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Seville is the capital of the autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville, Spain. It is situated on the plain of the River Guadalquivir, with an average elevation of 7 metres (23 ft) above sea level. The inhabitants of the city are known as sevillanos (feminine form: sevillanas) or hispalenses, following the Roman name of the city, HispalisSony PCG-71313M battery.

Seville is the fourth largest city of Spain with a municipal population of about 703,000 as of 2011, and a metropolitan population (including satellite towns) of about 1.2 million, making it the 31st most populous municipality in the European Union. Its Old Town is one of the three largest in Europe along with Venice and Genoa (covering almost four square kilometers) Sony PCG-71212M battery, which includes three UNESCO World Heritage Sites (the Alcázar palace complex, the Cathedral and the General Archive of the Indies). The Seville harbor, located about 80 km from the Atlantic Ocean, is the only river port in Spain. Seville was founded as the Roman city of Hispalis. In al-Andalus (Muslim Spain) the city was first the seat of a cora, or territory, of the Caliphate of CórdobaSony PCG-71311M battery, then made capital of the Taifa of Seville (Arabic: طائفة أشبيليّة, Ta'ifa Ishbiliya), which was incorporated into the Christian Kingdom of Castile under Ferdinand III. After the discovery of the Americas, Seville became one of the economic centres of the Spanish Empire as its port monopolised the trans-oceanic trade and the Casa de Contratación (House of Trade) wielded its powerSony PCG-71213M battery, opening a Golden Age of arts and letters. It was the place of departure of the first circumnavigation of the Earth. Coinciding with the Baroque period of European history, the 17th century in Seville represented the most brilliant flowering of the city's culture; then began a gradual economic and demographic decline as navigation of the Guadalquivir River became increasingly difficult until finally the trade monopoly and its institutions were transferred to CádizSony PCG-61211M battery.

The 20th century in Seville saw the horrors of the Spanish Civil War, decisive cultural milestones such as the Ibero-American Exposition of 1929 and Expo'92, and the city's election as the capital of the Autonomous Community of Andalusia. Seville is also the hometown of such famous personalities as the painters Velázquez and Murillo, the writer Gustavo Adolfo BécquerSony VAIO PCG-31114M battery, the poet Antonio Machado, and Vicente Aleixandre, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature.


Spal is the oldest known name for Seville. It appears to be related to the Phoenician colonization of the Tartessos culture from south-western Iberia, meaning "lowland".[1] During Roman rule, the name was Latinized as Hispalis. After Moorish invasionSony VAIO PCG-31113M battery, this name evolved to Ishbiliya (Arabic أشبيليّة) due to the phonetic phenomenon called imela, since "p" does not exist in Arabic, and stressed "a" /æ/ turns into "i" /i/.[2] The current Spanish denomination Sevilla come from the Arabic Isbiliya.

Main article: History of Seville

Seville is approximately 2,200 years old. The passage of the various civilizations instrumental in its growth has left the city a distinct personality, Sony VAIO PCG-31112M battery and a large and well-preserved historical center. Although it has a strong medieval, renaissance and baroque heritage, the city was greatly influenced by Arabic culture.

[edit]Early periods

The mythological founder of the city is Hercules (Heracles), commonly identified with the Phoenician god Melqart, who the myth says sailed through the Strait of Gibraltar to the Atlantic, and founded trading posts at the current sites of Cadiz and of Seville. Sony VAIO PCG-31111M battery

The Giralda view from the Patio de Banderas (Courtyard of Flags), historic square with remains of Roman, Moorish and Castilian periods.

The city was known from Roman times as Hispalis. Important archaeological remains also exist in the nearby towns of Santiponce(Italica) and Carmona.

Existing Roman features in Seville include the remnants of an aqueduct, a temple in Mármoles Street, the columns of La Alameda de HérculesSony VAIO PCG-41112M battery, the remains exposed in situ in the underground Antiquarium of the Metropol Parasol building and, finally, the remains in Patio de Banderas square, near of the Seville Cathedral. The walls surrounding the city were originally built during the rule of Julius Caesar, but their current course and design were the result of Moorish reconstructionsSony VAIO PCG-41111M battery.

Following Roman rule, there were successive conquests of the Roman province of Hispania Baetica by the Vandals and the Visigoths during the 5th and 6th centuries.

Moorish era

Coin of the Almoravids, Seville, Spain, 1116. British Museum.

Seville was taken by the Moors, Muslims from the North of Africa, during the conquest of Hispalis in 712. It was the capital for the kings of the Umayyad CaliphateSONY VAIO PCG-21212M battery, the Almoravid dynasty first and after the Almohad dynasty (from Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i.e., "the monotheists" or "the Unitarians"), from the 8th to 13th centuries.

The Moorish urban influences continued and are present in contemporary Seville, for instance in the custom of decorating with herbaje and small fountains the courtyards of the houses. HoweverSONY VAIO PCG-21211M battery, most buildings of the Moorish aesthetic actually belong to the Mudéjar style of Islamic art, developed under Christian rule inspired the Arabic style. Original Moorish buildings are the Patio del Yeso in the Alcázar, the city walls, and the main section of the Giralda, bell tower of the Seville Cathedral. SONY VAIO PCG-51212M battery

Castilian rule

In 1247, the Christian King Ferdinand III of Castile and Leon began the conquest of Andalusia. After conquering Jaén and Córdoba, he seized the villages surrounding the city, Carmona Lora del Rio and Alcalá del Rio, and kept a standing army in the vicinity, the siege lasting for fifteen months. The decisive action took place in May 1248 SONY VAIO PCG-51211M batterywhen Ramon Bonifaz sailed up the Guadalquivir and severed the Triana bridge that made the provisioning of the city from the farms of the Aljarafe possible. The city surrendered on 23 November 1248.

The city's development continued after the Castilian conquest in 1248. Public buildings constructed including churches, many of which were built in the Mudéjar style, and the Seville Cathedral, built during the 15th century with Gothic architectureSONY VAIO PCG-51112M battery. The Moors' Palace became the Castilian royal residence, and during Pedro I's rule it was replaced by the Alcázar (the upper levels are still used by the Royal Family as the official Seville residence).

Hall of Ambassadors in the Alcázar of Seville.

In 1391, Archdeacon Ferrant Martinez closed all the synagogues in Seville, converting them to churches, as in the case of Santa María la Blanca, and also appropriated the Jewish quarter's land and shops (sited in modern-day 'Barrio Santa Cruz') SONY VAIO PCG-51111M battery. Thousands were killed during the pogrom, while others were forced to convert. The Plaza de San Francisco was the site of the 'autos de fé'. At first, the activity of the Inquisition was limited to the dioceses of Seville and Cordoba, where Alonso de Hojeda had detected converso activity. The first Auto de Fé took place in Seville on 6 February 1481, when six people were burned alive. Alonso de Hojeda himself gave the sermonSONY VAIO PCG-81212M battery. The Inquisition then grew rapidly. By 1492, tribunals existed in eight Castilian cities: Ávila, Cordoba, Jaén, Medina del Campo, Segovia, Sigüenza, Toledo and Valladolid.[6]

The Golden Age

Following the 1492 Christopher Columbus expedition to the New World (from Palos de la Frontera's port), the results from his claiming territory and trade for the Crown of Castile (incipient Spain) in the West Indies began to profit the citySony VAIO PCG-81112M battery, as all goods imported from the New World had to pass through the Casa de Contratacion before being distributed throughout the rest of Spain. A 'golden age of development' commenced in Seville, due to its being the only port awarded the royal monopoly for trade with the growing Spanish colonies in the Americas and the influx of riches from themSONY VAIO PCG-71111M battery. Since only sailing ships leaving from and returning to the inland port of Seville could engage in trade with the Spanish Americas, merchants from Europe and other trade centers needed to go to Seville to acquire New World trade goods. The city's population grew to nearly a million people. SONY VAIO PCG-7196M battery

Seville in the 16th century

In the late 16th century the monopoly was broken, with the port of Cádiz also authorized as a port of trade. The Great Plague of Seville in 1649 reduced the population by almost half, and it would not recover until the early 19th century.[8] By the 18th century its international importance was in decline. After the silting up of the harbor by the Guadalquivir (river) upriver shipping ceased and the city went into relative economic declineSONY VAIO PCG-7195M battery.

The writer Miguel de Cervantes lived primarily in Seville between 1596 and 1600. Because of financial problems, Cervantes worked as a purveyor for the Spanish Armada, and later as a tax collector. In 1597, discrepancies in his accounts of the three years previous landed him in the Royal Prison of Seville for a short time. Rinconete y CortadilloSONY VAIO PCG-7194M battery, a popular comedy among his works, features two young vagabonds who come to Seville, attracted by the riches and disorder that the 16th-century commerce with the Americas had brought to that metropolis.

[edit]18th century

During the 18th century Charles III of Spain promoted Seville's industrialisation. Construction of the Royal Tobacco Factory (Real Fábrica de Tabacos) began in 1728 and proceeded intermittently for the next 30 yearsSONY VAIO PCG-7192M battery. At the time it was the second largest building in Spain, after the royal residence El Escorial. Since the 1950s it has been the seat of the rectorate of the University of Seville.

Royal Tobacco Factory, today University of Seville.

Many operas have been set in the city, including those by such composers as Beethoven (Fidelio), Mozart (The Marriage of Figaro and Don Giovanni), and Rossini (The Barber of Seville). SONY PCG-8113M battery

Seville became the dean of the Spanish provincial press in 1758 with the publication of its first newspaper, the Hebdomario útil de Seville, the first to be printed in Spain outside Madrid.

19th and 20th centuries

Holy Week in Seville in 1855

Between 1825 and 1833 Melchor Cano acted as chief architect in Seville, most of the urban planning policy and architectural modifications of the city were made by him and his collaborator Jose Manuel Arjona y Cuba. SONY PCG-8112M battery

Industrial architecture surviving today from the first half of the 19th century includes the ceramics factory installed in the Carthusian monastery at La Cartuja in 1841 by the Pickman family, and now home to the Institute of Culture and the Arts (Instituto de la Cultura y las Artes de Sevilla), or ICASSONY PCG-7134M battery.

In the years that Queen Isabel II ruled directly, about 1843–1868, the Sevillian bourgeoisie invested in a construction boom unmatched in the city's history. The Isabel II bridge, better known as the Triana bridge, dates from this period; street lighting was expanded in the municipality and most of the streets were paved during this time as well. SONY PCG-7131M battery

By the second half of the 19th century Seville began an expansion supported by railway construction and the demolition of part of its ancient walls, allowing the urban space of the city to grow eastward and southward. The Sevillana de Electricidad Company was created in 1894 to provide electric power throughout the municipality,[12] and in 1901 the Plaza de Armas railway station was inauguratedSONY PCG-7122M battery. The Museum of Fine Arts (Museo de Bellas Artes de Sevilla) opened in 1904.

In 1929 the city hosted the Ibero-American Exposition, which accelerated the southern expansion of the city and created new public spaces such as the Plaza de España and the Maria Luisa Park. Not long before the opening, the Spanish government began a modernization of the city in order to prepare for the expected crowds by erecting new hotels and widening the medieval streets to allow for the movement of automobilesSONY PCG-7121M battery.

Seville fell very quickly at the beginning of the Spanish Civil War in 1936. General Queipo de Llano carried out a coup within the city, quickly capturing the city centre.[13] Radio Seville opposed the uprising and called for the peasants to come to the city for arms, while worker's groups established barricades.[13] De Llano then moved to capture Radio Seville, which he used to broadcast propaganda on behalf of the Francoist forces. SONY PCG-7113M battery  After the initial takeover of the city, resistance continued amongst the working-class areas for some time, until a series of fierce reprisals took place.[14]

Under Francisco Franco's rule Spain was officially neutral in World War II, and like the rest of the country, Seville remained largely economically and culturally isolated from the outside world.

In 1953 the shipyard of Seville was opened, eventually employing more than 2,000 workers in the 1970sSONY PCG-7112M battery .

Before the existence of wetlands regulation in the Guadalquivir basin, Seville suffered regular heavy flooding; perhaps worst of all were the floods that occurred in November 1961 when the river Tamarguillo overflowed as a result of a prodigious downpour of rain, and Seville was consequently declared a disaster zoneSONY PCG-8Z3M battery .

Trade unionism in Seville began during the 1960s with the underground organizational activities of the Workers' Commissions or Comisiones Obreras (CCOO), in factories such as Hytasa, the Astilleros shipyards, Hispano Aviación, etc. Several of the movement's leaders were imprisoned in November 1973SONY PCG-8Z2M battery .

On 3 April 1979 Spain held its first democratic municipal elections after the end of Franco's dictatorship; councillors representing four different political parties were elected in Seville.

On 5 November 1982, Pope John Paul II arrived in Seville to officiate at a Mass before more than half a million people at the fairgrounds. He visited the city again 13 June 1993, for the International Eucharistic CongressSONY PCG-8Z1M battery.

Alamillo bridge, built for Universal Exposition of Seville.

In 1992, coinciding with the fifth centenary of the Discovery of the Americas, the Universal Exposition was held for six months in Seville, on the occasion of which the local communications network infrastructure was greatly improved: the SE-30 beltway around the city was completed, new highways were constructedSONY PCG-8Y3M battery, the new Santa Justa train station had opened in 1991 and the Spanish High Speed Rail system, the Alta Velocidad Española (AVE), began to operate between Madrid-Seville. The Seville airport, the Aeropuerto de Sevilla, was expanded with a new terminal building designed by the architect Rafael Moneo, and various other improvements were madeSONY PCG-8Y2M battery. The monumental Puente del Alamillo (Alamillo Bridge) over the Guadalquivir, designed by the architect Santiago Calatrava, was built to allow access to the island of La Cartuja, site of the massive exposition.

Some of the installations remaining at the site after the exposition were converted into the Scientific and Technological Park Cartuja 93SONY PCG-7Z1M battery.

Schindler Tower next to the Guadalquivir.

Seville has an area of 140 km2, according to the National Topographic Map (Mapa Topográfico Nacional) series from the Instituto Geográfico Nacional – Centro Nacional de Información Geograficá, the country's civilian survey organization (pages 984, 985 and 1002). The city is situated in the fertile valley of the Guadalquivir River. The average height above sea level is 7 meters. Most of the city is on the east side of the riverSONY PCG-6W2M battery, while Triana, La Cartuja and Los Remedios are on the west side. The Aljarafe region lies further west, and is considered part of the metropolitan area. The city has limits on the north with La Rinconada, La Algaba and Santiponce; on the east with Alcalá de Guadaira; on the south with Dos Hermanas and Gelves and on the west with San Juan de Aznalfarache, Tomares and CamasSONY PCG-5J5M battery.

Seville has a subtropical climate, precisely hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csa). The annual average temperature is 25 °C (77 °F) during the day and 13 °C (55 °F) at night.

After the neighbouring city of Cordoba, Seville has the warmest summer in the European continent (among all cities with a population over 100,000 people) SONY PCG-5K2M battery, with average daily highs in July of 35.3 °C (96 °F). Average minimum temperatures in July are 19.4 °C (67 °F) and every year the temperature exceeds 40 °C (104 °F) on several occasions. The coldest temperature extreme of −8.2 °C (17 °F) was registered by the weather station at Seville Airport on 28 January 2005. A historical record high (disputed) of 50.0 °C (122 °F) SONY PCG-5K1M battery  was recorded on 4 August 1881, according to the NOAA Satellite and Information Service.[16] There is a non-accredited record by the National Institute of Meteorology of 47.2 °C (117 °F) on 1 August during the 2003 heat wave, according to a weather station (83910 LEZL) located in the southern part of Seville Airport, near the abandoned military zoneSONY PCG-5J4M battery. This temperature would be one of the highest ever recorded in Spain and Europe after the European record of 48.0 °C (118 °F) recorded in Athens on 10/07/1977.

Winters are mild: January is the coolest month, with average maximum temperatures of 15.9 °C (61 °F) and minimum of 5.2 °C (41 °F).

Precipitation varies from 400 to 800 mm (23.5–31.5 in) per year, concentrated in the period October to April. December is the wettest monthSONY PCG-5J1M battery , with an average rainfall of 95 millimetres (4 in). On average there are 52 days of rain, 120.75 days of sun and four days of frost per year.

Average number of days above 32 °C (90 °F) is 88, average number of nights below 0 °C (32 °F) is 6. Average morning relative humidity: 84%, average evening relative humidity: 46%.


Seville is the capital of the autonomous community of AndalusiaSONY PCG-5G2M battery. The historical edifice of the Palace of San Telmo is now the seat of the presidency of the Andalusian Autonomous Government. The administrative headquarters are in Torre Triana, in La Cartuja. The Hospital de las Cinco Llagas (literally, "Hospital of the Five Holy Wounds") is the current seat of the Parliament of AndalusiaSony VAIO PCG-8131M battery. Since 2012 the government of the autonomous community has been a coalition between the leftist Spanish Socialist Workers' Party or Partido Socialista Obrero Español (PSOE) and the United Left, or Izquierda Unida (IU); its president is Jose Antonio Griñán Martínez. Elections to the autonomous community are held every four yearsSony VAIO PCG-8152M battery.

Palace of San Telmo, seat of the presidency of the Andalusian Autonomous Government.

Seville is the capital of the Autonomous Community of Andalusía, according to Article 4 of the Statute of Autonomy of Andalucía of 2007, and is the capital of the Province of Seville as well.

The Common Council of Seville has 33 councillors and a mayor, with elections every four years. Since 2011, the government of the city has been by the conservative People's Party or Partido Popular (PP) Sony VAIO PCG-31311M battery, and Juan Ignacio Zoido Álvarez has been mayor. The City Hall is on the Plaza Nueva, in the El Arenal neighbourhood. The administration of the City is decentralized into 11 districts.

[edit]Districts and Neighbourhoods

The Alcázar, the Cathedral, and the Archivo General de Indias (General Archive of the Indies) are UNESCO World Heritage Sites.


North façade of the Cathedral of St. Mary of Seville.


The Cathedral of St. Mary was built from 1401–1519 after the Reconquista on the former site of the city's mosque. It is amongst the largest of all medieval and Gothic cathedralsSony VAIO PCG-31111M battery, in terms of both area and volume. The interior is the longest nave in Spain, and is lavishly decorated, with a large quantity of gold evident. The Cathedral reused some columns and elements from the mosque, and, most famously, the Giralda, originally a minaret, was converted into a bell tower. It is topped with a statue, known locally as El Giraldillo, representing Faith. The tower's interior was built with ramps rather than stairs, to allow the Muezzin and others to ride on horseback to the topSony VAIO PCG-8112M battery.

The Alcázar facing the cathedral was developed from a previous Moorish Palace. Construction was started in 1181 and continued for over 500 years, mainly in the Mudéjar style, but also in the Renaissance style. Its gardens are a blend of Moorish, Renaissance, and English traditions.

Courtyard of the Maidens in the Alcázar of SevilleSony VAIO PCG-7186M battery

Torre del Oro, the gold tower.

The Torre del Oro was built by the Almohad dynasty as a watchtower and defensive barrier on the river. A chain was strung through the water from the base of the tower to prevent boats from traveling into the river port.

The City Hall was built in the 16th century in high Plateresque style by master architect Diego de Riaño. The Facade to Plaza Nueva was built in the 19th century in Neoclassical styleSony VAIO PCG-7171M battery.

The Palace of San Telmo, formerly the University of Sailors, and later the Seminary, is now the seat for the Andalusian Autonomous Government. It is one of the most emblematic buildings of baroque architecture, mainly to its world-renowned churrigueresque principal facade and the impressive chapelSony VAIO PCG-9Z1M battery.

The Royal Tobacco Factory is housed on the original site of the first tobacco factory in Europe, a vast 18th century building in Baroque style and the purported inspiration for the opera Carmen.

Metropol Parasol.

The Metropol Parasol, in La Encarnación square, is the world largest wooden structure.[19] A monumental umbrella-like building designed by the German architect Jürgen Mayer, finished in 2011Sony VAIO PCG-5S1M battery. This modern architecture structure houses the central market and an underground archaeological complex. The terrace roof is a city viewpoint.[20]

The General Archive of the Indies, is the repository of extremely valuable archival documents illustrating the history of the Spanish Empire in the Americas and the Philippines. The building itself, an unusually serene and Italianate example of Spanish Renaissance architecture, was designed by Juan de HerreraSony VAIO PCG-5P1M battery.

Plaza de España, aereal view.

The Plaza de España, in Maria Luisa Park (Parque de Maria Luisa), was built by the architect Aníbal González for the 1929 Exposición Ibero-Americana. It is an outstanding example of Regionalist Revival Architecture, a bizarre and loftily conceived mixture of diverse historic styles, such as Art Deco and Neo-Mudéjar and lavishly ornamented with typical glazed tiles. Sony VAIO PCG-5N2M battery

Plaza de España, central building at sunset.

The neighbourhood of Triana, situated on the west bank of the Guadalquivir River, played an important role in the history of the city and constitutes by itself a folk, monumental and cultural center.

On the other hand, La Macarena neighbourhood is located on the northern side of the city center. It contains some important monuments and religious buildings, such as the Museum and Basilica of La Macarena or the Hospital de las Cinco LlagasSony VAIO PCG-3C2M battery.

Museo de Artes y Costumbres Populares (Traditional Arts and Customs Museum)

Museum of Fine Arts of Seville

The most important art collection of Seville is the Museum of Fine Arts of Seville. It was established in 1835 in the former Convent of La Merced. It holds many masterworks by Murillo, Pacheco, Zurbarán, Valdés Leal, and others masters of the Baroque Sevillian School, containing also Flemish paintings of the 15th and 16th centuriesSony VAIO PCG-8161M battery.

Other remarkable museums in Seville are:

The Archaeological Museum, which contains collections from the Tartessian and Roman periods, placed in América square at María Luisa Park.

The Museum of Arts and Traditions, also in América square, in front of the Archaeological museum.

The Andalusian Contemporary Art Center, placed in La Cartuja.

The Naval Museum, housed in the Torre del Oro, next to the Guadalquivir river.

The Carriages Museum, in Los Remedios neighbourhoodSony VAIO PCG-8141M battery.

The Flamenco Art Museum, in Manuel Rojas Marcos street.

The Bullfight Museum, in La Maestranza bullring

The Palace of the Countess of Lebrija, a private collection that contains many of the mosaic floors discovered in the nearby Roman town of Italica.

The "Centro Velázquez" (Velázquez Center) located at the Old Priests Hospital in the turistic Santa Cruz neighbourhood.

The Antiquarium at Metropol Parasol, an underground museum that exhibits in situ Roman and Muslim remainsSony VAIO PCG-3J1M battery.

The Castillo de San Jorge (Castle of St. George) remains, below the Triana market, next to Isabel II bridge. It was the last seat for the Spanish Inquisition.

The Museum and Treasure of La Macarena, where the collection of the Macarena brotherhood is exhibited. This exhibition gives visitors an accurate impression about the Seville Holy Week.

In the future, the Pottery Museum is planned to be located in Triana neighbourhood, on the west bank of the Guadalqivir RiverSony VAIO PCG-3H1M battery.

Monument dedicated to Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer in María Luisa Park

The Parque de María Luisa (María Luisa Park), is a monumental park built for the 1929 World's Fair held in Seville, the Exposición Ibero-Americana. The so-called Jardines de las Delicias (literally, Delighting Gardens), closer to the river, are part of the Parque de María Luisa.

The Alcázar Gardens, within the grounds of the Alcázar palaceSony VAIO PCG-3F1M battery, consist of several sectors developed in different historical styles. A Renaissance terrace garden fronts the space leading from the Gothic part of the palace, whereas the outermost part is an English style garden. The areas closest to the Mudéjar buildings were kept in Moorish style.

The Gardens of Murillo and the Gardens of Catalina de Ribera, both along and outside the South wall of the Alcázar, lie next to the Santa Cruz quarterSony VAIO PCG-3C1M battery. They were developed from parts of the Alcazar gardens after being transferred to the City. The appearance of the gardens is due to aesthetic improvements made at the beginning of the 20th century, following classic gardening styles with a predominant Moorish Revival influence.

The Parque del Alamillo y San JerónimoSony VAIO PCG-9Z2L battery, the largest park in Andalusia, was originally built for Seville Expo '92 to reproduce the Andalusian native flora. It lines both Guadalquivir shores around the San Jerónimo meander. The impressive 32-meters-high bronze sculpture, "Birth of the New World" (popularly known as Columbus's Egg, el Huevo de Colón), by the Georgian sculptor Zurab Tsereteli, Sony VAIO PCG-9Z1L battery is located in its northwestern sector.

Birth of the New World in the Alamillo and San Jerónimo Park

The American Garden, also completed for Expo '92, is in La Cartuja. It is a public botanical garden, with a representative collection of American plants donated by different countries on the occasion of the world exposition. A shadehouse for shade-loving plants, and the cactus and palms collections are the best features of the gardenSony VAIO PCG-9131L battery.

Although it is not properly a park, most of the Guadalquivir's banks constitute a linear string of parks and green areas from "Delicias" bridge to the Parque del Alamillo. The Chapina green, between the Plaza de Armas bus station and the Isabel II bridge, offers a panoramic view of the Triana old quarter neighbourhood, and is a popular zone for relaxing and sunbathingSony VAIO PCG-8161L battery. La Cartuja's rivershore has a well-developed shady river forest, panoramic piers, and floating walkways.

Other prominent parks and gardens include:

Jardines de Cristina, Romantic gardens built at 1830 in Puerta Jerez, close to the Cathedral and Alcázar, are named after King Ferdinand VII's second wife María Cristina.[24] After the 2011 restoration, they were dedicated to the Generation of '27 poetsSony VAIO PCG-8152L battery.

Parque de los Príncipes, the second oldest park in the city, built in 1973 in the Los Remedios neighbourhood.

Parque de Miraflores, the second largest park of Seville, on the NE side of the city. It houses an area of traditional vegetable gardens, and several ancient farm buildings dating from Roman and Moorish timesSony VAIO PCG-8141L battery.

Jardines de la Buhaira, in Nervión neighbourhood. It was modified at the end of 20th century, inspired by traditional farm-gardening. The irrigation channels and the reservoir are original Moorish remains.

Jardines del Valle, on the northeast side of the city center. Developed from the vegetable gardens of an old monastery. Here is found a well-preserved stretch of the Almohad City WallSony VAIO PCG-8131L battery.

Jardines del Guadalquivir, in La Cartuja, a modern-art garden built for Expo '92 within the exhibition site as a resting area.

Parque Amate is a park in the East of the city wich opened in 1987. It has an area of 3444451.333 ft². It has a sport center with swimming pool and a small bullring.

Parque del Tamarguillo is a periurban park on the North-East of the City. It was created in 2010 and it's close to the stream TamarguilloSony VAIO PCG-81312L battery.

Isla Mágica, on La Cartuja is an amusement and thematic park, with dozens of attractions just to the west of Seville. It was built on the site of Expo'92.

Jesus of the Great Power (Juan de Mesa, 1620), in the Holy Week Madrugá

The Semana Santa (Holy Week) and the Feria de Sevilla (Seville Fair), also known as Feria de Abril (April Fair), are the two most well-known of Seville's festivals. Seville is internationally renowned for the solemn but beautiful processions during Holy Week and the colourful and lively fair held two weeks afterSony VAIO PCG-81214L battery. During Feria, families, businesses and organizations set up casetas (marquees) in which they spend the week dancing, drinking, and socializing. Traditionally, women wear elaborate flamenco dresses and men dress in their best suits. The marquees are set up on a permanent fairground in which each street is named after a famous bullfighter. Sony VAIO PCG-81115L battery

The tapas scene is one of the main cultural attractions of the city: people go from one bar to another, enjoying small dishes called tapas (literally "lids" or "covers" in Spanish, referring to their probable origin as snacks served in small plates used to cover drinks.) Local specialities include fried and grilled seafood (including squid, choco (cuttlefish), swordfish, marinated dogfish, and ortiguillas), grilled and stewed meatSony VAIO PCG-81114L battery, spinach with chickpeas, Jamón ibérico, lamb kidneys in sherry sauce, snails, caldo de puchero, and gazpacho. A sandwich known as serranito is the typical and popular version of fast food.

Typical sweet cakes of this province are polvorones and mantecados from the town of Estepa, a kind of shortcake made with almonds, sugar and lard; pestiños, a honey-coated sweet fritter; torrijas, fried slices of bread with honey; roscos fritosSony VAIO PCG-81113L battery, deep-fried sugar-coated ring doughnuts; magdalenas or fairy cakes; yemas de San Leandro, which provide the city's convents with a source of revenue; and tortas de aceite, a thin sugar-coated cake made with olive oil. Polvorones and mantecados are traditional Christmas products, whereas pestiños and torrijas are typically consumed during the Holy Week. In any case they can be found year round in cake shops and patisseriesSony VAIO PCG-7142L battery.

The Seville oranges that dot the city landscape, too bitter for modern tastes, are commonly used to make marmalade and lotions; according to legend, the trees were imported when the mosque was constructed in order to provide shade and mask the scent of the medieval city. However, many tourists insist on trying the oranges which taste like sour lemonsSony VAIO PCG-7141L battery.

Flamenco dancers

Seville had a strong music scene in the 1970s and 1980s with bands like Triana, Alameda, Smash, Guadalquivir, Gong, Goma, Storm, Nuevos Tiempos... groups influenced by Pink Floyd, King Crimson and Jethro Tull, that fused progressive rock with flamenco. In the early 1990s groups like Reincidentes and Sr Chinarro, and singer Kiko Veneno kept the city's musical scene vibrantSony VAIO PCG-71111L battery. Many of these groups are still active today. The music scene also includes many rap groups, such as SFDK, Tote King, La Mala Rodríguez, and Dogma Crew. Seville's music scene is quite diverse and this is reflected in its nightlife.

The city is also home to many theaters and theater spaces where classical music is offered, such as Teatro Lope de Vega, Teatro La Maestranza, Teatro Central, the Real Alcazar Gardens and the Sala Joaquín TurinaSony VAIO PCG-61411L battery.

Flamenco and Sevillanas

The sevillana dance, commonly presented as flamenco, is not thought to be of Sevillan origin. But the folksongs called sevillanas are authentically Sevillan, as is the four-part dance that goes with them.

Seville, and most significantly one of the most popular neighborhoods, Triana, was a major centre in the development of flamencoSony VAIO PCG-61112L battery.

Isabel II Bridge during the Velá de Santa Ana

Seville has a wide variety of entertainment to offer throughout the day, but especially from the late evening to the early morning hours. The pleasant climate and the natural sociability of Sevillians lead people to spend most of their spare time outdoors talking, drinking and eating tapas. The nightclubs and disco-pubs don't fill with crowds before 2 amSony VAIO PCG-61111L battery.

The main nightlife attractions are located within and around the city center. The La Alfalfa neighbourhood houses many pubs and tapas bars. A more alternative atmosphere can be found in La Alameda, with a frenetic nightlife of entertainment that ranges from traditional flamenco to heavy metal. Another popular area is El ArenalSony VAIO PCG-5T4L battery. Most of the discothèques are found in Betis street in Triana and in La Cartuja.

During spring and summer, outdoor cocktails bars (known as kioskos) are opened along Paseo de Colón, next to the Guadalquivir river.

Technological and scientific complex Cartuja 93.

Seville is the most populated city in southern Spain, and has the largest GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of any in Andalusia,[25] accounting for one quarter of its total GDP.[25] All municipalities in the metropolitan area depend directly or indirectly on Seville's economySony VAIO PCG-5T3L battery, while agriculture dominates the economy of the smaller villages, with some industrial activity localised in industrial parks. The Diputacion de Sevilla (Deputation of Seville), with provincial headquarters in the Antiguo Cuartel de Caballería (Old Cavalry Barracks) on Avenida Menendez Pelayo, provides public services to distant villages that they can not provide themselves. Sony VAIO PCG-5T2L battery The University of Seville and the University Pablo de Olavide are important centres of learning in western Andalusia as they offer a wide range of academic courses; consequently the city has a large number of students from Huelva and Cadiz.

Calle Sierpes (Shopping Street)

The economic activity of Seville cannot be detached from the geographical and urban context of the city; the capital of Andalusia is the centre of a growing metropolitan area. Aside from traditional neighborhoods such as Santa CruzSony VAIO PCG-5S3L battery, Triana and others, those further away from the centre, such as Nervión, Sevilla Este, and El Porvenir have seen recent economic growth. Over the past twenty years, this urban area has seen significant population growth and the development of new industrial and commercial parks.

The infrastructure available in the city contributes to the growth of an economy dominated by the service sector, but in which industry still holds a considerable placeSony VAIO PCG-5S2L battery.


The 1990s saw massive growth in investment in infrastructure in Seville, largely due to its hosting of the Universal Exposition of Seville in 1992. This economic development of the city and its urban area is supported by good transportation links to other Spanish cities, including a high-speed AVE railway connection to Madrid, and a new international airportSony VAIO PCG-5S1L battery.

In addition:

Seville has the only inland port in Spain, located 80 km (50 mi) from the mouth of the Guadalquivir River. This harbor complex offers access to the Atlantic and the Mediterranean, and allows trade in goods between the south of Spain (Andalusia, Extremadura) and Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. The port has undergone reorganisation. Annual tonnage rose to 5.3 million tonnes of goods in 2006Sony VAIO PCG-5R2L battery.

Cajasol Tower (Under construction) in La Cartuja

Cartuja 93 is a research and development park.[27] employing 15,000 persons. The Cajasol Tower skyscraper is under construction in the park for Cajasol's headquarters and offices. The tower was started in March 2008 and is expected to be finished in the first trimester of 2013. With a height of 180.5 metres (592 feet) and 40 floors, it will be the tallest building in AndalusiaSony VAIO PCG-5R1L battery.

Seville has conference facilities, including the Congress Palace.

The city and its surrounding province have a number of large industrial parks and technology centres: Dos Hermanas accommodates an industrial park, while Alcalá de Guadaíra has an industrial complex; the Parque Científico Tecnológico Sevilla Tecnopolis clusters together various companiesSony VAIO PCG-5P4L battery, research centres and university departments directed towards the development of new technologies; the Parque Tecnológico y Aeronáutico Aerópolis is focused on the aircraft industry.

Outside of Seville are nine PS20 solar power towers providing most of the city with clean and renewable energy. These towers use mirrors to focus sunlight on the tower, heating it and creating superheated steamSony VAIO PCG-5P2L battery. This steam drives turbines that in turn create electric power and provide electricity day and night.

Heineken brewery in Seville

The city of Seville and its agglomeration have, by their situation on the Guadalquivir River, maintained dynamic agricultural activity. Nevertheless, the area has invested heavily in industrial activities, supported by existing infrastructureSony VAIO PCG-5N4L battery. The service sector and new technologies are increasingly important to the local economy. In 2004 Seville had 31% of large Andalusian companies and 128 of the 6,000 largest national companies. In 2005, the metropolitan area counted a working population of 471,947 people, of which 329,471 (69.81%) worked within the city centreSony VAIO PCG-5N2L battery.

Agriculture represents less than 1.3% of the workers of the city. The growing of cereal, fruit, and olives constitute the principal agricultural activities in this region of Andalusia.

Industry contributes up to 28% of the economic output of Seville. In 2005 it employed 15.2% of workers in the city, being well established in the metropolitan area and stimulated by the various industrial parksSony VAIO PCG-51513L battery, good infrastructure and the proximity of the industrial complexes of the ports of Cádiz, Algeciras, and Huelva.

The service sector employs 83.5% of the working population of Seville. It represents a significant share of the local economy and is centred on tourism, trade and financial servicesSony VAIO PCG-51511L battery.

Research and development

Palmas Altas Campus, Abengoa’s headquarters

The Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas en Sevilla (CSIC) is based in the former Pavilion of Peru in the Maria Luisa Park. In April 2008 the city council of Seville provided a grant to renovate the building to create the Science Center to encourage popular interest in science.[28] The city of Seville makes a significant contribution to scientific researchSony VAIO PCG-51412L battery, as it houses the first and largest DNA bank in Spain, through the local company Neocodex. Neocodex stores 20,000 DNA samples and is recognised internationally. In addition, Seville is also considered an important technological and research centre for renewable energies and the aeronautics industrySony VAIO PCG-51411L battery.

Through its high-tech centres and its fabric of innovating companies, the Andalusian capital has risen to among the most important Spanish cities in term of development and research. Moreover, the scientific and technological activity of the three Seville universities has to be addedSony VAIO PCG-51312L battery, whose certain laboratories and research centres work in close connection with the local socio-economic power. Thus, the Parque Científico Tecnológico Cartuja 93 gathers private and public actors in various fields of research.

The principal innovation and research orientations are telecommunications, new technologies, biotechnologies (in relation to local agricultural specificities), environment and renewable energy.

Seville is served by the TUSSAM Sony VAIO PCG-51311L battery (Transportes Urbanos de Sevilla) bus network which runs buses throughout the city. The Consorcio de Transportes de Sevilla communicates by bus with all the satellite towns of Seville. Two bus stations serve transportation between surrounding areas and other cities: Plaza de Armas Station, with destinations north and west, and Prado de San Sebastián StationSony VAIO PCG-51211L battery, covering routes to the south and east. Plaza de Armas station has direct bus lines to many Spanish cities and with Lisbon, in Portugal. All the routes by bus from Seville and other parts can be checked in this web-site of the Ministry of Buildings, about regular lines.

San Bernardo station of the Seville MetroSony VAIO PCG-41112L battery.

The Seville metro ("Metro de Sevilla" in Spanish) is a light metro network serving the city of Seville and its metropolitan area. The system is totally independent of any other rail or street traffic. All stations were built with platform screen doors.

It was the sixth Metro system to be built in Spain, after those in Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Bilbao and Palma de Mallorca. Currently, it is the fifth biggest Metro company in Spain by number of passengers carried (more than 12,000,000 in 2009) Sony VAIO PCG-3A4L battery.

MetroCentro is a surface tramway serving the centre of the city. It began operating in October 2007.

At the present time, the service consists of just five stops, Plaza Nueva, Archivo de Indias, Puerta de Jerez, Prado de San Sebastián and San Bernardo, as part of Phase I of the project. The service is expected to be extended to Santa Justa AVE station, including four new stopsSony VAIO PCG-3A3L battery: San Francisco Javier, Eduardo Dato, Luis de Morales and Santa Justa. This plan is now postponed. City council gived priority to extend metro lines.

The Santa Justa Train Station is served by the AVE high-speed rail system, and is operated by the Spanish formerly state-owned rail company Renfe. A five-line commuter rail service (Cercanías) joins the city with the Metropolitan area. Seville is on the Red Ciudades AVE, a net created with Seville next to 17 major cities of Spain with high-speed railSony VAIO PCG-3A2L battery.

Bicycle Parking of Sevici

The Sevici community bicycle program has integrated bicycles into the public transport network. Across the city, bicycles are available for hire at low cost and green bicycle lanes can be seen on most major streets. Number of people using bicycle as a mean of transport in Seville increased a lot in recent years. It multiplied by ten from 2006 to 2010Sony VAIO PCG-3A1L battery. These are unique results in comparison with other cities. Now more than 7% of all trips in the city are made by bicycle.

The most important factor beside Sevici bikes is that the municipality created more than 120 km of safe bike paths throughout the city and did it fast. Bi-directional green paths follow main avenues. They are continuous (properly connected at crossings), uniform (green surface, 2.5 m wide) and segregated from motorised trafficSony VAIO PCG-394L battery. Whole network cost 32 million Euros. Measures were based on sustainable mobility plan. Seville proves that development of cycling can be achieved fast.

Boeing 717-2BL at San Pablo Airport

San Pablo airport is the main airport for Seville and is Andalusia’s second airport. The airport handled 4,051,392 passengers and just under 5,000 tonnes of cargo in 2009.[29] It has one terminal and one runway. Construction of the airport began in 1915Sony VAIO PCG-393L battery, and by 1919 the first commercial flights had started. At the start of Spanish Civil War it was the arrival point for Spanish Legion troops. During 1940s, the airport was designated a custom post for international traffic, primarily to South America, and was largely reconstructed. Furthermore, extensive rebuilding of the airport between 1989 and 1992 facilitated the arrival of many visitors for EXPO'92Sony VAIO PCG-391L battery. It is one of many bases for the Spanish low cost carrier Vueling, and from November 2010 Ryanair will base two aircraft at the airport.[30]

Seville is the only commercial river port of Spain, and the only inland city in the country where cruise ships can arrive in the historical centre. On 21 August 2012, the Muelle de las Delicias, controlled by the Port Authority of Seville, will host the cruise ship Azamara Journey for two daysSony VAIO PCG-384L battery. This vessel belongs to the shipping company Royal Caribbean and can accommodate up to 700 passengers.[31]

Seville also has the Club Náutico, a yacht club with docks for mooring yachts and pleasure craft, as well as facilities for canoeing, rowing, and sailing.

Seville has one ring road, the SE-30, which connects with the dual carriageway of the south, the A-4, that directly communicates the city with CadizSony VAIO PCG-383L battery, Cordoba and Madrid. Also there is another dual carriageway, the A-92, linking the city with Estepa, Antequera, Granada, Guadix and Almeria. The A-49 links Seville with Huelva and the Algarve in the south of Portugal.

Main article: Education in Spain

View of Pablo de Olavide University campus.

State Education in Spain is free, and compulsory from 6 to 16 years. The current education system is called LOGSE (Ley de Ordenación General del Sistema Educativo). Sony VAIO PCG-382L battery

[edit]Higher education

Seville is home to three public universities: the University of Seville, founded in 1505, the Pablo de Olavide University, founded in 1997 and the International University of Andalusia, founded in 1994.

Additionally, there is the School of Hispanic American Studies, founded in 1942, the Menéndez Pelayo International University, based in Santander, which operates branch campuses in SevilleSony VAIO PCG-381L battery.

Maria Antonietta of Spain, Queen consort of Sardinia (1729–1785)

Roman emperors Trajan and Hadrian were born in Italica

Physician Avenzoar

The family of the Arabic historian and sociologist Ibn Khaldun

Renaissance composer Cristóbal de Morales, Francisco Guerrero

16th century novelist Mateo Alemán

Playwrights Lope de Rueda, Hermanos Alvarez Quintero

Historian of New Spain Bartolomé de Las Casas

Explorer Juan Díaz de Solís, born in Lebrija

Spanish linguist and grammarian Antonio de Nebrija, born in Lebrija

Baroque painters Diego Velázquez, Valdés Leal and Murillo

Explorer and astronomer Antonio de UlloaSony VAIO PCG-7185L battery

Renaissance poet Gutierre de Cetina

Romantic poet Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer

Bullfighters Juan Belmonte, Curro Romero, Ignacio Sánchez Mejías and Joselito el Gallo

20th century


Vicente Aleixandre (Nobel Laureate)

Antonio Machado

Manuel Machado, his brother

Luis Cernuda

Composer Joaquín Turina

Cartoonist William Haselden (1872–1953)

Actors Juan Diego, Paco LeónSony VAIO PCG-7184L battery

Actresses Soledad Miranda, Verónica Sánchez, Carmen Sevilla, Paz Vega, Azucena Hernández

Miss España 2003 (representing Andalusia), beauty queen and model Eva Maria González

Singers Isabel Pantoja, Juanita Reina, Lole y Manuel, Paquita Rico, El Caracol, Falete, Pastora Soler

Comedian Manuel SummersSony VAIO PCG-7183L battery

Navy officer Miguel Buiza Fernández-Palacios who became Captain General of the Spanish Republican Navy

Association footballers José Antonio Reyes, Fernando "Nando" Muñoz, Ricardo Serna, Sergio Ramos, Jesús Navas, Antonio Puerta, Carlos Marchena.

Application testing GURU and football know-it-all: Ramon Moreno

Olympic swimmer Fátima Madrid

Politicians Felipe González, President of the Government of Spain from 1982 to 1996, and Alfonso Guerra, vice president from 1982 to 1991Sony VAIO PCG-7182L battery

The Estadio Benito Villamarín, home ground of top-flight football club Real Betis Balompié

Seville is the hometown of two rival association football teams: Sevilla Fútbol Club and Real Betis Balompié, both in Spain's highest division, the Liga BBVA. Both teams have only won the league once each: Betis in 1935 and Sevilla in 1946.[35] Only Sevilla has won European competitions, winning consecutive UEFA Cup finals in 2006 and 2007. Sony VAIO PCG-7181L battery Sevilla's stadium, the Ramón Sánchez Pizjuán, was a venue during the 1982 FIFA World Cup [37] and four years later hosted the 1986 European Cup Final.[38] Seville's Olympic Stadium on the Isla de La Cartuja was the venue for the 2003 UEFA Cup Final.

Seville housed the tennis Davis Cup final in 2004 and 2011, and the 7th Athletics World Championships. The city unsuccessfully bid for the 2004 Sony VAIO PCG-7174L batteryand 2008 Summer Olympics,[41] for which the 60,000-seat Estadio de La Cartuja was designed to stage. Seville has one important basketball club, the CB Sevilla, that plays in ACB League. Seville's Guadalquivir river is one of only three FISA approved international training centres and the only one in SpainSony VAIO PCG-7173L battery.

Seville has accumulated several titles along the centuries with pride.[42]

Very Noble, given by the King Ferdinand III of Castile after the take of the city.

Very Loyal, given by the King Alfonso X of Castile by his support. See also the Motto "NO8DO".

Very Heroic, given by the King Ferdinand VII of Spain by Royal Document on October 13 of 1817 by his services against the French invasion.

Invictus, given by the Queen Isabella II of Spain by the resistance of the city against the General Van Halen's asedium and bombing in 1843Sony VAIO PCG-7172L battery.

Mariana, given by the General Francisco Franco in 1946 by the devotion of the city to the Virgin Mary.


"NO8DO" is the official motto and the subject of one of the many legends of Seville. The legend has left its very tangible mark throughout the city as NO8DO can be seen on landmarks ranging from the common bike rack, the caps of the municipal sewer and water systemSony VAIO PCG-7171L battery, ordinary sidewalks, buses, taxis, monuments, even Christopher Columbus's tomb. The motto of Seville is a visible presence of which any visitor is sure to take note.

The motto is a rebus, combining the Spanish syllables (NO and DO) and a drawing in between of the figure "8". The figure represents a skein of yarn, or in Spanish, a "madeja". When read aloud, "No madeja do" sounds like "No me ha dejado", which means "It [Seville] has not abandoned me"Sony VAIO PCG-7162L battery.

The story of how NO8DO came to be the motto of the city has undoubtedly been embellished throughout the centuries, but legend has it that after the conquest of Seville from the Muslims in 1248, King Ferdinand III of Castile and León moved his court to the former Muslim palace, the Alcázar of SevilleSony VAIO PCG-7161L battery.

After San Fernando's death in the Real Alcázar, his son, Alfonso X (El Sabio) assumed the throne. Alfonso X was a scholar king, hence his title. He was a poet, astronomer, astrologer, musician and linguist. Alfonso's son, Sancho IV of Castile, tried to usurp the throne from his father, but the people of Seville remained loyal to their scholar king and this is where NO8DO was believed to have originated whenSony VAIO PCG-7154L battery, according to legend, Alfonso X rewarded the fidelity of the "Sevillanos" with the words that now appear on the official emblem of the city of Seville.

The picaresque novel Rinconete y Cortadillo by Miguel de Cervantes takes place in the city of Seville.

The novel La femme et le pantin, ("Woman and puppet") (1898) by Pierre Louÿs, adapted for film several times, is set mainly in SevilleSony VAIO PCG-7153L battery.

Seville is the setting for the legend of Don Juan (inspired by the real aristocrat Don Miguel de Mañara) on the Paseo Alcalde Marqués de Contadero

Seville is the primary setting of many operas, the best known of which are Bizet's Carmen (based on Mérimée's novella), Rossini's The Barber of Seville, Verdi's La forza del destino, Beethoven's Fidelio, Mozart's Don Giovanni and The Marriage of Figaro, and Prokofiev's Betrothal in a MonasterySony VAIO PCG-7152L battery.

Seville is the setting of the novel "The Seville Communion" by Arturo Pérez-Reverte.

Seville is both the location and setting for much of the 1985 Doctor Who television serial The Two Doctors.

Seville is also used as one of the locations in Dan Brown's "Digital Fortress".

Seville is one of the settings in Jostein Gaarder's book "The Orange Girl" ("Appelsinpiken")Sony VAIO PCG-7151L battery.

Arthur Koestler's book Spanish Testament is based on the writer's experiences while held in the Seville prison, under a sentence of death, during the Spanish Civil War.

Robert Wilson's police novel The Hidden Assassins (2006) concerns a terrorist incident in Seville and the political context thereof, with much local color. Note also his title The Blind Man of Seville (2004) Sony VAIO PCG-7148L battery.

The Plaza de España in the Parque de María Luisa appears in George Lucas' Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones as well as in Lawrence of Arabia as the British Army HQ in Cairo, while the courtyard was the King Alfonso XIII Hotel.

The Plaza of the Americas also appeared in Lawrence, substituting for Jerusalem, and in Anthony Mann's El Cid. It would also serve as the Palace of Vladek Sheybal's Bashaw in The Wind and the Lion (1975) (including the memorable attack scene by the US Marines.) Sony VAIO VGN-CS33H battery

The Plaza de España in the Parque de María Luisa appears in the movie The Dictator, starring Sacha Baron Cohen, as the palace of the dictator Aladeen.

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