The University of Nottingham (informally known as Nottingham University or Nottingham) is a public research university based in Nottingham, England. Its main site, University Park Campus, is situated on the outskirts of the City of Nottingham. Tracing its roots to 1881, Nottingham is one of the oldest and largest institutions of British higher educationSony PCG-71313M battery.
Nottingham is organised into five faculties and offers about 50 subjects. In 2010/11, Nottingham had 30,370 full-time students and 2,735 full-time staff based on its UK campuses. In the same year, Nottingham had a total income of ₤511 million. The university is associated with three Nobel Prize winners and its graduates include D.H. Lawrence and Sir Andrew Witty. Its alumni have won 11 Olympic medals in the last 20 yearsSony PCG-71212M battery.
The university has been included as part of an unofficial British "Ivy League" of elite universities by both The Daily Telegraph and The Sunday Times. The university is located in seven sites; five in Nottingham, one in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and one in Ningbo, China. It is a member of the Russell Group of research-led British universities and the Universitas 21. In post-nominal letters, the university's name is abbreviated as NottSony PCG-71311M battery.
The University of Nottingham traces its origins to the founding of an adult education school in 1798, and the University Extension Lectures inaugurated by the University of Cambridge in 1873 – the first of their kind in the country. However, the foundation of the university is generally regarded as being the establishment of University College, NottinghamSony PCG-71213M battery, in 1881 as a constituent college of the University of London. In 1875, an anonymous donor provided £10,000 to establish the work of the Adult Education School and Cambridge Extension Lectures on a permanent basis, and the Corporation of Nottingham agreed to erect and maintain a building for this purpose and to provide funds to supply the instruction. Sony PCG-61211M batteryThe foundation stone of the college was duly laid in 1877 by former UK Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone, and the college's distinctive neo-gothic building on Shakespeare Street was formally opened in 1881 by Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany. In 1881, there were four professors – of Literature, Physics, Chemistry and Natural Science. New departments and chairs quickly followed: Engineering in 1884Sony VAIO VPCF24Q1E battery, Classics combined with Philosophy in 1893, French in 1897 and Education in 1905; in 1905 the combined Department of Physics and Mathematics became two separate entities; in 1911 Departments of English and Mining were created, in 1912, Economics, and Geology combined with Geography; History in 1914, Adult Education in 1923 and Pharmacy in 1925Sony VAIO VPCF13M1E/H battery.
The university underwent significant expansion in the 1920s when it moved from the centre of Nottingham to a large campus on the city's outskirts. The new campus, called University Park, was completed in 1928, and financed by an endowment fund, public contributions, and the generosity of Sir Jesse Boot (later Lord Trent) who presented 35 acres (141,640 m2) to the City of Nottingham in 1921Sony VAIO VPCF12Z1E/BI battery. Boot and his fellow benefactors sought to establish an "elite seat of learning" committed to widening participation, and hoped that the move would solve the problems facing University College Nottingham, in its restricted building on Shakespeare Street. Boot stipulated that whilst part of the Highfields site, lying southwest of the city, should be devoted to the University CollegeSony VAIO VPCF12S1E/B battery, the rest should provide a place of recreation for the residents of the city, and by the end of the decade the landscaping of the lake and public park adjoining University Boulevard was completed. The original University College building on Shakespeare Street in central Nottingham (known as the Arkwright Building), now forms part of Nottingham Trent University's 'City campus'. Sony VAIO VPCF13Z8E/BI battery
University College Nottingham was initially accommodated within the Trent Building, an imposing white limestone structure with a distinctive clock tower designed by Morley Horder and formally opened by King George V on 10 July 1928. During this period of development, Nottingham attracted high-profile lecturers including Albert Einstein, H. G. Wells and Mahatma Gandhi, Sony VAIO VPCF13Z8E battery and the blackboard used by Professor Einstein during his time at Nottingham is still on display in the Physics department. Apart from its physical transfer to surroundings that could not be more different from its original home,[tone] the College made few developments between the wars. The Department of Slavonic Languages (later Slavonic Studies) was established in 1933Sony VAIO VPCF13M1E/B battery, the teaching of Russian having been introduced in 1916. In 1933–34, the Departments of Electrical Engineering, Zoology and Geography, which had been combined with other subjects, were made independent; and in 1938 a supplemental Charter provided for a much wider representation on the Governing Body. However, further advances were delayed by the outbreak of war in 1939. Sony VAIO VPCF1318E/H battery
Students at University College Nottingham received their degrees from the University of London, but this changed when Nottingham was granted its Royal Charter, bestowing upon it the title of "university" and the power to confer degrees in its own name as The University of Nottingham. In the 1940s, the Midlands Agricultural and Dairy College at Sutton Bonington merged with the university as the School of AgricultureSony VAIO VPCF13J0E/H battery, and in 1956 the Portland Building was completed to complement the Trent Building. In 1970, the university established the UK's first new medical school of the 20th century. In 1999, a new Jubilee Campus was opened on the former site of the Raleigh Bicycle Company, one mile (1.6 km) away from the University Park Campus. Nottingham then began to expand overseas, opening campuses in Malaysia and in China in 1999 and 2004 respectivelySony VAIO VPCF13E8E battery. In 2005, the King's Meadow Campus opened near the University Park Campus.
The logo used until 2001
Nottingham has used several logos throughout its history. Nottingham's coat of arms with the cross, book, and towers was used initially and is still used in books owned by the university's various libraries. Later Nottingham adopted a simpler logo, in which a stylised version of Nottingham Castle was surrounded by the text "The University of Nottingham"Sony VAIO VPCF13E4E battery. In 2001 Nottingham undertook a major rebranding exercise, including replacing this logo with the current one, with the text to the right of the stylised castle.
The chief officer is the Chancellor, elected by the University Court on the recommendation of the University Council. The chief academic and administrative officer is the vice-chancellor, who is assisted by six pro-vice chancellors. The governing body is the University Council, which has 35 members, mostly non-academicSony VAIO VPCF12M1E/H battery. The academic authority is the Senate, consisting of senior academics and elected staff and student representatives. The largest forum is the University Court, presided over by the chancellor. The current Chancellor and President is Professor Fujia Yang; its current Vice-Chancellor is Professor David Greenaway who replaced Sir Colin Campbell in 2008, who as the UK's highest paid Vice-Chancellor, oversaw the university's expansion plansSony VAIO VPCF12F4E/H battery, leading the Times to call him "the Sir Alex Ferguson of Vice-Chancellors".
Trent Building and Highfields Lake, University Park Campus
University Park Campus, to the west of Nottingham city centre, is the 330-acre (1.3 km2) historic home of The University of Nottingham. Set around its lake and clock-tower and with extensive parkland greenery, the campus is widely regarded as the most attractive in the country. University Park has won numerous awards for its architecture and landscapingSony VAIO VPCF12E1E/H battery, and has been named the greenest campus in the country thanks to a new Green Flag Award. The 2009 award is the seventh in a row for University Park – more than have been awarded to a UK university over successive years. Nottingham has several additional campuses, all of which share similar design features to the original, being "garden campuses"Sony VAIO VPCF11Z1E/BI battery, consisting of grade 1/2 period houses or halls situated around a lake with extensive botanic gardens (with the exception of Sutton Bonington campus, which predates the creation of University Park Campus).
Trent building courtyard during a rainy day.
The Portland Building, South Entrance
Jubilee Campus, designed by Sir Michael Hopkins, was opened by Queen Elizabeth II in 1999 and is 1 mile (1.6 km) from University Park. The campus's facilities house the Schools of Education and Computer Science, and The Nottingham University Business SchoolSony VAIO VPCF24M1E battery. The site is also the home of The National College for School Leadership. Additional investment of £9.2 million in the Jubilee Campus was completed in 2004 with a second building for Nottingham University Business School opened by Lord Sainsbury. The environmentally-friendly nature of the campus and its buildings have been a factor in the awards that it has received, including the Millennium Marque Award for Environmental ExcellenceSony VAIO VPCF23S1E battery, the British Construction Industry Building Project of the Year, the RIBA Journal Sustainability Award and the Civic Trust Award for Sustainability.
The Jubilee Campus won the commendation of the Energy Globe Award judges in 2005. The campus is distinct for its modern and unique architecture, culminating in Aspire, a 60 metre tall artistic structure is the tallest freestanding structure in the UK. The University plans to invest £200 million in a new scheme designed by Ken ShuttleworthSony VAIO VPCF231S1E battery, designer of the iconic and award-winning London 'Gherkin' and founder of Make Architects, and at the heart of the new scheme will be the Nottingham 'Volcano'. However, the architecture of the Jubilee Campus is not admired by all, and the newly completed Amenities buildings have been labelled the second worst new architectural design in Britain in a recent surveySony VAIO VPCF23Q1E battery.
The City Hospital Campus is near Bestwood and houses staff and postgraduate students specialising in respiratory medicine, stroke medicine, oncology, physiotherapy, and public health. The campus will be expanded in 2009 to house a new institute of public health and a specialist centre for tobacco researchSony VAIO VPCF23M1E battery.
Sutton Bonington Campus houses Nottingham's School of Biosciences and the new School of Veterinary Medicine and Science and is about 12 miles (19.3 km) } to the south of the City of Nottingham, between the M1 motorway, Ratcliffe power station, and the Midland Main Line railway. The campus is centered around the historic manor of Sutton Bonington and, Sony VAIO VPCF22S8E battery like University Park campus, retains many of its own private botanic gardens and lakes open only to its students. The University Farm including the Dairy Centre is at the Sutton Bonington Campus.
King's Meadow Campus was established in 2005 on the former Central Independent Television Studios site on Lenton Lane. It mainly accommodates administrative functions but also the Department of Manuscripts and Special CollectionsSony VAIO VPCF22S1E battery. A functioning television studio remains at the site that continues to be rented to the film and television industry.
University of Nottingham Malaysia campus
Main articles: University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus and University of Nottingham Ningbo, China
Nottingham has introduced overseas campuses as part of a growth strategy. The first stage in this strategy was the establishment in 1999 of a campus in Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia, a short distance from Kuala Lumpur. Sony VAIO VPCF22M1E battery This was followed in 2004 by a campus in Ningbo, Zhejiang province, China. The Malaysia campus was the first campus of a British university in Malaysia and one of the first anywhere in the world, earning the Queen's Award for Enterprise 2001 and the Queen's Award for Industry (International Trade) 2006. In September 2005, the Malaysia campus moved to a purpose-built campus at SemenyihSony VAIO VPCF22L1E battery, 18 miles (29.0 km) south of Kuala Lumpur city centre. Occupying a scenic position overlooking green hills on a 101-acre (0.41 km2) site, the campus was designed to mirror the attributes of University Park in the UK. The £40 million Ningbo campus was completed in 2005 and was officially opened by John Prescott, the UK's Deputy Prime Minister, in February 2006. Like the Malaysia CampusSony VAIO VPCF22J1E battery, Ningbo Campus builds on the University Park in the UK and includes a lake and its own version of Nottingham's famous Trent Building. In November 2010, the university announced that it has been invited by Chinese officials to establish a new campus in Shanghai to complement its operations in Ningbo, and that discussions on this new campus are ongoingSony VAIO VPCF11S1E/B battery.
Nottingham is a research-led institution and the alumni of the university have been awarded two Nobel Prizes this decade. Much of the work on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was carried out at Nottingham, work for which Professor Sir Peter Mansfield received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2003Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E/H battery. Nottingham remains a strong centre for research into MRI. Nottingham has contributed to a number of other significant scientific advances. Professor Frederick Kipping, Professor of Chemistry (1897–1936), made the discovery of silicone polymers at Nottingham. Major developments in the in vitro culture of plants and micropropogation techniques were made by plant scientists at Nottingham, along with the first production of transgenic tomatoes by Professor Don Grierson in the 1980sSony VAIO VPCF11D4E battery. Other innovations at the university include cochlear implants for deaf children and the brace-for-impact position used in aircraft. Other facilities at Nottingham include a 12 teraflop supercomputer.
Nottingham had 26 departments rated 5 or 5* (internationally excellent) in the UK Funding Councils' 2001 Research Assessment Exercise, and the 2008 Research Assessment Exercise found 60 per cent of Nottingham's research to be "world-leading" or "internationally excellent".Sony VAIO VPCF11C5E battery,ranking 7th in the UK in terms of 'Research Power'. Nottingham is also in the top four universities in Britain for the amount of research income received, being awarded over £150 million in research contracts for the 2009–2010 academic year. Indeed, League tables compiled by the Times Higher Education based on UK Research Councils grants have revealed that The University of Nottingham came joint second in Britain in 2009 for its success rate for grant applicationsSony VAIO VPCF11C4E/B battery, ahead of Oxford, University College London (UCL) and Imperial College.
The university is home to the Leverhume Centre for Research on Globalisation and Economic Policy (GEP). GEP was established in the Nottingham School of Economics in 2001, and conducts research activities structured on the theme of globalisation.
Rankings and reputation
University of Nottingham's Trent Building
The university was named Times Higher Education "University of the Year" in 2006, Times Higher Education "Entrepreneurial University of the Year" in 2008Sony VAIO PCG-31114V battery, and finished runner up in the 2010 Sunday Times "University of the Year". Nottingham has consistently ranked amongst Britain's top 10 leading universities in the various national and international rankings published over the last 15 years, and is described by the Fulbright Commission as "one of the UK's oldest, largest, and most prestigious universities".Sony VAIO PCG-31113V battery Indeed, Nottingham finished 8th in The Sunday Times 10 year average ranking of British universities based on consistent league table performance over the past decade, and is ranked in the UK's Top 10 in the Shanghai Jiao Tong (SJTU) 2010 World University Rankings. Internationally, Nottingham University was ranked 74th in the 2011 QS World University Rankings, Sony VAIO PCG-31112V battery.
Nottingham is also a member of the 'Sutton Trust 13', a collection of the 13 highest ranking British universities compiled by the educational charity The Sutton Trust, which aims to challenge educational inequality at top universities. Nottingham traditionally has one of the highest application to place ratios of any university in the United Kingdom, leading The Sunday Times to describe a place there as "among the most sought-after in higher education" Sony VAIO PCG-31113M batteryand "with almost 10 applicants per place, Nottingham is one of the hardest universities to get into in the UK". Therefore entry into Nottingham is extremely competitive, and as a result new undergraduates average a UCAS tariff score well north of 400, with "more than 80% of its students having at least three A grades at A-Level" according to The Times. Sony VAIO PCG-31112M batteryThis had put its admissions selectivity consistently in the top 10 in Britain and has lead the Times to describe Nottingham students as "the brightest in their peer group". Moreover, according to the last statistical analysis by the Times Higher Education Supplement, Nottingham students averaged the 6th highest A-level grades in the United Kingdom throughout the 1990s and early 2000sSony VAIO PCG-31111M battery.
The University has experienced a climb up the rankings of Great Britain's higher education system over the past two decades according to the Good University Guide, going in less than 20 years "from being a solid civic university to a prime alternative to Oxbridge", as well as "The nearest thing Britain has to a truly global university".Sony VAIO PCG-41112M battery The University has mirrored this expansion abroad with a rise in international rankings, establishing itself amongst the top universities worldwide, leading The Sunday Times to state that Nottingham now has "one of the strongest international profiles of any UK university". Indeed, due to Nottingham's international profile and entrepreneurial culture, economist Andrew Oswald described Nottingham as one of only 5 British universities capable of privatisation and competing with the major universities in the US. Sony VAIO PCG-41111M battery Nottingham is also ranked as the 8th best international university in the global "Best Places to Work in Academia 2010" survey. The University is also "one of the most employer friendly universities in the world" according to Virgin Alternative Guide to British Universities, ranking amongst the top 15 most targeted universities in the world by leading employers in the THES world rankings, SONY VAIO PCG-21212M battery and in the 2008 Times High Fliers survey being named in the top 3 most targeted British universities by leading graduate recruiters. Nottingham is also ranked 31st in the world, and 7th in Britain, according to a 2011 New York Times survey of leading CEO's who were asked to assess which universities they most liked to recruit from. In addition, according to the 2011 edition of the International Professional Classification of Higher Education InstitutionsSONY VAIO PCG-21211M battery, which assesses the number of alumni listed among CEOs in the 500 largest worldwide companies, Nottingham is ranked 2nd in the UK (after Oxford University) and 13th in the world (tied with Stanford University).
Enrollment and student life
The Downs, University Park Campus
Millennium Garden, University Park, Nottingham
According to the latest statistics compiled by the Higher Education Statistics Agency, Nottingham is the UK's fifth largest university based on total student enrolment, with over 30,000 students from more than 130 countries.SONY VAIO PCG-51212M battery In 2010, the university received over 49,000 applications for 5,500 places, placing it in the top 3 most popular universities in the UK. However, the university has traditionally been popular with many British public schools, with privately educated students making up 40% of the student body. This has proven controversial and has led Nottingham, like other middle-class dominated universities such as the University of BristolSONY VAIO PCG-51211M battery, Durham University and the University of Edinburgh, to introduce a variety of initiatives to help widen access and participation, culminating in the introduction of a Summer School scheme open to applicants from non-traditional backgrounds.
Main article: University of Nottingham Students' Union
The University of Nottingham Students' Union is heavily involved with providing student activities at the university and has more than 190 student societies affiliated to itSONY VAIO PCG-51112M battery. A further 76 clubs are affiliated to the Students' Union's Athletic Union. Nottingham participates yearly in the Varsity Series, a number of sporting events between the students and staff of the university and traditional rivals Nottingham Trent University.
The student magazine Impact is published regularly during term time. A range of student theatre takes place at The New TheatreSONY VAIO PCG-51111M battery. The Students' Union also operates a student run, professional sound and lighting company, TEC PA & Lighting, who provide services for many events such as: Summer parties, Fresher's Address, Graduation and Society Ball's and many other events, both within the University and to external clients. The Union boasts Europe's largest student-run RAG organisation 'Karnival' (or Karni) SONY VAIO PCG-81212M battery, which raised £1.36 million in 2011 for a host of good causes. The University radio station is the URN/Student Radio for Nottingham.
The Students' Union also organises a number of activities and events involving students and staff with the local community. The Student Volunteer Centre sees more than 600 students each year volunteering in local schools and community organisationsSony VAIO PCG-81112M battery, as well as a range of other projects throughout the city of Nottingham. The Students' Union also runs an international volunteering project, InterVol, which sends student volunteers to work in rural African communities. Nottingham's Active Communities initiative cooperated with the Students' Union to set up the Crocus Cafe in nearby Lenton. This cafe provides a meeting place for both students and local residents where they can sit over a Fair Trade cup of coffee and organic, vegetarian foodSONY VAIO PCG-71111M battery.
Students in Free Enterprise
The Students in Free Enterprise ("SIFE") team from the University of Nottingham have won the SIFE United Kingdom National Competition for four consecutive years, making them the most successful UK SIFE team to date. Based at the Nottingham University Business School, SIFE Nottingham are the 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008 national championsSONY VAIO PCG-7196M battery. They have competed at SIFE World Cups in Toronto, Paris, New York and Singapore, ranking them as one of the leading SIFE teams in the world. SIFE Nottingham is a company limited by guarantee and can be found at Companies House. The team have run projects across Nottingham and in keeping with the University's global theme, have also run projects in Ghana, Cambodia, China, India, Kenya and Sri LankaSONY VAIO PCG-7195M battery.
Main article: University of Nottingham Halls of Residence
Nottingham's accommodation provides more than 6,000 rooms, owned by the university or provided by external developers, all close to the campuses and ranging from modern self-catering flats to traditional caterd halls of residence. Catered halls of residence provide a more "home from home" service. Fifteen hallsSONY VAIO PCG-7194M battery, housing about 4,000 students across the University Park, Jubilee, and Sutton Bonington campuses, are owned and managed by Nottingham. Three meals a day are provided as part of the accommodation fee with a varied menu catering for various dietary requirements. Nottingham's accommodation features rooms on each campus that are accessible to students with disabilitiesSONY VAIO PCG-7192M battery, including larger rooms for extra storage or work space, adapted bathrooms and facilities for those with hearing impairments.
University Park MMB C9 Florence Boot Hall
The campus itself, alongside teaching buildings, offers a range of facilities. The main Portland Building which houses the Student Union, Book Shop, Boots and Student Union Shop is at the centre of University Park . There are also a number of libraries and a wide variety of retail outletsSONY PCG-8113M battery. There is a boating lake, arts centre and lots of open spaces.For those interested in playing sport the Highfields Sports Ground and the Nottingham Tennis Centre are both on University Boulevard and the University Sports Centre is on campus. University Park is home to approximately 3,200 undergraduate students within 12 halls of residenceSONY PCG-8112M battery:
The Djanogly Learning Resource Centre (pictured) caters for Computer Science and Education students
All the halls on the main campus are in close proximity to each other. Each hall varies in size – the smallest hall is home to 150 whilst the largest hall accommodates 350. Many halls are early Victorian listed buildings and have been donated by the founders of the UniversitySONY PCG-7134M battery. Other halls are more modern in design. Each hall provides excellent facilities including: bar, bistro or cafe, house common room, study lounge, library, dining hall, formal dining hall and private gardens.
Based in the village of Sutton Bonington, halfway between Nottingham and Loughborough, this 40-acre campus houses the university's veterinary and biosciences divisionsSONY PCG-7131M battery . The campus also houses the National Centre for Macromolecular Hydrodynamics. The Food Sciences School at the campus has been ranked number one in the UK in 2005–06 RAE rankings.
Jubilee Campus is home to 600 undergraduates within two halls: Newark and Southwell. Newark Hall is the largest, offering 400 rooms whilst Southwell is home to 200 students. Both halls provide excellent facilities and support services to help you get most out of your university experienceSONY PCG-7122M battery. Jubilee is a vibrant community and the campus was designed with environmentally friendly ideas and is carefully landscaped to incorporate an area to encourage wildlife and to support ecological diversity.With its lake and lakeside promenade it is a comfortable and attractive campus to live, learn and work.There is a sports centre just across the road for basketball, tennis, netballSONY PCG-7121M battery, badminton, squash, martial arts and aerobics. The sports field for football and the outdoor tennis courts are 5 minutes away.
Nottingham also has many self catered apartments that are award winning both for their originality and quality of accommodation e.g.Albion House Bonington Hall Broadgate Park Cloister House Melton Hall Raleigh Park St. Peter's CourtSONY PCG-7113M battery
Lakeside Arts Centre
Lakeside Arts Centre viewed from across the lake on University Park campus
At the south entrance to the main campus, in Highfields Park, lies the Lakeside Arts Centre, the University of Nottingham's public arts facility and performance space.
Since adding the Civic Trust Award Winning D. H. Lawrence Pavilion to its existing portfolio of the Djanogly Art Gallery and Djanogly Recital Hall in autumn 2001SONY PCG-7112M battery, Lakeside has established itself as a successful multi-arts centre in the East Midlands, attracting almost half a million visitors in its first 3 years. Its programme is complemented by two cafés and picturesque parkland, originally purchased and developed by industrialist Sir Jesse Boot.
Beyond the 225 capacity theatre spaceSONY PCG-8Z3M battery , the Lawrence Pavilion houses a range of cultural facilities, including a series of craft cabinets selling original works, the Weston Gallery, which displays the prized and unique manuscript collection from the University of Nottingham, the Wallner gallery which exists as a platform for local and regional artists, and a series of visual arts, performance and hospitality spaces specifically designed to be flexibleSONY PCG-8Z2M battery .
Other facilities include the Djanogly art gallery, recital hall, and theatre, which in the past have hosted recordings and broadcasting by BBC Radio 3, the NOTT Dance and NOW festivals, and a series of critically acclaimed contemporary art exhibitions, such as the current display 'The American Scene: Prints from Hopper to Pollock' offered in partnership with the British MuseumSONY PCG-8Z1M battery.
Nottingham attracted controversy in 2001 when it accepted £3.8 million from British American Tobacco for the creation of a centre of corporate social responsibility. This donation caused Professor Richard Smith, editor of the British Medical Journal to resign from his post as professor at Nottingham. The tobacco company funds were donated to establish an International Centre for Corporate Social Responsibility at Nottingham University Business School. SONY PCG-8Y3M battery Despite predictions that medical research income and cancer studies would be affected adversely in the long-term at Nottingham, funding for cancer research has been robust in recent years, with significant public-private projects on breast and lung cancer in the laboratory of Professor John Robertson, as well as a successful bid in 2008 to establish a UK centre for Tobacco Control Studies under the leadership of Professor John BrittonSONY PCG-8Y2M battery .
On 14 May 2008, Hicham Yezza, a member of staff, and Rizwaan Sabir, a postgraduate student, were arrested at the University of Nottingham and were detained for six days under the Terrorism Act 2000. The University of Nottingham informed the police after finding an edited version of the al-Qaeda training manual the student was using for his researchSONY PCG-7Z1M battery. Both were released without charge from terrorism offences, but Yezza was subsequently re-arrested on immigration grounds. In September 2011, Rizwaan Sabir was awarded £20,000 compensation for false imprisonment by Nottinghamshire Police.
Suspension of terrorism research
Criticism of the University of Nottingham increased after the only terrorism expert at the institutionSONY PCG-6W2M battery, Dr Rod Thornton, decided that because of the university's lack of willingness to provide assistance and guidance to him regarding reading lists and terrorist publications and whether they were okay to disseminate and legitimate to hold, he was no longer willing to risk his own security and liberty by teaching terrorism at Nottingham University. As a result, terrorism is no longer being taught at the University of Nottingham. SONY PCG-5J5M battery
For an April 2011 conference of the British International Studies Association (BISA), Thornton prepared a long paper about the behaviour of Nottingham University's management team following the arrests of Yezza and Sabir. In the document, Thornton gave details of systematic persecution and lies allegedly perpetrated by the management against Yezza, Sabir and junior academics at the universitySONY PCG-5K2M battery .
One of Thornton's colleagues at Nottingham complained to BISA about alleged defamatory content of Thornton's paper, and a spokesman for the university called it "highly defamatory of a number of his colleagues". The paper was removed from BISA's website.
In early May 2011, Thornton was suspended from his duties for the "breakdown in working relationships" caused by the paper. In an open letter published in The GuardianSONY PCG-5K1M battery, 67 international researchers including Noam Chomsky asked for Thornton's reinstatement and an independent examination of the university's actions, saying that Thornton's paper "carefully details what appear to be examples of serious misconduct from senior university management over the arrest of two university members". At present, a campaign calling for the reinstatement of Dr Rod Thornton and for a public inquiry into the University of Nottingham's actions is ongoingSONY PCG-5J4M battery.
The University of Minnesota, Twin Cities (U of M) is a public research university located in Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota, United States. It is the oldest and largest campus within the University of Minnesota system and has the fourth-largest main campus student body in the United States, with 52,557 students in 2011–2012SONY PCG-5J1M battery.
Minnesota's athletic teams are known collectively as the Minnesota Golden Gophers and compete in in NCAA's Division I, as members of the Big Ten Conference for most sports.
Aerial photo of the Minneapolis campus, facing east
The original Minneapolis campus overlooked the Saint Anthony Falls on the Mississippi River, but it was later moved about a mile downstream to its current locationSONY PCG-5G2M battery. The original site is now marked by a small park known as Chute Square at the intersection of University and Central Avenues. The school shut down following a financial crisis during the American Civil War, but reopened in 1867 with considerable financial help from Pillsbury. It was upgraded from a preparatory school to a college in 1869Sony VAIO PCG-8131M battery.
The campus now has buildings on both river banks. The "East Bank", the main portion of the campus, covers 307 acres (124 ha). The West Bank is home to Carlson School of Management and the performing arts center. St. Paul campus is home to CBS, CDes, CFANS, and the vet programSony VAIO PCG-8152M battery.
To help simplify the size of campus, the University has broken down the East Bank into several areas: the Knoll area, the Mall area, the Health area, the Athletic area, and the Gateway area.
The Knoll area, the oldest part of the University's current location, is located in the northwestern part of the campus. Most disciplines in this area relate to the humanities. Burton Hall is home to the College of Education and Human DevelopmentSony VAIO PCG-31311M battery. Many buildings in this area are well over one hundred years old and it includes a 13-building group comprising the Old Campus Historic District that is on the U.S. National Register of Historic Places. One residence hall, Sanford Hall, and one student-apartment complex, Roy Wilkins Hall, are located in this area. The Institute for Advanced Study is located in the Nolte CenterSony VAIO PCG-31111M battery.
Walter Library, Northrop Mall
Northrop Mall or the Mall area, is arguably the center of the Minneapolis Campus. It was based on a design by Cass Gilbert, although his plans were too extravagant to be fully implemented. Several of the campus's primary buildings surround the Mall area. The Cyrus Northrop Memorial Auditorium provides a northern anchor, with Coffman Memorial Union (CMU) to the southSony VAIO PCG-8112M battery. Four of the larger buildings on the sides of it are the primary mathematics, physics, and chemistry buildings, and Walter Library. The Mall area is home to both the College of Liberal Arts, which is Minnesota's largest public or private college, and the College of Science and Engineering. Behind CMU is another residence hall, Comstock Hall, and another student-apartment complex, Yudof HallSony VAIO PCG-7186M battery.
The Health area is to the southeast of the Mall area and focuses on undergraduate buildings for biological-science students, as well as homes to the College of Pharmacy, the School of Nursing, the School of Dentistry, the Medical School, the School of Public Health, and Fairview Hospitals and Clinics. This complex of buildings forms what is known as the University of Minnesota Medical Center. Part of the College of Biological Sciences is housed in this areaSony VAIO PCG-7171M battery.
Across the street from Fairview Hospital is an area known as the "Superblock". The Superblock is a four-city-block space housing four residence halls (Pioneer, Frontier, Centennial and Territorial Halls). The Superblock is one of the most popular locations for on-campus housing because it has the largest concentration of students living on campus and has a multitude of social activities between the four residence hallsSony VAIO PCG-9Z1M battery.
The Athletic area is directly north of the Superblock and includes four recreation/athletic facilities: the University Recreation Center, Cooke Hall, the University Fieldhouse, and the University Aquatic Center. These facilities are all connected by tunnels and skyways allowing students to use one locker-room facility. North of this complex is the TCF Bank Stadium, Williams Arena, Mariucci Arena, Ridder Arena, and the Baseline Tennis CenterSony VAIO PCG-5S1M battery.
The Gateway area, an easternmost section, is primarily office buildings rather than classrooms and lecture halls. The most prominent building is McNamara Alumni Center. The University is also heavily invested in a biomedical-research initiative and is striving to build five more biomedical-research buildings in ten years that will form a biomedical complex directly north of TCF Bank StadiumSony VAIO PCG-5P1M battery.
East Bank notable architecture
Pillsbury Hall, one of the oldest buildings on campus (1889)
Frederick R. Weisman Art Museum
The Armory, northeast of the Northrop Mall, is built like a Norman castle, with a sally-port entrance facing Church Street, and a tower originally intended to be the Professor of Military Science's residence, until it was found to be too cold. It originally held the athletics department as well as the military-science classes that it now holdsSony VAIO PCG-5N2M battery.
One of the oldest buildings on campus is Pillsbury Hall, designed in the Richardsonian Romanesque style and built using varieties of sandstone available in Minnesota. It has a unique color that is hard to capture in a photograph.
In more recent times, Frank Gehry designed the Frederick R. Weisman Art Museum. It is a typical example of his work with curving metallic structuresSony VAIO PCG-3C2M battery.
Another new building is the addition to the Architecture building designed by Steven Holl and completed in 2002. It won an American Institute of Architects award for its innovative design. The Architecture building was then renamed Rapson Hall after the local modernist architect and School of Architecture Dean Ralph RapsonSony VAIO PCG-8161M battery.
The University also has historic fraternities and sororities buildings (a "Greek row") north of Northrop Mall on University Avenue SE.
The Quarter is home to several annual interdisciplinary arts festivals.
The Social Sciences are also on the West Bank and include the Carlson School of Management, the Law School, and the Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs.
Wilson Library, the largest library in the University system, is also located on the West Bank as is Middlebrook Hall, the largest residence hall on campus. Approximately 900 students reside in the building named in honor of William T. MiddlebrookSony VAIO PCG-8141M battery.
The Washington Avenue Bridge connects the East Bank and West Bank portions of the Minneapolis campus.
The Washington Avenue Bridge crossing the Mississippi River provides access between the East and West Banks, either on foot, designated bike lanes, or via free shuttle service. The bridge has two separate decks: the lower deck for vehicles and the upper deck for pedestriansSony VAIO PCG-3J1M battery. An unheated enclosed walkway runs the length of the bridge and shelters students from the weather. Walking and riding bicycles are the most common mode of transportation among students. University Police occasionally cite individuals for jaywalking in areas surrounding the University resulting in fines as high as $250. This is often done at the beginning of a school year or after pedestrians interfere with traffic. Sony VAIO PCG-3H1M battery
There are some pedestrian tunnels to get from building to building during harsh weather. The tunnels are marked with signs reading, "The Gopher Way".
The Minneapolis campus is located near Interstates 94 and 35W and is bordered by the Minneapolis neighborhoods of Dinkytown (on the north), Cedar-Riverside (on the west), Stadium Village (on the southeast), and Prospect Park (on the east) Sony VAIO PCG-3F1M battery.
Two light-rail stations are under construction to serve the University along the Central Corridor light-rail line. Stations are being constructed on the East Bank and the West Bank.
Minneapolis was named the safest metropolitan area in the United States by Forbes in October 2009. Despite this distinction, shootings have occurred near and on campus. Sony VAIO PCG-3C1M battery
St. Paul campus
Aerial photo of St. Paul campus, facing south
The St. Paul campus is in the city of Falcon Heights. Despite this, all campus buildings have St. Paul street addresses. The College of Food, Agricultural and Natural Resource Sciences, many other disciplines from social sciences to vocational education are located on this campus. This also includes the College of Continuing Education, College of Veterinary MedicineSony VAIO PCG-9Z2L battery and the College of Biological Sciences. The extensive lawns, flowers, trees, wood lots and the surrounding University research farm plots creates a greener and quieter campus. It has a grassy mall of its own and can be a bit of a retreat from the more-urban Minneapolis campus. Prominent on this campus is Bailey Hall, the St. Paul campus's only residence hallSony VAIO PCG-9Z1L battery. There are campus connectors running every 15 minutes on the weekdays when school is in session, allowing students easy access to both campuses.
The Continuing Education and Conference Center, which serves over 20,000 conference attendees per year, is also located on the St. Paul campus.
The St. Paul campus is home to the College of Design's department of Design, Housing, and Apparel (DHA). Located in McNeal Hall, DHA includes the departmental disciplines of Apparel Design, Graphic Design, Housing Studies, Interior Design, and Retail MerchandisingSony VAIO PCG-9131L battery.
The St. Paul campus is known to University students and staff for the Dairy Salesroom and Meat Sales Room. The Dairy Store sells items that are produced in the University's state-certified dairy plant by students, faculty and staff.
The St. Paul campus borders the Minnesota State Fairgrounds. The State Fair is one of the largest in the United States, usually lasting twelve daysSony VAIO PCG-8161L battery, from late August through Labor Day in early September. Because of the heavy traffic associated with the State Fair, classes do not start on either campus until after it is over, enabling the Fair to use the campus-parking facilities.
Although the Falcon Heights area code is 651, the University telephone system trunk lines use Minneapolis exchanges and its 612 area codeSony VAIO PCG-8152L battery.
Commuting between Minneapolis and St. Paul campuses
During the school year on regular weekdays, the shuttles operate with schedule-less service as often as every five minutes. In 2008, the system carried 3.55 million riders. Despite the fact that the shuttle service is free, it is comparatively inexpensive to operate: with an operating cost of $4.55 million in 2008, the operating subsidy was only $1.28 per passengerSony VAIO PCG-8141L battery. Even Metro Transit's busy Hiawatha Line light rail required a subsidy of $1.44 that year, and that was with many riders paying $1.75 or more for a ride.
Organization and administration
The 87th legistlature (2011–2012) of the State of Minnesota has signalled it wishes to continue disinvesting the state from the University of Minnesota by moving to cut the university's funding by 14.4% (18.9 percent from the forecast base) for the biennium 2012–2013Sony VAIO PCG-8131L battery. In response to the legislature's policy of disinvestment, graduate units of University of Minnesota, such as the UMN School of Law, have prepared for loss of all state funding and begun to move toward functioning as private institutions with limited relationships to the State of MinnesotaSony VAIO PCG-81312L battery.
The second-largest institution of higher education in the Midwest by enrollment, the University offers 143 degree programs and 150 degree programs through the graduate school. The University has all three branches of the Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC).
The U.S. News & World Report's 2012 rankings placed the undergraduate program of the University as the 68th-best National University in the United StatesSony VAIO PCG-81214L battery. It also ranked the Chemical Engineering program third-best, the Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) program third best, the Economics PhD program tenth, Psychology eighth, Statistics sixteenth, Audiology ninth, and the University of Minnesota Medical School 6th for primary care and 34th for research. Nineteen of the University's graduate-school departments have been ranked in the nation's top-twenty by the U.S. National Research CouncilSony VAIO PCG-81115L battery. In 2012 U.S. News & World Report ranked the College of Pharmacy 3rd in the nation. In 2011,U.S. News & World Report ranked the School of Public Health 8th in the nation, which is home to the 2nd ranked program for the Master of Healthcare Administration degree. The University of Minnesota ranked 19th in NIH funding in 2008. Sony VAIO PCG-81114L battery In 2011, QS World University Rankings ranked the university 102nd in the world. Its subject rankings include: 100th in Arts & Humanities, 92nd in Engineering & IT, 90th in Life Sciences & Biomedicine, 112th in Natural Sciences, and 58th in Social Sciences. In 2011, Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranked the School of Mathematics citation impact 4th in the world. Sony VAIO PCG-81113L battery The University of Minnesota is ranked among the top 25 of the nation's top research universities by the Center for Measuring University Performance. In 2011, the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities ranked 28th out of more than 1000 international institutions recognized by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, and is considered a Public Ivy, which recognizes top public research universities in the United StatesSony VAIO PCG-7142L battery. The 4 International Colleges & Universities (4ICU) 2012 World University Web Ranking placed the university's web program 13th globally.
The eastern edge of the Northrop Mall, Spring 2008
The Minnesota Daily, as well as the Minnesota Reporter are printed Monday through Thursday during the normal school season, with an online-only version appearing Fridays. It is printed once each week during the summer. The Daily is operated by an autonomous organization of students. It was first published on May 1, 1900Sony VAIO PCG-7141L battery.
A long-defunct but fondly remembered humor magazine, Ski-U-Mah, was published from about 1930 to 1950. It launched the career of novelist and scriptwriter Max Shulman.
A relative newcomer to the University's print-media community is The Wake Student Magazine, a weekly magazine that covers University-related stories and provides a forum for student expression. It was first published in 2002 and became an officially University-sanctioned student group in 2003Sony VAIO PCG-71111L battery.
Additionally, the Wake publishes Liminal, a literary journal that began in 2005. Liminal was created in the absence of an undergraduate literary journal and continues to bring poetry and prose to the University community.
In 2005 conservatives on campus began formulating a new monthly magazine named the Minnesota Republic. The first issue was released in February 2006, and funding by student service fees started in September 2006Sony VAIO PCG-61411L battery.
The campus radio station, KUOM "Radio K", broadcasts an eclectic variety of independent music during the day on 770 kHz AM. Its 5,000-watt signal has a range of 80 miles (130 km), but shuts down at dusk because of Federal Communications Commission regulations. In 2003, the station added a low-power (8-watt) signal on 106.5 MHz FM overnight and on weekendsSony VAIO PCG-61112L battery. In 2005, a 10-watt translator began broadcasting from Falcon Heights on 100.7 FM at all times. Radio K also streams its content at www.radiok.org. With roots in experimental transmissions that began before World War I, the station received the first AM broadcast license
Some television programs made on campus have been broadcast on local PBS station KTCI channel 17. Several episodes of Great Conversations have been made since 2002, featuring one-on-one discussions between University faculty and experts brought in from around the world. Tech Talk is a show meant to help people who feel intimidated by modern technology, including cellular phones and computersSony VAIO PCG-5T3L battery.
The University developed Gopher, a precursor to the World Wide Web which used hyperlinks to connect documents across computers on the internet. However, the version produced by CERN was favored by the public since it was freely distributed and could more easily handle multimedia webpages. The University also houses the Charles Babbage Institute, a research and archive center specializing in computer historySony VAIO PCG-5T2L battery.
There are multiple ways in which students can connect with the University via their smartphones. Free wireless internet is abundantly available throughout the campus to enrolled students, and there are apps that can be downloaded which relate to the University and surrounding areas. There are deals offered on university restaurants on popular coupons apps such as GrouponSony VAIO PCG-5S3L battery, FourSquare, and CollegeByMe, which is an app exclusive to the University students offering special deals to local restaurants and businesses.
Main article: Minnesota Golden Gophers
The University's intercollegiate sports teams are called the "Golden Gophers" and are members of the Big Ten Conference and the Western Collegiate Hockey Association in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). Minnesota is one of only 13 universities in the country offering NCAA Division I-A college football, Division I men's and women's basketballSony VAIO PCG-5S2L battery, and Division I ice hockey. The current athletic director is Norwood Teague who was introduced on April 23, 2012 replacing Joel Maturi.
The Golden Gophers' most notable rivalry is the annual college-football game between them and the Wisconsin Badgers (University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin) for Paul Bunyan's Axe, the longest continuous rivalry in NCAA Division I footballSony VAIO PCG-5S1L battery. The two universities also compete in the Border Battle, a year-long athletic competition in which each sport season is worth 40 points divided by the number of times the teams play each other (i.e. football is worth 40 points because they play each other only once, while women's ice hockey is worth 10 points per game because they play four times a year). Conference and post-season playoffs do not count in the point standingsSony VAIO PCG-5R2L battery.
Goldy Gopher is the mascot for the Twin Cities campus and the associated sports teams. The gopher mascot is a tradition as old as the state which was tabbed the “Gopher State” in 1857 after a political cartoon ridiculing the US$5-million railroad loan which helped open up the West. The cartoon portrayed shifty railroad barons as striped gophers pulling a railroad car carrying the Territorial LegislatureSony VAIO PCG-5R1L battery. Later, the University picked up the nickname with the first University yearbook bearing the name "Gopher Annual" appearing in 1887.
TCF Bank Stadium replaced the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome as the Gophers' home stadium in 2009.
The Minnesota Golden Gophers are one of the oldest programs in college-football history. They have won 6 National Championships and 18 Big Ten Conference Championships. The Golden Gophers played their first game on September 29Sony VAIO PCG-5P4L battery, 1882, a 4–0 victory over Hamline University, St. Paul. In 1890, the Golden Gophers played host to the Wisconsin Badgers in a 63–0 victory. With the exception of 1906, the Golden Gophers and the Badgers have played each other every year since. The 117 games played against each other is the most-played rivalry in NCAA Division I-A college footballSony VAIO PCG-5P2L battery .
In 1981, the Golden Gophers played their last game in Memorial Stadium. Between 1982 and 2008, the school hosted their home games in the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome in downtown Minneapolis until they moved back to campus on September 12, 2009, when their new home, TCF Bank Stadium, opened with a game against the U.S. Air Force Academy Falcons, which Minnesota won 20–13Sony VAIO PCG-5N4L battery.
Main article: Minnesota Golden Gophers men's basketball
The Golden Gophers men's basketball team has won two National Championships, one National Invitation Tournament (NIT) Championship and eight Big Ten Regular Season Championships. They also have six NCAA Tournament appearances not including the 1997 appearance in which they reached the Final Four that was voided because of academic fraudSony VAIO PCG-5N2L battery, and three Sweet 16 appearances.
The Golden Gophers men's basketball coach, Dan Monson, resigned on November 30, 2006. Jim Molinari served as interim head coach for the remainder of the 2006–2007 season. On March 23, 2007, University officials hired former University of Kentucky (Lexington, Kentucky) head coach Tubby Smith as the head coachSony VAIO PCG-51513L battery.
The Golden Gophers women's basketball team has enjoyed success in recent years under Pam Borton, including a Final Four appearance in 2004. Overall, they have six NCAA Tournament appearances and three Sweet 16 appearances.
Main articles: Minnesota Golden Gophers men's ice hockey and Minnesota Golden Gophers women's ice hockeySony VAIO PCG-51511L battery
The Golden Gophers men's ice-hockey program has won five Division I National Championships and 13 Western Collegiate Hockey Association (WCHA) Regular Season Championships, most recently in 2012. They have won 14 WCHA Tournament Championships and have 20 NCAA Frozen Four appearancesSony VAIO PCG-51412L battery. A Golden Gophers hockey tradition is to stock the roster almost exclusively (sometimes completely) with Minnesota natives. Home games are played at Mariucci Arena. The Golden Gophers' big rivals are the University of Wisconsin–Madison and the University of North Dakota.
The Golden Gophers women's hockey team has won four National Championships, most recently in 2012, and five WCHA Regular Season ChampionshipsSony VAIO PCG-51411L battery. They have also won three WCHA Tournament Championships and have 6 NCAA Frozen Four appearances. They play their home games in Ridder Arena. They were the first collegiate women's hockey team to play in an arena dedicated solely to women's ice hockey.
Main article: Minnesota Golden Gophers wrestling
The University has been fielding wrestling teams for 92 seasons. In that time, they have accumulated over 800 dual-meet winsSony VAIO PCG-51312L battery, the sixth-highest total in college wrestling history. Home meets are primarily held in the 5,700-seat Sports Pavilion in the Williams Arena. The Gopher team won three NCAA Division I Championships as well as several individual championships.
According to the College Board, as of July 2012 there are 34,812 undergraduates at the University of Minnesota Twin Cities campus. Out of that number, 5,368 are first-time degree seeking freshmen. There are 17,745 graduate studentsSony VAIO PCG-51311L battery.
The racial/ethnic breakdown of the student population is as follows:
75% White, 3% Black, 9% Asian, 3% Hispanic/Latino, 3% Two or more races, 1% Other, and 6% Non-resident alien
The average age of all students is 21.
The gender breakdown of the student population is 52% women and 48% men.
67% of matriculants to the university are considered Minnesota residents, and 33% of matriculants are considered out-of-state residentsSony VAIO PCG-51211L battery.
The Minnesota Rouser is the University of Minnesota's fight song. It is commonly played and sung at various events such as commencement, convocation, and athletic games. It is among a number of songs associated with the institution, including the Minnesota March, which was composed for the University by John Philip SousaSony VAIO PCG-41112L battery.
Minnesota Student Association
The Minnesota Student Association, MSA for short, is the undergraduate student government at the University of Minnesota.
Although it has maintained a consistent history of being a voice for student advocacy, it has more recently turned toward direct efforts of benefiting the student population at the University of MinnesotaSony VAIO PCG-3A4L battery.
The MSA Express: A student-operated late night bus service established by Max Page, Monica Heth, and Nathan Olson during the 2006–2007 school year. Piloted by MSA, the 2007–2008 administration of Emma Olson and Ross Skattum began the process of transitioning the service to the University's Boynton Health Services. This was done to ensure its longevitySony VAIO PCG-3A3L battery. Student response was overwhelmingly positive, and its continued use has caused MSA leaders to consider expanding the service.
Lend a Hand, Hear The Band: A concert established during the Page-Heth administration, students volunteering 10 hours of community service in the Minneapolis-St. Paul area receive a free ticket to a concert at Northrop Auditorium.Sony VAIO PCG-3A2L battery Past artists have included Minnesota natives The Hold Steady and Radio On, as well as the nationally-recognized bands Guster and The Format.
The Minnesota Daily
The Minnesota Daily is the campus newspaper of the University of Minnesota and the surrounding community. It is published in print Monday-Thursday, but is available every day online and on a smartphone appSony VAIO PCG-3A1L battery. The organization is run entirely by students, a tradition that has been continued for decades. Outside of every day news coverage the paper has also published special issues such as the Grapevine Awards, Ski-U-Mah, the Bar & Beer Guide, and others.
The Wake Student Magazine
The Wake Student Magazine is a weekly student-operated news and entertainment publication at the University of Minnesota. Students from many disciplines do all of the reporting, writing, editing, illustration, photography, layout and business management for the publicationSony VAIO PCG-394L battery. The magazine was founded by James DeLong and Chris Ruen. Student activities fees account for roughly 80 percent of its funding and are supplemented by advertising revenue. The Wake also publishes Liminal, a literary journal that was created in 2005. The Wake was named the nation's best campus publication (2006) by the Independent Press AssociationSony VAIO PCG-393L battery.
The Wake was founded in November 2001 in an effort to diversify campus media and achieved student group status in February 2002.
The Wake has faced a number of challenges during its existence, due in part to the reliance on student fees funding. In April 2004, the needed $60,000 in funding was restored, which allowed for the magazine's continued existence after the Student Services Fees Committee had initially declined to fund itSony VAIO PCG-391L battery. They faced further challenges in 2005 when their request for additional funding to publish weekly was denied and then partially restored.
Graduate and Professional Student Assembly
The Graduate and Professional Student Assembly (GAPSA) is responsible for graduate and professional student governance at the University of Minnesota. It is the largest and most comprehensive graduate/professional student governance organization in the United States.
The University of Minnesota –Sony VAIO PCG-384L batteryTwin Cities campus has the second largest number of graduate and professional students in the United States at over 16,000. All registered graduate and professional students at the University of Minnesota are members of GAPSA. It was established in 1990 as a non-profit (IRS 501 (c)(3)) confederation of independent college councils representing all graduate and professional students at the University of Minnesota to the Board of RegentsSony VAIO PCG-383L battery, the President of the University, the University Senate, the University at large and wider community.
GAPSA serves as a resource for member councils, as the primary contact point for administrative units, as a graduate and professional student policy-making and policy-influencing body, and as a center of intercollegiate and intra-collegiate interaction among studentsSony VAIO PCG-382L battery.
GAPSA serves students in the Carlson School of Management, the Dental School, the Graduate School, the Law School, the Medical School, the School of Nursing, the College of Pharmacy, the School of Public Health, the College of Veterinary Medicine, and the College of Education and Human Development. GAPSA is also a member of the National Association of Graduate-Professional StudentsSony VAIO PCG-381L battery.
Lund University (Swedish: Lunds universitet) is one of Europe's most prestigious universities and Scandinavia's largest institutions for education and research, consistently ranked among the world's top 100 universities. The university, located in the city of Lund in the province of Scania, Sweden, traces its roots back to 1425Sony VAIO PCG-7185L battery, when a Franciscan studium generale was founded in Lund next to the Lund Cathedral, making it the oldest institution of higher education in Scandinavia followed by studium generales in Uppsala in 1477 and Copenhagen in 1479. The current university was founded in 1666 after Sweden had won Scania in the 1658 peace agreement with Denmark. Sony VAIO PCG-7184L battery
Lund University has eight faculties, with additional campuses in the cities of Malmö and Helsingborg, with 47,000 students in more than 280 different programmes and around 2,250 separate courses. The University has some 680 partner universities in over 50 countries and it belongs to the League of European Research Universities as well as the global Universitas 21 networkSony VAIO PCG-7183L battery.
Two major facilities for materials research are currently under construction in Lund: MAX IV, which will be a world-leading synchrotron radiation laboratory and European Spallation Source (ESS), a European facility that will be home to the world’s most powerful neutron source.
The university traditionally centers on the Lundagård park adjacent to the Lund Cathedral, with various departments spread in different locations in townSony VAIO PCG-7182L battery, but mostly concentrated in a belt stretching north from the park connecting to the university hospital area and continuing out to the northeastern periphery of the town, where one finds the large campus of the Faculty of Engineering.
The city of Lund has a long history as a center for learning and was the ecclesiastical centre and seat of the archbishop of Denmark. A cathedral school (the Katedralskolan) for the training of clergy was established in 1085 and is today Scandinavia's oldest schoolSony VAIO PCG-7181L battery.
A studium generale (a medieval university education) was founded in 1425, although it was not until 1438 that education was started by the Franciscan order for a baccalaureus degree.
After the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658, the Scanian lands came under the possession of the Swedish Crown, which quickly founded the Lund University in 1666 as a means of SwedificationSony VAIO PCG-7174L battery. It was the fifth university under the Swedish king, after Uppsala University (1477), the University of Tartu (1632, now in Estonia), the Academy of Åbo (1640, now in Finland), and the University of Greifswald (founded 1456; Swedish 1648–1815, now in Germany). It is the second-oldest university on Swedish ground todaySony VAIO PCG-7173L battery.
The university was named Academia Carolina after Charles X Gustav of Sweden. The name was in some formal use until the late 19th century, when Lund University became the widespread denomination.
The university was at its founding granted four faculties: law, theological, medicine and philosophy. They were the cornerstones, and for more than 200 years this system was in effect. Towards the end of the 17th century, the number of students hovered around 100Sony VAIO PCG-7172L battery. Some notable professors in the early days were Samuel Pufendorf, a juridical historian; and Canutus Hahn and Kristian Papke in philosophy.
The Scanian War in 1676 led to a shut-down, which lasted until 1682. The university was re-opened largely due to regional patriots, but the university was not to enjoy a high status until well into the 19th century. Lecturing rooms were few, and lectures were held in the Lund Cathedral and its adjacent chapel. The professors were underpaidSony VAIO PCG-7171L battery.
View of the Historical Museum building in the 19th century.
In 1713, Charles XII of Sweden entered Lund. He stayed in Lund for three years, in between his warlike expeditions. The town of Lund and the university attracted a temporary attention boost. The most notable lecturer during this time was Andreas Rydelius.
Peace was finally restored with the death of Charles XII in 1718, and during the first half of the 18th century the university was granted added fundsSony VAIO PCG-7162L battery. The number of students was now well around 500. Despite not being on par with Uppsala University, it had still built a solid reputation and managed to attract prominent professors.
Around 1760 the university reputation dropped as the number of students fell below 200, most of whom hailed from around the provinceSony VAIO PCG-7161L battery. However, by 1780 its reputation was largely restored, and continued to rise through the 1820s. This was largely owing to popular and well-educated lecturers particularly in philology; the prominent professor Esaias Tegnér was a particularly notable character with widespread authority. He, in turn, attracted others towards Lund. One of these was the young theological student C. G. BruniusSony VAIO PCG-7154L battery, who studied ancient languages under Tegnér and were later to become professor of Greek. With time he was to devote himself to architectures and he redesigned several of Lund's buildings, as well as churches of the province.
The University Square in the 1910s.
In the early 20th century, the university had a student population as small as one thousand, consisting largely of upper-class pupils training to become civil servants, lawyers and doctors. In the coming decades it started to grow significantlySony VAIO PCG-7153L battery, until it became one of the country's largest. In 1964 the social sciences were split from the Faculty of Humanities. Lund Institute of Technology was established in 1961 but was merged with Lund University eight years later.
In recent years, Lund University has been very popular among applicants to Swedish higher education institutions, both nationally and internationally. For studies starting in autumn 2012, Lund received 11,160 foreign master's applications from 152 countriesSony VAIO PCG-7152L battery, which was roughly one third of all international applications to Swedish universities.
Women at the university
The first woman to study in Lund was the medical student Hedda Andersson who entered the university in 1880 (two years before the next woman to do so). Hilma Borelius was the first woman who finished a doctorate in Lund, in 1910. The first woman to be appointed to a professor's chair was the historian Birgitta Odén (1965) Sony VAIO PCG-7151L battery. In 1992 Boel Flodgren, Professor of Business Law, was appointed rector magnificus (or, strictly speaking, rectrix magnifica) of Lund University. As such, she was the first woman to be the head of a European university.
Kungshuset, the oldest university building (completed 1584), currently houses the Department of PhilosophySony VAIO PCG-7148L battery.
The university's facilities are mainly located in the small city of Lund in Scania, about 15 km away from central Malmö and 50 km from Copenhagen. The university's prominence and large student population have much impact on the city, effectively making it a university town. Over a hundred university buildings scatter around town, most of them in an area covering more than 1 km²Sony VPCW21M2E/WI battery, stretching towards the north-east from Lundagård park in the very centre of town. Buildings in and around Lundagård include the main building, Kungshuset, the Historical Museum and the Academic Society's headquarters. The main library building is located in a park 400 meters to the north, followed by the large hospital complexSony VPCW21C7E battery.
Lund University has a satellite campus in nearby Malmö, Sweden's third largest city. The Faculty of Fine and Perforning Arts' three academies: Malmö Art Academy, Malmö Academy of Music and Malmö Theatre Academy, are all located in Malmö. The city is also the location of Skåne University Hospital, where Lund University performs a considerable amount of research and medical trainingSony VPCW12S1E/WZ battery.
Campus Helsingborg is, as the name suggests, located in the city of Helsingborg, almost 50 km from Lund. Opened in 2000, it consists of a building in the city centre, right next to the central train station and the harbour. Nearly 3,000 students are based on the campus. The Department of Service Management and the Department of Communication and Media are among those located at the campus in HelsingborgSony VPCW12S1E/W battery.
Teaching and training at the School of Aviation (LUSA) takes place at an airfield next to the town of Ljungbyhed, about 40 km away from Lund.
Lund University library was established in 1666 at the same time as the university and is one of Sweden's oldest and largest. Since 1698 it has received legal deposit copies of everything printed in the country. Today six Swedish libraries receive legal deposit copiesSony VPCW12S1E/T battery, but only Lund and the Royal Library in Stockholm are required to keep everything for posterity. Swedish imprints make up half of the collections, which amount to 170,000 linear metres of shelving (2006). The library serves 620,000 loans per year, the staff is 200 full-time equivalents, and the 33 branch libraries house 2600 reading room desksSony VPCW12S1E/P battery.
The current main building at Helgonabacken opened in 1907. Before that, the old building was Liberiet close to the city's cathedral. Liberiet was built as a library in the 15th century, but now serves as a cafe.
Education and research in the health sciences at the university is operated in cooperation with Skåne University Hospital, located in both Lund and Malmö. Medical education takes place in the Biomedical Centre, next to the hospital in lundSony VPCW11S1E/W battery. Nursing and occupational therapy are taught in the Health Sciences Centre nearby. The university also operates the Clinical Research Centre in Malmö, featuring many specialized laboratories.
Sphinxes overlooking Lundgård Park.
The University Board is the University's highest decision-making body. The Board comprises the Vice-Chancellor, representatives of the teaching staff and students, and representatives of the community and business sector. Sony VPCW11S1E/T batteryChair of the board is Margot Wallström. Executive power lies with the Vice-Chancellor and the University Management Group, to which most other administrative bodies are subordinate.
Approximately 27,700 students study within one of the 274 educational programs, the eightyfive international master's programmes or the 2000 free-standing courses. Around five hundred courses are, or can be, held in English for the benefit of international exchange studentsSony VPCW11S1E/P battery. There are several programmes allowing foreign students to study abroad at the University. Notable exchangees include United States Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, who spent time at Lund University in the 1960s conducting research. The university offers 9 out of the 20 most sought after programmes in Sweden. The master's programme in International Marketing is the most popular choice in the country, with almost a thousand applications yearlySony VPCYA1S1E/B battery.
Lund University is well known as one of Scandinavia's largest research universities. It ranks among top performers in the European Union in terms of papers accepted for publication in scientific journals. It is one of Sweden's top receiver of research grants, most of which come from government-funded bodies. Sony VPCYA1V9E/B battery The EU is the university's second largest external research funder and Lund is the 23rd largest receiver of funding within the union's Seventh Framework Programme. The university is active in many internationally important research areas such as nanotechnology, climate change and stem cell biology.
Lund University is among the most renowned institutions of higher learning in the Nordic countries and is rarely ranked below 100 in the world by the most influential ranking agenciesSony VPCY21S1E/SI battery. In 2011, it ranked 1st among comprehensive universities in Scandinavia and 80th in the world by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, and in the Academic Ranking of World Universities, compiled by Shanghai Jiao Tong University, it was in the 101-150 category. Lund was ranked 86th in the world in the 2011 QS World University RankingsSony VPCY21S1E/L battery and the University Ranking by Academic Performance Research Laboratory ranked Lund 62nd in the world and second in Sweden in 2011.
In 2011, Times Higher Education compiled a special world ranking based exclusively on reputation for teaching and research, where Lund University appeared in the 71-80 category. In the same year, QS issued world university rankings by subject, Sony VPCY21S1E/G battery placing Lund within the top 50 in environmental sciences, geography and area studies, physical sciences and civil and structural engineering.
AF-Borgen, the student-run complex at the heart of student life in Lund, May 2002.
Lund student life is based on three central structures: the student nations, the Academic Society (AF) and the student unions. Before July 1, 2010, students were required to enroll in a student union, nation or AF in order to receive grades at the university, but this is no longer compulsory. Students may still enroll in these organizations if they wishSony VPCY11S1E/S battery.
Main article: List of Lund University Nations
The nations in Lund are a central part of the university's history, initially serving as residential colleges for students, organized by geographic origin. Östgöta Nation, the oldest nation, was established in 1668, two years after the university was founded. While the nations still offer limited housing, today they are best described as student societiesSony VPCY11S1E battery.
Today students may enroll in any nation, although the nations still preserve their geographic names. In most cases it does not matter what nation one enrolls in, but different nations offer different activities for interested students.
Each nation has student housing, but the accommodations in no way meet demand, and they are usually appointed according to a queue system. Each nation has at least one pub evening per week, with a following night clubSony VPCZ11X9E/B battery. The solemn peak event in the course of an activity year is the organization of student balls once a year. Most well known of the nation balls (as opposed to balls organized by student unions) is the ball hosted by Göteborgs Nation - called the "Gustaf II Adolf Ball" (also known as the "GA-Ball"). Most nations also host at least one banquet per week, where a three course dinner is servedSony VPCZ11Z9E/B battery. Each nation also has different activities for students interested in sports, arts, or partying. All activities within the nations are voluntary.
The Academic Society
Another view of AF-Borgen
In 1830, Professor Carl Adolph Agardh formed Akademiska Föreningen (The Academic Society), commonly referred to as AF, with the goal of "developing and cultivating the academic life" by bringing students and faculty from all departments and student nations together in one organization. Prince Oscar I, then Sweden's Chancellor of EducationSony VPCZ12M9E/B battery, donated 2000 Kronor to help found the society. In 1848, construction began on AF-Borgen (the AF Fortress), which is located opposite the Main Building in Lundagård. To this day, AF is the center of student life in Lund, featuring many theater companies, a prize-winning student radio (Radio AF), and organizing the enormous Lundakarnevalen (the Lund Carnival) every four years. "AF Bostäder"Sony VPCZ12X9E/X battery, an independent foundation with close ties to Akademiska Föreningen, maintains over 5,700 student residences in Lund.
The Delphi residential area, located in the northern part of Lund, is one of the large student housing complexes run by AF Bostäder.
The student unions represent students in various decision-making boards within the university and council students regarding their rights, housing and career options. There are nine student unions, one for each faculty and an additional union for doctoral studentsSony VPCZ12Z9E/X battery. Lund's Doctoral Student Union is further divided into councils, one for each faculty except for the faculties of engineering and fine and performing arts.
The unions are incorporated into the Association of Lund University Student Unions (LUS). It has two full-time representatives who go to weakly meetings with the vice-chancellor and other organizational university bodies. The student union association runs services such as loan institute, a day-care centre and a website with housing informationSony VPCZ138GA battery. It also publishes the monthly Lundagård magazine.
LTH's Design Centre.
Main article: List of Lund University partners
Lund University cooperates with universities on all continents, both in areas of research and student exchange. Apart from being a member of the prestigious LERU and Universitas 21 networks, the university participates in the European Erasmus and Nordplus programmes. It also coordinates several intercontinental projects, mostly through the Erasmus Mundus programmeSony VPCZ13M9E/B battery.