University of Amsterdam And Monash University And University of Copenhagen

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The University of Amsterdam (Dutch: Universiteit van Amsterdam) or the UvA is a public research university located in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Founded in 1632 as the Athenaeum Illustre by the scholars Gerardus Vossius and Caspar Barlaeus, it is the third-oldest university in the Netherlandssony vgp-bps2 battery. The UvA is one of Europe's largest research universities with an endowment of €613.5 million,[3] 32,739 students, 5,090 staff, and 7,900 scientific publications each year.[2] It is the largest university in the Netherlands by enrollment and has the second-largest university endowment in the country. The campus of the UvA is located primarily in the City Centre of Amsterdam, with a few faculties located in adjacent bouroghssony vgp-bps3 battery. The school lies within the largest megalopolis in the Netherlands, the Randstad, with a population of 7.2 million inhabitants.[4]

There are seven faculties: Humanities, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Economics and Business, Science, Law, Medicine, and Dentistry. The university offers 59 Bachelor's programs, 133 Master's programs, and 10 postgraduate programs. In addition, the university has developed a strong internationalization program and offers over 58 Master programs taught in Englishsony vgp-bps4 battery, as well as a number of Dutch and English language courses. Through international collaboration with other universities, the UvA offers exchange options with 200 universities in Europe and 40 institutions outside of Europe and enrolls over 2,500 international students and researchers.[5]

The University of Amsterdam's research history has produced six Nobel Laureates and seven Spinoza Prize vgp-bps5 batteryIn 2011, the university was ranked 63rd in the world, 19th in Europe, and 1st in the Netherlands by the QS World University Rankings. The university was 2nd among Dutch universities, after Erasmus University Rotterdam, in five fields and placed it in the top 50 internationally in seven fields in the 2011 QS World University Rankings by Subject in the fields of Linguistics, Sociology, Philosophy, Geography, Science, Economics & Econometrics, and Accountancy & Finance. sony vgp-bps7 battery

The University of Amsterdam is a member of the League of European Research Universities (LERU), the Institutional Network of the Universities from the Capitals of Europe (UNICA), European University Association (EUA), and Universitas 21.

Athenaeum Illustre (1632-1877)

In January 1632, the Athenaeum Illustre (Latin - the Illustrious Athenaeum), the predecessor of the University of Amsterdam, was founded in Amsterdam's 15th century Agnietenkapel by two internationally acclaimed scholars, Gerardus Vossius and Caspar Barlaeussony vgp-bpl7 battery. During the 17th century, Leiden University was the only accredited university in the province of Holland. The government of the city of Amsterdam decided to establish its own institution of higher education to bring prestige to the city as well as to bring higher education closer to its residents. This brought about the establishment of the city's own institution of higher educationsony vgp-bps8 battery, the Athenaeum. Despite its lack of "university" status - meaning the school could not confer doctoral degrees - the Athenaeum Illustre provided thorough training that was equal to other institutions of higher education. After training at the Athenaeum, students had the option of completing their training at a university in another town. The first two professors and founders, Gerardus Vossius, who taught history, and Caspar Barlaeussony vgp-bps8a battery, who taught philosophy, were recruited from Leiden University. Professors lectured students publicly and tutored privately.

At the time, Amsterdam also housed several other institutions of higher education, including the Collegium Chirugicum, which trained surgeons, and other institutions that provided theological courses for the Remonstrant and the Mennonite communities. Amsterdam's large degree of religious freedom allowed for the establishment of these institutionssony vgp-bps8b battery. Students of the Colegium Chirugicum and the theological institutions regularly attended classes at the Athenaeum Illustre. The Athenaeum thus became a training center for city councilors, clergymen, well-to-do citizens, and merchants of Amsterdam during the prosperous Dutch Golden Agesony vgp-bpl8 battery.

The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp by Rembrandt shows an anatomy lesson taking place in Amsterdam in 1632, the year the university was founded. Nicolaes Tulp is considered one of the forefathers of the UvA Faculty of Medicine.[8]

The Athenaeum Illustre had its high and low points during the 17th and 18th centuries, but in the 19th century it gained significance. In 1815 it was given the statutory obligation “to disseminate taste, civilization and learning" and “to replace, at least in partsony vgp-bps9 battery, the institutes of higher education and an academic education for those young men whose circumstances unable them to fully spend the time necessary for an academic career at an institute of higher education.” The Athenaeum began offering classes for students attending non-academic professional training in pharmacy and surgery in 1800sony vgp-bps9/s battery. The Athenaeum Illustre largely worked together with Amsterdam's theological institutions such as the Evangelisch-Luthers Seminarium (evangelical-Lutheran) and the Klinische School (medical school), the successor to the Collegium Chirurgicum.

The Athenaeum remained a small institution until the 19th century, with no more than 250 students and eight professors. Alumni of the Athenaeum include Cornelis Petrus Tiele. sony vgp-bps9a/s battery

Municipal university (1877-1961)

In 1877, the Athenuem Illustre become the Municipal University of Amsterdam and received the right to confer doctoral degrees. This gave the university the same privileges as national universities while being funded by the city of Amsterdam. The professors and lecturers were appointed by the city council. This resulted in a staff that was in many ways more colorful than the staffs of national universitiessony vgp-bps9/b battery. During its time as a municipal university, the university flourished, in particular in the science department, which counted many Nobel prize winners: Tobias Asser, Christiaan Eijkman, Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff, Johannes Diderik van der Waals, Pieter Zeeman, and Frits Zernike.

The University of Amsterdam's municipal status brought about the relatively early addition of the faculties of Economics and Social Sciences. After the World War II the dramatic rise in the cost of university education put a constraint on the university’s growthsony vgp-bps9a/b battery.

Buildings of the University of Amsterdam. The front building houses the Academic Club of the University

National university (1961-present)

In 1961 the national government made the university a national university, giving it its current name, the University of Amsterdam. Funding was now given by the national government instead of the city and the appointment of professors was transferred to the Board of Governorssony vgp-bps9a battery. The city of Amsterdam retained a limited influence until 1971, when the appointment was handed over to the Executive Board.

During May 1969, the university became the focus of nationwide news when the UvA's administrative center at the Maagdenhuis was occupied by hundreds of students who wanted more democratic influence in educational and administrative matters. The protest lasted for days and was eventually broken up by the police. sony vgp-bps9b battery During the 1970s and 1980s, the university was often the target of nationwide student actions.

The university saw considerable expansion since becoming a national university, from 7,500 students in 1960 to over 32,000 in 2010. In 2007, the UvA undertook the construction of the Science Park Amsterdam, a 70 hectare campus to house the Faculty of Science along with the new University Sports Center. Much of the park has now been vgp-bpl9c batteryThe University of Amsterdam began working in close collaboration with the Hogeschool van Amsterdam to allow students from the UvA and HvA to take classes at both schools through an integrated curriculum. In 2008, the University of Amsterdam and VU University jointly founded the Amsterdam University College (AUC), an interuniversity institute that offers a three-year Bachelor (Honors) program in the Liberal Arts and Sciencessony vgp-bpl9 battery.

University logo

The current logo of the University of Amsterdam consists of a black square with three white Saint Andrew's Crosses and a white "U." This an adaptation of the coat of arms of Amsterdam which also uses a black background and three white or silver Saint Andrew's Crosses. The three Saint Andrew's Crosses have been said to represent the three plagues of Amsterdamsony vgp-bps10 battery: fire, floods, and the Black Death. Another rumor is that they represent three fords in the River Amstel. These two explanations have no historical basis, however. It is believed by historians that the coat of arms of Amsterdam is derived from the coat of arms of Jan Persijn, the lord of Amsterdam between 1280 and 1282. The "U" represents the word "university" while the colors and three crosses represent the city of AmsterdamSony VGP-BPS12 Battery.


The Oudemanhuispoort building houses the Faculty of Law.

The university is accredited by the Netherland's Ministry of Education, Culture and Science, which grants accreditation to institutions who meet a national system of regulations and quality assurance controls. The Ministry has given it WO, or research university status. Dutch students must complete a six year preparatory program to gain admission to national research universitiesSony VGP-BPL12 Battery. Only fifteen percent of students pass this preparatory program.

In terms of tuition in 2011-2012, EU students are charged €1,713 per year for both Bachelor's and Master's programs and non-EU students are charged between €9,000-€11,000 per year for Bachelor's programs and €10,500-€25,000 for Master's and Doctoral programs. Costs for non-EU students varies depending on the faculty of matriculationSony VGP-BPS13 Battery. In terms of scholarships, the university offers UvA Amsterdam Merit Scholarships, scholarships through the Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science, Dutch Study Grants, and various European scholarships.[14]

Collectively the faculties offer 59 Bachelor's programs, 133 Master's programs, and 10 postgraduate programs.[15] The university awarded 2,565 propaedeutic, 3,204 Bachelor's, 3,990 Master's, 438 Doctoral, 242 Post-Doctoral degrees in 2009-2010Sony VGP-BPS13B/Q battery, and 10,438 total degrees in 2009-2010.[16] Throughout its long history, professors and alumni at the University of Amsterdam have been honored with numerous research awards including six Nobel Prize winners and seven Spinoza Prize winners.[6] The school's academic year lasts from early September until mid-July and is divided into two 20-week semestersSony VGP-BPS13/Q battery. The first of these ends in late January and the second begins in early February. There are no mid-term breaks, only a short holiday around Christmas and New Year as well as Dutch National holidays.

Student Body

In 2010, the university had an enrollment of 32,739 students: 20,185 undergraduate students, 9,361 master's students, 1,235 doctoral students, and 412 post-doctoral students. Sony VGP-BPS13A/B battery Of all students, 93.4% are Dutch citizens and 6.6% are international students.[3] The UvA has over 2,500 international students and researchers that come from over 100 countries.[5] Full-time students comprised 91% of the student body.[2] In 2010 students were enrolled in 7 faculties and the Amsterdam University College: 24% in Humanities, 13% in Law, 7% in Medicine, 1% in Dentistry, 11% in ScienceSony VGP-BPS13/S battery, 13% in Economics & Business, 30% in Social & Behavioral Sciences, and 0.5% in the Amsterdam University College.[2]

Overall, 20% of students in bachelor's programs complete their degree within three years, 48% in four years, and 69% in five years; 71% of master's students completed their degree in two years.[3] Students on average successfully complete 44 ECTS credits during the academic year. Sony VGP-BPS13/B batteryIn 2007, 88% of master's and doctoral graduates went on to become paying jobs, with an additional 5% going on to continue their education within 1.5 years of graduating.[3]


The university is divided into seven faculties, with each faculty headed by a dean. The faculties include the Faculties of Humanities, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Economics and Business, Science, Law, Medicine, and Dentistry. Students must be admitted to the faculty of their program before beginning their studiesSony VGP-BPS13B/S battery.

[edit]Faculty of Science

The Faculty of Science (Dutch: Faculteit der Natuurwetenschappen, Wiskunde en Informatica) (FNWI) consists of four departments with 1200 researchers and lecturers operating in eight research institutes. The main faculty buildings are located on the Science Park Amsterdam campus. The faculty was ranked number one in the Netherlands and 47th internationally in 2011.[7] In terms of researchSony VGP-BPS13A battery, the faculty produced 1,445 academic publications in 2009.[3]

The Amsterdam Academic Medical Center

Faculty of Humanities

The Faculty of Humanities (Dutch: Faculteit der Geesteswetenschappen) (FGw) comprises six departments: Dutch studies, History, Archaeology and Area studies, Language and Literature, Media studies, Philosophy, and Art, Religion, and Cultural studies. With over 6000 students and about 1000 employees, it is the largest humanities faculty in the NetherlandsSony VGP-BPS13A/S battery. It was established in 1997 after a merger of the Faculty of Language and Culture, the Faculty of Theology and the Faculty of Philosophy. In 2011, the faculty was ranked number one in the Netherlands for Philosophy and Linguistics with international ranking in these areas of 37th and 22nd respectively.[7] In terms of research, the faculty produced 726 academic publications in 2009. Sony VGP-BPS13AS battery

Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences

The Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences (Dutch: Faculteit der Maatschappij- en Gedragswetenschappen) (FMG) is the largest educational and research institution in the social and behavioural sciences in the Netherlands. The faculty has approximately 10,000 students and 1,200 staff members. The Faculty is home to six departments: Political Science, Sociology and AnthropologySony VGP-BPS13S battery, Communication Science, Psychology, Social Geography, Planning and International Development Studies, and Educational sciences. The faculty was ranked the best in the Netherlands in 2011 for Sociology and Geography with international rankings in these areas of 33rd and 40th respectively. In terms of research, the faculty produced 1,366 academic publications in 2009Sony VGP-BPS13A/Q battery.

Faculty of Economics and Business

The words Athenaeum Illustre on the gate of the Agnietenkapel refer to the university's predecessor.

The Faculty of Economics and Business (Dutch: Faculteit Economie en Bedrijfskunde) (FEB) was established in 1922. The FEB, which includes the Amsterdam School of Economics (ASE) and the Amsterdam Business School (ABS), currently has around 4,000 students and nearly 600 staffSony VGP-BPS13A/R battery. It was ranked 44th in Economics & Econometrics and 45 in Accountancy & Finance among world universities. In terms of research, the faculty produced 517 academic publications in 2009.[3]

Faculty of Law

The Faculty of Law (Dutch: Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid) (FdR) is housed in the Oudemanhuispoort, a historic building dating from 1602 situated in the center of Amsterdam. It has approximately 3,500 students and 350 staff membersSony VGP-BPS13AB battery. The Faculty offers eight LLM programs, of which two are taught in English. In addition the Faculty offers three advanced LLM programs, which are all taught in English. Research at the Faculty is undertaken by five research institutes which specialize in the following areas: International law, Private law, Environmental law, Labor law, and Information law. In terms of research, the faculty produced 412 academic publications in 2009Sony VGP-BPS13B battery.

Faculty of Medicine

The Faculty of Medicine (Dutch: Faculteit der Geneeskunde) (FdG), each year, approximately 350 first-year students begin their study of medicine at the Academic Medical Center. The first, four-year phase consists mainly of thematic teaching. The second, two-year phase consists of training internships in and outside of the AMC. In terms of research, the faculty produced 3,206 academic publications in 2009Sony VGP-BPS13B/B battery.

Faculty of Dentistry

The Academic Center for Dentistry in Amsterdam (Dutch: Faculteit der Tandheelkunde) (ACTA) was founded in 1984 through a merger of the two dentistry faculties of the Universiteit of Amsterdam and the Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam. ACTA conducts scientific research, teaches, and provides patient care in the field of dentistrySony VGP-BPL21 battery. ACTA is one of the largest dentistry education and training programs in the world, with 500 staff members, an annual new-student enrollment of 128 and a total student body of 1000. It consists of three departments. In terms of research, the faculty produced 228 academic publications in 2009.[3]

University rankings

On a subject basis the QS World University Rankings ranked the university 29th in Arts & Humanities, 69th in Natural SciencesSony VGP-BPS21 battery, 123rd in Engineering & IT, and 15th in the Life Sciences. In five areas, the university was ranked 1st among Dutch universities in the 2011 QS World University Rankings by Subject and was ranked in the top 50 internationally in seven fields. This includes Linguistics (22nd worldwide), Sociology (33rd), Philosophy (37th), Geography (40th), Science (47th), Economics & Econometrics (44th), Sony VGP-BPS21A battery and Accountancy & Finance (45th). QS rated areas within the disciplines of Social Sciences, Engineering & Technology, Life Sciences & Medicine, Natural Science, and Arts and Humanities. Of the 21 subjects studied, the UvA had 20 in the top 100.[7]

The Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranked the University of Amsterdam 30th in Arts & HumanitiesSony VGP-BPS21B battery and 40th in Social Sciences, making it the highest ranking Dutch university in these fields and the highest ranking continental European university in the Social Sciences.[24] The CHE Excellence Ranking rated the school excellent in all seven categories for research, making it the only Dutch institution to accomplish this distinction.[25] According to the Research Performance Index, also known as the High Impact Universities ranking, the UvA ranked 65th in the world for ArtsSony VGP-BPS26 Battery, Humanities, Business, and Social Sciences, 43rd for Medicine, 127 for Natural Science and Mathematics, 88th for Engineering and Technology, and 71st for Life Sciences.[19]

The University Library (UBA) is the UvA's main library.

The University of Amsterdam is one of Europe's largest research universities, with over 7,900 scientific publications in 2010.[2] Every year, the UvA spends about €100 million on research via direct funding. It receives an additional €23 million via indirect funding and about €49 million from commercial partners. Sony VGP-BPS26A Battery] Faculty members often receive research prizes and grants, such as those from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO). Research is organized into fifteen research priority areas and 28 research institutes within the faculties oversee this research.

The University of Amsterdam has an extensive central University Library (UBA), with over four million volumes. In addition, a number of departments have their own libraries. The Library of the UvA is located in the city center. It contains over four million booksSony VGP-BPS13 battery(without CD), 70,000 manuscripts, 500,000 letters, and 125,000 maps. In the UBA, one can find the special collections of the Department of Rare and Precious Works, the Manuscript and Writing Museum, the Bibliotheca Rosenthaliana on Jewish history and culture, and the Department of Documentation on Social Movements. Three reading rooms are available for students to study in quiet. Sony VGP-BPS13B/Q battery(without CD)In addition to the main University Library, there are approximately 70 departmental libraries spread throughout the center of Amsterdam. The university's printing arm, the Amsterdam University Press, has a publishing list of over 1,400 titles in both Dutch and English.

In addition to its libraries, the UvA has five museums. These include the Allard Pierson Museum, which houses antiquities from Ancient Egypt, Ancient GreeceSony VGP-BPS13/Q battery(without CD), the Near East, and central Italy during the time between 4000 BCE and 500 CE; the University Museum, with collections showing the history of the Uva from 1632 until present; the Museum Vrolik, which houses anatomical, zoological and teratological specimens; The J.A. Dortmond Museum of Script which has exhibits showing the history of writing in the West from 3000 BCE to todaySony VGP-BPS13A/B battery(without CD); the UvA Computer Museum which houses displays showing how computers of the past worked and how calculations were made before the presence of the electronic computer; the Zoological Museum Amsterdam at the Amsterdam Artis Zoo contains collection of millions of shells, insects, mammals, birds, fishes and other animals used in scientific research. Sony VGP-BPS13/S battery(without CD)

An ancient Egyptian sarcophagus in the Allard Pierson Museum dating from around 1000 BCE


As a metropolitan institution, the University of Amsterdam has always been housed in old and new buildings scattered throughout the capital. Because the UvA is not a separate, secluded campus, students and native Amsterdamers readily mix, which allows Amsterdam to maintain close cultural and academic ties to the schoolSony VGP-BPS13/B battery(without CD). The majority of the UvA's buildings lie in the heart of Amsterdam, with only the faculties of Science, Medicine and Dentistry located outside the City Centre. The university lies within the largest megalopolis in the Netherlands, the Randstad, with a population 7.2 million inhabitants. Sony VGP-BPS13B/S battery(without CD)

City Center

The administration of the school, most of the faculties, and the majority of student housing are located in the historic City Centre of Amsterdam, within the canal ring which is itself a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The facilities in this area date from as early as the 15th century to the 21st-century. Architectural styles represented include the Dutch RenaissanceSony VGP-BPS13A battery(without CD), Dutch Baroque, Art Deco, Amsterdam School, and International style. The Agnietenkapel, Maagdenhuis, Oost-Indisch Huis, Bushuis, and Oudemanhuispoort are designated as Rijksmonuments (national monuments). The 15th century Agnietenkapel, where the university was founded was first constructed as a monastery chapel around 1470, but was later converted for use by the Athenaeum Illustre in 1631Sony VGP-BPS13A/S battery(without CD). The Agnes Gate in front of the Agnietenkapel is a major symbol of the university and dates back to 1571. It was renovated and moved to its current location in 1631.[30] Another area is a former hospital converted into university buildings, the Binnengasthuis, which is considered the heart of the UvA. The Maagdenhuis is the current headquarters of the UvA and HvA administration. The building was built between 1783–1787 and was formerly an orphanage. Sony VGP-BPS13AS battery(without CD)The Oost-Indisch Huis, the former headquarters of the Dutch East India Company was built in 1606 and now used by the UvA. The Oudemanhuispoort was made a university building in 1880. It was constructed in 1602 as a retirement house and now houses the Faculty of Law.[32] One of the buildings of the University Library complex, the Bushuis, was built as an armory in 1606Sony VGP-BPS13S battery(without CD).

The Faculty of Science at Science Park

Science Park

The Faculty of Science is located on the east side of the city at the newly constructed Science Park Amsterdam. This 70 hectare campus contains the UvA's science facilities, research institutes, student housing, the University Sports Centre, and businesses. In order to attract distinguished students and researchers, the campus was built by collaboration between the University of Amsterdam, the City of AmsterdamSony VGP-BPS13A/Q battery(without CD), and the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research. In 2012, the Amsterdam University College will also be housed here.

[edit]Academic Medical Center

In the southeastern Bijlmermeer neighborhood, the Faculty of Medicine is housed in the Academic Medical Center (AMC), the Faculty of Medicine's teaching and research hospital. It was formed in 1983 when the UvA Faculty of Medicine and two hospitals, Binnengasthuis and the Wilhelmina Gasthuis, combined. Shortly after in 1988Sony VGP-BPS13A/R battery(without CD), the Emma Children's Hospital also moved to the AMC. It is one of Amsterdam's level 1 trauma centers and strongly cooperates with the VU University Medical Center (VUmc).

[edit]Academic Center for Dentistry Amsterdam

The Faculty of Dentistry is located in the Academic Center for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA) in the southern Zuidas district on the campus of the VU University Medical Center. It was formed when the University of Amsterdam and the Vrije Universiteit combined their Dentistry schools in 1984Sony VGP-BPS13AB battery(without CD).

Organization and administration

The Maagdenhuis houses the administration of the UvA and HvA.

The UvA is headed by an Executive Board that is charged with jointly governing the University of Amsterdam and the UvA's partner institution, the Hogeschool van Amsterdam. The university is then divided into seven faculties, with each faculty headed by a dean. Teaching and research are carried out in various departments and institutes within the individual facultiesSony VGP-BPS13B battery(without CD). The UvA has an endowment of €613.5 million (approximately $856.1 million),[3] giving it the second-largest university endowment in the Netherlands.

The University of Amsterdam works in close collaboration with the Hogeschool van Amsterdam, allowing students from the UvA and HvA to take classes at both schools through an integrated curriculum. In addition, the University of Amsterdam and VU University jointly preside over the Amsterdam University College (AUC) Sony VGP-BPS13B/B battery(without CD), an interuniversity institute that offers a three-year Bachelor (Honors) program in the Liberal Arts and Sciences.

International cooperation

The intellectual and cultural atmosphere at the UvA is internationally oriented. Amsterdam attracts students from the Netherlands and beyond: with over 2,500 international students and researchers from over 100 countriesSony VGP-BPL21 battery(without CD).

Close ties are harbored with other institutions internationally through its membership in the League of European Research Universities (LERU), the Institutional Network of the Universities from the Capitals of Europe (UNICA), European University Association (EUA), the International Student Exchange Program (ISEP), and Universitas 21Sony VGP-BPS21 battery(without CD).

The UvA has an extensive network of foreign partner universities, facilitating student and staff exchanges. Within Europe the UvA has Socrates/Erasmus exchange agreements with over 200 institutions. Outside Europe, it has close ties with approximately 40 universities on all continents.

Student lifeSony VGP-BPS21A battery(without CD)

The CREA Cultural Center

At the UvA, students can choose from many student organizations, athletic activities, and student services. These include the ASVA Student Union, CREA Cultural Center, the newly constructed University Sports Center, and the Agora and Atrium student restaurants. In addition, the university provides religious services, career counseling, the International Student Network (ISN), counseling, disability services, and student health servicesSony VGP-BPS21B battery(without CD). The students are represented in the different faculty student councils and the central student council.

The University Sports Center (USC) offers over 50 sports activities at discount rates for UvA students and staff including Ice skating, tennis, rowing, aerobics, swimming, dancing, golf, and even skiingSony VGP-BPS14/B Battery.

The CREA Cultural Center organizes courses, working groups and projects in drama, music, dance, photography, film, and visual arts. It also contains a bar and a theater.

Student housing in the western Houthaven neighborhood.

The primary mode of transport for students is by bicycle.[36] The city of Amsterdam also has various public transportation options available to students. These include the Metro, trams, nightbusses, and ferriesSony VGP-BPS14B Battery.

Student housing

The university offers student housing through non-profit Housing Corporations not owned by the UvA. The Housing Corporations offer apartment-style housing in the City Center, Zuid, Oost, West, Zuid-Oost, and Amsterdam-Noord bouroghs of Amsterdam as well as in the suburb of Diemen. Single rooms with private facilities (kitchen, bathroom), single rooms with shared facilities, shared rooms with shared facilities, and couples rooms are availableSony VGP-BPS14/S Battery. Students of the opposite sex are permitted to be roommates in all types of rooms except for those with shared bathrooms. Rooms are anywhere from a few minutes to 45 minutes bike ride to the City Center.

Notable people and alumni

Professors and alumni of the University of Amsterdam have included six Nobel Prize winners and seven Spinoza Prize winners. Sony VGP-BPL14/B Battery

Notable current and former professors include winner of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1911 Tobias Asser, mathematician Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer, winner of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1901 Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff, winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1910 Johannes Diderik van der Waals, winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1902 Pieter Zeeman, Sony VGP-BPL14 Battery and winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1953 Frits Zernike.

Alumni in the Science area include winner of the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1929 Christiaan Eijkman,[43] inventor of DNA fingerprinting Alec Jeffreys, physician and one of the founding fathers of gynecology in the Netherlands M.A. Mendes de Leon, astrophysicist and Dutch communist Anton Pannekoek, Sony VGP-BPL14B Batterystring theorist Erik Verlinde, and Dutch botanist Hendrik de Wit. Alumni in the area of Politics include former Prime Ministers Pieter Cort van der Linden and Joop den Uyl, former President of the European Central Bank, Minister of Finance, and President of the Central Bank of the Netherlands Wim Duisenberg,[50] Member of the European Parliament Thijs Berman, former Secretary General of NATO Joseph Luns, Sony VGP-BPL14/S Battery Senate group leader of the Labour Party and former trade union leader Marleen Barth,[53] president of OHIM Wubbo de Boer, former Minister of Defence and former European Commissioner for Internal Market & Services Frits Bolkestein, former Minister of Health, Welfare and Sport Els Borst,[56] state secretary of Health, Welfare and Sport Jet Bussemaker, Minister of HousingSony VGP-BPS14 Battery, Spatial Planning and the Environment Jacqueline Cramer, Minister of Foreign Trade within the Economic Affairs Frank Heemskerk, Minister of Justice Ernst Hirsch Ballin, Minister of the Interior and Kingdom Relations Guusje ter Horst, former Minister of Social Affairs and Employment and currently deputy director of UNDP Ad Melkert, and Minister of Education, Culture and Science Ronald Plasterk. Sony VGP-BPL15/B Battery In the area of the Arts, notable alumni include cultural analyst Ien Ang, writers Menno ter Braak, Willem Frederik Hermans, J. Slauerhoff, and Simon Vestdijk, Emmy award-winning producer Michael W. King, and Roman law specialist Boudewijn Sirks. In the Media area, alumni include Thomas von der Dunk, Dutch cultural historian, writer, and columnist. Alumni in the area of Sports area include Max Euwe, 1935–1937 World Chess ChampionSony VGP-BPS15/B Battery.

Monash University (or simply Monash) is a public university based in Melbourne, Victoria. It was founded in 1958 and is the second oldest university in the state. Monash is a member of Australia's Group of Eight and the ASAIHL.

Monash enrolls approximately 39,000 undergraduate and 16,000 graduate students,[2] making it the university with the largest student body in Australia. It also has more applicants than any university in the state of Victoria. Sony VGP-BPL15/S Battery

Monash is home to major research facilities, including the Australian Synchrotron, the Monash Science Technology Research and Innovation Precinct (STRIP), the Australian Stem Cell Centre, 100 research centres[4] and 17 co-operative research centres. In 2008, Monash University attracted more than $210 million of research investment and grants from various Government bodies and external organisationsSony VGP-BPS15/S Battery.

The university has eight campuses, six of which are Victoria (Clayton, Caulfield, Berwick, Peninsula, Parkville, and Gippsland), one in Malaysia, and one in South Africa.[6] Monash also has a research and teaching centre in Prato, Italy, and a graduate research school in Mumbai, India.

HistorySony VGP-BPS15 Battery

Main article: History of Monash University


Monash University is a commissioned Victorian university. It was established by an Act of the State Parliament of Victoria in 1958 as a result of the Murray Report which was commissioned in 1957 by then Prime Minister Robert Menzies to establish the second university in the state of Victoria. The university was named after the prominent Australian general Sir John MonashSony VGP-BPS18 battery. This was the first time in Australia that a university had been named after a person, rather than a city, region or state.[9]

One of the lakes at the University's main campus, Clayton

The original campus was in the south-eastern Melbourne suburb of Clayton (falling in what is now the City of Monash). The first University Council, led by Monash's first Chancellor Sir Robert Blackwood, selected Sir Louis MathesonSony VGP-BPS22 Battery, to be the first Vice-Chancellor of Monash University, a position he held until 1976. The University was granted an expansive site of 100 hectares of open land in Clayton.[10] The 100 hectares of land consists of the former Talbot Epileptic Colony.[11]

From its first intake of 347 students at Clayton on 13 March 1961, the university grew rapidly in size and student numbers so that by 1967, it had enrolled more than 21,000 students since its establishment.[citation needed] In its early years Sony VPCCA15FA/B Battery, it offered undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in engineering, medicine, science, arts, economics, politics, education and law. It was a major provider for international student places under the Colombo Plan, which saw the first Asian students enter the Australian education systemSony VPCCA15FA/G Battery.

In its early years of teaching, research and administration, Monash was not disadvantaged by entrenched traditional practices. Monash was able to adopt modern approaches without resistance from those who preferred the status quo. A modern administrative structure was set up; Australia's first research centres and scholarships devoted to Indigenous Australians were established, andSony VPCEH1AJ Battery, thanks to Monash's entirely new facilities, students in wheelchairs could enrol.

1970s onwards

From the mid-1960s to the early 1970s, Monash became the centre of student radicalism in Australia.[12][13] It was the site of many mass student demonstrations, particularly concerning Australia's role in Vietnam War and conscription.[14] By the late 1960s, several student organisations, some of which were influenced by or supporters of communism, turned their focus to Vietnam, with numerous blockades and sit-insSony VPCEH1E1E Battery.

In the late 1970s and 1980s, Monash's most publicised research came through its pioneering of in-vitro fertilisation (IVF). Led by Professors Carl Wood and Alan Trounson, the Monash IVF Program achieved the world's first clinical IVF pregnancy in 1973.[16] In 1980, they delivered the first IVF baby in Australia. This eventually became a massive source of revenue for the University at a time when university funding in Australia was beginning to slow downSony VPCEH1J1E Battery.

In the late 1980s, the Dawkins Reforms changed the landscape of higher education in Australia. Under the leadership of Vice-Chancellor Mal Logan, Monash transformed dramatically. In 1988, Monash University had only one campus, Clayton, with around 15, 000 students.[18] Just over a decade later, it had 8 campuses (including 2 overseas), a European research and teaching centreSony VPCEH1J8E Battery, and more than 50,000 students, making it the largest and most internationalised Australian university.

Expansion in the 1990s

The expansion began in 1990, with a series of mergers between Monash, the Chisholm Institute of Technology, and the Gippsland Institute of Advanced Education. In 1991 a merger with the Victorian College of Pharmacy created a new faculty of the University. Monash University's expansion continued in 1994, with the establishment of the Berwick campus. Sony VPCEH1L0E Battery

In 1998, the University opened the Malaysia campus, its first overseas campus and the first foreign university in Malaysia. In 2001, Monash South Africa opened its doors in Johannesburg, making Monash the first foreign university in South Africa. The same year, the University secured an 18th Century Tuscan Palace to open a research and teaching centre in Prato, ItalySony VPCEH1L8E Battery.

At the same time, Australian universities faced unprecedented demand for international student places, which Monash met on a larger scale than most, to the point that today around 30% of its students are from outside Australia.[20] Today, Monash students come from over 100 different countries, and speak over 90 different languages. The increase in international studentsSony VPCEH1L9E Battery, combined with its expansion, meant that Monash's income skyrocketed throughout the 1990s, and it is now one of Australia's top 200 exporters.

2000 onwards

A panoramic view of Robert Menzies Building in Clayton Campus

In recent years, the University has been prominent in medical research. A highlight of this came in 2000, when Professor Alan Trounson led the team of scientists which first announced to the world that nerve stem cells could be derived from embryonic stem cellsSony VPCEH1M1E Battery, a discovery which led to a dramatic increase in interest in the potential of stem cells. It has also led to Monash being ranked in the top 20 universities in the world for biomedicine.

For more details on this topic, see Monash University shooting.

On 21 October 2002 Huan Yun "Allen" Xiang, a paranoid delusional man, shot two people dead and injured five others on the Clayton campus.

On 30 May 2008, Monash University celebrated its 50th Anniversary. Sony VPCEH1M9E Battery

The current Vice-Chancellor and President of Monash University is Professor Edward Byrne AO (since 6 July 2009).[1]

The Australian Synchrotron is located at the University's Clayton Campus

The Clayton campus covers an area over 1.1 km² and is the largest of the Monash campuses. Clayton is the flagship campus for Monash, demanding higher ATAR (Australian Tertiary Admission Rank) scores than all the other campuses, with the exception of Parkville. Clayton is home to the faculties of Arts, Business & Economics, EducationSony VPCEH1S0E Battery, Engineering, IT, Law, Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences and Science. The Clayton campus has its own suburb and postcode (3800).

Various major scientific research facilities are located on or adjacent to the campus. Chief among these are the Australian Synchrotron[26] and the CSIRO.

The campus is also home to numerous restaurants and retail outlets, as well as student bars Sir John's (located in the Campus Centre) and the Notting Hill Hotel (founded in 1891),[27] both of which are hubs of social life on the campus.Sony VPCEH1S1E Battery

The campus is also home to a number of halls of residence, colleges and other on-campus accommodation that house several thousand students. Six halls of residence are located at the Clayton campus in Clayton, Victoria. There is an additional private residential college affiliated with the UniversitySony VPCEH1S8E Battery.

Halls of Residence

Howitt Hall is the tallest Monash residential building, standing 12 stories high, with a good view of the other halls and the university. Howitt Hall is the third oldest hall, and was opened in September 1966. The hall is named after Alfred Howitt, a scholar and prominent figure in early GippslandSony VPCEH1S9E Battery.

Farrer Hall is divided into two buildings, Commons and Lords, with an annex to Commons called Chastity which is located above the common room. The Hall has more focus on floors, with kitchens, laundries and common rooms shared across them. The hall is named after William Farrer, who developed many strains of wheat suited to Australian conditionsSony VPCEH1Z1E Battery.

Richardson Hall (Richo) is the newest of the Halls of Residence at Monash University. Richardson is home to 190 residents. Richardson has been known as the "International Hall"[citation needed] to residents of other halls, due to the high numbers of international students residing in Richardson. The hall is named after Ethel Florence Lindesay Richardson, a prominent Australian author who adopted the male pseudonym Henry Handel RichardsonSony VPCEH24FX/B Battery.

Deakin Hall was the first residence hall established at Monash University in Australia, in September 1962.[29] The residence hall was named after Alfred Deakin, Prime Minister from 1903–1910 and father of the Australian Constitution.

Roberts Hall is named after Tom Roberts, an Australian artist who was affectionately known as "the bulldog". The mascot of Roberts Hall is a bulldog in recognition of thisSony VPCEH2C0E Battery.

Mannix College is a residential college affiliated with Monash,[30] located near the south-western corner of the university's Clayton campus, adjacent to the Monash Clayton bus interchange. It is made up of two wings of dormitories, Hoevers and Fitzgerald, each with three levels and approximately 40 students per floor - giving a total student residence of approximately 240. Mannix is the only on-campus residence to provide fully catered board and lodgingSony VPCEH2D0E Battery.

H Building on the Caulfield campus in Victoria, Australia

The Caulfield campus is Monash University's second largest. Its multifaceted nature is reflected in the range of programs it offers through the faculties of Arts, Art & Design, Business & Economics, Information Technology and Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences. A major building program has been announced, to expand teaching facilities, provide student accommodation and redevelop the shopping centreSony VPCEH2E0E Battery.

Other Australian campuses

One of Monash's newest, Berwick campus was built on the old Casey airfield in the south-eastern growth corridor of Victoria, Australia. The town of Berwick has experienced an influx of people and development in recent times, which includes the new campus of Monash University. With a presence in the area since 1994, the first Monash Berwick campus building was completed in 1996 and the third building in March 2004Sony VPCEH2F1E Battery. It is situated on a 55-hectare site in the City of Casey, one of the three fastest growing municipalities in Australia

The Gippsland campus is home to 2,000 on-campus students, 5,000 off-campus students and nearly 400 staff. The campus sits in the Latrobe Valley town of Churchill, 142 km east of Melbourne on 63 hectares of landscaped groundsSony VPCEH2H1E Battery. It is the only non-metropolitan campus of Monash University. The campus offers many undergraduate degrees, and attracts many students from the Latrobe Valley, East and West Gippsland. The Gippsland Medical School, offering postgraduate-entry Bachelor of Medicine / Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) courses was officially opened by the Federal Minister for Health and Ageing, Nicola Roxon on 5 June 2008Sony VPCEH2J1E Battery, providing students with a unique opportunity to learn medicine in a rural setting working with rural practitioners.

The Parkville campus is situated in the Melbourne suburb of Parkville, around 2 km north of the Melbourne CBD on Royal Parade. The campus is the home of the Faculty of Pharmacy and Phamaceutical Sciences. The faculty specialises in the areas of formulation science and medicinal chemistry and offers the Bachelor of Pharmacy and Bachelor of Pharmaceutical Science undergraduate degreesSony VPCEH2L9E Battery, the latter replacing the Bachelor of Formulation Science in 2007 and the Bachelor of Medicinal Chemistry in 2008. Double degrees are also offered including the Bachelor of Pharmacy/Commerce with the Business and Economics faculty at Clayton, and also the Bachelor of Engineering/Pharmaceutical Science with the Engineering faculty. It also offers postgraduate degreesSony VPCEH2M1E Battery.

The Peninsula campus has a teaching and research focus on health and wellbeing, and is a hub of undergraduate and postgraduates studies in Nursing, Health Science, Physiotherapy and Psychology - and particularly in Emergency Health (Paramedic) courses.

The campus is located in the bayside suburb of Frankston on the edge of Melbourne. Peninsula campus also offers a range of courses including those from its historic roots with early childhood and primary education Sony VPCEH2M9E Battery (during the 1960s and 1970s the campus was the State Teachers' College), and Business & Economics (since the merger of the State Teachers' College with the Caulfield Institute of Technology to create the Chisholm Institute of Technology in 1982). The campus was also home to the Peninsula School of Information Technology, which in 2006 was wound back with Information Technology units previously offered being relocated to the Caulfield campusSony VPCEH2N1E Battery.

Overseas campuses

The Monash University Sunway campus opened in 1998 in Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia. The Sunway campus offers various undergraduate degrees through its faculties of Medicine and Health Sciences, Engineering, Information Technology, Business, and Arts and Sciences. It is currently home to almost 4,000 studentsSony VPCEH2P0E Battery. The new purpose-built campus opened in 2007, providing a high-tech home for Monash in Malaysia. In addition to a wide range of undergraduate degrees, the campus also offers both postgraduate Masters and PhD programs. Its degrees in Medicine and Surgery are the first medical degrees outside Australia and New Zealand to be accredited by the Australian Medical CouncilSony VPCEH2Q1E Battery.

Monash South Africa is situated on the western outskirts of Johannesburg, and opened its doors in 2001. A new learning commons opened in 2007, and, in early 2008, new housing will mean the campus will be able to provide secure on-campus accommodation for 1,000 students. The campus offers undergraduate courses from the faculties of business and economics, arts and ITSony VPCEH2S9E Battery.

Il Duomo di Prato, in the town's main piazza, is about 100 metres from the Monash Prato Centre

The Monash University Prato Centre is located in the 18th Century Palace, Palazzo Vaj, in the historic centre of Prato, a city near Florence in Italy. Primarily, it hosts students from Monash's other campuses for semesters in Law, Art and Design, History, MusicSony VPCEH2Z1E Battery, as well as various international conferences. The Department of Business Law and Taxation, in the Faculty of Business and Economics also runs subjects in Prato. It was officially opened on 17 September 2001 as part of the University's vigorous internationalisation policy.[32]

The IITB-Monash Research Academy opened in 2008 and is situated in Mumbai, India.[8] It is a partnership between Monash and the Indian Institute of Technology BombaySony VPCEH3B1E Battery. It aims to carry out high impact research in engineering and sciences, particularly clean energy, biotechnology and nanotechnology. Students undertake their research in both India and Australia, with supervisors from both Monash and IITB. Upon graduating, they receive a dual PhD from the two institutions.[33] In the month following its official opening, 36 joint projects had commenced, with a further several hundred planned. Construction of a new $5m facility began in November 2008.Sony VPCEH3D0E Battery

Monash has the highest demand for places among high school graduates of any university in Victoria.[35] In 2009, one in four applicants put Monash as their first preference.[36] This equates to more than 15,000 first preferences from Victorian high school leavers.

The Good Universities Guide places the Clayton, Caulfield, Parkville and Peninsula campuses in the category of universities which are most difficult to gain admission to in Australia, with each campus receiving an Entry Standards mark of 5/5Sony VPCEH3N1E Battery.

Of the top 5% of high school graduates in Victoria, more choose Monash than any other institution. In 2010, almost half of the top 5% of high school leavers chose to attend Monash - the highest of any Victorian university by q

uite some margin.[38] In 2009, among students with a "perfect" ENTER score of 99.95 (i.e. students in the top 0.05% of high school applicants), 63 made an application for MonashSony VPCEH3N6E Battery.


Monash is divided into 10 faculties. These incorporate the University's major departments of teaching and research centres.

Notable interdisciplinary research centres include:

Monash University Accident Research Centre

Monash Centre for Synchrotron Science

Various other academic organisations exist alongside the faculties and research centres. Monash College provides students with an alternative point of entry to Monash University.[40] The institution offers pathway studies for students who endeavour to undertake studies at one of Monash's campuses. The College's specialised undergraduate diplomas Sony VPCEH3T9E Battery (Diploma Part 2 is equivalent to first-year university) provide an alternative entry point into more than 60 Monash University bachelor degrees, taught intensively in smaller classes and an environment overall similar to that offered by the university. Monash College offers programs in several countries throughout the world, with colleges located in Australia (Melbourne), China (Guangzhou), Indonesia (Jakarta), Singapore and Sri Lanka (Colombo) Sony VPCEJ15FG/B Battery.

R1 refers to Australian and overseas Academics' rankings in tables 3.1–3.7 of the report. R2 refers to the Articles and Research rankings in tables 5.1–5.7 of the report. No. refers to the number of institutions in the table against which Monash is compared.

Other rankings:

The Monash Clayton campus was ranked number 1 in Australia for student experience by the National Union of Students of Australia in 2007Sony VPCEJ1E1E Battery

In life sciences and biomedicine, Monash was ranked 25th best in the world by Times Higher Education in 2009

In social sciences, it was ranked 26th best in the world by Times Higher Education in 2009

In the employer review category, in which employers rate the quality of a university's graduates, Times Higher Education ranked Monash 15th best in the world in 2008.[52]

In the international students category, Times Higher Education ranked Monash 17th best in the world in 2008. Sony VPCEJ1J1E Battery

The Monash MBA was ranked number 1 in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit in the category of "personal development and educational experience"[54]

The Monash Faculty of Business and Economics School was ranked number 1 in Australia by Webometrics in 2010 (July Ranking).[55]

Monash University chemistry ranks top 75 in the world and number 1 in Australia according to ARWU's ranking. Sony VPCEJ1L1E Battery

In 2010, the Australian Government's Learning and Teaching Performance Fund recognised the Monash Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences as the best in Australia.[57]

According to 2012 Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) subject area rankings, Monash ranked 6th in the world for pharmacology and pharmacy, 15th for law and 16th for education. Sony VPCEJ1M1E Battery


Monash University Library

Monash University Library currently operates several libraries at all of its campuses, spanning over 3 continents. Monash University Library has over 3.2 million items.

[edit]Rare Books Collection

Located at the Sir Louis Matheson Library on the Clayton Campus, the Rare Books Collection consists of over 100,000 items, valued because of their age, uniqueness or physical beauty, which can be accessed by Monash staff and students. Sony VPCEJ1S1E Battery The collection was started in 1961 when the University Librarian purchased original manuscripts by Jonathan Swift and some of his contemporaries. The Collection now consists of a range of items including photography, children's books, 15th-17th century English and French literature, original manuscripts and pamphlets. A variety of exhibitions are hosted throughout the year in the Rare Books area. Sony VPCEJ1Z1E Battery

[edit]Monash University Museum of Art

The Monash University Museum of Art (MUMA) was founded in 1961 and is located on the University's Caulfield Campus.[63] The establishment of the Museum reflected a desire by the University's founders for students to obtain a broad education, including an appreciation and understanding of the arts. Its collection has now grown to over 1500 works, Sony VPCEJ2B1E Battery including a variety of items from artists such as Arthur Boyd, William Dobell, Sidney Nolan, Howard Arkley, Tracey Moffatt, John Perceval, Fred Williams and Bill Henson. While the gallery's focus is on Australian art, it houses a number of international works and exhibitions. It hosts regular exhibitions which are open to Monash students and staff, as well as the general public.[65] The current Curator of the Museum is Geraldine BarlowSony VPCEJ2D1E Battery.

The Monash Art and Design Faculty at Caulfield Campus

[edit]Switchback Gallery

The Switchback Gallery was opened in 1995 in the landscaped gardens of the University's Gippsland Campus, and has become a cultural focal point for the region. It hosts a diverse range of exhibitions each year, from work by Monash students, to displays by international artists.[67]

[edit]Monash Faculty of Art and Design GallerySony VPCEJ2E1E Battery

The Art and Design Faculty houses its own collection of artwork. It is located at the University's Caulfield campus. Its collection includes a wide range of media including painting, tapestry, printmedia, ceramics, jewellery, photomedia, industrial design, digital media and installation. In addition to being a public gallery, it runs a Visiting Artists program which attracts artists from around the world to spend a year at the gallerySony VPCEJ2J1E Battery.


Monash University Soccer

Sport at Monash University is overseen by Monash Sport, a department of the University which employs over 200 staff.[70] Currently, there are 47 sporting clubs at the University.[71]

Each campus has a range of sporting facilities used by students and staff, including football, cricket, hockey, soccer, rugby and baseball fields; tennis, squash and badminton courts; gyms and swimming pools. The University also has an alpine lodge at Mount BullerSony VPCEJ2L1E Battery.

Monash's sporting teams compete in a range of local and national competitions. Monash sends the largest number of students of any Australian university to the Australian University Games, in which it was Overall Champion in 2008 and 2009.

Facilities at Monash are often used by a range of professional sporting teams. For example, the Australia national association football teamSony VPCEJ2S1E Battery, the Socceroos, used the Clayton and South Africa campuses for training for the 2010 FIFA World Cup.

Colleges and Halls of Residence

Monash Residential Services (MRS) is responsible for co-ordinating the operation of on-campus halls of residence. MRS manages a variety of facilities at all five Australian campuses and South AfricaSony VPCEJ2Z1E Battery.

The following residences are based at the Clayton Campus:

The University of Copenhagen (Danish: Københavns Universitet) is the oldest and second largest university and research institution in Denmark. Founded in 1479 as a studium generale, its the third oldest institution for higher education in Scandinavia after Lund University (1425) and Uppsala University (1477). The university has more than 37,000 studentsSony VPCEJ3T1E Battery, and more than 7,000 employees. The university has several campuses located in and around Copenhagen, with the oldest located in central Copenhagen. Most courses are taught in Danish; however, many courses are also offered in English and a few in German. The university has 2,800 foreign students of which about half are from Nordic countriesSony VPCEJM1E Battery.

The university is a member of the International Alliance of Research Universities (IARU), along with University of Cambridge, University of Oxford, Yale University, The Australian National University, and UC Berkeley, amongst others. The Academic Ranking of World Universities, compiled by Shanghai Jiao Tong University, sees Copenhagen as the leading university in Scandinavia and the 40th ranked university in the world in 2010Sony VPCEL1E1E Battery. It is also ranked 52nd in the 2011 QS World University Rankings. Moreover, In 2010, according to the University Ranking by Academic Performance,[5] the University of Copenhagen is the best university in Denmark and 47th university in the world. The university is generally understood to be one of Europe's leading research institutions. The university has had 8[6] alumni become Nobel laureates and 1 Turing Award recipientSony VPCEL2S1E Battery.

Organization and administration

The university is governed by a board consisting of 11 members: 6 members recruited outside the university form the majority of the board, 2 members are appointed by the scientific staff, 1 member is appointed by the administrative staff, and 2 members are appointed by the university students. The Rector, the prorector and the director of the university is appointed by the university boardSony VPCEL3S1E Battery. The rector in turn appoints directors of the different parts of the central administration and deans of the different faculties. The deans appoint heads of 50 departments. There is no faculty senate and faculty is not involved in the appointment of rector, deans, or department heads. Hence the university has no faculty governance, although there are elected Academic Boards at faculty level who advise the deansSony VPCS11V9E/B Battery.


The Rundetårn (round tower) was used in the 17th century as an observatory by Ole Rømer.

The University of Copenhagen was founded in 1479 and is the oldest university in Denmark. Between the closing of the Studium Generale in Lund in 1536 and the establishment of the University of Aarhus in the late 1920s, it was the only university in DenmarkSony VPCF13M8E/B Battery. The university became a centre of Roman Catholic theological learning, but also had faculties for the study of law, medicine, and philosophy.

The university was closed by the Church in 1531 to stop the spread of Protestantism, and re-established in 1537 by Christian III after the Lutheran Reformation and transformed into an evangelical-Lutheran seminary. Between 1675 and 1788Sony VPCF13Z0E/B Battery, the university introduced the concept of degree examinations. An examination for theology was added in 1675, followed by law in 1736. By 1788, all faculties required an examination before they would issue a degree.

In 1801, under the command of Admiral Horatio Nelson, the British fleet bombarded Copenhagen during the Battle of Copenhagen, destroying most of the university's buildings.[citation needed] By 1836Sony VPCF13ZHJ Battery, however, the new main building of the university was inaugurated amid extensive building that continued until the end of the century. The university library, the Zoological Museum, the Geological Museum, the Botanic Garden with greenhouses, and the Technical College were also established during this period.

Interior of the old university library at Fiolstræde around 1920Sony VPCF148FJ/B Battery.

Between 1842 and 1850, the faculties at the university were restructured. Starting in 1842, the University Faculty of Medicine and the Academy of Surgeons merged to form the Faculty of Medical Science, while in 1848 the Faculty of Law was reorganised and became the Faculty of Jurisprudence and Political Science. In 1850, the Faculty of Mathematics and Science was separated from the Faculty of PhilosophySony VPCF14AHJ Battery.

The first female student was enrolled at the university in 1877. The university underwent explosive growth between 1960 and 1980. The number of students rose from around 6,000 in 1960 to about 26,000 in 1980, with a correspondingly large growth in the number of employees. Buildings built during this time period include the new Zoological Museum, the Hans Christian Ørsted and August Krogh Institutes, the campus centre on Amager IslandSony VPCF14ZHJ Battery, and the Panum Institute.

The Geological Museum.

The new university statute instituted in 1970 involved democratisation of the management of the university. It was modified in 1973 and subsequently applied to all higher education institutions in Denmark. The democratisation was later reversed with the 2003 university reforms. Further change in the structure of the university from 1990 to 1993 made a Bachelor's degree programme mandatory in virtually all subjectsSony VPCF21Z1E/BI Battery.

Also in 1993, the law departments broke off from the Faculty of Social Sciences to form a separate Faculty of Law. In 1994, the University of Copenhagen designated environmental studies, north-south relations, and biotechnology as areas of special priority according to its new long-term plan. Starting in 1996 and continuing to the present, the university planned new buildingsSony VPCF21ZHJ Battery, including for the University of Copenhagen Faculty of Humanities at Amager (Ørestaden), along with a Biotechnology Centre. By 1999, the student population had grown to exceed 35,000, resulting in the university appointing additional professors and other personnel.

The Faculty of Humanities.

In 2003, the revised Danish university law removed faculty, staff and students from the university decision process, creating a top-down control structure that has been described as absolute monarchySony VPCM125AGP Battery, since leaders are granted extensive powers while being appointed exclusively by higher levels in the organization.[9]

In 2005, the Center for Health and Society (Center for Sundhed og Samfund - CSS) opened in central Copenhagen, housing the Faculty of Social Sciences and Institute of Public Health, which until then had been located in various places throughout the citySony VPCM128JC/L Battery. In May 2006, the university announced further plans to leave many of its old buildings in the inner city of Copenhagen, an area that has been home to the university for more than 500 years. The purpose of this has been to gather the university's many departments and faculties on three larger campuses in order to create a bigger, more concentrated and modern student environment with better teaching facilitiesSony VPCM13M1E/L Battery, as well as to save money on rent and maintenance of the old buildings. The concentration of facilities on larger campuses also allows for more inter-disciplinary cooperation; for example, the Departments of Political Science and Sociology are now located in the same facilities at CSS and can pool resources more easily.

In January 2007, the University of Copenhagen merged with the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University and the Danish University of Pharmaceutical ScienceSony VPCM13M1E/P Battery. The two universities are now faculties under the University of Copenhagen, and are now known as the Faculty of Life Sciences and the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences.

In January 2012, the Faculty og Pharmaceutical Sciences and the veterinary third of the Faculty of Life Sciences merged with the Faculty of Health Sciences forming the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences - and the other two thirds of the Faculty of Life Sciences merged with the Faculty of ScienceSony VPCM13M1E/W Battery.


Although many privately owned dormitories (kollegier in Danish) exist in Copenhagen, there are also five which are partially administered by the university. Only students who have passed at least two years of studies are considered for admission. These are normally referred to as the old dormitories, and they consist of Regensen, Elers' Kollegium, Borchs Kollegium, Hassagers Kollegium, and Valkendorfs KollegiumSony VPCS11AVJ Battery.

Contrary to the tradition of most American dormitories, Danish dormitories in general, and the old dormitories in particular, only offer single rooms for rent, meaning no student has to share their room with others.

International reputation

The 2010 Academic Ranking of World Universities[10] published by Shanghai Jiao Tong University ranks the University of Copenhagen as the best university in Denmark and Scandinavia, the 7th best university in Europe, and is #40 in Top 500 World Universities rankings. Sony VPCS12AFJ Battery According to the Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2011, the University of Copenhagen is ranked at 135rd overall[12] in the world and 70th[13] in Europe. In 2011 THE–QS World University Rankings list, the University of Copenhagen was ranked as 52nd.

The university cooperates with universities around the world. In January 2006Sony VPCS12AGJ Battery, the University of Copenhagen entered into a partnership of ten universities, along with the Australian National University, ETH Zürich, National University of Singapore, Peking University, University of California Berkeley, University of Cambridge, University of Oxford, University of Tokyo and Yale University. The partnership is referred to as the International Alliance of Research Universities (IARU) Sony VPCS135EC Battery.

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