Trinity College (Irish: Coláiste na Tríonóide), formally known as the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin, is the sole constituent college of the University of Dublin in Ireland. The college was founded in 1592 as the "mother" of a new university,[Note 1] modelled after the collegiate universities of Oxford and of Cambridge(SONY PCG-5G2L battery), but, unlike these, only one college was ever established; as such, the designations "Trinity College" and "University of Dublin" are usually synonymous for practical purposes. It is one of the seven ancient universities of Britain and Ireland, as well as Ireland's oldest university.
Originally established outside the city walls of Dublin in the buildings of the dissolved Augustinian Priory of All Hallows(SONY PCG-5G3L battery), Trinity College was set up in part to consolidate the rule of the Tudor monarchy in Ireland, and it was seen as the university of the Protestant Ascendancy for much of its history. Although Roman Catholics and Dissenters had been permitted to enter as early as 1793, certain restrictions on their membership of the college remained until 1873 (professorships, fellowships and scholarships were reserved for Protestants), (SONY PCG-F305 battery)and the Catholic Church in Ireland forbade its adherents, without permission from their bishop, from attending until 1970. Women were first admitted to the college as full members in 1904.
Trinity College is now surrounded by Dublin and is located on College Green, opposite the former Irish Houses of Parliament. The college proper occupies 190,000 m2 (47 acres), with many of its buildings ranged around large quadrangles (known as 'squares') and two playing fields. Academically, it is divided into three faculties comprising 24 schools(SONY PCG-5J1L battery), offering degree and diploma courses at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. In 2011, it was ranked by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings as the 117th best university in the world, by the QS World University Rankings as the 65th best, by the Academic Ranking of World Universities as within the 201-300 range, and by all three as the best university in Ireland. (SONY PCG-5J2L battery) The Library of Trinity College is a legal deposit library for Ireland and the United Kingdom, containing over 4.5 million printed volumes and significant quantities of manuscripts (including the Book of Kells), maps and music.
The Book of Kells is the most famous of the volumes in the Trinity College Library. Shown here is the Madonna and Child from Kells (folio 7v) (SONY PCG-5K2L battery).
The first university of Dublin (unrelated to the current university) was created by the Pope in 1311, and had a Chancellor, lecturers and students (granted protection by the Crown) over many years, before coming to an end at the Reformation.
Following this, and some debate about a new university at St. Patrick's Cathedral, in 1592 a small group of Dublin citizens obtained a charter by way of letters patent from Queen Elizabeth[Note 1] incorporating Trinity College at the former site of All Hallows monastery(SONY PCG-5L1L battery), to the south east of the city walls, provided by the Corporation of Dublin. The first Provost of the College was the Archbishop of Dublin, Adam Loftus (after whose former college at Cambridge the institution was named), and he was provided with two initial Fellows, James Hamilton and James Fullerton. Two years after foundation, a few Fellows and students began to work in the new College, which then lay around one small square(SONY PCG-6S2L battery).
During the following fifty years the community increased and endowments, including considerable landed estates, were secured, new fellowships were founded, the books which formed the foundation of the great library were acquired, a curriculum was devised and statutes were framed(SONY PCG-6S3L battery). The founding Letters Patent were amended by succeeding monarchs on a number of occasions, such as by James I (1613) and most notably by Charles I (who established the Board - then the Provost and seven senior Fellows - and reduced the panel of Visitors in size) and supplemented as late as the reign of Queen Victoria (and later still amended by the Oireachtas in 2000) (SONY PCG-6V1L battery).
18th and 19th centuries
The eighteenth century was for the most part peaceful in Ireland, and Trinity College shared in this calm, though at the beginning of the period a few Jacobites and at its end some political radicals perturbed the College authorities. During this century Trinity College was seen as the university of the Protestant Ascendancy. Parliament(SONY PCG-6W1L battery), meeting on the other side of College Green, made generous grants for building. The first building of this period was the Old Library building, begun in 1712, followed by the Printing House and the Dining Hall. During the second half of the century Parliament Square slowly emerged. The great building drive was completed in the early nineteenth century by Botany Bay, the square which derives its name in part from the herb garden it once contained (and which was succeeded by Trinity College's own Botanic Gardens) (SONY PCG-7111L battery). Following early steps in Catholic Emancipation, Roman Catholics were first allowed to apply for admission in 1793, prior to the equivalent change at the University of Cambridge and the University of Oxford. However, until the retirement of Archbishop McQuaid in 1972, the Irish Roman Catholic bishops implemented a general ban on Roman Catholics entering Trinity College, with few exceptions, because of its largely Anglican ethos(SONY PCG-71511M battery).
The nineteenth century was also marked by important developments in the professional schools. The Law School was reorganised after the middle of the century. Medical teaching had been given in the College since 1711, but it was only after the establishment of the school on a firm basis by legislation in 1800, and under the inspiration of one Macartney, (SONY PCG-6W3L battery) that it was in a position to play its full part, with such teachers as Graves and Stokes, in the great age of Dublin medicine. The Engineering School was established in 1842 and was one of the first of its kind in Ireland and Britain.
In December 1845 Denis Caulfield Heron was the subject of a hearing at Trinity College. Heron had previously been examined and, on merit, declared a scholar of the college but had not been allowed to take up his place due to his Catholic religion(SONY PCG-7113L battery). Heron appealed to the Courts which issued a writ of mandamus requiring the case to be adjudicated by the Archbishop of Dublin and the Primate of Ireland. The decision of Richard Whately and John George de la Poer Beresford was that Heron would remain excluded from Scholarship. In 1873, all religious tests were abolished, except for entry to the divinity school and Catholics were accepted as students(SONY PCG-7133L battery).
Women were admitted to Trinity College as full members for the first time in 1904.
In 1907 when the Chief Secretary for Ireland proposed the reconstitution of the University of Dublin. A Dublin University Defence Committee was created and was successful in campaigning against any change to the status quo, while the Catholic bishops' rejection of the idea ensured its failure among the Catholic population(SONY PCG-7Z1L battery). Chief among the concerns of the bishops was the remains of the Catholic University of Ireland, which would become subsumed into a new university, which on account of Trinity College would be part Anglican. Ultimately this episode led to the creation of the National University of Ireland. In the post independence period Trinity College suffered from a cool relationship with the new state. On the 3rd May 1955 the Provost(SONY PCG-7Z2L battery), Mr A.J.McConnell pointed out in a piece in the Irish Times that certain state funded County Council scholarships excluded Trinity College from the list of approved institutions, this he suggested amounted to religious discrimination.
The School of Commerce was established in 1925, and the School of Social Studies in 1934. Also in 1934, the first female professor was appointed(SONY PCG-8Y1L battery).
In 1962 the School of Commerce and the School of Social Studies amalgamated to form the School of Business and Social Studies. In 1969 the several schools and departments were grouped into Faculties as follows: Arts (Humanities and Letters); Business, Economic and Social Studies; Engineering and Systems Sciences; Health Sciences (since October 1977 all undergraduate teaching in dental science in the Dublin area has been located in Trinity College); Science(SONY PCG-8Y2L battery).
In 1970 the Roman Catholic Church, through the then Archbishop of Dublin John Charles McQuaid, lifted its policy of disapproval or even excommunication for Roman Catholics who enrolled without special dispensation. At the same time, the Trinity College authorities invited the appointment of a Roman Catholic chaplain to be based in the college. There are now two such Catholic chaplains(SONY PCG-8Z2L battery).
In the late 1960s, there was a proposal for University College, Dublin, of the National University of Ireland to become a constituent college of a newly reconstituted University of Dublin. This plan, suggested by Brian Lenihan and Donogh O'Malley, was dropped after opposition by Trinity College students(SONY PCG-8Z1L battery).
From 1975, the Colleges of Technology that now form the Dublin Institute of Technology had their degrees conferred by the University of Dublin. This arrangement was discontinued in 1998 when the DIT obtained degree-granting powers of its own.
The School of Pharmacy was established in 1977 and around the same time, the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine was transferred to University College, Dublin. Student numbers increased sharply during the 1980s and 1990s, with total enrolment more than doubling, leading to pressure on resources(SONY PCG-7112L battery).
Trinity College is today in the centre of Dublin, and constantly continues to grow and develop its academic and other activities. At the beginning of the new century, it embarked on a radical overhaul of academic structures to reallocate funds and reduce administration costs, resulting in, for instance, the mentioned reduction from six to three faculties. The ten-year strategic plan prioritises four research themes with which Trinity College seeks to compete for funding at the global level(SONY PCG-6W2L battery).
Interior courtyard of the modern Goldsmith Hall campus residence
Trinity College retains a strong collegiate and "campus" atmosphere despite its location in the centre of a capital city (and despite its being one of the most significant tourist attractions in Dublin). This is in large part due to the compact design of the campus, whose main buildings look inwards, and the existence of only a few public entrances(SONY PCG-5K1L battery). The main college grounds are approximately 190,000 m2 (47 acres), including the Trinity College Enterprise Centre nearby, and buildings account for around 200,000 m², ranging from works of older architecture to modern facilities. The campus was ranked by Forbes as the 6th most beautiful in the world(SONY VGP-BPL2 battery).
Trinity College contains many buildings of architectural merit, especially from the 18th and 19th centuries. These include the Chapel and Examination Hall designed by Sir William Chambers and the Museum Building designed by the Irish architects Thomas Newenham Deane and Benjamin Woodward(SONY VGP-BPL4 battery).
In addition to the city centre campus, Trinity College also incorporates the Faculty of Health Sciences buildings located at St James's Hospital and the Adelaide and Meath incorporating the National Children's Hospital, Tallaght. The Trinity Centre at St James's Hospital incorporates additional teaching rooms as well as the Institute of Molecular Medicine and John Durkan Leukaemia Institute(SONY VGP-BPL5A battery).
There are approximately 700 college rooms available for students in residences such as Goldsmith Hall. The largest residence outside the college is Trinity Hall[Note 2] on Dartry Road in Rathmines, four km to the south of the college, but large numbers secure accommodation external to the college. Foreign and exchange students are given priority when rooms are allocated(SONY VGP-BPS2 battery).
Organisation and administration
The College, officially incorporated as The Provost, Fellows and Scholars of the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin, has been headed by the Provost, Patrick Prendergast since 2011.
The College and the University
See also: Organisation of the University of Dublin
Statue of former provost George Salmon (by John Hughes) and the Campanile, both in Parliament Square
Trinity College and the University of Dublin have a complex relationship, and while a "difference or distinction" between the two is often asserted(SONY VGP-BPS3 battery), it has also been said that they are "one body" – this was the finding of the High Court of Justice of Ireland delivered by the then Master of the Rolls in Ireland, Andrew Maxwell Porter, on 2 June 1888, which reviews a legal history where he finds that the two terms seem often to have been used interchangeably. Notably, the case in question, which had the College and the University on opposite sides(SONY VGP-BPS4 battery), created the still-extant Reid Professorship of Law and Reid Entrance Exhibitions, and vested them in the College, on the basis that the bodies at the heart of the University (the Senate and the Council) did not exist when Reid made his bequest, and because it could not determine when, or if, the University had been created distinct from the College(SONY VGP-BPS5 battery).
At the root of the question is the fact that none of the chartering monarchs – Elizabeth I, Charles I, or George III – created a university distinct from Trinity College. The only structure erected by Elizabeth was Trinity College, "mother of a/the University,"[Note 1] and its Provost, Fellows and Scholars were the authority recognised by legal documents up to the time of Queen Victoria. The role of Chancellor was also a College role(SONY VGP-BPS5A battery). Notably, the Acts of Union which created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland made mention of "the university [sic] of Trinity College".
In the Irish Senate on 18 April 2000 David Norris – one of the three senators representing the Trinity College constituency in the Irish Senate and an employee of the College – suggested that there is "no difference or distinction" between Dublin's Trinity College and the University of Dublin(SONY VGP-BPS8 battery).
The body corporate of the College is headed by the Provost, Fellows and Scholars. The Provost is chosen by electionevery ten years by election elected primarily by fellow academic staff, but students' votes have a small weighting. Election to Fellowship and Scholarship is given to academic staff and undergraduates respectively(SONY VGP-BPS8A battery). Fellowship is awarded to academic staff who are seen to have excelled in their field of research. The Foundation Scholarships (informally known as schol or schols) are awarded to students who get a first-class honors grade in the Scholarship examinations held annually before the beginning of Hilary term (from 2010, previously at the end of the term). Upon election to Scholarship (usually in their Senior Freshman or second year) (SONY VGP-BPL8 battery), Scholars are awarded a wide range of entitlements, including an annual salary, free rooms in college, a meal every weekday at the traditional Commons dinner, and academic fees paid or reduced.
The University is considered to be headed, by the Chancellor, although in the founding Charter, this role is described as "the Chancellor of the College".The Chancellor is former President of Ireland and former UN High Commissioner for Human Rights(SONY VGP-BPS9 battery), Mary Robinson, and there are five Pro-Chancellors: Dr Patrick J Molloy, and Professors Dermot McAleese, John Scattergood, David Spearman and Petros Florides. A vacancy currently exists following the retirement of Dr Anthony O'Reilly.
Aside from the Provost, Fellows and Scholars, Trinity College has a Board (dating from 1637), which carries out general governance, and a Council (dating from 1874), which oversees academic matters(SONY VGP-BPS9/S battery).
The governance of Trinity College was changed in 2000, by the Oireachtas, in legislation proposed by the Board of the college, viz The Trinity College, Dublin (Charters and Letters Patent Amendment) Act, 2000. This was introduced separately from the Universities Act 1997 and states that the Board shall comprise(SONY VGP-BPS9A battery):
The Provost, Vice-Provost/Chief Academic Officer, Senior Lecturer, Registrar and Bursar;
Five members of the academic staff who are not Fellows, at least three of whom must be of a rank not higher than senior lecturer;
Two members of the academic staff of the rank of professor;
Three members of the non-academic staff;
Four students of the College, at least one of whom shall be a post-graduate student;
One member, not an employee or student of the College, chosen by a Board committee from nominations made by organisations "representative of such business or professional interest as the Board considers appropriate"(SONY VGP-BPS9A/B battery);
One member nominated by the Minister for Education and Skills following consultation with the Provost.
The fellows, non-fellow academic staff and non-academic staff are elected to serve for a fixed term. The four student members are the President, Education Officer and Welfare Officer of the Students' Union and the president of the Graduate Students' Union (all ex officio) and are elected annually for one-year terms(SONY VGP-BPS9/B battery). The vice-provost/chief academic officer, senior lecturer, registrar and bursar are 'annual officers' appointed for one-year (renewable) terms by the Provost.
The College also has an oversight structure, the Chancellor of the University and the judicial Visitor who is appointed by the Irish Government from a list of two names submitted by the Senate of the University of Dublin. The current judicial Visitor is the Hon. Dr. Justice Maureen Harding Clark(SONY VGP-BPS9A/S battery).
Main article: Trinity College Library
The Old Library, housing the Book of Kells and other ancient manuscripts.
The Library of Trinity College is the largest research library in Ireland. As a result of its historic standing, Trinity College Library Dublin is a legal deposit library (as per Legal Deposit Libraries Act 2003) for the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and has a similar standing in Irish law(SONY VGP-BPL9 battery). The College is therefore legally entitled to a copy of every book published in Great Britain and Ireland and consequently receives over 100,000 new items every year. The Library contains circa five million books, including 30,000 current serials and significant collections of manuscripts, maps, and printed music. Six library facilities are available for general student use(SONY VGP-BPS10 battery).
Arnaldo Pomodoro's Sphere Within Sphere sculpture stands outside the Berkeley Library
The €27 million James Ussher Library, opened officially by the President of Ireland in April 2003, is the newest addition to Trinity College reader spaces and houses the Glucksman Map Library and Conservation Department. The Glucksman Library contains half a million printed maps, the largest collection of cartographic materials in Ireland(SONY VGP-BPL10 battery). This includes the first Ordnance Surveys of Ireland, conducted in the early 19th century.
The Book of Kells is by far the Library's most famous book and is located in the Old Library, along with the Book of Durrow, the Book of Howth and other ancient texts. Also incorporating the Long Room, the Old Library is one of Ireland's biggest tourist attractions, and holds thousands of rare, and in many cases very early, volumes(SONY VGP-BPS11 battery).
Three million books are held in the book depository in Santry, from which requests are retrieved twice daily.
In the 18th century, the college received the Brian Boru harp, one of the three surviving medieval Gaelic harps, and a national symbol of Ireland, notably used on the Irish Euro coins.
Parliament Square: The Campanile
Trinity College is a sister college to Oriel College, University of Oxford and St John's College, University of Cambridge(SONY VGP-BPL11 battery).
Two teaching hospitals are associated with the college:
Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Dublin, incorporating the National Children's Hospital
St. James's Hospital
A number of teaching institutions are involved in jointly taught courses:
Dublin Institute of Technology
Coláiste Mhuire, Marino
Church of Ireland College of Education, Rathmines
Church of Ireland Theological College, Braemor Park
Froebel College of Education, Blackrock
The School of Business in association with the Irish Management Institute forms the Trinity-IMI Graduate School of Management incorporating the faculties of both organisations(SONY VGP-BPL12 battery).
Trinity College has also been associated in the past with a number of other teaching institutions. These include St Catherine's College of Education for Home Economics – now closed, Magee College and Royal Irish Academy of Music.
The Douglas Hyde Gallery, a contemporary art gallery, is located in the college at the Nassau Street entrance(SONY VGP-BPS12 battery).
The Samuel Beckett Centre, home of the Department of Drama and Film, incorporates The Samuel Beckett Theatre. It hosts national and international performances and is used by the Dublin International Theatre Festival, the Dublin Dance Festival, and The Fringe Festival, among others. During the academic term it is predominantly used as a teaching and performance space for Drama students and staff. http://www.tcd.ie/Drama/samuel-beckett-theatre(SONY VGP-BPS13 battery)/
See: Parliamentary representation of the University of Dublin
See also: Degrees of the University of Dublin
The Trinity College academic year historically followed three terms: Michaelmas term (October, November and December), Hilary term (January, February, March), and Trinity term (March, April, May). However, in 2009 the academic year was restructured such that the year is divided into two teaching periods, both of 12 weeks. Despite these changes(SONY VGP-BPS13Q battery), the old term names continue to be used officially, with Trinity term now referring to the examination period after the second teaching period.
Since considerable academic restructuring in 2008, the college has three academic faculties:
Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences
Engineering, Mathematics and Sciences
Each faculty is headed by a Dean (there is also a Dean of Postgraduate Studies) and faculties are divided into Schools, of which there are currently 24(SONY VGP-BPS13A/Q battery).
Most undergraduate courses require four years of study. First year students at the undergraduate level are called Junior Freshmen; second years, Senior Freshmen; third years, Junior Sophisters; and fourth years, Senior Sophisters. The Freshman Years usually have a set or minimally flexible basic curriculum with the Sophister years allowing for a much greater degree of course selection(SONY VGP-BPS13B/Q battery), as well as taking a year abroad. Most non-professional courses take a Bachelor of Arts (BA). Students sit Preliminary exams in Trinity Term of both Freshman years to allow them to "rise" to the year ahead. At the end of the Junior Sophister year, students sit one half of the Final Examination, from which they either take an Ordinary Degree or, if they receive an upper-second, may sit for a Moderation (Honours), rises to Senior Sophister and sit the remainder of Finals(SONY VGP-BPS13/B battery). Successful candidates receive first-, upper or lower second-, or third-class honours or simply a "pass" without honours based on their performance in Finals. As a matter of tradition, bachelor's degree graduates are eligible, after nine terms from matriculation and without additional study, to purchase for a nominal fee an upgrade of their bachelor's degree to a Master of Arts(SONY VGP-BPS13B/B battery)
The four-year degree structure makes undergraduate teaching at Trinity closer to the North American model than that of other universities in England and Ireland (Scottish universities, like TCD, generally also require four years of study for a Bachelor degree).
At postgraduate level, Trinity offers a range of taught and research degrees in all faculties. About 31% of students are post-graduate level(SONY VGP-BPS13A/S battery), with 1,600 students reading for a research degree and an additional 2,200 on taught courses (see Research and Innovation).
Trinity College's Strategic Plan sets "the objective of doubling the number of PhDs across all disciplines by 2013 in order to move towards a knowledge society. In order to achieve this, the College has received some of the largest allocations of Irish Government funding which have become competitively available to date(SONY VGP-BPS21A/B battery)."
In addition to academic degrees, the college offers Postgraduate Diploma (non-degree) qualifications, either directly, or through associated institutions.
Admission to undergraduate study for European Union school-leavers is generally handled by the CAO (Central Applications Office), and not by Trinity College. Applicants have to compete for university places solely on the basis of the results of their school leaving exams(SONY VGP-BPS21B battery). Through the CAO, candidates may list several courses at Trinity College and at other third-level institutions in Ireland in order of priority. Places are awarded in mid-August every year by the CAO after matching the number of places available to the academic attainments of the applicants. Qualifications are measured as "points", with specific scales for the Irish Leaving Certificate, and all other European Union school leaving results(SONY VGP-BPS21 battery), such as the UK GCE A-level, the International Baccalaureate along with other national school leaving exams.
For applicants who are not citizens or residents of the European Union, different application procedures apply.; 16% of students are from outside Ireland and 40% of these are from outside the European Union. (SONY VGP-BPS21/S battery)
Disadvantaged, disabled or mature students can also be admitted through a program that is separate from the CAO, the Trinity Access Programme. This aims to facilitate the entry of sectors of society which would otherwise be under-represented. The numbers admitted on this program are significant relative to other universities, up to 15% of the annual undergraduate intake(SONY VGP-BPS13AS battery).
Admission to graduate study is handled by Trinity College.
Trinity College is the most productive internationally recognised research centre in Ireland. The University operates an Innovation Centre which fosters academic innovation and consultancy, provides patenting advice and research information and facilitates the establishment and operation of industrial laboratories and campus companies(SONY VGP-BPS13S battery).
In 1999 the University purchased an Enterprise Centre on Pearse Street, seven minutes' walk from the on-campus Innovation Centre. The site has over 19,000 m² (200,000 ft²) of built space and contains a protected building, the Tower, which houses a Craft Centre. The Trinity Enterprise Centre will house companies drawn from the University research sector in Dublin(SONY VGP-BPS13B/S battery).
Entrance Exhibition awards
Students who enter with exceptional Leaving Certificate or other public examination results are awarded an Entrance Exhibition. This entails a prize in the form of book tokens to the value of €300.00, issued in two equal instalments in each of the Freshman years.
The announcement of new scholars and fellows
Undergraduate students of any year, but today most often Senior Freshmen, may elect to sit the Foundation Scholarship examination(SONY VGP-BPS13B/G battery), which takes place in the break between Michaelmas and Hilary terms. On Trinity Monday (the first day of Trinity Term), the Board of the College sits and elects to the Scholarship all those who achieve Firsts. Those from EU member countries are entitled to free rooms and Commons (the College's Formal Hall), an annual stipend and exemption from fees for the duration of their scholarship(SONY VGP-BPS14 battery), which lasts for fifteen terms. Scholars from non-EU member countries have their fees reduced by the current value of EU member fees. Scholars may add the suffix "Sch." to their names, have the note "discip. schol." appended to their name at Commencements and are entitled to wear Bachelor's Robes and a velvet mortarboard(SONY VGP-BPL14 battery).
Under the Foundation Charter (of 1592), Scholars were part of the body corporate (three Scholars were named in the charter "in the name of many"). Until 1609 there were about 51 Scholars at any one time. A figure of seventy was permanently fixed in the revising Letters Patent of Charles I in 1637(SONY VGP-BPS14/B battery). Trinity Monday was appointed as the day when all future elections to Fellowship and Scholarship would be announced (at this time Trinity Monday was always celebrated on the Monday after the feast of the Holy Trinity). Up to this point all undergraduates were Scholars, but soon after 1637 the practice of admitting students other than Scholars commenced(SONY VGP-BPS14/S battery).
Until 1856 only the classical subjects were examined. The questions concerned all the classical authors prescribed for the entrance examination and for the undergraduate course up to the middle of the Junior Sophister year. So candidates had no new material to read, 'but they had to submit to a very searching examination on the fairly lengthy list of classical texts which they were supposed by this time to have mastered'(SONY VGP-BPS14B battery). The close link with the undergraduate syllabus is underlined by the refusal until 1856 to admit Scholars to the Library (a request for admission was rejected by the Board in 1842 on the grounds that Scholars should stick to their prescribed books and not indulge in 'those desultory habits' that admission to an extensive library would encourage). During the second half of the nineteenth century the content of the examination gradually came to include other disciplines(SONY VGP-BPS22 battery).
Around the turn of the 20th century, further examinations for "Non-Foundation" Scholarships were introduced. This initially was a formula to permit women to become Scholars, but without entitling them to the same voting rights as men. Non-Foundation Scholarships are now awarded to those who meet the qualifying standards and Foundation Scholarships given to those whose performance was considered particularly exceptional(SONY VGP-BPS22 battery). While the number of Foundation Scholars remains fixed at seventy, there is in theory no limit on the number of Non-Foundation scholars. The only practical difference between the two is that the Foundation Scholars are members of the body corporate of the College and are entitled to certain voting rights(SONY VGP-BPS18 battery).
Competition for Scholarship has always involved a searching examination: successful candidates need to be of exceptional ability. The concept of Scholarship is a valued tradition of the College and many of TCD's most distinguished alumni were elected Scholars (including Samuel Beckett and Ernest Walton). The Scholars' dinner, to which 'Scholars of the decade' are invited, forms one of the major events in Trinity's calendar(SONY VGP-BPS22/A battery). A Scholarship at Trinity College is a prestigious undergraduate award; a principal aim of the College (as outlined in the Strategic Plan) is the pursuit of excellence and one of the most tangible demonstrations of this is the institution of Scholarship.
There is a sporting tradition at Trinity and the college has 50 sports clubs affiliated to the Dublin University Central Athletic Club (DUCAC) (SONY VGP-BPS22A battery).
College Park, Trinity College
The Central Athletic Club is made up of five committees that oversee the development of sport in the college: the Executive Committee which is responsible overall for all activities, the Captains' Committee which represents the 49 club captains and awards University Colours (Pinks), the Pavilion Bar Committee which runs the private members' bar, the Pavilion Members' Committee and the Sports Facilities Committee(SONY Vaio VGN-CR120E battery).
The oldest clubs include the Dublin University Cricket Club (1835) and Dublin University Boat Club (1836). Dublin University Football Club, founded in 1854, plays rugby football and is the world's oldest documented "football club". The Dublin University Association Football Club (soccer) was founded in 1883, the Dublin University Hockey Club in 1893, and the Dublin University Harriers and Athletic Club in 1885(SONY Vaio VGN-CR120 battery).
A winter scene in College Park
There are several graduate sport clubs that exist separate to the Central Athletic Club including the Dublin University Museum Players (cricket), the Lady Elizabeth Boat Club (rowing) and the Mary Lyons Memorial Mallets (croquet).
The largest sports club in the college is the Surf and Boarding Club with over 1000 registered members(SONY Vaio VGN-CR11H/B battery).
The newest club in the University is the American football team, who were accepted into the Irish American Football League (IAFL) in 2008. Initially known as the Trinity Thunderbolts, the club now competes under the name "Trinity College".
The most successful Trinity College sports club - based on Intervarsities victories - is Dublin University Fencing Club (DU Fencing Club) (SONY Vaio VGN-CR116E battery). A total of thirty-two Intervarsity titles have been won by the club in fifty-five years of competition. While the modern DU Fencing Club was founded in 1941, its origins can be dated to the 1700s when a 'Gentleman's Club of the Sword' existed, primarily for duelling practice.
Trinity College has a tradition of student publications, ranging from the serious to the satirical(SONY Vaio VGN-CR116 battery). Most student publications are administered by Trinity Publications, previously called the Dublin University Publications Committee (often known as 'Pubs'), which maintains and administers the Publications office (located in No 6) and all the associated equipment needed to publish newspapers and magazines.
Trinity News is Ireland's oldest student newspaper, having been founded in 1953. As of 2010 it is published on a fortnightly basis(SONY Vaio VGN-CR115E battery), producing twelve issues in total during the academic year. The focus is on students with sections including College News, National News, International News, Features, Science, Sports Features and College Sports. The paper also includes an award winning cultural magazine called TN2. TN2 Magazine has featured interviews with Michael K. Williams, Danny McBride, Sasha Grey. Al Pacino, James Murphy of LCD Soundsystem and Oliver Stone as well as numerous Dublin bands(SONY Vaio VGN-CR115 battery). The paper has been very successful in the Irish Student Media Awards winning each of the "Newspaper of the Year" and "Journalist of the Year" in the past[when?][specify] and more recently Kate Palmer won "Editor of the Year" for Trinity News while Alex Towers won "Design & Layout of the Year" for TN2 Magazine. For the last 10 years the paper has been edited by a full-time student editor(SONY Vaio VGN-CR110 battery), who takes a sabbatical year from his studies, supported by a voluntary part-time staff of 30 student section editors and writers. Student magazines currently in publication as of 2012 include the satirical newspaper The Piranha (formerly Piranha! magazine but rebranded in 2009), the generalist T.C.D. Miscellany (founded in 1895; one of Ireland's oldest magazines), the film journal Trinity Film Review (TFR) and the literary Icarus(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ battery). Other publications include the Student Economic Review and the Trinity College Law Review, produced independently by students of economics and law respectively, the Social and Political Review (SPR), now in its 22nd year, the Trinity Student Medical Journal, The Attic, student writing produced by the Dublin University Literary Society and the Afro-Caribbean Journal produced by the Afro-Caribbean Society(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11S battery). Some older titles currently not in publication include In Transit, Central Review, Harlot, Evoke, and Alternate.
The Students' Union also publishes a regular newspaper called the University Times. This paper was launched in 2009 replacing the University Record. The Record, first published in 1997, had previously replaced an older publication called Aontas(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ15T battery).
Main article: List of Trinity College, Dublin student organisations
Trinity College has a vibrant student life with 124 societies (in 2011). Student societies operate under the aegis of the Dublin University Central Societies Committee which is composed of the Treasurers of each of the Societies within the College. Society size varies enormously, and it is often hard to determine exact figures for most societies - several claiming to be the largest in the college with thousands of members, while smaller groups may have only 40-50 members(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ15G battery). The larger societies include:the debating and paper-reading society the University Philosophical Society, affectionately known as "The Phil." Now in its 327th session, the Phil is the oldest student society in the world, boasting over 10,000 members. The Phil hold weekly chamber debates every Thursday at 7.30pm and regularly award host high-profile celebrity guests, including Al Pacino, Sir Christopher Lee, Courtney Love and philosopher AC Grayling. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ4000 battery) It is based in the Graduates' Memorial Building (GMB), the only student society-owned building in Ireland. Also situated in the GMB is the College Historical Society,a debating society more commonly known as "The Hist." Other societies include Vincent de Paul Society (VDP), which organises a large number of charitable activities in the local community(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ460E battery); DU Players, one of the most prolific student-drama societies in Europe which hosts more than 50 shows and events a year in the Samuel Beckett Theatre; The DU Film Society (Formerly DU Filmmakers, formerly the DU "Videographic Society", founded in 1987) which organises film-makers and film-lovers on campus through workshops, screenings, production funding, etc. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ440N battery); The DU Radio Society, known as Trinity FM, broadcasts a variety of student made productions on a special events licence on FM frequency 97.3FM for six weeks a year; The Trinity LGBT society, which is the oldest LGBT society in Ireland and celebrated its 25th anniversary in the 2007/2008 year; The Dublin University Comedy Society, known as DU Comedy, hosts comedy events for its members and has hosted gigs on campus from comedians such as Andrew Maxwell, David O'Doherty(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ440E battery), Neil Delamere and Colin Murphy; The Dance Society, known as dudance, provides classes in Latin and ballroom dancing, as well as running events around other dance styles such as swing dancing. In 2011 the Laurentian Society was revived. This society played a key role as a society for the few Catholic students who studied at Trinity while "the Ban" was still in force(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ430E battery)
The Trinity Ball
Trinity College Commencements
The Trinity Ball is an annual event that draws 7,000 attendants. Until 2010, it was held annually on the last teaching day of Trinity term to celebrate the end of lectures and the beginning of Trinity Week. Due to a restructuring of the teaching terms of the College the 2010 Ball was held on the last day of Trinity Week(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ280E battery). In 2011, the ball was held on the final day of teaching in the second Semester, before the commencement of Trinity Week. The Ball is run by Trinity Students' Union and Trinity's Central Societies Committee in conjunction with event promoters MCD Productions, who hold the contract to run the Ball until 2012. The Ball celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2009(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ190 battery).
Main article: Trinity College Dublin Students' Union
The Students' Union's primary role is to provide a recognised representative channel between undergraduates and the University and College authorities. The Campaigns Executive, the Administrative Executive and Sabbatical Officers manage the business and affairs of the Union. The Sabbatical Officers are(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ150E battery): The President, Communications Officer, Welfare Officer, Education Officer and Entertainments Officer and are elected on an annual basis; all capitated students are entitled to vote. The SU President, Welfare Officer and Education Officer are ex-officio members of the College Board.
The Students' Union Communications Officer is responsible for the publication of The University Times, which is published every three weeks by the Students' Union(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ160 battery). The University Times is an independent newspaper and has distanced itself from being known as the voice of the Students' Union, as its predecessor publications had been (The University Record, Aontas).
The Graduate Students' Union's primary role is to provide a recognised representative channel between postgraduates and the University and College authorities. The GSU president is an ex-officio member of the College Board(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ260E battery).
The Graduate Students' Union publish the annual "Journal of Postgraduate Research".
Traditions and culture
The Latin Grace is said "before and after meat" at Commons, a three-course meal served in the College Dining Hall Monday to Friday. Commons is attended by Scholars and Fellows and Exhibitioners of the College, as well other members of the College community and their guests(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ140E battery).
Each year, Trinity Week is celebrated in mid-April. On Trinity Monday and on the afternoon of Trinity Wednesday no lectures or demonstrations are held. College races are held each year on Trinity Wednesday.
There is a long-standing rivalry with nearby University College Dublin, which is largely friendly in nature. Every year, Colours events are contested between the sporting clubs of each University(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11L battery).
The more superstitious students of the college (during their undergraduate studies) never walk underneath the Campanile, as the tradition suggests that should the bell ring whilst they pass under it, they will fail their annual examinations.
In popular culture
In James Plunkett's Farewell Companions, one of the characters claims to have been "through Trinity", having entered at College Green and left at the Nassau Street Gate(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11Z battery).
Parts of Michael Collins, Circle of Friends, Educating Rita, Ek Tha Tiger and Quackser Fortune Has a Cousin in the Bronx were filmed in Trinity College.
The Irish writer J.P. Donleavy was a student in Trinity. A number of his books feature characters who attend Trinity, including The Ginger Man and The Beastly Beatitudes of Balthazar B. H.A. Hinkson has written two books about Trinity(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11M battery), Student Life in T.C.D. and the fictional O'Grady of Trinity - A Story of Irish University Life.
Fictional Naval Surgeon Stephen Maturin of Patrick O'Brian's popular Aubrey–Maturin series series is a graduate of Trinity College.
In the Channel 4 television series Hollyoaks, Craig Dean attends Trinity College. He left Hollyoaks to study in Ireland in 2007 and now lives there with his boyfriend, John Paul McQueen, after they got their sunset ending in September 2008(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ18M battery).
All Names Have Been Changed a novel by Claire Kilroy is set in Trinity College in the 1990s. The story follows a group of creative writing students and their engimatic professor. A photograph of Trinity is used in the cover art.
In Karen Marie Moning's The Fever Series Trinity College is said to be where the main character, MacKayla Lane's, sister Alina was attending school on scholarship before she was murdered(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ18 battery). The college is also where several of the minor characters who inform Ms. Lane about her sister are said to work.
In the novel Thanks for the Memories (novel), written by Irish author Cecelia Ahern, Justin Hitchcock is a guest lecturer at Trinity College.
Main articles: List of Trinity College Dublin people and List of Provosts of Trinity College, Dublin
Amongst the graduates are included notable people in the fields of arts and sciences like Jonathan Swift, Bram Stoker(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ210CE battery), Oscar Wilde, Samuel Beckett (Nobel Laureate in Literature), Ernest Walton (Nobel Laureate in Physics), Mairead Maguire (Nobel Laureate in Peace), three holders of the office of President of Ireland, and one Premier of New Zealand (Edward Stafford); including Jaja Wachuku (first indigenous Speaker of the House of Representatives of Nigeria and first Nigerian Foreign Affairs Minister) (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31S battery).
See also Category:Alumni of Trinity College, Dublin.
a b c d Extracts from Letters Patent ("First or Foundation Charter") of Elizabeth I, 1592: "...we...found and establish a College, mother of a (the) University, near the city of Dublin for the better education, training and instruction of scholars and students in our realm...and also that provision should be made...for the relief and support of a provost and some fellows and scholars.. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31Z battery).it shall be called THE COLLEGE OF THE HOLY AND UNDIVIDED TRINITY NEAR DUBLIN FOUNDED BY THE MOST SERENE QUEEN ELIZABETH. And...we erect...that College with a provost, three fellows in the name of many, and three scholars in the name of many, to continue for ever. And further we make...Adam Loftus, D.D., archbishop of Dublin, chancellor of our kingdom of Ireland, the first...provost of the aforesaid College... And we make...Henry Ussher, M.A., Luke Challoner, M.A. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31E battery), Lancellot Moine, B.A., the first...fellows there... And we make...Henry Lee, William Daniell, and Stephen White the first...scholars... And further...we will...that the aforesaid provost, fellows and scholars of Trinity College aforesaid and their successors in matter, fact and name in future are and shall be a body corporate and politic, for ever incorporated...by the name of THE PROVOST(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31J battery), FELLOWS AND SCHOLARS OF THE COLLEGE OF THE HOLY AND UNDIVIDED TRINITY OF QUEEN ELIZABETH NEAR DUBLIN, and that in all future times they shall be known...by that name, and shall have perpetual succession...and we really and completely create...them...a body corporate and politic, to endure for ever... And whereas it appears that certain degrees have been of assistance in the arts and faculties(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31M battery), we ordain...that the students in this College of the holy and undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin shall have liberty and power to obtain degrees of Bachelor, Master, and Doctor, at a suitable time, in all arts and faculties. ...and that they shall have liberty to perform among themselves all acts and scholastic exercises for gaining such degrees, as shall seem fit to the provost and the majority of the fellows, (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31B battery) (and that they may elect...all persons for better promoting such things, whether Vice-Chancellor, Proctor or Proctors), (for we have approved assignment of the dignity of Chancellor to...William Cecil, Baron Burghley...and...when he shall cease to be chancellor...the provost and the majority of the fellows shall elect a suitable person of this sort as chancellor of the College(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ32 battery). And the chancellor, or his vice-chancellor, with the archbishop of Dublin, the Bishop of Meath, the vice treasurer, the treasurer for war, and the chief justice of our chief place within this our kingdom of Ireland, the mayor of the city of Dublin for the time being, or the majority of them who shall be called visitors, shall break off and limit all contentions, actions and controversies (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ410 battery) (which the provost and the majority of the fellows cannot settle), and that they shall punish all the graver faults not amended by the provost and fellows.)"
Trinity Hall houses 1,100 students, of whom the majority are first years. Postgraduates, international students and other continuing students also have rooms there.
The Tokyo Institute of Technology (東京
Tokyo Tech's main campus is located in the Ōokayama on the boundary of Meguro and Ota[disambiguation needed] (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21S battery), with its main entrance facing the Ōokayama Station. Other campuses are located in Nagatsuta and Tamachi. Tokyo Tech is organised into 6 schools, within which there are over 40 departments and research centres.
Operating the world-class supercomputer Tsubame 2.0,and taking a breakthrough in high-temperature superconductivity, Tokyo Tech is a major centre for supercomputing technology and condensed matter research in the world(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21M battery).
Tokyo Tech is a member of LAOTSE, an international network of leading universities in Europe and Asia exchanging students and senior scholars. In 2011 it celebrated the 130th anniversary of its founding.
Foundation and early years (1881–1922)
Tokyo Institute of Technology was founded by the government of Japan as the Tokyo Vocational School on May 26, 1881, 14 years after the Meiji Restoration. To accomplish the quick catch-up to the West(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ38M battery), the government expected this school to cultivate new modernized craftsmen and engineers. In 1890, it was renamed Tokyo Technical School. In 1901, it changed name to Tokyo Higher Technical School.
Great Kanto Earthquake and World War II (1923–1945)
In early days, the school was located in Kuramae, the eastern area of the Greater Tokyo Area, where many craftsmens' workshops had been since the old Shogun's era. The buildings in Kuramae campus were destructed by the Great Kanto Earthquake in 1923(Sony VGN-NR11S/S Battery). In the following year, the Tokyo Higher Technical School moved from Kuramae to the present site in Ookayama, a south suburb of the Greater Tokyo Area. In 1929 the school became Tokyo Institute of Technology, gaining a status of national university, which allowed the university to award degrees. The university had the Research Laboratory of Building Materials in 1934(Sony VGN-NR11M/S Battery), and its five years later the Research Laboratory of Resources Utilisation and the Research Laboratory of Precision Machinery were constructed. The Research Laboratory of Ceramic Industry was made in 1943, and one year before the World War Two finished the Research Laboratory of Fuel Science and the Research Laboratory of Electronics were made(Sony VGN-NR260E/S Battery).
Post War Era (1946–present)
After World War II, the new educational system was promulgated in 1949 with the National School Establishment Law, and Tokyo Institute of Technology was reorganized. Many 3-years courses were turned into 4-years courses with the start of the School of Engineering in this year. The university started graduate programmes in engineering 1n 1953(Sony VGN-NR260E/T Battery). In the following year, the above 5 research laboratories were integrated and reorganised into new 4 laboratories: the Research Laboratory of Building Materials, the Research Laboratory of Resources Utilization, the Precision and Intelligence Laboratory and the Research Laboratory of Ceramic Industry, and the School of Engineering was renamed to School of Science and Engineering(Sony VGN-NR260E/W Battery).
Throughout the post-war reconstruction of the 1950s, the high economic growth era of 1960s, and the aggressive economic animal's era marching to the Bubble Economy of the 1980s, it kept providing Japan its leading engineers, researchers, and business persons. Since April 2004, it has been semi-privatized into the National University Incorporation of Tokyo Institute of Technology under a new law which applied to all national universities(Sony VGN-NR11Z/S Battery).
In its 130 years, Tokyo Tech has provided not only scientific researchers and engineers but also many social leaders, including Naoto Kan who is a former prime minister.
The main library of Tokyo Tech is the Tokyo Institute of Technology Library in Ookayama. It is the home of Japan's largest science and technology library. The library was founded in 1882, and it lost nearly 28,000 books during the Great Kanto Earthquake in 1923. Moved to Ookayama in 1936, it has been the national science and technology library of Japan(Sony VGN-NR11Z/T Battery).
1,200 students and staff visit the library each day.
It has 674,000 books and 2,500 journals, including 1,600 foreign academic journals; the number of international research collections is the largest in Japan. It provides around 7,000 registered electric journals each year. The library is therefore recognised for the outstanding national and international importance and awarded 'Centre of foreign journals' by the government of Japan. Renewal construction of the library was completed on July 2011(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21E battery).
International graduate programmes
Tokyo Tech runs intensive programmes for obtaining master degree or PhD. Called the Tokyo Tech's International Graduate Program, the programmes are targeted at international students of high academic potential who are not Japanese speakers. Lectures and seminars are given in English mainly by Tokyo Tech's faculty members. Programme starting dates are October or April(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21Z battery). Public fundings for these courses are also available; those students who have academic excellence may apply for scholarships from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.
Tokyo Tech is one of the most prestigious universities in Japan. It can be seen in the several rankings such as shown below(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21J battery).
The university has been ranked 2th(National) in 2011 in the field of Engineering "Entrance score ranking of Japanese universities-Department of Engineering" by Score-navi.  In another ranking, Japanese prep school Kawaijuku ranked Tokyo Tech as the 4th best(overall), 2-3th best in former semester and 1st in latter semester (Department of Engineering) university in Japan (2012) (Sony VAIO VGN-FW11 battery).
According to QS World University Rankings, Tokyo Tech was ranked 3th in Japan and internationally ranked 20th in the field of Engineering and Technology, and 51th in Natural science in 2011. The university was ranked 31st worldwide according to Global University ranking and 57th in 2011 according to QS World University Rankings, It was also ranked 31st worldwide according to the Global University Ranking in 2009(Sony VAIO VGN-FW11M battery).
Tokyo Tech is one of the top research institutions in natural sciences and technology in Japan. According to Thomson Reuters, its research excellence(Pure science only for this information) is especially distinctive in Materials Science (5th in Japan, 24th in the world),Physics (5th in Japan, 31st in the world), and Chemistry (5th in Japan, 22nd in the world) (Sony VAIO VGN-FW11S battery).
Weekly Diamond also reported that Tokyo Tech has the highest research standard in Japan in terms of research fundings per researchers in COE Program. In the same article, it's also ranked 8th in terms of the quality of education by GP funds per student.
In addition, Nikkei Shimbun on 2004/2/16 surveyed about the research standards in Engineering studies based on Thomson Reuters(Sony VAIO VGN-FW21E battery), Grants in Aid for Scientific Research and questionnaires to heads of 93 leading Japanese Research Centers, and Tokyo Tech was placed 7th (research planning ability 7th/informative ability of research outcome 5th/ability of business-academia collaboration 4th) in this ranking.
The Tsubame 2.0, which is a large scale supercomputer in Tokyo Tech, was ranked 5th of the world best-performed computer(Sony VAIO VGN-FW21J battery).(1st in the world as university's owned one) This supercomputer is used for simulation related to the complex systems such as the dynamics of planets or financial systems.
As Tokyo Tech has been emphasizing on 'practical' research, Tokyo Tech got the 2nd place at the number of patents accepted (284) during 2009 among Japanese Universities(Sony VAIO VGN-FW21L battery).
Alumni of Tokyo Tech enjoy their good success in Japanese industries. According to the Weekly Economist's 2010 rankings and the PRESIDENT's article on 2006/10/16, graduates from Tokyo Tech have the 2nd best employment rate in 400 major companies, and the average graduate salary is the 9th best in Japan. École des Mines de Paris ranks Tokyo Tech as 92nd in the world in 2011 in terms of the number of alumni listed among CEOs in the 500(Sony VAIO VGN-FW41M battery) largest worldwide companies.
Popularity and Selectivity
Tokyo Tech is one of the most selective universites in Japan. Its entrance difficulty is usually considered as one of the top in Japan.