SONY PCG-5J1M battery In the 26-year history of the rankings, U.Va. has never dropped out of the Top 25 listing and has always ranked either #1 or #2 among public schools. In every published edition of the report going back to 1983, the undergraduate program at the University has also retained its position as the highest ranked school, public or private, in its home state of VirginiaSONY PCG-5G2M battery. Forbes Magazine ranked the University #44 in its 2010 ranking of U.S. universities, the highest ranking for a public university on the list. Internationally, in 2010 U.Va. ranked 72nd in the world according to the Times Higher Education World University Rankings. The 2011 QS World University Rankings placed Virginia at 126th overall, four places up from 2011, and 96th in Arts & Humanities. Sony VAIO PCG-8131M battery GQ magazine recognized the University of Virginia noting classroom attendance of scholarship athletes as well as student traditions such as referring to the institution as "the University", ranking it 25th.

U.Va. has been recognized numerous times as having the highest African American graduation rate among public universities, and by a wide margin. Among the Top Four public universities that consistently rank highest in the ubiquitous U.S. News rankingsSony VAIO PCG-8152M battery, the University of Virginia has an 87% black student graduation rate, some 15 to 20 percentage points higher than the 70% at the University of California, Berkeley, 68% at the University of Michigan, and 73% at UCLA. In addition, due in part to California Proposition 209 and the Michigan Proposal 2, the University also has much higher African American populations than these peer universitiesSony VAIO PCG-31311M battery. The University of Virginia has an undergraduate student body that is 8.7% African American, while the University of California undergraduate student bodies at Berkeley and UCLA are just 3.2% and 3.7% African American, respectively. Only 5.2% of University of Michigan undergraduates are African American. Thus, relative to its closest peersSony VAIO PCG-31111M battery, the University of Virginia has twice to three times the proportion of African American undergraduate students, and they go on to graduate at significantly higher rates.

The University of Virginia has many highly regarded graduate programs. Programs ranked in their respective fields' top 10 by U.S. News & World Report include Law, Tax Law, International Law, architecture,[89] 18th through 20th Century British Literature, African-American LiteratureSony VAIO PCG-8112M battery, American Literature, American Literature Before 1865, Creative Writing,[90] U.S. Colonial History, Political Theory, Developmental Psychology, Adult/Medical-Surgical Nursing, Psychiatric/Mental Health Nursing, Management, Elementary Teacher Education, Secondary Teacher Education, and Special EducationSony VAIO PCG-7186M battery.

Edgar Allan Poe attended the University during its second session in 1826, taking classes in French and German while columns were still being constructed on the original Rotunda.[92]

The Jefferson Scholars Foundation offers four year full-tuition scholarships based on regional, international, and at-large competitionsSony VAIO PCG-7171M battery. Students are nominated by their high schools, interviewed, then invited to weekend-long series of tests of character, aptitude, and general suitability. Approximately 3% of those nominated successfully earn the scholarship.

Echols Scholars (College of Arts and Sciences) and Rodman Scholars (School of Engineering and Applied Sciences), which include 6-7% of undergraduate students, receive no financial benefits, but are entitled to special advisorsSony VAIO PCG-9Z1M battery, priority course registration, residence in designated dorms and fewer curricular constraints than other students.

The University offers 48 bachelor's degrees, 94 master's degrees, 55 doctoral degrees, 6 educational specialist degrees, and 2 first-professional degrees (Medicine and Law) to its studentsSony VAIO PCG-5S1M battery.

The University of Virginia Library System holds 5 million volumes. Its Electronic Text Center, established in 1992, has put 70,000 books online as well as 350,000 images that go with them. These e-texts are open to anyone and, as of 2002, were receiving 37,000 daily visits (compared to 6,000 daily visitors to the physical libraries). Sony VAIO PCG-5P1M battery

The University of Virginia is a member of a consortium engaged in the construction and operation of the Large Binocular Telescope in the Mount Graham International Observatory of the Pinaleno Mountains of southeastern Arizona. It is also a member of both the Astrophysical Research Consortium, which operates telescopes at Apache Point Observatory in New MexicoSony VAIO PCG-5N2M battery, and the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy which operates the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, the Gemini Observatory and the Space Telescope Science Institute. The University of Virginia hosts the headquarters of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, which operates the Green Bank Telescope in West Virginia and the Very Large Array radio telescope made famous in the Carl Sagan television documentary Cosmos and film ContactSony VAIO PCG-3C2M battery. The North American Atacama Large Millimeter Array Science Center is also located at the Charlottesville NRAO site.

UVA also hosts the Rare Book School, a non-profit organization that studies the history of books and printing. The University is one of 60 elected members of the Association of American Universities, and the only member representing the Commonwealth of VirginiaSony VAIO PCG-8161M battery. Along with the University of Connecticut, UVA is one of two American member universities of Universitas 21, an international consortium of research-intensive universities. On May 14, 2007, University President John Casteen was named Chairman of the Board of the organization.

Graduate placement

In 2003, The Wall Street Journal studied the undergraduate backgrounds of entering students at "elite" graduate programsSony VAIO PCG-8141M battery. The University of Virginia with 82 placements (2.6% of class) placed 33rd overall and third among all state-supported universities in elite graduate placement. No other state university on the Atlantic Seaboard had greater than one-third the number of placements as the University of Virginia (e.g., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill had 26 placements, Georgia Institute of Technology had 20) Sony VAIO PCG-3J1M battery.

Faculty

Kathryn C. Thornton, Associate Dean for Graduate Programs at the School of Engineering and Applied Science

The University of Virginia possesses a distinguished faculty, including a Nobel Laureate, a Pulitzer Prize winner and former U.S. poet laureate, 25 Guggenheim fellows, 26 Fulbright fellows, six National Endowment for the Humanities fellowsSony VAIO PCG-3H1M battery, two Presidential Young Investigator Award winners, three Sloan award winners, three Packard Foundation Award winners, and a winner of the 2005 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. The University's faculty were particularly instrumental in the evolution of Internet networking and connectivitySony VAIO PCG-3F1M battery. Physics professor James McCarthy was the lead academic liaison to the government in the establishment of SURANET, and the University has also participated in ARPANET, Abilene, Internet2, and Lambda Rail. On March 19, 1986 the University's domain name, Virginia.edu, became the first registration under the .edu top-level domain originating from the Commonwealth of VirginiaSony VAIO PCG-3C1M battery.

Faculty were originally housed in the Academical Village among the students, serving as both instructors and advisors, continuing on to include the McCormick Road Old Dorms, though this has been phased out in favor of undergraduate student resident advisors (RAs). Several of the faculty, however, continue the University tradition of living on GroundsSony VAIO PCG-9Z2L battery, either on the Lawn in the various Pavilions, or as fellows at one of three residential colleges (Brown College at Monroe Hill, Hereford College, and the International Residential College).

Commonwealth professor of English and former U.S. poet laureate Rita Dove receives the 2011 National Medal of Arts from President Barack ObamaSony VAIO PCG-9Z1L battery.

Some of the University of Virginia's faculty have become well-known national personalities during their time in Charlottesville. Larry Sabato has, according to The Wall Street Journal and The Washington Post, become the most cited professor in the country by national and regional news organizations, both on the Internet and in print. Julian Bond, a lecturer in the Corcoran Department of History since 1990Sony VAIO PCG-9131L battery, was the Chairman of the NAACP from 1998 to 2009. Professor Bond was also chosen to be the moderator of the 1998 Nobel Laureates Conferences, which included His Holiness the Dalai Lama, Archbishop Desmond Tutu, and other living winners of the Nobel Peace Prize. Media Studies and Law professor Siva Vaidhyanathan, an expert in copyright law and Internet issuesSony VAIO PCG-8161L battery, moved from New York University to the University of Virginia in 2007. Spanish professor David Gies received the Order of Isabella the Catholic from King Juan Carlos I of Spain in 2007. 1987 Pulitzer Prize for poetry recipient Rita Dove, professor in the English department since 1989, served as United States Poet Laureate from 1993 to 1995Sony VAIO PCG-8152L battery; in 1995, together with former U.S. president Jimmy Carter, she chaired an unprecedented gathering of Nobel laureates in literature in Atlanta. In 1996 Rita Dove received the National Humanities Medal from President Bill Clinton, and President Barack Obama honored her with the 2011 National Medal of Arts, making her only the fourth person, after novelists Eudora Welty, John Updike and Philip Roth, to receive both of the highest United States honors for lifetime achievement in the arts and humanitiesSony VAIO PCG-8141L battery.

Beginning in 2002, the Cavalier Daily student newspaper has posted faculty compensation online annually.

The University is also endowed with several affiliated centers including the Rare Book School, Center for Chemistry of the Universe, headquarters of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, University of Virginia Center for Politics, Weldon Cooper Center for Public ServiceSony VAIO PCG-8131L battery, Sorensen Institute for Political Leadership, and Miller Center of Public Affairs. The University of Virginia Art Museum is dedicated to creating an environment where both the University community and the general public can study and learn from directly experiencing works of artSony VAIO PCG-81312L battery.

Financial strength

Endowment

Managed by the University of Virginia Investment Management Company, and with $5.24 billion as of August 4, 2011[1] the University of Virginia has a per capita endowment of $255,000 per student; this is the largest per capita endowment of any public university in the United States. Considering public university endowments across the countrySony VAIO PCG-81214L battery, the University of Michigan ($122,000) is second to U.Va. among national publics in per capita endowment funds. Both are in the top 5 for recent growth rates nationwide.

When compared to other public universities in its home state, the per-student endowment at the University of Virginia is several times larger than its nearest competitors, The College of William & Mary ($80,000 per student) and Virginia Tech ($16,000) Sony VAIO PCG-81115L battery. It is also several times larger than the highest among flagship institutions of nearby states, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill ($55,000) and University of Maryland, College Park ($8,600).

Triple-A credit rating

The University of Virginia is one of only two public universities in the U.S. that has a Triple-A credit rating from all three major credit rating agencies, along with the University of Texas at AustinSony VAIO PCG-81114L battery. This allows it to borrow money and fund projects with the best possible conditions and terms.

Chris Long, #2 overall pick of the 2008 NFL Draft

The University of Virginia's athletics program competes in Division I (and the Football Bowl Subdivision for football), and has been a member of the Atlantic Coast Conference since 1953. The current Athletic Director at Virginia is Craig LittlepageSony VAIO PCG-81113L battery. The Virginia Cavaliers, also called "Wahoos" or "Hoos", have won 21 recognized national championships, 16 of them since 1980. Virginia has won multiple national titles in five different sports, including three men's sports (lacrosse, 7; soccer, 6; and boxing, 2) and two women's sports (lacrosse, 3; and cross country, 2). It also holds a national championship in track and fieldSony VAIO PCG-7142L battery. The men's college basketball team has won either the ACC regular season (1981, 1982, 1983, 1995, 2007) or ACC Tournament (1976) titles six times and has been to the Final Four twice, while the women's squad has been three times.

The football team won a share of the ACC Championship in both 1989 and 1995 (both before the conference had a championship game). After never reaching a bowl before 1984Sony VAIO PCG-7141L battery, the team has played in 17 bowl games since. The program is also notable for its recent high draft picks in the National Football League, including the #4 overall pick of 2006, D'Brickashaw Ferguson, and the #2 overall pick of 2008, Chris Long. The program is a party to three major rivalry games in the conference: the longest series in the ACC, the South's Oldest Rivalry with North CarolinaSony VAIO PCG-71111L battery; the Commonwealth Cup with Virginia Tech (part of the greater Virginia-Virginia Tech rivalry); and the Beltway Brawl with Maryland. While the Cavaliers have played UNC more times (114) than any other rival, all of these opponents – North Carolina, Virginia Tech, and Maryland – each list Virginia as their schools' longest-standing football rivalsSony VAIO PCG-61411L battery.

In 2006, the men's lacrosse team won its fourth NCAA Men's Lacrosse Championship, and sixth including the pre-tournament era. In the title game, Virginia defeated UMass 15-7 in front of a record crowd of 47,062 at Lincoln Financial Field in Philadelphia, the first lacrosse crowd to surpass the crowd size of the men's basketball Final Four and the largest crowd to witness any NCAA Championship during the year. The team finished the season a perfect 17–0Sony VAIO PCG-61112L battery, the best record in NCAA lacrosse history. Five years later the Cavaliers won the 2011 championship behind eventual Tewaaraton Trophy winner Steele Stanwick, bringing their tournament era championship total to 5, which puts them fourth amongst NCAA Division I teams and first amongst ACC TeamsSony VAIO PCG-61111L battery.

Claudio Reyna won 3 national championships at Virginia and was later captain of the USA team for the 2002 and 2006 World Cups. Dubbed "Captain America" by his British fans, he was named Player of the Century by Soccer America.

The new John Paul Jones Arena opened in the fall of 2006 for men's and women's basketball. It seats 14,593 fans, making it the third largest on-campus basketball facility in the ACC and the largest arena not located in a major metropolitan areaSony VAIO PCG-5T4L battery. The arena's inaugural year witnessed the Virginia men's basketball team's first place finish in the ACC.

Davenport Field, where the UVa baseball team plays, is also new, opening in 2002. In Brian O'Connor's first 4 seasons at the helm after being made the head baseball coach in July 2003, the team has averaged 44 wins per year and become a nationally-ranked powerSony VAIO PCG-5T3L battery. The team has led the ACC in team ERA for 4 consecutive years. In 2009, the baseball team won a place in the College World Series for the first time.

The soccer teams are also national powers, with men's soccer having won 6 national championships to date including its most recent in December 2009. The women's team is regularly ranked in the top 10 nationallySony VAIO PCG-5T2L battery. The teams play their home matches at Klöckner Stadium, the largest soccer stadium in the ACC. The men's team has been invited to the NCAA Tournament for 26 consecutive years and made the College Cup many times. Former Coach Bruce Arena has coached the US national team and currently coaches the Los Angeles Galaxy in Major League SoccerSony VAIO PCG-5S3L battery.

The Aquatics and Fitness Center (webcam) has been popular among University students for working out and swimming since its opening in Fall 1996, and it is also where the Swimming & Diving teams compete in home meets. The men's swimming and diving team won 8 consecutive ACC Championships between 1999 and 2006. The women's swimming team won its fourth consecutive ACC Championship on February 19, 2011Sony VAIO PCG-5S2L battery.

Also winning consecutive ACC titles has been the men's tennis team, which has won 4 consecutive regular season ACC Championships. Playing their home matches at the Sheridan Snyder Tennis Center, the men's tennis team had their best season ever in 2007, finishing with a 30-4 record and a #2 national ranking. Somdev Devvarman became the first ACC player in conference history to win the NCAA Singles Championshiphtml">Sony VAIO PCG-5S1L battery, which he won in two consecutive years. In addition, the tennis team beat Ohio State for the 2008 National Indoor Tennis Championships, 4-1.

Now that Virginia Tech has joined the ACC, the Virginia-Virginia Tech rivalry has been strengthened across a number of sports. This rivalry between the University and its larger neighbor to the southwest is followed statewide. UVA's athletic teams have bested the Hokies through the years in many of the major sportsSony VAIO PCG-5R2L battery. The two universities also faced off in the Commonwealth Challenge between 2005 and 2007, with the Cavaliers routing the Hokies in each Challenge: 14.5 to 7.5 in 2005-2006 and 14 to 8 in 2006-2007. The competition was then dropped out of sensitivity following the Virginia Tech massacreSony VAIO PCG-5R1L battery.

Fight song

The Cavalier Song is the official fight song of the University of Virginia. The song was a result of a contest held in 1923 by the University. The Cavalier Song, with lyrics by Lawrence Haywood Lee, Jr. and music by Fulton Lewis, Jr., was selected as the winner. Generally the second half of the song is played during sporting events. Until the 2008 football seasonSony VAIO PCG-5P4L battery, the entire fight song could be heard during the Cavalier Marching Band's entrance at home football games.

Student life

Student life at the University of Virginia is marked by a number of unique traditions. The campus of the University is referred to as "the Grounds." Freshmen, sophomores, juniors, and seniors are instead called first-, second-, third-Sony VAIO PCG-5P2L battery, and fourth-years in order to reflect Jefferson's belief that learning is a never-ending process, rather than one to be completed within four years. Also, students do not "graduate" from the University; instead, they "take" their degrees. Professors are traditionally addressed as "Mr." or "Ms." instead of "Doctor" (although medical doctors are the exception and are called "Doctor") in deference to Thomas Jefferson's desire to have an equality of ideas, discriminated by merit and unburdened by titleSony VAIO PCG-5N4L battery.

In 2005, the University was named "Hottest for Fitness" by Newsweek magazine, due in part to 94% of its students using one of the four indoor athletics facilities. Particularly popular is the Aquatics and Fitness Center, situated across the street from the Alderman Dorms.

The University of Virginia sent more workers to the Peace Corps in 2006 and 2008 than any other "medium-sized" university in the United StatesSony VAIO PCG-5N2L battery. Volunteerism at the University is centered in Madison House, which offers numerous opportunities to serve others. Among the numerous programs offered are tutoring, housing improvement, and an organization called Hoos Against Hunger, which gives leftover food from restaurants to the homeless of Charlottesville, rather than allowing it to be discardedSony VAIO PCG-51513L battery.

The University Amphitheater

A number of secret societies at the University, most notably the Seven Society, Z Society, and IMP Society, have operated for decades, leaving their painted marks on University buildings. Other significant secret societies include Eli Banana, T.I.L.K.A., the Purple Shadows (who commemorate Jefferson's birthday shortly after dawn on the Lawn each April 13) Sony VAIO PCG-51511L battery, The Sons of Liberty, and the 21 Society. Not all the secret societies keep their membership unknown, but even those who don't hide their identities generally keep most of their good works and activities far from the public eye.

The student life building on the University of Virginia is called Newcomb Hall. It is home to the Student Activities Center (SAC) and the Media Activities Center (MAC), where student groups can get leadership consulting and use computing and copying resourcesSony VAIO PCG-51412L battery, as well as several meeting rooms for student groups. Student Council, the student self-governing body, holds meetings Tuesdays at 6PM in the Newcomb South Meeting Room. Student Council, or "StudCo," also holds office hours and regular committee meetings in the newly renovated Newcomb Programs and Council (PAC) Room. The PAC also houses the University Programs Council and Class CouncilsSony VAIO PCG-51411L battery. Newcomb basement is home to both the office of the independent student newspaper The Declaration, The Cavalier Daily, and the Consortium of University Publications.

Boyd Tinsley's "jam sessions" would last for entire nights while he was a student at the University, attracting not only college musicians, but professional musicians as well; such as Jorma Kaukonen of Jefferson AirplaneSony VAIO PCG-51312L battery.

Student Societies have existed on grounds since the early 19th Century. The Jefferson Literary and Debating Society, founded in 1825, is the second oldest Greek-Lettered organization in the nation (the oldest being the Phi Beta Kappa honor fraternity). It continues to meet every Friday at 7:29 PM in Jefferson Hall. The Washington Literary Society and Debating Union also meets every week, and the two organizations often engage in a friendly rivalrySony VAIO PCG-51311L battery. In the days before social fraternities existed and intercollegiate athletics became popular, these Societies were often the focal point of social activity on grounds. Several fraternities were later founded at the University of Virginia including Pi Kappa Alpha (March 1, 1868) and Kappa Sigma (December 10, 1869). Many of these fraternities are located on Rugby RoadSony VAIO PCG-51211L battery.

A national publication's survey recently revealed that U.Va.'s students give their library system higher marks than students at any other school in the United States. The best-known library is Alderman Library for the humanities and social sciences, which contains 10 floors of stacks with many useful study nooks hidden among them. U.Va.'s renowned AlbertSony VAIO PCG-41112L battery and Shirley Small Special Collections Library features one of the premier collections of American Literature in the country as well as two copies of the original printing of the Declaration of Independence. It was in this library in 2006 that Robert Stilling, an English Graduate Student, discovered an unpublished Robert Frost poem from 1918. Clemons Library, next to Alderman, is a popular study spotSony VAIO PCG-3A4L battery. Hundreds of students can be found gathered on its various quiet floors on any given night. Clark Hall, home of the Science & Engineering Library, also scores high marks. One of the notable features of Clark Hall is the Mural Room, decorated by two three-panel murals by Allyn Cox, depicting the Moral Law and the Civil Law. The murals were finished and set in place in 1934Sony VAIO PCG-3A3L battery. As of 2006, the University and Google were working on the digitization of selected collections from the library system.

As at many universities, alcohol use is a part of the social life of many undergraduate students at the University. Concerns particularly arose about a past trend of Fourth-Year students consuming excessive alcohol during the day of the last home football game. This trend has been short lived, as the vast majority of undergraduates approach drinking in a responsible manner. Sony VAIO PCG-3A2L battery, President Casteen announced a $2.5 million donation from Anheuser-Busch to fund a new UVA-based Social Norms Institute in September 2006. A spokesman said: "the goal is to get students to emulate the positive behavior of the vast majority of students."

Student safety

While Charlottesville, which typically registers zero to three murders per year, is generally considered a safe city, students have been involved on both sides of homicides in recent historySony VAIO PCG-3A1L battery.

On March 22, 1986, physiology graduate student Pat Collins disappeared after using an ATM in downtown Charlottesville. He was never found.

On November 8, 2003, student Andrew Alston stabbed an Albemarle County firefighter to death during a fight on 14th Street. His manslaughter sentence resulted in a jail term of three years, prompting allegations of special treatment for studentsSony VAIO PCG-394L battery.

On May 3, 2010 in what has become known as the UVA Lacrosse Killing, 22-year-old UVA women's lacrosse player Yeardley Love was found unresponsive in her 14th Street apartment. Later that day, former romantic partner and then-current lacrosse player George Huguely was charged with her murderSony VAIO PCG-393L battery.

Student events

One of the largest events at the University of Virginia is called Springfest. It takes place every year in the spring, and features a large free concert and various inflatables and games.

Another popular event is Foxfield, a steeplechase and social gathering that takes place nearby in Albemarle County in April, and which is annually attended by thousands of students from the University of Virginia and neighboring collegesSony VAIO PCG-391L battery.

Honor system

HONOR PLEDGE

On my honor as a student, I have neither given nor received aid on this assignment/examination.

The University of Virginia has an honor code, formally known as the Honor System. The Honor System is entirely student-run and was founded by Virginia students in 1842 after John A. G. Davis, chairman of the faculty and professor of lawSony VAIO PCG-384L battery, who was attempting to resolve a conflict between students, was shot to death. Originally, the student was expected to hold himself to a gentleman's code of conduct. In the wake of the shooting, law professor Henry St. George Tucker, Sr. proposed a basic honor pledge as a gesture of confidence in the honor of Virginia students. In modern times however, the Honor System is composed of only three tenets: a student will not lie, cheat, or stealSony VAIO PCG-383L battery. It extends to all matters academic and personal, and the sole sanction for a confirmed Honor System violation is dismissal from the University. This is called the "single sanction".

A plaque regarding 150 years of the Honor System, placed on the Lawn in 1992

The system is not without its detractors – it has been criticized because the required severe penalty may prevent more moderate violations from being reported or acted upon. Sony VAIO PCG-382L battery As the system is entirely student run, a change to the Honor Committee constitution could have the effect of ending the single sanction system of punishment. Although students have voted on numerous proposals to weaken or eliminate the single sanction over the past few decades, none has ever succeeded. Support for the honor system has waned in recent years, and in the Spring of 2007 a referendum to limit single sanction failed to pass by the necessary 60% margin after earning only 49.5% of the votes castSony VAIO PCG-381L battery.

In theory, the Honor System allows the faculty to do such things as assign timed take-home examinations, and research or studies to be done in a particular way, with the assurance that the strictures placed on the student will be observed. However, no professor is required to extend such courtesiesSony VAIO PCG-7185L battery. The student is often required to sign all examinations or assignments with the following pledge: "On my honor as a student, I have neither given nor received aid on this assignment/examination." The Honor System allows the student to purchase books and supplies on-Grounds upon giving his or her word to pay, and some members of the Charlottesville community accept the word of the student regarding off-Grounds business transactionsSony VAIO PCG-7184L battery.

While cheating convictions are relatively rare (24 students were dismissed during the 2003 academic year, and 21 more were dismissed in 2004), one large cheating scandal occurred in 2001. Physics professor and Hereford College Dean Louis Bloomfield, based on a student's complaint, had suspicions that some of his students had copied portions of their term papers from fraternity archives in his Introduction to Physics classSony VAIO PCG-7183L battery. After devising a computer program to detect copied phrases of at least six sequential words, over 150 students were accused of plagiarizing or allowing others to plagiarize their work over the previous five semesters. Although over 100 of these students were eventually exonerated, 48 students either admitted guilt or were convicted, and were therefore dismissed from the UniversitySony VAIO PCG-7182L battery. Three of these students had already graduated, and their degrees were subsequently revoked.

Notable alumni

Main article: List of University of Virginia people

Alumni Hall

Among the individuals who have attended or graduated from the University of Virginia are author Edgar Allan Poe, medical researcher Walter Reed, painter Georgia O'Keeffe, polar explorer Richard Byrd, computer scientist John Backus, pioneer kidney transplant surgeon J. Hartwell Harrison, five NASA astronauts (Patrick G. Forrester, Karl Gordon HenizeSony VAIO PCG-7181L battery, Bill Nelson, Thomas Marshburn, and Kathryn C. Thornton), deep sea vent researcher Richard Lutz, NASA Launch Director Michael D. Leinbach, Pulitzer Prize-winning poets Karl Shapiro and Henry S. Taylor, short story writer Breece D'J Pancake, Director of the National Institutes of Health Francis Collins, Dale Elizabeth Wright, journalist Katie CouricSony VAIO PCG-7174L battery, journalist Margaret Brennan, author David Nolan, comedian Tina Fey, film director Tom Shadyac, author Barbara A. Perry, musician Boyd Tinsley,[139] Jens Söring, Elizabeth Haysom, billionaire commodity trader Paul Tudor Jones, noted philanthropist and founder of Landmark Communications Frank Batten, influential indie rock artist Stephen Malkmus, hip-hop artist and Peabody Award winner Asheru, and TV personality Vern YipSony VAIO PCG-7173L battery.

Notable athletes who have attended or graduated from the University of Virginia include 3-time NCAA Player of the Year for men's basketball Ralph Sampson, pro wrestler Virgil, 3-time Olympic Gold Medalist for women's basketball Dawn Staley, New England Patriots Long Snapper Danny Aiken, NFL Pro Bowlers Ronde Barber, Tiki Barber, and James FarriorSony VAIO PCG-7172L battery; NFL Super Bowl appearances Thomas Jones, Antwan Harris, and Terrence Wilkins, and professional baseball players Mark Reynolds and Ryan Zimmerman, Olympic medalist Wyatt Allen, Indian tennis player Somdev Devvarman, The University of Virginia has been home to several top soccer players throughout the years – several former U.Va. players have gone on to play for the United States men's national soccer teamSony VAIO PCG-7171L battery, including Tony Meola, Jeff Agoos, and former USA team captains Claudio Reyna[150] and John Harkes.

Numerous political leaders have also attended the University of Virginia, including the 28th President of the United States, Woodrow Wilson, the 18th Speaker of the United States House of Representatives Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter, U.S. Senator and 1968 Presidential candidate Robert F. Kennedy[135] (Law School), and his brother, Senator Ted KennedySony VAIO PCG-7162L battery.

Many of Virginia's governors studied at the University, including Colgate Darden, George Allen, Albertis S. Harrison, Jr., Frederick W. M. Holliday, Claude A. Swanson, Elbert Lee Trinkle, John S. Battle, James Lindsay Almond, Jr., John N. Dalton, Gerald L. Baliles, and Jim Gilmore.

The Université de Montréal (English translation: University of Montréal) (UdeM) is a public research university in MontrealSony VAIO PCG-7161L battery, Quebec, Canada. The francophone institution comprises thirteen faculties, more than sixty departments and two[4] affiliated schools: the École Polytechnique (School of Engineering) and HEC Montréal (School of Business). It offers more than 650 undergraduate programmes and graduate programmes, including 71 doctoral programmesSony VAIO PCG-7154L battery.

The university has Quebec's largest sponsored research income and the fourth largest in Canada, allocating close to $447.2 million to research conducted in more than 150 research centres as of 2007. It is also part of the U15 universities. More than 55,000 students are enrolled in undergraduate and graduate programs, making it the second largest university in Canada in terms of student enrolmentSony VAIO PCG-7153L battery.

Early years

As an institution, the university was first founded when the Université Laval in Quebec City founded a new branch in Montréal in 1878, which became known as the Université de Laval à Montréal.[7] This initially went against the wishes of Montréal's prelate, who advocated an independent university in his city.[8] Certain parts of the institution's educational facilitiesSony VAIO PCG-7152L battery, such as those of the Séminaire de Québec, had already been established in Montréal as early as 1876.[9] The Vatican granted the university some administrative autonomy in 1889, thus allowing it to choose its own professors and license its own diplomas. However, it was not until May 8, 1919 that a papal charter from Pope Benedict XV granted full autonomy to the university. Sony VAIO PCG-7151L batteryIt thus became an independent Catholic university and adopted Université de Montréal as its name. Laval composed by Wilfrid Beaudry was dedicated to the students at Laval University and the Université de Montréal. The music for piano was published in Québec by J. Beaudry, circa 1906.

At the time of its creation, less than a hundred students were admitted to the university's three faculties, which at that time were located in Old MontrealSony VAIO PCG-7148L battery. These were the faculty of theology (located at the Grand séminaire de Montréal), the faculty of law (hosted by the Society of Saint-Sulpice) and the faculty of medicine (at the Château Ramezay).

Graduate training based on German-inspired American models of specialized course work and completion of a research thesis was introduced and adoptedSony VPCW21M2E/WI battery. Most of Québec's secondary education establishments employed classic course methods of varying quality. This forced the university to open a preparatory school in 1887 to harmonize the education level of its students. Named the "Faculty of Arts", this school would remain in use until 1972 and was the predecessor of Québec's current CEGEP systemSony VPCW21C7E battery.

Founding by provincial charter

Although a branch of Laval University was planned as Montreal's first French-language university, it was not until February 14, 1920, that the first provincial charter founding the university was passed. The second provincial charter was passed in 1950. The policy of university education initiated in the 1960s (following the Quiet Revolution) Sony VPCW12S1E/WZ battery was a response to popular pressure and the belief that higher education was a key to social justice and economic productivity for individuals as well as society. The third provincial charter, which was passed in 1967, defined the Université de Montréal as a public institution, dedicated to higher learning and research, in the administration of which students and teachers would have the right to participateSony VPCW12S1E/W battery.

Campus relocation

Former campus on Rue Saint-Denis in 1903.

From 1876 to 1895, most university classes took place in the Grand séminaire de Montréal. From 1895 to 1942, it was housed in a building at the intersection of Saint-Denis and Sainte-Catherine streets in Montreal's eastern downtown Quartier Latin.

Unlike English language universities in Montréal, such as McGill University, the university suffered a lack of funding for two major reasonsSony VPCW12S1E/T battery: the relative poverty of the French Canadian population and the complications ensuing from its remote management from Quebec City. The downtown campus was hit by three different fires between 1919 and 1921, further complicating the university's already precarious finances and forcing it to spend much of its resources on repairing its own infrastructureSony VPCW12S1E/P battery.

By 1930, enough funds had been accumulated to start the construction of a new campus on the north west slope of Mount Royal, adopting new plans designed by Ernest Cormier. However, the financial crisis of the 1930s virtually suspended all ongoing construction.[17] Many speculated that the university would have to sell off its unfinished building projects in order to ensure its own survivalSony VPCW11S1E/W battery. Not before 1939 did the provincial government directly intervene by injecting public funds. Campus construction subsequently resumed and the mountain campus was officially inaugurated on June 3, 1943. The Cote-des-Neiges site includes property expropriated from a residential development along Decelles Avenue, known as Northmount HeightsSony VPCW11S1E/T battery. The university's former downtown facilities would later serve Montreal's second francophone university, the Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM).

Nuclear research

Main article: Montréal Laboratory

In 1943, the university assisted the Western Allies by providing laboratory accommodations on its campus. Scientists there worked to develop a nuclear reactor, notably by conducting various heavy water experiments. The research was part of the larger Manhattan Project, which aimed to develop the first atomic bombSony VPCW11S1E/P battery. Scientists here managed to produce the first atomic battery to work outside of the United States. One of the participating Québécois scientists, Pierre Demers, also discovered a series of radioactive elements issued from Neptunium.

Growth and expansion

Two distinct schools eventually became affiliated to the university. The first was the École Polytechnique, a school of engineering, which was founded in 1873 and became affiliated in 1887. The second was the École des Hautes Études CommercialesSony VPCYA1S1E/B battery, or HEC, which was founded in 1907 and became part of the university in 1915. The first francophone school of architecture in Canada opened in 1907 at the École Polytechnique.

Between 1920 and 1925, seven new faculties were added to the initial three: Philosophy, Literature, Sciences, Veterinary medicine, Dental surgery, Pharmacy and Social sciences. Notably, the Faculty of Social sciences was founded in 1920 by Édouard MontpetitSony VPCYA1V9E/B battery, the first laic to lead a faculty. He thereafter fulfilled the role of secretary-general until 1950.

In 1965, the appointment of the university's first secular rector, Roger Gaudry, paved the way for modernization. The university established the first adult education degree program offered by a French Canadian university in 1968. An important event that marked the university's history was the École Polytechnique massacreSony VPCY21S1E/SI battery. On December 6, 1989, a gunman armed with an automatic rifle entered the École Polytechnique building, killing 14 people, all of whom were women, before taking his own life.

Since 2002, the university has embarked on its largest construction projects since the late 1960s, with five new modern buildings planned for advanced research in pharmacology, engineering, aerospace, cancer studies and biotechnologySony VPCY21S1E/L battery.

Map of the university's Mont-Royal campus.

The university's main campus is located on the northern slope of Mont-Royal in the Outremont and Côte-des-Neiges boroughs. Its landmark Pavilion Roger-Gaudry, designed by noted architect Ernest Cormier, and named for former rector Roger Gaudry, can be seen from around the campus and is known for its imposing tower. It is built mainly in the Art Deco style, with some elements of International styleSony VPCY21S1E/G battery.

The campus is served by the Côte-des-Neiges, Université-de-Montreal, and Édouard-Montpetit metro stations.

Apart from its main Mont-Royal campus, the university also maintains four regional facilities in Lanaudière, Laval, Longueuil, Québec and Mauricie.[24] The campus in Laval, just north of Montréal, was opened in 2006. It is Laval's first university campusSony VPCY11S1E/S battery, and is located in the area near the Montmorency metro station. In October 2009, the university announced an expansion to its Laval satellite campus with the commissioning of its six-storey Cité du Savoir complex.[25] In order to solve the problem of lack of space on its main campus, the university is also planning to open a new campus in OutremontSony VPCY11S1E battery.

The Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CHUM) and the Centre hospitalier universitaire Sainte-Justine are the two teaching hospital networks of the Université de Montréal's Faculty of Medicine, although the latter is also affiliated with other medical institutions such as the Institut universitaire de gériatrie de Montréal, Montreal Heart Institute, Hôpital Sacré-Coeur and Hôpital Maisonneuve-RosemontSony VPCZ11X9E/B battery.

Academics

Université de Montréal is a publicly funded research university, and a member of the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada. Undergraduate students make the majority of the university community, accounting for 74 percent of the university student body, followed by mater students at 19 percent, and doctoral students at 7 percent.Sony VPCZ11Z9E/B battery The full-time undergraduate programs comprise the majority of the school's enrolment, made up of 42,684 undergraduate students. From the 1 June 2010 to the 31 May 2011, the university conferred 7,012 bachelor degrees, 461 doctoral degrees, and 3,893 master degrees.

Depending on a student's citizenship, they may be eligible for financial assistance from the Student Financial Assistance programSony VPCZ12M9E/B battery, administered by the provincial Ministry of Education, Recreation and Sports, and/or the Canada Student Loans and Grants through the federal and provincial governments. The university's Office of Financial Aid acts as intermediaries between the students and the Quebec government for all matters relating to financial assistance programs. The financial aid provided may come in the form of loans, grants, bursaries, scholarships fellowships and work programsSony VPCZ12X9E/X battery.

Reputation

Université de Montréal has consistently been ranked one of Canada's top universities. The 2011-2012 Times Higher Education World University Rankings placed the university 104th in the world, and sixth in Canada. The 2011 QS World University Rankings ranked the university 137th in the world, and fifth in Canada. The 2012 Academic Ranking of World Universities Sony VPCZ12Z9E/X battery (ARWU) rankings, the university ranked 101-150th in the world. In terms of national rankings, Maclean's ranked the university 12th in their 2011 Medical Doctoral university rankings. The university was ranked in spite of having opted out—along with several other universities in Canada—of participating in Maclean's graduate survey since 2006Sony VPCZ138GA battery.

The university was ranked 76-100th in the 2012 ARWU rankings within the field of social sciences, and 5-8th in the country. The 2011-2012 Times Higher Education rankings for clinical, pre-clinical, and health universities, the university's health science programs ranked 47th in the world and fourth in Canada. The Université de Montréal Faculty of Law was ranked secondSony VPCZ13M9E/B battery, out of the six civil law schools in Canada in Maclean's 2011 law school rankings.

HEC Montréal, an affiliated business school with the university has also received significant recognition. The business school had ranked 12th on the 2011 Forbes ranking of the best international one-year MBA programs, placing higher than any Canadian business school. The 2011 Financial Times ranking for master's Sony VPCZ13M9E/X batteryin management programs placed HEC Montréal 39th in the world, and first in the country.[42] In CNN Expansion's 2011 ranking of the world's best MBA program, HEC Montréal was ranked 62nd in the world, and second nationally. In The Economist's 2011 ranking of the best MBA program in North America, HEC Montréal was 56th on the continent, and fifth nationally. Sony VPCZ13V9E battery The 2010 Bloomberg Businessweek biannual business school rankings had also ranked HEC Montréal as the 15th best business school outside the United States, and the sixth best business school in Canada. The QS ranking of North American MBA programs placed HEC Montréal 30th in North America, and 7th in Canada. Sony VPCZ13V9E/X battery In a employability survey published by the New York Times in October 2011, when CEOs and chairmans were asked to select the top universities which they recruited from, HEC Montréal placed 46th in the world, and second in Canada.

Research

In Research Infosource's 2011 ranking of Canada's 50 top research universities, the university was ranked third, with a sponsored research income of $524,133 millionSony VPCZ13Z9E/X battery, the third largest in the country. The university has an average of $278,200 per faculty member, making it the fifth most research-intensive full-service university. In terms of research performance, High Impact Universities 2010 ranked the university 108th out of 500 universities, and sixth in the country.[49] In the field of medicine, dentistry, pharmacology, and health sciencesSony VPCZ21M9E battery, the 2010 High Impact Universities ranking placed Université de Montréal in 68th in the world, and fifth nationally. In the field of life, agricultural and biological sciences, the 2010 High Impact Universities ranking placed the university 99th in the world, and fourth in Canada.

The Higher Education Evaluation and Accreditation Council of Taiwan (HEEACT), an organization which also evaluates universities based on their scientific paper's performances, ranked the university 101st in the world, and sixth in CanadaSony VPCZ21Q9E battery. In HEEACT's 2011 rankings which focused on life sciences, the university was ranked 81st in the world, and fourth in Canada. In HEEACT's rankings focusing on clinical medicines, the university was also ranked 81st in the world, and sixth in the country. The HEEACT rankings focusing on social sciences placed the university 83rd in the world and seventh in CanadaSony VPCZ21V9E battery.

Student life

Montréal Carabin's women's ice hockey team, which was first formed in 2009.[56]

The two main student unions on administrative and policy issues is the Fédération des associations étudiantes du campus de l'Université de Montréal (FAÉCUM), which represent the interests of all full-time undergraduate and graduate students, and the Association Étudiante de la Maîtrise et du Doctorat de HEC Montréal (AEMD) Sony VPCEH3T9E battery, which represents the interests of those enrolled in HEC Montréal. FAÉCUM traces its linage back to 1989, when the Fédération étudiante universitaire du Québec (FEUQ) was founded, and is currently the largest student organization in Quebec. The organizations and clubs accredited at the university cover a wide range of interests including academics, culture, religion, social issuesSony VPCEH3N6E battery, and recreation. FAÉCUM is currently associated with 82 student organizations and clubs. Three fraternities and sororities are recognized by the university's student union, Sigma Thêta Pi, Nu Delta Mu and Zeta Zeta Lambda.

Media

The university's student population operates a number of media outlets throughout the campus environment. The Quartier Libre, is university's main student newspaper.[62] CISM-FM is an independently owned radio stationSony VPCEH3N1E battery, owned by the students of the Université de Montréal, and operated by the student union. The radio started in 1970, and received a permit from the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) on the 10 July 1990 to transmit on an FM band. On the 14 March 1991, CISM's broadcasting antenna was boosted to 10 000 wattsSony VPCEH3D0E battery. With a broadcasting radius of 70 km, CISM is now the world's largest French-language university radio station.[64] The CFTU-DT television station also receives its technical and administrative support from the student body.[65]

Main article: Montreal Carabins

Sport teams at Université de Montréal are known as the Carabins. The Carabins sports teams participate in the Canadian Interuniversity Sport's (CIS) Réseau du sport étudiant du Québec (RSEQ) conference for most varsity sportsSony VPCEH3B1E battery. Varsity teams include badminton, Canadian football, cheerleading, golf, hockey, swimming, alpine skiing, soccer, tennis and volleyball. The athletics program at the university dates back to 1922. The university's athletic facilities is open to both their varsity teams as well as to their students. The major sports facility at the university is the Centre d'éducation physique Sony VPCEH2Z1E batteryet des sports de l'Université de Montréal (CEPSUM), which is also home to all of the Carabin's varsity teams. The building itself was built in 1976, in preparation for the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montréal. The outdoor stadium of CEPSUM, which hosts the university's football team, can seat around 5,100 peopleSony VPCEH2S9E battery.

Notable alumni and faculty

Pierre Trudeau, former Prime Minister of Canada also graduated from Université de Montréal

Main article: List of Université de Montréal people

The university has an extensive alumni network, with more than 300,000 members registered with the university's alumni network. Throughout the university's history, faculty, alumni, and former students have played prominent roles in a number of fieldsSony VPCEH2Q1E battery. Many former students have gained local and national prominence for serving in government. Michaëlle Jean served as Governor General of Canada, and Pierre Trudeau served as the 15th Prime Minister of Canada. Ten Premiers of Quebec have also graduated from the university, including Jean-Jacques Bertrand, Robert Bourassa, Maurice DuplessisSony VPCEH2P0E battery, Lomer Gouin, Daniel Johnson, Jr., Daniel Johnson Sr., Pierre-Marc Johnson, Bernard Landry, Jacques Parizeau, and Paul Sauvé.

A number of students have also gained prominence for their research and work in a number of scientific fields. Roger Guillemin, a graduate of the university, would later be awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work with neurohormones. Sony VPCEH2N1E batteryAlumnus Ishfaq Ahmad, would also gain prominence for his work with Pakistan's nuclear weapon's program, and their nuclear power program.[81] Jocelyn Faubert, known for his work in the fields of visual perception, is currently a faculty member of the university. Gilles Brassard, best known for his fundamental work in quantum cryptography, quantum teleportation, quantum entanglementdistillationSony VPCEH2M9E battery, quantum pseudo-telepathy, and the classical simulation of quantum entanglement.

Several prominent business leaders have also graduated from the university. Graduates include Philippe de Gaspé Beaubien, founder and CEO of Telemedia, Louis R. Chênevert, chairman and CEO of the United Technologies Corporation, and Pierre Karl Péladeau, president and CEO of QuebecorSony VPCEH2M1E battery.

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