Sun Yat-sen And Soong Ching Ling

Publié le par salebatterymart

Sun Yat-sen (12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925)[1][2] was a Chinese revolutionary, first president and founding father of the Republic of China ("Nationalist China"). As the foremost pioneer of Republic of China, Sun is referred to as the "Father of the Nation" in the Republic of China (ROC), and the "forerunner of democratic revolution" in the People's Republic of ChinaSony PCG-71313M battery. Sun played an instrumental role in the overthrow of the Qing dynasty during the years leading up to the Double Ten Revolution. Although he was in St. Louis, Missouri at the time,[3] he was appointed to serve as president of the Provisional Republic of China, when it was founded in 1912. He later co-founded the Kuomintang (KMT), serving as its first leader.[4] Sun was a uniting figure in post-Imperial China, and remains unique among 20th-century Chinese politicians for being widely revered amongst the people from both sides of the Taiwan StraitSony PCG-71212M battery.

Although Sun is considered one of the greatest leaders of modern China, his political life was one of constant struggle and frequent exile. After the success of the revolution, he quickly fell out of power in the newly founded Republic of China, and led successive revolutionary governments as a challenge to the warlords who controlled much of the nation. Sun did not live to see his party consolidate its power over the country during the Northern ExpeditionSony PCG-71311M battery. His party, which formed a fragile alliance with the Communists, split into two factions after his death. Sun's chief legacy resides in his developing of the political philosophy known as the Three Principles of the People: nationalism, democracy, and the people's livelihood.[5]

The original name of Sun Yatsen was Sun Wen (孫文) and his genealogical name was Sun Deming (孫德明).[1][6] As a child, his "milk name" was Dixiang (帝象).[1] The courtesy name of Sun Yat-sen was Zaizhi (載之Sony PCG-71213M battery), and his baptized name was Rixin (日新).[7] While at school in Hong Kong he got the name Yat Sen (逸仙; Hanyu pinyin: Yìxiān).[8] Sun Zhongshan (孫中山), the most popular of his Chinese names, came from the "Nakayama" (中山) of Nakayama Shō (中山樵), the Japanese name given to him by Miyazaki Touten.[1]

Early years [edit]

Sun Yat-sen (back row, fifth from left) and his family.

Birthplace and early life [edit]

Sun Yat-sen was born on 12 November 1866.[2] His birthplace was the village of Cuiheng, Xiangshan County, (later Zhongshan County) Guangdong Province. Sony PCG-61211M battery He had a cultural background of Hakka[9] and Cantonese. After finishing primary education, he moved to Honolulu, where he lived a comfortable life of modest wealth supported by his elder brother Sun Mei.[10]

Education years [edit]

Statue of Sun Yat-sen as a school boy in Honolulu, Hawaii, age 13

At age 10, Sun Yat-sen began seeking schooling.[1] It is also at this point where he met childhood friend Lu Hao-tung.[1] By age 13 in 1878 after receiving a few years of local schooling, Sun went to live with his elder brother, Sun Mei (孫眉) in Honolulu. Sony VAIO VPCF24Q1E battery

Sun Yat-sen then studied at ʻIolani School where he learned English, British history, mathematics, science, and Christianity.[1] Originally unable to speak the English language, Sun Yat-sen picked up the language so quickly that he received a prize for outstanding achievement from King David Kalākaua.[11] Sun graduated from Iolani in 1882. Then attended Oahu College (now known as Punahou School), for one semester.[1][12] In 1883 he was soon sent home to China as his brother was becoming afraid that Sun Yat-sen would embrace Christianity. Sony VAIO VPCF13M1E/H battery [1]

When he returned home in 1883 at age 17, Sun met up with his childhood friend Lu Hao-tung at Beijidian (北極殿), a temple in Cuiheng Village.[1] They saw many villagers worshipping the Beiji (literally North Pole) Emperor-God in the temple, and were dissatisfied with their ancient healing methods.[1] They broke the statue, incurring the wrath of fellow villagers, and escaped to Hong Kong.[1][13][14] While in Hong Kong in 1883 he studied at the Diocesan Boys' School and from 1884 to 1886 he was at the government Central school. Sony VAIO VPCF12Z1E/BI battery

In 1886 Sun studied medicine at the Guangzhou Boji Hospital under the Christian missionary John G. Kerr.[1] Ultimately, he earned the license of Christian practice as a medical doctor from the Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese (the forerunner of The University of Hong Kong) in 1892.[1][8] Notably, of his class of 12 students, Sun was one of only two who graduatedSony VAIO VPCF12S1E/B battery.

Christian baptism [edit]

Sun was later baptized in Hong Kong by an American missionary of the Congregational Church of the United States to his brother's disdain. The minister would also develop a friendship with Sun.[19][20] Sun attended To Tsai Church (道濟會堂, founded by the London Missionary Society in 1888)[21] while he studied Western Medicine in Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese (香港華人西醫書院) Sony VAIO VPCF13Z8E/BI battery. Sun pictured a revolution as similar to the salvation mission of the Christian church. His conversion to Christianity was related to his revolutionary ideals and push for advancement.[20] Sun later became the godfather of Paul Linebarger, a science-fiction writer.[22]

Sun Yat-sen was married to Soong Ching-Ling. Soong Ching-Ling's sister, Soong May-Ling, was married to Chiang Kai-shek, and thus the two leaders were brothers-in-law through marriage to the Soong sistersSony VAIO VPCF13Z8E battery. Soong Ching-Ling's father was an American-educated Methodist minister Charlie Soong, who made a fortune in banking and printing; though he had been a personal friend of Sun's, he was enraged when Sun announced his intention to marry Ching-ling because, as Sun was himself a Christian and already married with three children, Charlie viewed Sun's actions as running directly against their shared religion. Their mother was Ni Kwei-tseng (倪桂珍 Ní Guìzhēn). Sony VAIO VPCF13M1E/B battery

Transformation into a revolutionary [edit]

Photograph of Sun Yat-sen (seated, second from left) and his revolutionary friends, the Four Bandits, including Yeung Hok-ling (left), Chan Siu-bak (seated, second from right), Yau Lit (right), and Guan Jingliang (關景良) (standing) at the Hong Kong College of Medicine for ChineseSony VAIO VPCF1318E/H battery.

Four Bandits [edit]

During the Qing Dynasty rebellion around 1888 Sun was in Hong Kong with a group of revolutionary thinkers that was nicknamed the Four Bandits at the Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese.[23] Sun, who had grown increasingly frustrated by the conservative Qing government and its refusal to adopt knowledge from the more technologically advanced Western nations, quit his medical practice in order to devote his time to transforming ChinaSony VAIO VPCF13J0E/H battery.

Furen and Revive China Society [edit]

In 1891 Sun met revolutionary friends in Hong Kong including Yeung Kui-wan who was the leader and founder of the Furen Literary Society.[24] The group was spreading the idea of overthrowing the Qing. In 1894, Sun wrote an 8,000 character petition to Qing Viceroy Li Hongzhang presenting his ideas for modernizing China.[25][26][27] He traveled to Tianjin to personally present the petition to Li but was not granted an audience.[28] After this experienceSony VAIO VPCF13E8E battery, Sun turned irrevocably toward revolution. He left China for Hawaii and founded the Revive China Society, which was committed to revolutionize China’s prosperity. Members were drawn mainly from Chinese expatriates, especially the lower social classes. The same month in 1894 the Furen Literary Society was merged with the Hong Kong chapter of the Revive China Society.[24] Sun became the secretary of the newly merged Revive China society, which Yeung Kui-wan headed as president. Sony VAIO VPCF13E4E battery They disguised their activities in Hong Kong under the running of a "Qianheng Company" (乾亨行).[30]

First Sino-Japanese War [edit]

In 1895 China suffered a serious defeat during the First Sino-Japanese War. There were two types of response. One group of intellectuals contended that the Manchu Qing government could restore its legitimacy by successfully modernizing.[31] Stressing that overthrowing the Manchu would result in chaos and would lead to China being carved up by imperialistsSony VAIO VPCF12M1E/H battery, intellectuals like Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao supported responding with initiatives like the Hundred Days' Reform.[31] In another faction, Sun Yat-sen and others like Zou Rong wanted a revolution to replace the dynastic system with a modern nation-state in the form of a republic.[31] The Hundred Day's reform turned out to be a failure by 1898.[32]

From uprising to exile [edit]

Plaque in London marking the site of a house where Sun Yat-sen lived while in exile

Letter from Sun Yat-sen to James Cantlie announcing to him that he has assumed the Presidency of the Provisional Republican Government of China. Dated 21 January 1912Sony VAIO VPCF12F4E/H battery.

First Guangzhou uprising [edit]

In the second year of the establishment of the Revive China society on 26 October 1895, the group planned and launched the First Guangzhou uprising against the Qing in Guangzhou.[26] Yeung Kui-wan directed the uprising starting from Hong Kong.[29] However, plans were leaked out and more than 70 members, including Lu Hao-tung, were captured by the Qing government. The uprising was a failureSony VAIO VPCF12E1E/H battery.

Exile in Japan [edit]

Sun Yat-sen spent time living in Japan while in exile. He befriended and was financially aided by a democratic revolutionary named Miyazaki Toten. Most Japanese who actively worked with Sun were motivated by a pan-Asian fear of encroaching Western imperialism.[33] While in Japan, Sun also met and befriended Mariano Ponce, then a diplomat of the First Philippine Republic. Sony VAIO VPCF11Z1E/BI battery During the Philippine Revolution and the Philippine-American War, Sun helped Ponce procure weapons salvaged from the Imperial Japanese Army and ship the weapons to the Philippines. By helping the Philippine Republic, Sun hoped that the Filipinos would win their independence so that he could use the archipelago as a staging point of another revolution. However, as the war ended in July 1902, America emerged victorious from a bitter 3-year war against the RepublicSony VAIO VPCF24M1E battery. Therefore, the Filipino dream of independence vanished with Sun's hopes of collaborating with the Philippines in his revolution in China.

Huizhou uprising [edit]

On 22 October 1900 Sun launched the Huizhou uprising to attack Huizhou and provincial authorities in Guangdong.[35] This came five years after the failed Guangzhou uprising. This time Sun appealed to the triads for help.[36] This uprising was also a failure. Miyazaki who participated in the revolt with Sun wrote an account of this revolutionary effort under the title "33-year dream" (三十三年之夢) in 1902. Sony VAIO VPCF23S1E battery

Further exile [edit]

Sun was in exile not only in Japan, but also in Europe, the United States, and Canada. He raised money for his revolutionary party and to support uprisings in China. In 1896 he was detained at the Chinese Legation in London, where the Chinese Imperial secret service planned to kill him. He was released after 12 days through the efforts of James Cantlie, The Times, and the Foreign Office, leaving Sun a hero in Britain.[39] James CantlieSony VAIO VPCF231S1E battery, Sun's former teacher at the Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese, maintained a lifelong friendship with Sun and would later write an early biography of Sun.[40]

Heaven and earth society, overseas travel [edit]

A "Heaven and Earth Society" sect known as Tiandihui has been around for a long time.[41] The group has also been referred to as the "three cooperating organizations" as well as the triads.[41] Sun Yat-sen mainly used this group to leverage his overseas travels to gain further financial and resource support for his revolution. Sony VAIO VPCF23Q1E battery

According to Lee Yun-ping, chairman of the Chinese historical society, Sun needed a certificate to enter the United States at a time when the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 would have otherwise blocked him.[42] However, on Sun's first attempt to enter the US, he was still arrested.[42] He was later bailed out after 17 days.[42] In March 1904, while residing in Kula, Maui, Sun Yat-sen obtained a Certificate of Hawaiian Birth, issued by the Territory of HawaiiSony VAIO VPCF23M1E battery, stating that "he was born in the Hawaiian Islands on the 24th day of November, A.D. 1870."[43][44] He renounced it after it served its purpose to circumvent the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882.[44] Official files of the United States show that Sun had United States nationality, moved to China with his family at age 4, and returned to Hawaii 10 years later.[45]

Revolution [edit]

A letter with Sun's seal commencing the Tongmenghui in HKSony VAIO VPCF22S8E battery

Tongmenghui [edit]

Main article: Tongmenghui

In 1904 Sun Yat-sen came about with the goal "to expel the Tatar barbarians, to revive Zhonghua, to establish a Republic, and to distribute land equally among the people." (驅除韃虜, 恢復中華, 創立民國, 平均地權).[46] One of Sun's major legacies was the creation of his political philosophy of the Three Principles of the People. These Principles included the principle of nationalism (minzu, 民族), of democracy (minquan, 民權), and of welfare Sony VAIO VPCF22S1E battery (minsheng, 民生).[46]

On 20 August 1905 Sun joined forces with revolutionary Chinese students studying in Tokyo, Japan to form the unified group Tongmenghui (United League), which sponsored uprisings in China.[46][47] By 1906 the number of Tongmenghui members reached 963 people.[46]

Interior of the Wan Qing Yuan featuring Sun's items and photos

Malaya supportSony VAIO VPCF22M1E battery

Main article: Chinese revolutionary activities in Malaya

Sun's notability and popularity extends beyond the Greater China region, particularly to Nanyang (Southeast Asia) where a large concentration of overseas Chinese reside in Malaya (Malaysia and Singapore). While in Singapore he met local Chinese merchants Teo Eng Hock, Tan Chor Nam and Lim Nee Soon, which mark the commencement of direct support from the Nanyang Chinese. The Singapore chapter of the Tongmenghui was established on 6 April 1906. Sony VAIO VPCF22L1E battery Though some records claim the founding date to be end of 1905.[48] The villa used by Sun was known as Wan Qing Yuan.[48][49] At this point Singapore was the headquarter of the Tongmenghui.[48]

Zhennanguan uprising [edit]

On 1 December 1907 Sun led the Zhennanguan uprising against the Qing at Friendship Pass, which is the border between Guangxi and Vietnam.[50] The uprising failed after seven days of fighting.[50][51] In 1907 there were a total of four uprisings that failed including Huanggang uprising, Huizhou seven women lake uprising and Qinzhou uprising. Sony VAIO VPCF22J1E battery In 1908 two more uprisings failed one after another including Qin-lian uprising and Hekou uprising.[48]

Anti-Sun movements [edit]

Because of these failures Sun's leadership was beginning to be challenged by elements from within the Tongmenghui who wished to remove him as leader. In Tokyo 1907–1908 members from the recently merged Restoration society raised doubts about Sun's credentials.[48] Tao Chengzhang (陶成章) Sony VAIO VPCF11S1E/B batteryand Zhang Binglin publicly denounced Sun with an open leaflet called "A declaration of Sun Yat-sen's criminal acts by the revolutionaries in Southeast Asia".[48] This was printed and distributed in reformist newspapers like Nanyang Zonghui Bao.[48][52] Their goal was to target Sun as a leader leading a revolt for profiteering gains. Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E/H battery

The revolutionaries were polarized and split between pro-Sun and anti-Sun camps.[48] Sun publicly fought off comments about how he had something to gain financially from the revolution.[48] In 1910 Sun took the time to establish the United Chinese Library in Singapore.[53] But by 19 July 1910 the Tongmenghui headquarter had to relocate from Singapore to Penang to reduce the anti-Sun activities.[48] It is also in Penang that Sun and his supporters would launch the first Chinese "daily" newspaper, the Kwong Wah Yit Poh on December 1910. Sony VAIO VPCF11D4E battery

Soldiers of the Wuchang uprising

1911 revolution [edit]

Main articles: Wuchang Uprising and Xinhai Revolution

To sponsor more uprisings, Sun made a personal plea for financial aid at the Penang conference held on 13 November 1910 in Malaya.[54] The leaders launched a major drive for donations across the Malay Peninsula.[54] They raised HK$187,000.[54]

On 27 April 1911 revolutionary Huang Xing led a second Guangzhou uprising known as the Yellow Flower Mound revolt against the Qing. The revolt failed and ended in disaster; only the bodies of 72 revolutionaries were found.[55] The revolutionaries are remembered as martyrs. Sony VAIO VPCF11C5E battery

On 10 October 1911 a military uprising at Wuchang took place led again by Huang Xing. At the time Sun had no direct involvement as he was still in exile. Huang was in charge of the revolution that ended over 2000 years of imperial rule in China. When Sun learned of the successful rebellion against the Qing emperor from press reports, he immediately returned to China from the United States accompanied by General Homer Lea on 21 December 1911. Sony VAIO VPCF11C4E/B batteryThe uprising expanded to the Xinhai Revolution also known as the "Chinese Revolution" to overthrow the last Emperor Puyi. After this event 10 October became known as the commemoration of Double Ten Day.[57]

Republic of China with many governments [edit]

Provisional government [edit]

Main article: Provisional Government of the Republic of China (1912)

On 29 December 1911 a meeting of representatives from provinces in Nanking elected Sun Yat-sen as the "provisional president" (臨時大總統). Sony VAIO PCG-31114M battery January 1, 1912 was set as the first day of the First Year of the Republic.[59] Li Yuanhong was made provisional vice-president and Huang Xing became the minister of the army. The new Provisional Government of the Republic of China was created along with the Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China. Sun is credited for the funding of the revolutions and for keeping the spirit of revolution alive, even after a series of failed uprisingsSony VAIO PCG-31113M battery. His successful merger of minor revolutionary groups to a single larger party provided a better base for all those who shared the same ideals. A number of things were introduced such as the republic calendar system and new fashion like Zhongshan suits.

Beiyang government [edit]

Main article: Beiyang government

Yuan Shikai, who controlled the Beiyang Army, the military of northern China, was promised the position of President of the Republic of China if he could get the Qing court to abdicate.[60] On 12 February 1912 Emperor Puyi did abdicate the throne. Sony VAIO PCG-31112M battery Sun stepped down as President, and Yuan became the new provisional president in Beijing on 10 March 1912.[60] The provisional government did not have any military forces of its own, its control over elements of the New Army that had mutinied was limited and there were still significant forces which still had not declared against the QingSony VAIO PCG-31111M battery.

Sun Yat-sen sent telegrams to the leaders of all provinces requesting them to elect and to establish the National Assembly of the Republic of China in 1912.[61] In May 1912 the legislative assembly moved from Nanjing to Beijing with its 120 members divided between members of Tongmenghui and a Republican party that supported Yuan Shikai.[62] Many revolutionary members were already alarmed by Yuan's ambitions and the northern based Beiyang governmentSony VAIO PCG-41112M battery.

Nationalist party and Second Revolution [edit]

Tongmenghui member Song Jiaoren quickly tried to control the parliament. He mobilized the old Tungmenghui at the core with the merger of a number of new small parties to form a new political party called the Kuomintang (Chinese nationalist party) on 25 August 1912 at Huguang Guild Hall Beijing.[62] The 1912–1913 National assembly election was considered a huge success for the KMT winning 269 of the 596 seats in the lower house and 123Sony VAIO PCG-41111M battery of the 274 senate seats.[60][62] The Second Revolution took place where Sun and KMT military forces tried to overthrow Yuan's forces of about 80,000 men in an armed conflict in July 1913.[63] The revolt against Yuan was unsuccessful. Sun was forced to seek asylum in Japan. In retaliation the national party leader Song Jiaoren was assassinated, almost certainly by a secret order of Yuan, on 20 March 1913. SONY VAIO PCG-21212M battery

Political chaos [edit]

In 1915 Yuan Shikai proclaimed the Empire of China (1915–1916) with himself as Emperor of China. Sun took part in the Anti-Monarchy war of the Constitutional Protection Movement, while also supporting bandit leaders like Bai Lang during the Bai Lang Rebellion. This marked the beginning of the Warlord Era. In 1915 Sun wrote to the Second InternationalSONY VAIO PCG-21211M battery, an socialist-based organization in Paris, asking it to send a team of specialists to help China set up the world's first socialist republic.[64] At the time there were many theories and proposals of what China could be. In the political mess, even when Sun Yat-sen was announced as President, Xu Shichang was also announced as President of the Republic of China.[65]

Path to Northern Expedition [edit]

Sun Yat-sen (middle, dressed in white) and Chiang Kai-shek (on stage in uniform) at the founding of the Whampoa Military Academy in 1924SONY VAIO PCG-51212M battery.

Guangzhou militarist government [edit]

China had become divided between different military leaders without a proper central government. Sun saw the danger of this and returned to China in 1917 to advocate Chinese reunification. In 1921 he started a self-proclaimed military government in Guangzhou and was elected Grand Marshal.[66] Between 1912 and 1927 three governments had been set up in South China: the Provisional government in Nanjing (1912) SONY VAIO PCG-51211M battery, the Military government in Guangzhou (1921–1925), and the National government in Guangzhou and later Wuhan (1925–1927).[67] The southern separatist government in the South was established to rival the Beiyang government in the north.[66] Yuan Shikai had banned the KMT. The short lived Chinese Revolutionary Party was a temporary replacement for the KMT. On 10 October 1919 Sun resurrected the KMT with the new name Chung-kuo Kuomintang, basically "Chinese Nationalist party".SONY VAIO PCG-51112M battery

Sun Yat-sen (seated on right) and Chiang Kai-shek

KMT CPC cooperation [edit]

By this time Sun had become convinced that the only hope for a unified China lay in a military conquest from his base in the south, followed by a period of political tutelage that would culminate in the transition to democracy. In order to hasten the conquest of China, he began a policy of active cooperation with the Communist Party of China (CPC). Sun and the Soviet Union's Adolph Joffe signed the Sun-Joffe Manifesto in January 1923. SONY VAIO PCG-51111M battery Sun received help from the Comintern for his acceptance of communist members into his KMT. Revolutionary and socialist leader Vladimir Lenin praised Sun and the KMT for their ideology and principles. Lenin praised Sun and his attempts at social reformation, and also congratulated him for fighting foreign Imperialism.[69][70][71] Sun also returned the praise, calling him a "great man", and sent his congratulations on the revolution in Russia. SONY VAIO PCG-81212M battery

With the Soviets' help, Sun was able to develop the military power needed for the Northern Expedition against the military at the north. He established the Whampoa Military Academy near Guangzhou with Chiang Kai-shek as the commandant of the National Revolutionary Army (NRA).[73] Other Whampoa leaders include Wang Jingwei and Hu Hanmin as political instructors. This full collaboration was called the First United FrontSony VAIO PCG-81112M battery.

Finance concerns [edit]

In 1924 Sun appointed TV Soong to set up the first Chinese Central bank called the Canton Central Bank.[74] To establish national capitalism and a banking system was a major objective for the KMT.[75] However Sun was not without some opposition as there was the Canton volunteers corps uprising against himSONY VAIO PCG-71111M battery.

Sun (seated, right) and his wife Soong Ching-ling (宋慶齡) (seated, center) in Kobe, Japan in 1924

Final speeches [edit]

In February 1923 Sun made a presentation to the Students' Union in Hong Kong University and declared that it was the corruption of China and the peace, order and good government of Hong Kong that turned him into a revolutionary.[76][77] This same year, he delivered a speech in which he proclaimed his Three Principles of the People as the foundation of the country and the Five-Yuan Constitution as the guideline for the political system and bureaucracySONY VAIO PCG-7196M battery. Part of the speech was made into the National Anthem of the Republic of China.

On 10 November 1924, Sun traveled north to Tianjin and delivered a speech to suggest a gathering for a "National conference" for the Chinese people. It called for the end of warlord rules and the abolition of all unequal treaties with the Western powers.[78] Two days later, he traveled to Beijing to discuss the future of the countrySONY VAIO PCG-7195M battery, despite his deteriorating health and the ongoing civil war of the warlords. Among the people he met was the Muslim General Ma Fuxiang, who informed Sun that they would welcome the leadership of Dr. Sun.[79] On 28 November 1924 Sun traveled to Japan and gave a speech on Pan-Asianism at Kobe, Japan. SONY VAIO PCG-7194M battery

Death [edit]

Sun died of liver cancer on 12 March 1925 at the age of 58 at the Rockefeller financed Peking Union Medical College.[81][82] In keeping with common Chinese practice, his remains were placed in the Temple of Azure Clouds, a Buddhist shrine in the Western Hills a few miles outside of Beijing. SONY VAIO PCG-7192M battery

A mausoleum was built and completed in 1929. On 1 June 1929, Sun's remains were relocated from Beijing and buried in Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum in Nanjing.

Chinese Generals pay tribute to the Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum in Beijing in 1928 after the success of the Northern Expedition. From right to left, are Generals Cheng Jin (何成浚), Zhang Zuobao (張作寶), Chen Diaoyuan (陳調元), Chiang Kai-shek, Woo Tsin-hang, Yan Xishan, Ma Fuxiang, Ma Sida (馬四達), and Bai ChongxiSONY PCG-8113M battery.

Power struggle [edit]

After Sun's death, a power struggle between his young protégé Chiang Kai-shek and his old revolutionary comrade Wang Jingwei split the KMT. At stake in this struggle was the right to lay claim to Sun's ambiguous legacy. In 1927 Chiang Kai-shek married Soong May-ling, a sister of Sun's widow Soong Ching-ling, and subsequently he could claim to be a brother-in-law of SunSONY PCG-8112M battery. When the Communists and the Kuomintang split in 1927, marking the start of the Chinese Civil War, each group claimed to be his true heirs, a conflict that continued through World War II. Sun's widow, Soong Ching-ling, sided with the Communists during the Chinese Civil War and served from 1949 to 1981 as Vice President (or Vice Chairwoman) of the People's Republic of China and as Honorary President shortly before her demise in 1981SONY PCG-7134M battery .

Cult of Personality [edit]

A personality cult in the Republic of China was centered on Sun and his successor, Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek. Chinese Muslim Generals and Imams participated in this cult of personality and one party state, with Muslim General Ma Bufang making people bow to Sun's portrait and listen to the national anthem during a Tibetan and Mongol religious ceremony for the Qinghai Lake God.[85] Quotes from the Quran and Hadith were used by Muslims to justify Chiang Kai-shek's rule over China. SONY PCG-7131M battery

The Kuomintang's constitution designated Sun as party president. After his death, the Kuomintang opted to keep that language in its constitution to honor his memory forever. The party has since been headed by a director-general (1927-1975) and a chairman (since 1975), which discharge the functions of the presidentSONY PCG-7122M battery.

Statue in the Mausoleum, Kuomintang flag on the ceiling

Father of the Nation [edit]

Sun Yat-sen remains unique among 20th century Chinese leaders for having a high reputation both in mainland China and in Taiwan. In Taiwan, he is seen as the Father of the Republic of China, and is known by the posthumous name Father of the Nation, Mr. Sun Zhongshan (Chinese: 國父 孫中山先生, where the one-character space is a traditional homage symbol).[6] His likeness is still almost always found in ceremonial locations such as in front of legislatures and classrooms of public schools, from elementary to senior high schoolSONY PCG-7121M battery , and he continues to appear in new coinage and currency.

Forerunner of the revolution [edit]

On the mainland, Sun is also seen as a Chinese nationalist and proto-socialist, and is highly regarded as the Forerunner of the Revolution (革命先行者).[68] He is even mentioned by name in the preamble to the Constitution of the People's Republic of China. In recent years, the leadership of the Communist Party of China has increasingly invoked Sun, partly as a way of bolstering Chinese nationalism in light of Chinese economic SONY PCG-7113M battery  reform and partly to increase connections with supporters of the Kuomintang on Taiwan which the PRC sees as allies against Taiwan independence. Sun's tomb was one of the first stops made by the leaders of both the Kuomintang and the People First Party on their pan-blue visit to mainland China in 2005.[87] A massive portrait of Sun continues to appear in Tiananmen Square for May Day and National DaySONY PCG-7112M battery .

Family [edit]

Lu Muzhen (1867–1952), Sun's first wife from 1885 to 1915

Main article: Family tree of Sun Yat-sen

Sun Yat-sen was born to father Sun Dacheng (孫達成) and mother lady Yang (楊氏) on 12 November 1866.[88] At the time his father was age 53, while his mother was 38 years old. By the time he was born, he already had an older brother Sun Dezhang (孫德彰), an older sister Sun Jinxing (孫金星) who died at the early age of 4. Another older brother Sun Deyou (孫德祐) also died at the age of 6. He had two other sisters Sun Miaoxi (孫妙茜), who was older and Sun Qiuqi (孫秋綺) who was younger. SONY PCG-8Z3M battery

Sun had an arranged marriage with fellow villager Lu Muzhen at the age of 20. She bore him a son Sun Fo and two daughters, Sun Jinyuan (孫金媛) and Sun Jinwan (孫金婉).[17] Sun subsequently married Soong Ching-ling, one of the Soong sisters.[17] They were married in Japan on 25 October 1915, though he did not divorce his first wife, Lu Muzhen, due to opposition from the Chinese community. SONY PCG-8Z2M batteryThe relation with the sisters' father Charles Soong would play a role in political affairs. Among Sun's descendants was Leland Sun, who spent 37 years working in Hollywood as an actor and stuntman.[90]

Cultural references [edit]

Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum in Nanjing at 1 May 2011

Memorials and structures in Asia [edit]

In most major Chinese cities one of the main streets is named Zhongshan Lu (中山路) to celebrate his memory. There are also numerous parks, schools, and geographical features named after him. Xiangshan, Sun's hometown in Guangdong, was renamed Zhongshan in his honor, and there is a hall dedicated to his memory at the Temple of Azure Clouds in Beijing. There are also a series of Sun Yat-sen stampsSONY PCG-8Z1M battery.

Other references to Sun include the Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou and National Sun Yat-sen University in Kaohsiung. Other structures include Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum, Sun Yat-sen subway station, Sun Yat-sen house in Nanjing, Dr. Sun Yat-sen Museum in Hong Kong, Chung-Shan Building in the Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall in Taipei and Sun Yat Sen Nanyang Memorial Hall in Singapore. Zhongshan Memorial Middle School has also been a name used by many schoolsSONY PCG-8Y3M battery. Zhongshan Park is also a common name used for a number of places named after him. The first highway in Taiwan is called the Sun Yat-sen expressway. Two ships are also named after him, the Chinese gunboat Chung Shan and Chinese cruiser Yat Sen. The old Chinatown in Calcutta (now known as Kolkata), India has a prominent street by the name of Sun Yat-sen street. In Penang, Malaysia, the Penang Philomatic Union had its premises at 120 Armenian Street in 1910SONY PCG-8Y2M battery , during the time when Sun spent more than four months in Penang, convened the historic "Penang Conference" to launch the fundraising campaign for the Huanghuagang Uprising and founded the Kwong Wah Yit Poh; this house, which has been preserved as the Sun Yat Sen Museum Penang (formerly called the Sun Yat Sen Penang Base), was visited by President designate Hu Jintao in 2002. The Penang Philomatic Union subsequently moved to a bungalow at 65 Macalister Road which has been preserved as the Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Centre in PenangSONY PCG-7Z1M battery.

As dedication, the 1966 Chinese Cultural Renaissance was launched on Sun's birthday on 12 November.[91]

The Nanyang Wan Qing Yuan in Singapore have since been preserved and renamed as the Sun Yat Sen Nanyang Memorial Hall.[49] A Sun Yat-sen heritage trail was also launched in 20 November 2010 in Penang. SONY PCG-6W2M battery

Sun's US citizen Hawaii birth certificate that show he was not born in the ROC, but instead born in the US was on public display at the American Institute in Taiwan on US Independence day 4 July 2011.[93]

A marker on the Sun Yat-sen Historical Trail on Hong Kong Island

Memorials and structures outside of Asia [edit]

Dr. Sun Yat-Sen Classical Chinese Garden is located in Vancouver, the largest classical Chinese gardens outside of Asia. There is the Dr. Sun Yat-sen Memorial Park in Chinatown, Honolulu.[94] In SacramentoSONY PCG-5J5M battery, California there is a bronze statue of Sun in front of the Chinese Benevolent Association of Sacramento. Another statue of Sun Yat-sen can be found at Riverdale Park in Toronto, Canada. There is also the Moscow Sun Yat-sen University. In Chinatown, San Francisco, there is a 12-foot statue of him on St. Mary's Square.[95] San Diego's Asian Pacific Thematic Historic District features the Sun Yat-sen Memorial GateSONY PCG-5K2M battery.

In late 2011, the Chinese Youth Society of Melbourne, in celebration of the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Republic Of China, unveiled, in a Lion Dance Blessing ceremony, a memorial statue of Dr. Sun Yat-Sen outside the Chinese Museum in Melbourne's Chinatown, on the spot where their traditional Chinese New Year Lion Dance always ends. SONY PCG-5K1M battery 

In 1993 Lily Sun, one of Sun Yat-sen's granddaughters, donated books, photographs, artwork and other memorabilia to the Kapi`olani library as part of the "Sun Yat-sen Asian collection".[97] During October and November every year the entire collection is shown.[97] In 1997 the "Dr Sun Yat-sen Hawaii foundation" was formed online as a virtual library.[97] In 2006 the NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit labeled one of the hills explored "Zhongsan".SONY PCG-5J4M battery

The plaque shown earlier in this article is by Dora Gordine, and is situated on the site of Sun's lodgings in London in 1896, 8 Grays Inn Place. There is also a plaque commemorating Sun at The Kennels, Cottered, Hertfordshire, the country home of the Cantlies where Sun came to recuperate after his rescue from the legation in 1896.

A street was named as Sun Yat-Sen Avenue is located in Markham, the first street name outside of AsiaSONY PCG-5J1M battery.

TV series, films [edit]

The life of Sun is portrayed in various films, mainly The Soong Sisters and Road to Dawn. A fictionalized assassination attempt on his life was featured in Bodyguards and Assassins. He is also portrayed during his struggle to overthrow the Qing dynasty in Once Upon a Time in China II. The TV series Towards the Republic features Ma Shaohua as Sun Yat-sen. In the 100th anniversary tribute of the film 1911, Winston Chao played Sun. SONY PCG-5G2M battery

Sun Yat-sen tribute in Tiananmen Square, 2005.

Performances [edit]

In 2010 a theatrical play "Yellow Flower on slopes" (斜路黃花) was made.[100] In 2011 there is also a mandopop group called "Zhongsan road 100" (中山路100號) known for singing the song "Our father of the nation" (我們國父).[101] In 2011 a three-act opera, Dr. Sun Yat-Sen was announced by the Hong Kong Leisure and Cultural Services Department.[102]

Books [edit]

The 1992 novel China Mountain Zhang has a protagonist named Zhongsan of Chinese and Puerto Rican ancestry in a world dominated by the Communist partySony VAIO PCG-8131M battery.

Controversy [edit]

New Three Principles of the People [edit]

At one time CPC General secretary and PRC president Jiang Zemin claimed Sun Yat-sen had a "New Three Principles of the People" (新三民主義) which consisted of "working with the soviets, working with the communists and helping the farmers" (聯俄, 聯共, 扶助工農).[103][104] Lily Sun said the CPC was distorting Sun's legacy in 2001. She then voiced her displeasure in 2002 in a private letter to Jiang about the distortion of history.[103] In 2008 Jiang Zemin was willing to offer US$10 million to sponsor a Xinhai Revolution anniversary celebration eventSony VAIO PCG-8152M battery. According to Ming Pao she could not take the money because she would no longer have the freedom to communicate the revolution.[103] This concept is still currently available on Baike Baidu.

KMT emblem disappearance case [edit]

In 1981 Lily Sun took a trip to Sun Yat-sen mausoleum in Nanjing, People's Republic of China. The emblem of the KMT had disappeared from the top of his tomb. On another visit in May 2011, she was surprised to find the four characters "General Rules of Meetings" (會議通則), a document that Sun wrote in reference to Robert's Rules of Order had disappeared from a stone carving. Sony VAIO PCG-31311M battery

Father of Independent Taiwan issue [edit]

Portrait of Sun Yat-sen on a Taiwan banknote of 1960.

Dr Sun Yat-sen on 1960 ND Banknote of Taiwan

In November 2004 the Taiwan Ministry of Education proposed that Sun Yat-sen was not the father of their independent country, Taiwan. Instead Sun was a foreigner from China.[105] Taiwanese Education minister Tu Cheng-sheng and Examination Yuan member Lin Yu-ti (林玉体) were then attacked with eggs.[106] At a Sun Yat-sen statue in Kaohsiung, a 70 year old ROC retired soldier slit his own throat to commit suicide as a way to protest the ministry proposal on the anniversary of Sun's birthday 12 NovemberSony VAIO PCG-31111M battery.

Soong Ching-ling (pinyin: Sòng Qìnglíng; 27 January 1893 – 29 May 1981), was the second wife of Sun Yat-sen, leader of the 1911 revolution that established the Republic of China, and was often referred to as Mme. Sun Yat-sen. She was a member of the Soong family, and together with her brothers and sisters played a prominent role in China's politics prior to 1949. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949Sony VAIO PCG-8112M battery, she held several prominent positions in the new government, and traveled abroad during the early 1950s, representing China at a number of international activities. During the Cultural Revolution, however, she was heavily criticized; in one incident in 1966, her parents' grave was destroyed by Red Guards.[1] Soong survived the Cultural Revolution, but appeared less frequently after 1976. During her final illness in May 1981, she was given the special title of Honorary President of the People's Republic of ChinaSony VAIO PCG-7186M battery.

Soong Ching-ling was born to businessman and missionary Charlie Soong in what is now Chuansha, a district of Pudong, Shanghai,[2][3] the second of six children. She attended McTyeire School for Girls in Shanghai, and graduated from Wesleyan College in Macon, Georgia, United States.[4] Like her sisters, she spoke fluent English due to being educated in English for most of her life. Her Christian name was Rosamonde Sony VAIO PCG-7171M battery (in her early years, her passport name was spelt as Chung-ling Soong, and in her Wesleyan College diploma, her name was Rosamonde Chung-ling Soong).

Soong married Sun Yat Sen, leader of China's 1911 revolution and founder of the Kuomintang (KMT or Nationalist Party), on 25 October 1915, even though her parents greatly opposed the match. (Dr. Sun was 26 years her senior.) After Sun's death in 1925, she was elected to the KMT Central Executive Committee. However, she left China for Moscow after the expulsion of the Communists from the KMT in 1927, accusing the KMT of betraying her husband's legacySony VAIO PCG-9Z1M battery. Her younger sister, May-ling, married Chiang Kai-shek shortly afterward, making Chiang Soong's brother-in-law.

Soong returned to China in June 1929 when Sun Yat-sen was moved from his temporary burial site in Beijing to a new memorial in Nanjing, but left again three months later, and did not return until July 1931, when her mother died. She resided afterwards in Shanghai until July 1937, when the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) broke outSony VAIO PCG-5S1M battery. Following the outbreak of hostilities, she moved first to Hong Kong, then to Chongqing, the wartime capital of the Chinese government. In 1939, she founded the China Defense League, which raised funds and sought supplies primarily for the Chinese Communist controlled areas of northern China. In 1946, the League was renamed the China Welfare fund, continuing to seek funds and support for the Chinese Communists. Sony VAIO PCG-5P1M battery

During the Chinese Civil War, Soong permanently broke with her family and supported the Commnunists. With the collapse of the Nationalist government and the Communist victory in the civil war, she left Shanghai in September 1949 to attend the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), convened in Beijing by the Chinese Communist Party to establish a new Central People's Government. On October 1Sony VAIO PCG-5N2M battery, she was a guest at the ceremony in Tiananmen Square marking the birth of the new People's Republic of China. The Nationalist government issued an order for her arrest,[6] but the swift military victory of the Communists led to the KMT's retreat from mainland China to Taiwan soon after thisSony VAIO PCG-3C2M battery.

Political offices and activities after 1949 [edit]

Soong was held in great esteem by the victorious Communists, who reckoned her as a link between their movement and Sun's earlier movement.[7] After the formal establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, she became one of six vice chairmen of the Central People's Government Council,[8] and one of several vice-chairmen of the Sino-Soviet Friendship Association.[9] In April 1951, it was announced that she had been awarded the Stalin Peace Prize for 1950. Sony VAIO PCG-8161M battery

In 1950, Soong became chairman of the Chinese People's Relief Administration, which combined several organizations dealing with welfare and relief issues. Her China Welfare Fund was reorganized as the China Welfare Institute and began publishing the magazine China Reconstructs, now published as China Today. In 1953, a collection of her writings, Struggle for New China, was published. Sony VAIO PCG-8141M battery

In 1953 Soong served on the committees preparing for elections to the new National People's Congress and the drafting of the 1954 constitution. Soong was elected a Shanghai deputy to the first NPC, which adopted the constitution at its first meeting in September 1954. She was elected one of 14 vice-chairman of the NPC's standing committee, chaired by Liu ShaoqiSony VAIO PCG-3J1M battery. In December of the same year, she was elected a vice-chairman of the CPPCC, which became a consultative body, and replaced Liu Shaoqi as chairman of the Sino-Soviet Friendship Association. During this period, Soong traveled abroad several times, visiting Vienna, India, Burma, Pakistan, and Indonesia. Her trips included a January 1953 visit to the Soviet Union, where she was received by Stalin shortly before his deathSony VAIO PCG-3H1M battery. She visited Moscow again in 1957 with Mao Zedong's delegation to the 40th anniversary of the Russian Revolution.[12] According to one of Soong's biographers, in 1957, Soong told Liu Shaoqi that she wanted to join the Communist Party, but her request was rejected because "it was thought better for the revolution that she not join formally, but that she would thenceforth be informed, and her opinion sought, concerning all important inner-Party events matters, not only those involving the government." Sony VAIO PCG-3F1M battery

In April 1959, Soong again served as a Shanghai deputy at the Second National People's Conference. At this Congress, Mao Zedong and Zhu De stepped down as Chairman and Vice-Chairman of the People's Republic of China. Liu Shaoqi was elected Chairman (Head of State), and Soong Ching-ling and Dong Biwu, a senior Communist Party 'elder', were elected Vice Chairpersons of the People's Republic of China. Soong resigned at this time from her positions as vice-chairwoman of the CPPCC and the NPC.[14] She was re-elected to the post of Vice-chairperson of the PRC at the Third National People's Congress in 1965Sony VAIO PCG-9Z2L battery, and appeared frequently in the early 1960s on ceremonial occasions, often greeting important visitors from abroad.

During the Cultural Revolution (1966–76), Soong was heavily criticized by Red Guard factions, and in one incident, the marker of her parents' grave was toppled and their bodies exposed.[15] According to Soong's biographer, following this incident Zhou Enlai recommended that Soong Ching-ling be put on a "List of Cadres to be protected." Zhou's recommendation was approved by Mao Zedong. Sony VAIO PCG-9Z1L battery

Late in the Cultural Revolution, during the 4th NPC which approved the 1975 Constitution in January 1975, Soong was removed as Vice-Chairperson of the People's Republic of China and again appointed one of the vice-chairwoman of the NPC Standing Committee.[17]

Last years [edit]

Soong's public appearances were limited after the Cultural Revolution, and she was in generally poor health, but articles by herSony VAIO PCG-9131L battery, primarily on children's welfare issues, continued to appear in the press. Her last public appearance was on May 8, 1981, when she appeared in a wheelchair at the Great Hall of the People to accept an honorary LL.D. degree from Victoria College. A few days later she began running a high fever and was unable to rise again. On 16 May 1981, less than two weeks before her death, she was admitted to the Communist Party and named Honorary President of the People's Republic of China (Chinese: 中华人民共和国名誉主席). She is the only person to ever hold this title. Sony VAIO PCG-8161L battery

Museums [edit]

Soong Ching-ling obtained a mansion in Beijing in 1963 where she lived and worked for the rest of her life and received many dignitaries. After her death the site was converted into the Former Residence of Soong Ching-ling as a museum and memorial; rooms and furniture are kept as she had used them, and memorabilia are displayed. Her former residence in Shanghai has also been converted into a memorial museumSony VAIO PCG-8152L battery.

Media portrayal [edit]

In the 1997 Hong Kong movie The Soong Sisters (宋家皇朝), she is portrayed by Hong Kong actress Maggie Cheung.

In the 2009 mainland China movie "The Founding of a Republic" (建國大業), She was portrayed by Xu Qing.
Pour être informé des derniers articles, inscrivez vous :

Commenter cet article