Saudi Arabia And Riyadh

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Saudi Arabia (i/ˌsaʊdi əˈreɪbi.ə/ or i/ˌsɔːdiː əˈreɪbi.ə/; Arabic: السعودية‎ as-Su‘ūdiyyah or as-Sa‘ūdiyyah), officially known as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Arabic: المملكة العربية السعودية‎ al-Mamlakah al-‘Arabiyyah as-Su‘ūdiyyah,  Arabic pronunciation (help·info)), is the largest Arab state in Western Asia by land area (approximately 2,250,000 km2 (870,000 sq mi), constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula) and the second-largest in the Arab world (after Algeria) (SONY PCG-5G2L battery). It is bordered by Jordan and Iraq to the north, Kuwait to the northeast, Qatar, Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates to the east, Oman to the southeast, Yemen in the south, the Red Sea to the west and Persian Gulf to the east. Its population is estimated to consist of 16 million citizens and an additional 9 million registered foreign expatriates and 2 million illegal immigrants.[ (SONY PCG-5G3L battery)

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was founded by Abdul-Aziz bin Saud (known for most of his career as Ibn Saud) in 1932, although the conquests which eventually led to the creation of the Kingdom began in 1902 when he captured Riyadh, the ancestral home of his family, the House of Saud, referred to in Arabic as Al Saud. The Saudi Arabian government has been an absolute monarchy since its inception, and it describes itself as being Islamic(SONY PCG-F305 battery). Saudi Arabia is the birthplace of Islam and the kingdom is sometimes called "the Land of the Two Holy Mosques" in reference to Al-Masjid al-Haram (in Mecca), and Al-Masjid al-Nabawi (in Medina), the two holiest places in Islam.

Saudi Arabia has the world's second largest oil reserves which are concentrated largely in the Eastern Province.[7][8] Oil accounts for more than 95% of exports and 70% of government revenue, although the share of the non-oil economy has been growing recently(SONY PCG-5J1L battery). This has facilitated the transformation of an underdeveloped desert kingdom into one of the world's wealthiest nations. Vast oil revenues have permitted rapid modernisation, such as the creation of a welfare state.[9] It has also the world's sixth largest natural gas reserves. It is the only country in the world where women are not allowed to drive(SONY PCG-5J2L battery).

Following the unification of the kingdoms of Hejaz and Nejd, the new state was named al-Mamlakah al-ʻArabīyah as-Suʻūdīyah (a transliteration of المملكة العربية السعودية in Arabic) by royal decree on 23 September 1932 by its founder, king Abdul Aziz Al Saud. This is normally translated as "the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia" in English,[11] although it literally means "the Saudi Arab Kingdom".(SONY PCG-5K2L battery)

The word "Saudi" is derived from the element as-Suʻūdīyah in the Arabic name of the country, which is a type of adjective known as a nisba, formed from the dynastic name of Al Saud (آل سعود). Its inclusion indicated that the country's ruler viewed it as the personal possession of the royal family.[13][14] Al Saud is an Arabic name formed by adding the word Al, meaning "family of" or "House of",[15] to the personal name of an ancestor. (SONY PCG-5L1L battery) In the case of the Al Saud, this is the father of the dynasty's 18th century founder, Muhammad bin Saud (Muhammad, son of Saud).[16].

Main article: History of Saudi Arabia

[edit]Before the foundation of Saudi Arabia

See also: Unification of Saudi Arabia

The Ottoman Empire in 1914, including nominal and vassal Ottoman territories — the position in Arabia had largely been the same for the previous 400 years

Apart from a small number of urban trading settlements, such as Mecca and Medina, located in the Hejaz in the west of the Arabian Peninsula, most of what was to become Saudi Arabia was populated by nomadic tribal societies in the inhospitable desert. (SONY PCG-6S2L battery) The Prophet of Islam, Muhammad, was born in Mecca in about 571. In the early 7th century, Muhammad united the various tribes of the peninsula and created a single Islamic religious polity. Following his death in 632, his followers rapidly expanded the territory under Muslim rule beyond Arabia, conquering huge swathes of territory (from the Iberian Peninsula in west to modern day Pakistan in east) in a matter of decades(SONY PCG-6S3L battery). In so doing, Arabia soon became a politically peripheral region of the Muslim world as the focus shifted to the more developed conquered lands.[18] From the 10th century to the early 20th century Mecca and Medina were under the control of a local Arab ruler known as the Sharif of Mecca, but at most times the Sharif owed allegiance to the ruler of one of the major Islamic empires based in Baghdad, Cairo or Istanbul. Most of the remainder of what became Saudi Arabia reverted to traditional tribal rule. (SONY PCG-6V1L battery)

In the 16th century, the Ottomans added the Red Sea and Persian Gulf coast (the Hejaz, Asir and Al-Hasa) to their Empire and claimed suzerainty over the interior. The degree of control over these lands varied over the next four centuries with the fluctuating strength or weakness of the Empire's central authority.[21][22] The emergence of what was to become the Saudi royal family, known as the Al Saud, began in Nejd in central Arabia in 1744(SONY PCG-6W1L battery), when Muhammad bin Saud, founder of the dynasty, joined forces with the religious leader Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab,[23] founder of the Wahhabi movement, a strict puritanical form of Sunni Islam.[24] This alliance formed in the 18th century provided the ideological impetus to Saudi expansion and remains the basis of Saudi Arabian dynastic rule today.[25] The first 'Saudi State' established in 1744 in the area around Riyadh(SONY PCG-7111L battery), rapidly expanded and briefly controlled most of the present-day territory of Saudi Arabia,[26] but was destroyed by 1818 by the Ottoman viceroy of Egypt, Mohammed Ali Pasha.[27] A much smaller second 'Saudi state', located mainly in Nejd, was established in 1824. Throughout the rest of the 19th century, the Al Saud contested control of the interior of what was to become Saudi Arabia with another Arabian ruling family, the Al Rashid. By 1891, the Al Rashid were victorious and the Al Saud were driven into exile in Kuwait. (SONY PCG-71511M battery)

At the beginning of the 20th century, the Ottoman Empire continued to control or have suzerainty (albeit nominal) over most of the peninsula. Subject to this suzerainty, Arabia was ruled by a patchwork of tribal rulers,[28][29] with the Sharif of Mecca having pre-eminence and ruling the Hejaz.[30] In 1902, Ibn Saud took control of Riyadh in Nedj and brought the Al Saud back to Nejd.[19]) Ibn Saud gained the support of the Ikhwan(SONY PCG-6W3L battery), a tribal army inspired by Wahhabism and led by Sultan ibn Bijad and Faisal Al-Dawish, and which had grown quickly after its foundation in 1912.[31] With the aid of the Ikhwan, Ibn Saud captured Hasa from the Ottomans in 1913.

In 1916, with the encouragement and support of Britain (which was fighting the Ottomans in World War I), the Sharif of Mecca, Hussein bin Ali, led a pan-Arab revolt against the Ottoman Empire to create a united Arab state.[32] Although the Arab Revolt of 1916 to 1918 failed in its objective, the Allied victory in World War I resulted in the end of Ottoman suzerainty and control in Arabia. (SONY PCG-7113L battery)

Ibn Saud avoided involvement in the Arab Revolt, and instead continued his struggle with the Al Rashid. Following the latter's final defeat, he took the title Sultan of Nejd in 1921. With the help of the Ikhwan, the Hejaz was conquered in 1924-25 and on 10 January 1926, Ibn Saud declared himself King of the Hejaz.[34] A year later, he added the title of King of Nejd. (SONY PCG-7133L battery) [19]

After the conquest of the Hejaz, the Ikhwan leadership's objective switched to expansion of the Wahhabist realm into the British protectorates of Transjordan, Iraq and Kuwait, and began raiding those territories. This met with Ibn Saud's opposition, as he recognized the danger of a direct conflict with the British. At the same time, the Ikhwan became disenchanted with Ibn Saud's domestic policies which appeared to favor modernization (SONY PCG-7Z1L battery)and the increase in the number of non-Muslim foreigners in the country. As a result, they turned against Ibn Saud and, after a two-year struggle, were defeated in 1930 at the Battle of Sabilla, where their leaders were massacred.[35] In 1932 the two kingdoms of the Hejaz and Nejd were united as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (SONY PCG-7Z2L battery)         [19]

[edit]From the foundation of Saudi Arabia to the present day

The new kingdom was one of the poorest countries in the world, reliant on limited agriculture and pilgrimage revenues.[36] However, in 1938 vast reserves of oil were discovered in the Al-Hasa region along the coast of the Persian Gulf and full-scale development of the oil fields began in 1941 under the US-controlled Aramco (Arabian American Oil Company). Oil provided Saudi Arabia with economic prosperity and substantial political leverage internationally(SONY PCG-8Y1L battery). Cultural life rapidly developed, primarily in the Hejaz, which was the center for newspapers and radio. But the large influx of foreigners to work in the oil industry increased the pre-existing propensity for xenophobia. At the same time, the government became increasingly wasteful and extravagant. By the 1950s this had led to large governmental deficits and excessive foreign borrowing.[ (SONY PCG-8Y2L battery)19]

Abdul Aziz bin Saud, first king of Saudi Arabia

King Saud succeeded to the throne on his father's death in 1953. However, an intense rivalry between the King and his half-brother, Prince Faisal emerged, fueled by doubts in the royal family over Saud's competence. As a consequence, Saud was deposed in favor of Faisal in 1964. Saudi Arabia gained control of a proportion (20%) of Aramco in 1972, thereby decreasing US control over Saudi oil(SONY PCG-8Z2L battery). In 1973, Saudi Arabia led an oil boycott against the Western countries that supported Israel in the October War against Egypt and Syria. Oil prices quadrupled.[19] Faisal was assassinated in 1975 by his nephew, Prince Faisal bin Musaid and was succeeded by his half-brother King Khalid.[37]

By 1976 Saudi Arabia had become the largest oil producer in the world.[38] Khalid's reign saw economic and social development progress at an extremely rapid rate, transforming the infrastructure and educational system of the country; (SONY PCG-8Z1L battery) [19] in foreign policy, close ties with the US were developed.[37] In 1979, two events occurred which greatly concerned the Al Saud regime,[39] and had a long-term influence on Saudi foreign and domestic policy. The first was the Iranian Islamic Revolution. It was feared that the country's Shi'ite minority in the Eastern Province (which is also the location of the oil fields) might rebel under the influence of their Iranian co-religionists(SONY PCG-7112L battery). In fact, there were several anti-government uprisings in the region in 1979 and 1980. The second event, was the seizure of the Grand Mosque in Mecca by Islamist extremists. The militants involved were in part angered by what they considered to be the corruption and un-Islamic nature of the Saudi regime.[40] The government regained control of the mosque after 10 days and those captured were executed. Part of the response of the royal family was to enforce a much stricter observance of traditional religious and social norms in the country (SONY PCG-6W2L battery) (for example, the closure of cinemas) and to give the Ulema a greater role in government.[41] Neither entirely succeeded as Islamism continued to grow in strength.[42]

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia after unification in 1932

In 1980 Saudi Arabia took full control of Aramco from the US.

King Khalid died of a heart attack in June 1982, and was succeeded by his brother, King Fahd, who added the title "Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques" to his name in 1986. Fahd continued to develop close relations with the United States and increased the purchase of American and British military equipment. (SONY PCG-5K1L battery) [19] The vast wealth generated by oil revenues was beginning to have an even greater impact on Saudi society. It led to rapid modernisation, urbanization, mass public education, and the creation of new media. This and the presence of increasingly large numbers of foreign workers greatly affected traditional Saudi norms and values. Although there was dramatic change in the social and economic life of the country, political power continued to be monopolized by the royal family[19] leading to discontent among many Saudis who began to look for wider participation in government. (SONY VGP-BPL8 battery)

In the 1980s, the Saudi regime spent $25 billion in support of Saddam Hussein in the Iran-Iraq War.[44] However, Saudi Arabia condemned the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in 1990 and asked the US to intervene.[19] King Fahd allowed American and coalition troops to be stationed in Saudi Arabia. He invited the Kuwaiti government and many of its citizens to stay in Saudi Arabia, but expelled citizens of Yemen and Jordan because of their governments' support of Iraq(SONY VGP-BPS9 battery). In 1991, Saudi Arabian forces were involved both in bombing raids on Iraq and in the land invasion that helped to liberate Kuwait.

The Saudi regime's relations with the West began to cause growing concern among some of the ulema and students of sharia law and was one of the issues that led to an increase in Islamic terrorism in Saudi Arabia, as well as Islamic terrorist attacks in Western countries by Saudi nationals. Osama bin Laden was a Saudi national (until stripped of his nationality in 1994). 15 of the 19 hijackers involved in 9/11 attacks on New York and Washington were Saudi nationals. (SONY VGP-BPS9/S battery) [45] Many Saudis, who did not in any way support the Islamist terrorists were nevertheless deeply unhappy with the Saudi regime's policies.[46]

Islamism was not the only source of hostility to the regime. Although now extremely wealthy, Saudi Arabia's economy was near stagnant. High taxes and a growth in unemployment have contributed to discontent, and has been reflected in a rise in civil unrest, and discontent with the royal family. In response(SONY VGP-BPS9A battery), a number of limited 'reforms' were initiated by King Fahd. In March 1992, he introduced the "Basic Law)" which emphasised the duties and responsibilities of a ruler. In December 1993 the Consultative Council was inaugurated. It is composed of a chairman and 60 members - all chosen by the king. The King's intent was to respond to dissent while making as few actual changes in the status quo as possible. Fahd made it clear that he did not have democracy in mind(SONY VGP-BPS9A/B battery): "A system based on elections is not consistent with our Islamic creed, which [approves of] government by consultation [shūrā]."[19]

In 1995, Fahd suffered a debilitating stroke and the Crown Prince, Abdullah assumed the role of de facto regent, taking on the day-to-day running of the country. However, his authority was hindered by conflict with Fahd's full brothers (known, with Fahd, as the "Sudairi Seven").[47] From the 1990s, signs of discontent continued and included(SONY VGP-BPS9/B battery), in 2003 and 2004, a series of bombings and armed violence in Riyadh, Jeddah, Yanbu and Khobar.[48] In February–April 2005, the first-ever nationwide municipal elections were held in Saudi Arabia. Women were not allowed to take part in the poll.[19]

In 2005, King Fahd died and was succeeded by Abdullah, who continued the policy of minimum reform and clamping down on protests(SONY VGP-BPS9A/S battery). The king introduced a number of economic reforms aimed at reducing the country's reliance on oil revenue: limited deregulation, encouragement of foreign investment, and privatization. In February 2009, Abdullah announced a series of governmental changes to the judiciary, armed forces, and various ministries to modernize these institutions including the replacement of senior appointees in the judiciary and the Mutaween (religious police) with more moderate individuals and the appointment of the country's first female deputy minister. (SONY VGP-BPL9 battery) [19]

On 29 January 2011, hundreds of protesters gathered in the city of Jeddah in a rare display of criticism against the city's poor infrastructure after deadly floods swept through the city, killing eleven people.[49] Police stopped the demonstration after about 15 minutes and arrested 30 to 50 people. (SONY VGP-BPS10 battery) [50]

In 2011 and 2012 Saudi Arabia was affected by its own Arab Spring protests.[51] In response, King Abdullah announced a series of benefits for citizens amounting to $10.7 billion. No political reforms were announced as part of the package, though some prisoners indicted for financial crimes were pardoned.[52] Although male-only municipal elections were held on 29 September 2011 [53][54] Abdullah announced that women will be able to vote and be elected in the 2015 municipal elections, and also to be nominated to the Shura Council. (SONY VGP-BPL10 battery) [55]

Main article: Politics of Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia is an absolute monarchy,[56] although, according to the Basic Law of Saudi Arabia adopted by royal decree in 1992, the king must comply with Sharia (that is, Islamic law) and the Quran. The Quran and the Sunnah (the traditions of Muhammad) are declared to be the country's constitution(SONY VGP-BPS11 battery), but no written modern constitution has ever been written for Saudi Arabia, and Saudi Arabia remains the only Arab nation where no national elections have ever taken place, since its creation.[57] No political parties or national elections are permitted[56] and according to The Economist's 2010 Democracy Index, the Saudi government is the seventh most authoritarian regime from among the 167 countries rated.[58]

In the absence of national elections and political parties, (SONY VGP-BPS13 battery)56] politics in Saudi Arabia takes place in two distinct arenas: within the royal family, the Al Saud, and between the royal family and the rest of Saudi society.[59] Outside of the Al-Saud, participation in the political process is limited to a relatively small segment of the population and takes the form of the royal family consulting with the ulema, tribal sheikhs and members of important commercial families on major decisions.[60] This process is not reported by the Saudi media. (SONY VGP-BPS13Q battery) [61]

By custom, all males of full age have a right to petition the king directly through the traditional tribal meeting known as the majlis.[62] In many ways the approach to government differs little from the traditional system of tribal rule. Tribal identity remains strong and, outside of the royal family, political influence is frequently determined by tribal affiliation, with tribal sheikhs maintaining a considerable degree of influence over local and national events. (SONY VGP-BPS13A/Q battery) [60] As mentioned earlier, in recent years there have been limited steps to widen political participation such as the establishment of the Consultative Council in the early 1990s and the National Dialogue Forum in 2003.[63]

The rule of the Al Saud faces political opposition from four sources: Sunni Islamist activism; liberal critics; the Shi'ite minority – particularly in the Eastern Province; and long-standing tribal and regional particularistic opponents (for example in the Hejaz).[64] Of these, the Islamic activists have been the most prominent threat to the regime and have in recent years perpetrated a number of violent or terrorist acts in the country.[48] However, open protest against the government, even if peaceful, is not tolerated(SONY VGP-BPS13B/Q battery).

On 25 September 2011, Saudi Arabia's King Abdullah has announced that women will have the right to stand and vote in future local elections and join the advisory Shura council as full members.[65]

[edit]Monarchy and royal family

The king combines legislative, executive, and judicial functions[60] and royal decrees to form the basis of the country's legislation.[66] The king is also the prime minister, and presides over the Council of Ministers (Majlis al-Wuzarāʾ), which comprises the first and second deputy prime(SONY VGP-BPS13/B battery).

The royal family dominates the political system. The family's vast numbers allow it to control most of the kingdom's important posts and to have an involvement and presence at all levels of government.[67] The number of princes is estimated to be at least 7,000, with most power and influence being wielded by the 200 or so male descendants of King Abdul Aziz.[68] The key ministries are generally reserved for the royal family,[56] as are the thirteen regional governorships. (SONY VGP-BPS13B/B battery) Long term political and government appointments, such as those of King Abdullah, who had been Commander of the National Guard since 1963 (until 2010, when he appointed his son to replace him)[70]), former Crown Prince Sultan, Minister of Defence and Aviation from 1962 to his death in 2011, former crown prince Prince Nayef who was the Minister of Interior from 1975 to his death in 2012, Prince Saud who has been Minister of Foreign Affairs since 1975[71] and current Minister of Defence and Aviation Prince Salman(SONY VGP-BPS13A/S battery), who was Governor of the Riyadh Province from 1962 to 2011,[72] have resulted in the creation of "power fiefdoms" for senior princes.[73]

The royal family is politically divided by factions based on clan loyalties, personal ambitions and ideological differences.[59] The most powerful clan faction is known as the 'Sudairi Seven', comprising the late King Fahd and his full brothers and their descendants.[74] Ideological divisions include issues over the speed and direction of reform,[ (SONY VGP-BPS21A/B battery)75] and whether the role of the ulema should be increased or reduced. There were divisions within the family over who should succeed to the throne after the accession or earlier death of Prince Sultan.[74][76] When prince Sultan died before ascending to the throne on 21 October 2011, King Abdullah appointed Prince Nayef as crown prince.[77] Prince Nayef also died before ascending to the throne in 2012. (SONY VGP-BPS21B battery) [78]

The Saudi government and the royal family have often, over many years, been accused of corruption.[79] In a country that is said to "belong" to the royal family and is named for them,[14] the lines between state assets and the personal wealth of senior princes are blurred.[68] The extent of corruption has been described as systemic[80] and endemic,[81] and its existence was acknowledged[82] and defended[83] by Prince Bandar bin Sultan(SONY VGP-BPS21 battery) (a senior member of the royal family[84]) in an interview in 2001.[85] Although corruption allegations have often been limited to broad undocumented accusations,[86] specific allegations were made in 2007, when it was claimed that the British defence contractor BAE Systems had paid Prince Bandar US$2 billion in bribes relating to the Al-Yamamah arms deal.[87] Prince Bandar denied the allegations.[88] Investigations by both US and UK authorities resulted(SONY VGP-BPS21/S battery), in 2010, in plea bargain agreements with the company, by which it paid $447 million in fines but did not admit to bribery.[89] Transparency International in its annual Corruption Perceptions Index for 2010 gave Saudi Arabia a score of 4.7 (on a scale from 0 to 10 where 0 is "highly corrupt" and 10 is "highly clean").[90]

There has been mounting pressure to reform and modernize the royal family's rule, an agenda championed by King Abdullah both before and after his accession in 2005(SONY VGP-BPS13S battery). The creation of the Consultative Council in the early 1990s did not satisfy demands for political participation, and, in 2003, an annual National Dialogue Forum was announced that would allow selected professionals and intellectuals to publicly debate current national issues, within certain prescribed parameters. In 2005, the first municipal elections were held. In 2007, the Allegiance Council was created to regulate the succession.[63] In 2009, (SONY VGP-BPS13B/S battery) the king made significant personnel changes to the government by appointing reformers to key positions and the first woman to a ministerial post.[91] However, the changes have been criticized as being too slow or merely cosmetic.[92]

[edit]Al ash-Sheikh and role of the ulema

Saudi Arabia is almost unique in giving the ulema (the body of Islamic religious leaders and jurists) a direct role in government,[93] the only other example being Iran.[94] The ulema have also been a key influence in major government decisions, for example the imposition of the oil embargo in 1973 and the invitation to foreign troops to Saudi Arabia in 1990. (SONY VGP-BPS13B/G battery) [95] In addition, they have had a major role in the judicial and education systems[96] and a monopoly of authority in the sphere of religious and social morals.[97]

By the 1970s, as a result of oil wealth and the modernization of the country initiated by King Faisal, important changes to Saudi society were under way and the power of the ulema was in decline.[98] However, this changed following the seizure of the Grand Mosque in Mecca in 1979 by Islamist radicals. (SONY VGP-BPS22 battery) The government's response to the crisis included strengthening the ulema's powers and increasing their financial support:[41] in particular, they were given greater control over the education system[99] and allowed to enforce stricter observance of Wahhabi rules of moral and social behaviour.[41] Since his accession to the throne in 2005, King Abdullah has taken steps to rein back the powers of the ulema, for instance transferring their control over girls' education to the Ministry of Education. (SONY VGP-BPS22/A battery)

The ulema have historically been led by the Al ash-Sheikh,[101] the country's leading religious family.[97] The Al ash-Sheikh are the descendants of Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, the 18th century founder of the Wahhabi form of Sunni Islam which is today dominant in Saudi Arabia.[102] The family is second in prestige only to the Al Saud (the royal family)[103] with whom they formed a "mutual support pact"[104] and power-sharing arrangement nearly 300 years ago.[95] The pact, which persists to this day, (SONY VGP-BPS22A battery) is based on the Al Saud maintaining the Al ash-Sheikh's authority in religious matters and upholding and propagating Wahhabi doctrine. In return, the Al ash-Sheikh support the Al Saud's political authority[105] thereby using its religious-moral authority to legitimize the royal family's rule.[106] Although the Al ash-Sheikh's domination of the ulema has diminished in recent decades,[107] they still hold the most important religious posts and are closely linked to the Al Saud by a high degree of intermarriage. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11S battery)

[edit]Law and human rights

Main article: Legal system of Saudi Arabia

See also: Human rights in Saudi Arabia

Verses from the Quran. The Quran is the official constitution of the country and a primary source of law. Arabia is unique in enshrining a religious text as a political document[108]

The primary source of law is the Islamic Sharia derived from the teachings of the Qu'ran and the Sunnah (the traditions of the Prophet).[66] Sharia is not codified and there is no system of judicial precedent. Saudi judges tend to follow the principles of the Hanbali school of jurisprudence (or fiqh) found in pre-modern texts(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ15T battery)109] and noted for its literalist interpretation of the Qu'ran and hadith.[110] Nevertheless, because the judge is empowered to disregard previous judgments (either his own or of other judges) and will apply his personal interpretation of Sharia to any particular case, divergent judgements arise even in apparently identical cases. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ15G battery)

Royal decrees are the other main source of law but are referred to as regulations rather than laws because they are subordinate to the Sharia.[66] Royal decrees supplement Sharia in areas such as labor, commercial and corporate law. Additionally, traditional tribal law and custom remain significant. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11L battery)

The Sharia court system constitutes the basic judiciary of Saudi Arabia and its judges and lawyers form part of the ulema, the country's religious leadership. However, there are also extra-Sharia government tribunals which handle disputes relating to specific royal decrees.[113] Final appeal from both Sharia courts and government tribunals is to the King and all courts and tribunals follow Sharia rules of evidence and procedure. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11Z battery) The Saudi system of justice has been criticized for being slow, arcane,[115] lacking in some of the safeguards of justice and unable to deal with the modern world.[116]

In 2007, King Abdullah issued royal decrees reforming the judiciary and creating a new court system, although the reforms have yet to be implemented.[111] The capabilities and reactionary nature of the judges have, in particular, been criticized[117] and, in 2009, the King made a number of significant changes to the judiciary's personnel at the most senior level by bringing in a younger generation. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ18M battery)

Saudi Arabia has long been criticized for its human rights record, with Western-based organisations such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch condemning both the criminal justice system and its severe punishments. However, most Saudis reportedly support the system and say that it maintains a low crime rate.[118] There are no jury trials in Saudi Arabia and courts observe few formalities.[119] Human Rights Watch, in a 2008 report(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ18 battery), noted that a criminal procedure code had been introduced for the first time in 2002, but it lacked some basic protections and, in any case, had been routinely ignored by judges. Those arrested are often not informed of the crime of which they are accused or given access to a lawyer and are subject to abusive treatment and torture if they do not confess. At trial, there is a presumption of guilt and the accused is often unable to examine witnesses and evidence or present a legal defense. Most trials are held in secret. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ210CE battery)

Deera Square, central Riyadh. Known locally as "Chop-chop square", it is the location of public beheadings.[121]

The physical punishments imposed by Saudi courts, such as beheading, stoning, amputation and lashing, and the number of executions have been strongly criticized.[122] The death penalty can be imposed for a wide range of offences including murder, rape, armed robbery, repeated drug use, apostasy(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31S battery), adultery, witchcraft and sorcery and can be carried out by beheading with a sword, stoning or firing squad, followed by crucifixion.[123][124] The 345 reported executions between 2007 and 2010 were all carried out by public beheading. The last reported execution for sorcery took place in June 2012[125] and three recent convictions for witchcraft did not result in execution(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31Z battery).

Although repeated theft can be punishable by amputation of the right hand, only one instance of judicial amputation was reported between 2007 and 2010. Gay rights are not recognised. Homosexual acts are punishable by flogging or death.[123][126] Lashings are a common form of punishment[127] and are often imposed for offences against religion and public morality such as drinking alcohol and neglect of prayer and fasting obligations. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31E battery)

Retaliatory punishments, or Qisas, are practised: for instance, an eye can be surgically removed at the insistence of a victim who lost his own eye.[117] Families of someone unlawfully killed can choose between demanding the death penalty or granting clemency in return for a payment of diyya, or blood money, by the perpetrator.[128] Other human rights issues that have attracted strong criticism include the extremely disadvantaged position of women (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31J battery) (see Women in Saudi society below), religious discrimination, the lack of religious freedom and the activities of the religious police (see Religion below).[122]

Between 1996 and 2000, Saudi Arabia acceded to four UN human rights conventions and, in 2004, the government approved the establishment of the National Society for Human Rights (NSHR), staffed by government employees, to monitor their implementation. To date, the activities of the NSHR have been limited and doubts remain over its neutrality and independence. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31M battery) [129] Saudi Arabia remains one of the very few countries in the world not to accept the UN's Universal Declaration of Human Rights. In response to the continuing criticism of its human rights record, the Saudi government points to the special Islamic character of the country, and asserts that this justifies a different social and political order.[130]

[edit]Foreign relations

Main article: Foreign relations of Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia joined the UN in 1945 and is a founder member of the Arab League, Gulf Cooperation Council, Muslim World League, and the Organization of the Islamic Conference (now the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation). (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31B battery) It plays a prominent role in the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, and in 2005 joined the World Trade Organization.[11] Saudi Arabia supports the intended formation of the Arab Customs Union in 2015 and an Arab common market[133] by 2020, as announced at the 2009 Arab League summit.[134] As a founding member of OPEC, its oil pricing policy has been generally to stabilize the world oil market and try to moderate sharp price movements so as to not jeopardise the Western economies. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ32 battery) [11]

King Abdullah with former US President George W. Bush.

Between the mid-1970s and 2002 Saudi Arabia expended over $70 billion in "overseas development aid".[135] However, there is evidence that the vast majority was, in fact, spent on propagating and extending the influence of Wahhabism at the expense of other forms of Islam.[136] There has been an intense debate over whether Saudi aid and Wahhabism has fomented extremism in recipient countries.[137] The two main allegations are that, by its nature, Wahhabism encourages intolerance and promotes terrorism. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21S battery)

Former CIA director James Woolsey described it as "the soil in which Al-Qaeda and its sister terrorist organizations are flourishing."[139] However, the Saudi government strenuously denies these claims or that it exports religious or cultural extremism.[140]

In the Arab and Muslim worlds, Saudi Arabia is considered to be pro-Western and pro-American,[141] and it is certainly a long-term ally of the United States. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21M battery) However, this[143] and Saudi Arabia's role in the 1991 Persian Gulf War, particularly the stationing of U.S. troops on Saudi soil from 1991, prompted the development of a hostile Islamist response internally .[144] As a result, Saudi Arabia has, to some extent, distanced itself from the U.S. and, for example, refused to support or to participate in the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq in 2003.[60] Relations with the United States became strained following 9/11.[145] American politicians and media accused the Saudi government of supporting terrorism and tolerating a jihadist culture. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ38M battery) Indeed, Osama bin Laden and fifteen out of the nineteen 9/11 hijackers were from Saudi Arabia.[147] According to the U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, "Saudi Arabia remains a critical financial support base for al-Qaida, the Taliban, LeT and other terrorist groups... Donors in Saudi Arabia constitute the most significant source of funding to Sunni terrorist groups worldwide."[148]

Saudi Arabia's increasing alarm at the rise of Iran is reflected in the reported private comments of King Abdullah[149] urging the US to attack Iran and "cut off the head of the snake".(Sony VGN-NR11S/S Battery) Saudi Arabia has been seen as a moderating influence in the Arab-Israeli conflict, periodically putting forward a peace plan between Israel and the Palestinians and condemning Hezbollah.[151] Following the Arab Spring Saudi Arabia offered asylum to deposed President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali of Tunisia and King Abdullah telephoned President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt (prior to his deposition) to offer his support.[ (Sony VGN-NR11M/S Battery)

Main article: Armed Forces of Saudi Arabia

Further information: Al-Yamamah arms deal

Royal Saudi Air Force Eurofighter Typhoon.

The Saudi military consists of the Royal Saudi Land Forces, the Royal Saudi Air Force, the Royal Saudi Navy, the Royal Saudi Air Defense, the Saudi Arabian National Guard (SANG, an independent military force), and paramilitary forces, totaling nearly 200,000 active-duty personnel. In 2005 the armed forces had the following personnel: the army, 75,000; the air force, 18,000; air defense, 16,000; the navy, 15,500 (including 3,000 marines); and the SANG had 75,000 active soldiers and 25,000 tribal levies. (Sony VGN-NR11Z/S Battery) In addition, there is a Al Mukhabarat Al A'amah military intelligence service.

The SANG is not a reserve but a fully operational front-line force, and originated out of Abdul Aziz's tribal military-religious force, the Ikhwan. Its modern existence, however, is attributable to it being effectively Abdullah's private army since the 1960s and, unlike the rest of the armed forces, is independent of the Ministry of Defense and Aviation. The SANG has been a counterbalance to the Sudairi faction in the royal family: Prince Sultan, the Minister of Defense and Aviation, is one of the so-called 'Sudairi Seven' and controls the remainder of the armed forces.[ (Sony VGN-NR11Z/T Battery)154]

HMS Makkah, an Al Riyadh class frigate.

Spending on defense and security has increased significantly since the mid-'90s and was about US$25.4 billion in 2005. Saudi Arabia ranks among the top 10 in the world in government spending for its military, representing about 7% of gross domestic product in 2005. Its modern high-technology arsenal makes Saudi Arabia among the world's most densely armed nations, with its military equipment being supplied primarily by the US, France and Britain.[ (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21E battery)153] The United States sold more than $80 billion in military hardware between 1951 and 2006 to the Saudi military.[155] On 20 October 2010, the U.S. State Department notified Congress of its intention to make the biggest arms sale in American history – an estimated $60.5 billion purchase by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The package represents a considerable improvement in the offensive capability of the Saudi armed forces.[156] The UK has also been a major supplier of military equipment to Saudi Arabia since 1965.[157] Since 1985, the UK has supplied military aircraft(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21Z battery) – notably the Tornado and Eurofighter Typhoon combat aircraft – and other equipment as part of the long-term Al-Yamamah arms deal estimated to have been worth £43 billion by 2006 and thought to be worth a further £40 billion.[158]

In May 2012, British defence giant BAE signed a £1.9bn ($3bn) deal to supply Hawk trainer jets to Saudi Arabia.[159]

Ecoregions as delineated by the WWF. The yellow line encloses the ecoregions Arabian Desert, East Sahero-Arabian xeric shrublands and two other smaller desert areas.[ (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21J battery)160]

Saudi Arabia occupies about 80% of the Arabian peninsula,[161] lying between latitudes 16° and 33° N, and longitudes 34° and 56° E. Because the country's southern borders with the United Arab Emirates and Oman are not precisely defined or marked, the exact size of the country remains unknown.[161] The CIA World Factbook's estimate is 2,250,000 km2 (868,730 sq mi) and lists Saudi Arabia as the world's 13th largest state.[ (Sony VAIO VGN-FW11 battery)162]

Saudi Arabia's geography is dominated by the Arabian Desert and associated semi-desert and shrubland (see satellite image to right). It is, in fact, a number of linked deserts and includes the 647,500 km2 (250,001 sq mi) Rub' al Khali ("Empty Quarter") in the southern part of the country, the world's largest contiguous sand desert.[60][163] There are virtually no rivers or lakes in the country, but wadis are numerous(Sony VAIO VGN-FW11M battery). The few fertile areas are to be found in the alluvial deposits in wadis, basins, and oases.[60] The main topographical feature is the central plateau which rises abruptly from the Red Sea and gradually descends into the Nejd and toward the Persian Gulf. On the Red Sea coast, there is a narrow coastal plain, known as the Tihamah parallel to which runs an imposing escarpment. The southwest province of Asir is mountainous, and contains the 3,133 m (10,279 ft) Mount Sawda, which is the highest point in the country. (Sony VAIO VGN-FW11S battery) [60]

The Nejd landscape: desert and the Tuwaiq Escarpment near Riyadh

Except for the southwestern province of Asir, Saudi Arabia has a desert climate with extremely high day-time temperatures and a sharp temperature drop at night. Average summer temperatures are around 113 °F (45 °C), but can be as high as 129 °F (54 °C). In the winter the temperature rarely drops below 32 °F (0 °C). In the spring and autumn the heat is temperate, temperatures average around 84 °F (29 °C). Annual rainfall is extremely low(Sony VAIO VGN-FW21E battery). The Asir region differs in that it is influenced by the Indian Ocean monsoons, usually occurring between October and March. An average of 12 in (300 mm) of rainfall occurs during this period, that is about 60% of the annual precipitation.[164]

Animal life includes wolves, hyenas, mongooses, baboons, hares, sand rats, and jerboas. Larger animals such as gazelles, oryx, and leopards were relatively numerous until the 1950s, when hunting from motor vehicles reduced these animals almost to extinction(Sony VAIO VGN-FW21J battery). Birds include falcons (which are caught and trained for hunting), eagles, hawks, vultures, sand grouse and bulbuls. There are several species of snakes, many of which are venomous, and numerous types of lizards. There is a wide variety of marine life in the Persian Gulf. Domesticated animals include camels, sheep, goats, donkeys, and chickens. Reflecting the country's desert conditions, Saudi Arabia's plant life mostly consists of small herbs and shrubs requiring little water. There are a few small areas of grass and trees in southern Asir. The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is widespread. (Sony VAIO VGN-FW21L battery)60]

[edit]Administrative divisions

Main articles: Provinces of Saudi Arabia and Governorates of Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia is divided into 13 provinces[165] (manatiq idāriyya, – singular mintaqah idariyya). The provinces are further divided into 118 governorates (Arabic: manatiq idāriyya, منطقةإدارية, ). This number includes the 13 provincial capitals, which have a different status as municipalities (amanah) headed by mayors (amin). The governorates are further sudivided into sub-governorates (marakiz, sing. markaz) (Sony VAIO VGN-FW41M battery).

Saudi Arabia's command economy is petroleum-based; roughly 75% of budget revenues and 90% of export earnings come from the oil industry. The oil industry comprises about 45% of Saudi Arabia's nominal gross domestic product, compared with 40% from the private sector (see below). Saudi Arabia officially has about 260 billion barrels (4.1×1010 m3) of oil reserves, comprising about one-fifth of the world's proven total petroleum reserves. (Sony VAIO VGN-FW41M/H battery)

The government is attempting to promote growth in the private sector by privatizing industries such as power and telecommunications. Saudi Arabia announced plans to begin privatizing the electricity companies in 1999, which followed the ongoing privatization of the telecommunications company. Shortages of water and rapid population growth may constrain government efforts to increase self-sufficiency in agricultural products(Sony VAIO VGN-FW21M battery).

In the 1990s, Saudi Arabia experienced a significant contraction of oil revenues combined with a high rate of population growth. Per capita income fell from a high of $11,700 at the height of the oil boom in 1981 to $6,300 in 1998.[167] Increases in oil prices since 2000 have helped boost per capita GDP to $17,000 in 2007 dollars, or about $7,400 adjusted for inflation.[168] Taking into account the impact of the real oil price changes on the Kingdom's real gross domestic income, the real command-basis GDP was computed to be 330.381 billion 1999 USD in 2010. (Sony VAIO VGN-FW21Z battery)

Oil price increases of 2008–2009 have triggered a second oil boom, pushing Saudi Arabia's budget surplus to $28 billion (110SR billion) in 2005. Tadawul (the Saudi stock market index) finished 2004 with a massive 76.23% to close at 4437.58 points. Market capitalization was up 110.14% from a year earlier to stand at $157.3 billion (589.93SR billion), which makes it the biggest stock market in the Middle East(Sony VAIO VGN-FW32J battery).‏

OPEC (the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) limits its members' oil production based on their "proven reserves." The higher their reserves, the more OPEC allows them to produce.[citation needed] Saudi Arabia's published reserves have shown little change since 1980, with the main exception being an increase of about 100 billion barrels (1.6×1010 m3) between 1987 and 1988.[170] Matthew Simmons has suggested that Saudi Arabia is greatly exaggerating its reserves and may soon show production declines (see peak oil). (Sony VAIO VGN-FW31E battery)

Saudi Arabia is one of only a few fast-growing countries in the world with a relatively high per capita income of $24,200 (2010). Saudi Arabia will be launching six "economic cities" (e.g. King Abdullah Economic City)[172] which are planned to be completed by 2020. These six new industrialized cities are intended to diversify the economy of Saudi Arabia(Sony VAIO VGN-FW139E battery), and are expected to increase the per capita income. The King of Saudi Arabia has announced that the per capita income is forecast to rise from $15,000 in 2006 to $33,500 in 2020.[173] The cities will be spread around Saudi Arabia to promote diversification for each region and their economy, and the cities are projected to contribute $150 billion to the GDP.

However the urban areas of Riyadh and Jeddah are expected to contribute $287 billion dollars by the year 2020. (Sony VAIO VGN-FW139E/H battery) [174]

Gold mining is carried out in the Mahd adh Dhahab region (also known as the "Cradle of Gold"). Saudi Arabian stores suffered a significant decrease in Gold sales in 2012.[175]

Reporting of poverty remains a state taboo. In December 2011, days after the Arab Spring uprisings, the Saudi interior ministry detained reporter Feros Boqna and two colleagues and held them for almost two weeks for questioning after they uploaded a video on the topic to YouTube. (Sony VAIO VGN-FW31M battery) [176][177] Statistics on the issue are not available through the UN resources because the Saudi government does not issue poverty figures.[178] Observers researching the issue prefer to stay anonymous[179] because of the risk of being arrested. Three journalists: Feras Boqna, Hussam al-Drewesh and Khaled al-Rasheed were detained after posting 10-minute film 'Mal3ob 3alena', or 'We are being cheated'[180] on Saudis living in poverty to YouTube.[181] Authors of the video claim that 22% of Saudis are considered to be poor (2009) and 70% of Saudis do not own their houses(Sony VAIO VGN-FW31J battery).

The population of Saudi Arabia as of July 2010 is estimated to be 25,731,776 including 5,576,076 non-nationals[2] In 1950, Saudi Arabia had a population of 3 million.[183] The ethnic composition of Saudi nationals is 90% Arab and 10% Afro-Arab.[184] Until the 1960s, a majority of the population was nomadic; but presently more than 95% of the population is settled, due to rapid economic and urban growth. As recently as the early 1960s, the Saudi Arabia's slave population was estimated at 300,000.[185] Slavery was officially abolished in 1962. (Sony VAIO VGN-FW31Z battery)

About 31% of the population is made up of foreign nationals living in Saudi Arabia.[188] Indian: 1.3 million, Pakistani: 900,000, Egyptian: 900,000, Yemeni: 800,000, Bangladeshi: 500,000, Filipino: 500,000, Jordanian/Palestinian: 260,000, Indonesian: 250,000, Sri Lankan: 350,000, Sudanese: 250,000, Syrian: 100,000 and Turkish: 100,000.[189] There are around 100,000 Westerners in Saudi Arabia, most of whom live in compounds or gated communities(Sony VGN-NR11Z Battery).

Saudi Arabia expelled 800,000 Yemenis in 1990 and 1991.[190] An estimated 240,000 Palestinians are living in Saudi Arabia. They are not allowed to hold or even apply for Saudi citizenship, because of Arab League instructions barring the Arab states from granting them citizenship. Palestinians are the sole foreign group that cannot benefit from a 2004 law passed by Saudi Arabia's Council of Ministers(Sony VGN-NR11S Battery), which entitles expatriates of all nationalities who have resided in the kingdom for ten years to apply for citizenship with priority being given to holders of degrees in various scientific fields.[191] The Articles 12.4 and 14.1 of the Executive Regulation of Saudi Citizenship System can be interpreted as requiring applicants to be Muslim.[192]

In a 2011 news story, Arab News reported, "Nearly three million expatriate workers will have to leave the Kingdom in the next few years as the Labor Ministry has put a 20% ceiling on the country's guest workers." (Sony VGN-CR11Z Battery)

[edit]Languages

The official language of Saudi Arabia is Arabic. The three main regional variants spoken by Saudis are Hejazi Arabic (about 6 million speakers), Nejdi Arabic (about 8 million speakers) and Persian Gulf (about 1.5 million speakers). The large expatriate communities also speak their own languages, the most numerous being Malayalam (1 million), Tagalog (700,000), Urdu (380,000), and Egyptian Arabic (300,000). (Sony VGN-CR11S Battery)194]

See also: Islam in Saudi Arabia and Freedom of religion in Saudi Arabia, Wahhabism, and Salafism

The "Mosque of the Prophet" in Medina containing the tomb of Muhammad.

There are about 25 million people who are Muslim, or 97% of the total population.[195] Data for Saudi Arabia comes primarily from general population surveys, which are less reliable than censu

ses or large-scale demographic and health surveys for estimating minority-majority ratios.[195] About 85–90% of Saudis are Sunni(Sony VGN-CR11M Battery), while Shias represent around 10–15% of the Muslim population.[196] The official and dominant form of Sunni Islam in Saudi Arabia is commonly known as Wahhabism (a name which some of its proponents consider derogatory, preferring the term Salafism[197]), founded in the Arabian Peninsula by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab in the eighteenth century, is often described as 'puritanical', 'intolerant' or 'ultra-conservative'. (Sony VGN-CR11E Battery) However, proponents consider that its teachings seek to purify the practise of Islam of any innovations or practices that deviate from the seventh-century teachings of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad and his companions[198]

In 2010, the U.S. State Department stated that in Saudi Arabia "freedom of religion is neither recognized nor protected under the law and is severely restricted in practice" and that "government policies continued to place severe restrictions on religious freedom".[(Sony VGN-CR21E Battery)199] No faith other than Islam is permitted to be practiced, although there are nearly a million Christians – nearly all foreign workers – in Saudi Arabia.[200] There are no churches or other non-Muslim houses of worship permitted in the country.[199] Even private prayer services are forbidden in practice and the Saudi religious police reportedly regularly search the homes of Christians.[200] Foreign workers have to observe Ramadan but are not allowed to celebrate Christmas or Easter.[ (Sony VGN-CR21S Battery)

Conversion by Muslims to another religion (apostasy) carries the death penalty, although there have been no confirmed reports of executions for apostasy in recent years.[199] Proselytizing by non-Muslims is illegal,[199] and the last Christian priest was expelled from Saudi Arabia in 1985.[200] There are some Hindus and Buddhists in Saudi Arabia. Compensation in court cases discriminates against non-Muslims: once fault is determined, a Muslim receives all of the amount of compensation determined, a Jew or Christian half, and all others a sixteenth. (Sony VGN-CR21Z Battery)200]

According to Human Rights Watch, the Shia minority face systematic discrimination from the Saudi government in education, the justice system and especially religious freedom.[201] Restrictions are imposed on the public celebration of Shia festivals such as Ashura and on the Shia taking part in communal public worship.[202] According to a 2012 poll, 5% of Saudis are atheists(Sony VGN-CR31S Battery).

Saudi Arabia has centuries-old attitudes and traditions, often derived from Arab tribal civilization. This culture has been bolstered by the austerely puritanical Wahhabi form of Islam, which arose in the eighteenth century and now predominates in the country. The many limitations on behaviour and dress are strictly enforced both legally and socially. Alcoholic beverages are prohibited, for example, and there is no theatre or public exhibition of films(Sony VGN-CR31E Battery). Nevertheless, as reported by the UK Mail, within the Saudi royal family homosexuality is permitted so long as it is not the subject of public attention (Daily Mail: "A gay Saudi prince has been jailed for beating and strangling his servant.").[204] However, the Daily Mail and Wikileaks indicate that the Saudi Royal family applies a different moral code to itself ("WikiLeaks cables: Saudi princes throw parties boasting drink, drugs and sex. Royals flout puritanical laws to throw parties for young elite while religious police are forced to turn a blind eye.") (Sony VGN-CR31Z Battery) [205] Public expression of opinion about domestic political or social matters is discouraged. There are no organizations such as political parties or labour unions to provide public forums.

Daily life is dominated by Islamic observance. Five times each day, Muslims are called to prayer from the minarets of mosques scattered throughout the country. Because Friday is the holiest day for Muslims, the weekend begins on Thursday.[60][206] In accordance with Wahhabi doctrine, only two religious holidays are publicly recognized(Sony VGN-CR41Z Battery), ʿĪd al-Fiṭr and ʿĪd al-Aḍḥā. Celebration of other Islamic holidays, such as the Prophet's birthday and ʿĀshūrāʾ (an important holiday for Shīʿites), are tolerated only when celebrated locally and on a small scale. Public observance of non-Islamic religious holidays is prohibited, with the exception of 23 September, which commemorates the unification of the kingdom.[60]

[edit]Islamic heritage sites

See also: Mecca, Medina, and Destruction of early Islamic heritage sites(Sony VGN-CR41S Battery)

Supplicating Pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, Mecca

Saudi Arabia, and specifically the Hejaz, as the cradle of Islam, has many of the most significant historic Muslim sites including the two holiest sites of Mecca and Medina.[207] One of the King's titles is Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, the two mosques being Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, which contains Islam's most sacred place, the Kaaba, and Al-Masjid al-Nabawi in Medina which contains Muhammad's tomb. (Sony VGN-CR41E Battery)

However, Saudi Wahhabism is hostile to any reverence given to historical or religious places of significance for fear that it may give rise to 'shirk' (that is, idolatry). As a consequence, under Saudi rule, the Hejaz cities have suffered from considerable destruction of their physical heritage and, for example, it has been estimated that about 95% of Mecca's historic buildings, most over a thousand years old, have been demolished.[210] These include the mosque originally built by Muhammad's daughter Fatima(Sony VGN-CR42Z Battery), and other mosques founded by Abu Bakr (Muhammad's father-in-law and the first Caliph), Umar (the second Caliph), Ali (Muhammad's son-in-law and the fourth Caliph), and Salman al-Farsi (another of Muhammad's companions).[211] Other historic buildings that have been destroyed include the house of Khadijah, the wife of the Prophet, the house of Abu Bakr, now the site of the local Hilton hotel; the house of Ali-Oraid, the grandson of the Prophet, and the Mosque of abu-Qubais, now the location of the King's palace in Mecca. (Sony VGN-CR42S Battery)

Critics have described this as "Saudi vandalism" and claim that over the last 50 years 300 historic sites linked to Muhammad, his family or companions have been lost.[213] It has been reported that there now are fewer than 20 structures remaining in Mecca that date back to the time of Muhammad. (Sony VGN-CR42E Battery)

[edit]Dress

Saudi Arabian dress strictly follows the principles of hijab (the Islamic principle of modesty, especially in dress). The predominantly loose and flowing, but covering, garments are suited to Saudi Arabia's desert climate. Traditionally, men usually wear an ankle length garment woven from wool or cotton (known as a thawb), with a keffiyeh (a large checkered square of cotton held in place by a cord coil) or a ghutra (a plain white square made of finer cotton(Sony Vaio VGN-CR11S/L Battery), also held in place by a cord coil) worn on the head. For rare chilly days, Saudi men wear a camel-hair cloak (bisht) over the top. Women's clothes are decorated with tribal motifs, coins, sequins, metallic thread, and appliques. Women are required to wear an abaya or modest clothing when in public.

Ghutrah (Arabic: غتره‎) is a traditional headdress typically worn by Arab men. It is made of a square of cloth ("scarf"), usually cotton, folded and wrapped in various styles around the head. It is commonly worn in areas with an arid climate, to provide protection from direct sun exposure, and also protection of the mouth and eyes from blown dust and sand(Sony Vaio VGN-CR11S/P Battery).

Agal (Arabic: عقال‎) is an Arab headdress constructed of cord which is fastened around the Ghutrah to hold it in place. The agal is usually black in colour.

Thawb (Arabic: ثوب‎) is the standard Arabic word for garment. It is ankle length, usually with long sleeves similar to a robe.

Bisht (Arabic: بشت‎) is a traditional Arabic men's cloak usually only worn for prestige on special occasions such as weddings(Sony Vaio VGN-CR11S/W Battery).

Abaya (Arabic: عباية‎) is a women's garment. It is a black cloak which loosely covers the entire body except the head. Some women choose to cover their faces with a niqāb and some do not.

[edit]Entertainment, the arts, sport and cuisine

Main articles: Cinema of Saudi Arabia, Music of Saudi Arabia, Saudi Arabian cuisine, and Sport in Saudi Arabia

During the 1970s, cinemas were numerous in the Kingdom and were not considered un-Islamic, although they were seen as contrary to Arab tribal norms. (Sony Vaio VGN-CR11Z/R Battery) During the Islamic revival movement in the 1980s, and as a political response to an increase in Islamist activism including the 1979 seizure of the Grand Mosque in Mecca, the government closed all cinemas and theaters. However, with King Abdullah's reforms from 2005, some cinemas have re-opened. (Sony Vaio VGN-CR13/B Battery)

From the 18th century onward, Wahhabi fundamentalism discouraged artistic development inconsistent with its teaching. In addition, Sunni Islamic prohibition of creating representations of people have limited the visual arts, which tend to be dominated by geometric, floral, and abstract designs and by calligraphy. With the advent of oil-wealth in the 20th century came exposure to outside influences, such as Western housing styles, furnishings, and clothes(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13/L Battery). Music and dance have always been part of Saudi life. Traditional music is generally associated with poetry and is sung collectively. Instruments include the rabābah, an instrument not unlike a three-string fiddle, and various types of percussion instruments, such as the ṭabl (drum) and the ṭār (tambourine). Of the native dances, the most popular is a martial line dance known as the ʿarḍah, which includes lines of men, frequently armed with swords or rifles, dancing to the beat of drums and tambourines. Bedouin poetry, known as nabaṭī, is still very popular. (Sony Vaio VGN-CR13/P Battery)

Censorship has limited the development of Saudi literature, although several Saudi novelists and poets have achieved critical and popular acclaim in the Arab world – albeit generating official hostility in their home country. These include Ghazi Algosaibi, Abdelrahman Munif, Turki al-Hamad and Rajaa al-Sanea.

Football (soccer) is the national sport in Saudi Arabia.[citation needed] Scuba diving, windsurfing, sailing and basketball are also popular, (Sony Vaio VGN-CR13/R Battery) played by both men and women, with the Saudi Arabian national basketball team winning bronze at the 1999 Asian Championship. More traditional sports such as camel racing became more popular in the 1970s. A stadium in Riyadh holds races in the winter. The annual King's Camel Race, begun in 1974, is one of the sport's most important contests and attracts animals and riders from throughout the region. Falconry, another traditional pursuit, is still practiced. (Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G Battery)60]

Saudi Arabian cuisine is similar to that of the surrounding Arab countries in the Persian Gulf, and has been heavily influenced by Turkish, Persian, and African food. Islamic dietary laws are enforced: pork is not consumed and other animals are slaughtered in accordance with halal. A dish consisting of a stuffed lamb, known as khūzī, is the traditional national dish. Kebabs are popular, as is shāwarmā (shawarma), a marinated grilled meat dish of lamb, mutton(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G/B Battery), or chicken. As in other Arab countries of the Persian Gulf, machbūs (kabsa), a rice dish with fish or shrimp, is popular. Flat, unleavened bread is a staple of virtually every meal, as are dates and fresh fruit. Coffee, served in the Turkish style, is the traditional beverage.[60]

Saudi society has a number of issues and tensions. A rare independent opinion poll published in 2010 indicated that Saudis' main social concerns were unemployment (at 10% in 2010[222]), corruption and religious extremism. Crime is not a significant problem.[153] However, Saudi Arabia's objective of being both a modern and Islamic country(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G/L Battery), coupled with economic difficulties, has created deep social tensions. Connections to the West have caused some Saudis to desire the overthrow of the Al Saud. Others want a reformed and more open government and to have more influence in the political process. On the other hand, juvenile delinquency, drug-use and use of alcohol are getting worse. High unemployment and a generation of young males filled with contempt toward the Royal Family is a significant threat to Saudi social stability(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G/P Battery). Some Saudis feel they are entitled to well-paid government jobs, and the failure of the government to satisfy this sense of entitlement has led to considerable dissatisfaction. Additionally, the Shiite minority, located primarily in the Eastern Province, and who often complain of institutionalized inequality and repression, have created civil disturbances in the past. Terrorist attacks in Saudi Arabia have made it clear that Saudi Arabia does harbor indigenous terrorists(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13T/L Battery).

According to a 2009 U.S. State Department communication by Hillary Clinton, United States Secretary of State, (disclosed as part of the Wikileaks U.S. 'cables leaks' controversy in 2010) "donors in Saudi Arabia constitute the most significant source of funding to Sunni terrorist groups worldwide".[228] Part of this funding arises through the zakat (an act of charity dictated by Islam) paid by all Saudis to charities(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13T/P Battery), and amounting to at least 2.5% of their income. Although many charities are genuine, others, it is alleged, serve as fronts for money laundering and terrorist financing operations. While many Saudis contribute to those charities in good faith believing their money goes toward good causes, it has been alleged that others know full well the terrorist purposes to which their money will be applied.[ (Sony Vaio VGN-CR21/B Battery)

According to a study conducted by Dr. Nura Al-Suwaiyan, director of the family safety program at the National Guard Hospital, one in four children are abused in Saudi Arabia.[229] The National Society for Human Rights reports that almost 45% of the country's children are facing some sort of abuse and domestic violence.[230] It has also been claimed that trafficking of women is a particular problem in Saudi Arabia as the country's large number of female foreign domestic workers, and loopholes in the system cause many to fall victim to abuse and torture. (Sony Vaio VGN-CR21E/L Battery)

Widespread inbreeding in Saudi Arabia, resulting from the traditional practice of encouraging marriage between close relatives, has produced high levels of several genetic disorders including thalassemia, sickle cell anemia, spinal muscular atrophy, deafness and muteness.

A woman wearing a niqāb

See also: Women's rights in Saudi Arabia

The U.S. State department considers that "discrimination against women is a significant problem" in Saudi Arabia and that women have few political or social rights.[ (Sony Vaio VGN-CR21E/P Battery) After her 2008 visit, the UN special reporter on violence against women noted the lack of women's autonomy and the absence of a law criminalizing violence against women.[234] The World Economic Forum 2010 Global Gender Gap Report ranked Saudi Arabia 129th out of 134 countries for gender parity.[235]

Every adult woman has to have a close male relative as her "guardian".[234] As a result, Human Rights Watch has described the position of Saudi women as like that of a minor, with little authority over their own lives(Sony Vaio VGN-CR21S/L Battery). The guardian is entitled to make a number of critical decisions on a woman's behalf.[236] These include giving approval for the woman to travel, to hold some types of business licenses, to study at a university or college and to work if the type of business is not "deemed appropriate for a woman."[234] Even where a guardian's approval is not legally required, some officials will still ask for it.[237]

Women are also said to have faced discrimination in the courts, where the testimony of one man equals that of two women, and in family and inheritance law. (Sony Vaio VGN-CR21S/P Battery) Polygamy is permitted for men,[238] and men have a unilateral right to divorce their wives (talaq) without needing any legal justification.[239] A woman can only obtain a divorce with the consent of her husband or judicially if her husband has harmed her.[240] In practice, it is very difficult for a Saudi woman to obtain a judicial divorce.[240] With regard to the law of inheritance, the Quran specifies that fixed portions of the deceased's estate must be left to the Qu'ranic heirs.[241] Generally(Sony VAIO VGN-NW21EF/S battery), female heirs receive half the portion of male heirs.[241] A Sunni Muslim can bequeath a maximum of a third of his property to non-Qu'ranic heirs. The residue is divided between agnatic heirs.[241]

Cultural norms impose restrictions on women when in public,[234] and these are enforced by the religious police, the mutawa.[242] They include requiring women to sit in separate specially designated family sections in restaurants, to wear an abaya (a loose-fitting, full-length black cloak covering the entire body) and to conceal their hair.[234] There is also effectively a ban on women driving. (Sony VAIO VGN-NW21JF battery)

Men marry girls as young as ten in Saudi Arabia Child marriage is believed to hinder the cause of women's education. The drop-out rate of girls increases around puberty, as they exchange education for marriage. Roughly 25% of college-aged young women do not attend college, and in 2005–2006, women had a 60% dropout rate.[246] Female literacy is estimated to be around 70% compared to male literacy of around 85%.(Sony VAIO VGN-NW21MF battery)

Leading Saudi feminist and journalist, Wajeha al-Huwaider, has said "Saudi women are weak, no matter how high their status, even the 'pampered' ones among them, because they have no law to protect them from attack by anyone. The oppression of women and the effacement of their selfhood is a flaw affecting most homes in Saudi Arabia."[247]

Although many Saudis would like more freedom in Saudi Arabia, there is evidence that many women do not want radical change. (Sony VAIO VGN-NW21MF/W battery) Even many advocates of reform reject foreign critics, for "failing to understand the uniqueness of Saudi society." A number of Saudi women have risen to the top of some professions or otherwise achieved prominence, for example Dr. Ghada Al-Mutairi, heads a medical research center in California[251] and Dr. Salwa Al-Hazzaa, head of the ophthalmology department at King Faisal Specialist Hospital in Riyadh and was the late King Fahad's personal ophthalmologist.[ (Sony VAIO VGN-NW31EF/W battery)On 25 September 2011, King Abdullah announced that Saudi women would gain the right to vote (and to be candidates) in municipal elections, following the next round of these elections. However, a male guardian's permission is required in order to vote.

Laboratory buildings at KAUST

Education is free at all levels. The school system is composed of elementary, intermediate, and secondary schools. A large part of the curriculum at all levels is devoted to Islam, and, at the secondary level, students are able to follow either a religious or a technical track. Girls are able to attend school, but fewer girls attend than boys(Sony VAIO VGN-NW21ZF battery). This disproportion is reflected in the rate of literacy, which exceeds 85% among males and is about 70% among females.[2] Classes are segregated by gender. Higher education has expanded rapidly, with large numbers of Universities and colleges being founded particularly since 2000. Institutions of higher education include the country's first University, King Saud University founded in 1957, the Islamic University at Medina founded in 1961, and the King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah founded in 1967(Sony VAIO VGN-NW31JF battery). Other colleges and universities emphasize curricula in sciences and technology, military studies, religion, and medicine. Institutes devoted to Islamic studies, in particular, abound. Women typically receive college instruction in segregated institutions.[60]

The study of Islam dominates the Saudi educational system. In particular, the memorization by rote of large parts of the Qu'ran, its interpretation and understanding (Tafsir) and the application of Islamic tradition to everyday life is at the core of the curriculum(Sony VAIO VGN-NW320F/B battery). Religion taught in this manner is also a compulsory subject for all University students.[255] As a consequence, Saudi youth "generally lacks the education and technical skills the private sector needs" according to the CIA.[2] Similarly, The Chronicle of Higher Education wrote in 2010 that "the country needs educated young Saudis with marketable skills and a capacity for innovation and entrepreneurship. That's not generally what Saudi Arabia's educational system delivers, steeped as it is in rote learning and religious instruction."[ (Sony VAIO VGN-NW11S/S battery)

A further criticism of the religious focus of the Saudi education system is the nature of the Wahhabi-controlled curriculum. The Islamic aspect of the Saudi national curriculum was examined in a 2006 report by Freedom House which concluded that "the Saudi public school religious curriculum continues to propagate an ideology of hate toward the "unbeliever," that is, Christians, Jews, Shiites, Sufis, Sunni Muslims who do not follow Wahhabi doctrine(Sony VAIO VGN-NW11Z/S battery), Hindus, atheists and others" The Saudi religious studies curriculum is taught outside the Kingdom in madrasah throughout the world. Critics have described the education system as 'medieval' and that its primary goal 'is to maintain the rule of absolute monarchy by casting it as the ordained protector of the faith, and that Islam is at war with other faiths and cultures'.[259]

The approach taken in the Saudi education system has been accused of encouraging Islamic terrorism, leading to reform efforts. (Sony VAIO VGN-NW11S/T battery)To tackle the twin problems of encouraging extremism and the inadequacy of the country's university education for a modern economy, the government is aiming to slowly modernise the education system through the 'Tatweer' reform program.[260] The Tatweer program is reported to have a budget of approximately US$2 billion and focuses on moving teaching away from the traditional Saudi methods of memorization and rote learning towards encouraging students to analyze and problem-solve(Sony VAIO VGN-NW11Z/T battery). It also aims to create an education system which will provide a more secular and vocationally based training.

Riyadh (/rɨˈjɑːd/; Arabic: الرياض‎ ar-Riyāḍ pronounced [ærriˈjɑːdˤ], "The Gardens") is the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia. It is also the capital of Riyadh Province, and belongs to the historical regions of Najd and Al-Yamama. It is situated in the center of the Arabian Peninsula on a large plateau, and is home to 5,254,560 people, and the urban center of a region with a population of close to 7 million people. The city is divided into 15 municipal districts(SONY Vaio VGN-SR11M Battery), managed by Riyadh Municipality headed by the mayor of Riyadh, and the Riyadh Development Authority, chaired by the Governor of Riyadh Province, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz. The current mayor of Riyadh is Abdullah Bin Abdul Rahman Al Mogbel, appointed in 2012. Riyadh has the largest all female university in the world, the Princess Nora bint Abdulrahman University.[1] It has been designated as a Beta World City(SONY Vaio VGN-SR12G/B Battery).

Early history

During the Pre-Islamic era the settlement at the site was called Hajr (Arabic: حجر‎), and was reportedly founded by the tribe of Banu Hanifa.[2] Hajr served as the capital of the province of Al Yamamah, whose governors were responsible for most of central and eastern Arabia during the Umayyad and Abbasid eras. Al-Yamamah broke away from the Abbasid Empire in 866 and the area fell under the rule of the Ukhaydhirites, who moved the capital from Hajr to nearby Al Kharj(SONY Vaio VGN-SR12G/P Battery). The city then went into a long period of decline. In the 14th century, North African traveller Ibn Battuta wrote of his visit to Hajr, describing it as "the main city of Al-Yamamah, and its name is Hajr". Ibn Battuta goes on to describe it as a city of canals and trees with most of its inhabitants belonging to Bani Hanifa, and reports that he continued on with their leader to Mecca to perform the Hajj.

Later on, Hajr broke up into several separate settlements and estates. The most notable of these were Migrin (or Muqrin) and Mi'kal(SONY Vaio VGN-SR12G/S Battery), though the name Hajr continued to appear in local folk poetry. The earliest known reference to the area by the name Riyadh comes from a 17th-century chronicler reporting on an event from the year 1590. In 1737, Deham ibn Dawwas, a refugee from neighboring Manfuha, took control of Riyadh. Ibn Dawwas built a single wall to encircle the various quarters of Riyadh, making them effectively a single town(Sony VAIO VGN-SR19VN battery).

The three Saudi states

In 1744, Muhammad ibn Abdel Wahhab formed an alliance with Muhammad ibn Saud, the ruler of the nearby town of Diriyah. Ibn Saud then set out to conquer the surrounding region with the goal of bringing it under the rule of a single Islamic state. Ibn Dawwas of Riyadh led the most determined resistance, allied with forces from Al Kharj, Al Ahsa, and the Banu Yam clan of Najran.

Al Masmak Castle(Sony VAIO VGN-SR19XN battery)

However, Ibn Dawwas fled and Riyadh capitulated to the Saudis in 1774, ending long years of wars, and leading to the declaration of the First Saudi State.

The First Saudi State was destroyed by forces sent by Muhammad Ali of Egypt, acting on behalf of the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman forces razed the Saudi capital Diriyah in 1818. In 1823, Turki ibn Abdallah, the founder of the Second Saudi State(Sony VAIO VGN-SR21M/S battery), revived the state and chose Riyadh as the new capital. Internecine struggles between Turki's grandsons led to the fall of the Second Saudi State in 1891 at the hand of the rival Al Rashid clan, who ruled from the northern city of Ha'il. Riyadh itself fell under the rule of Al Rashid in 1865. The al-Masmak fort dates from that period.

The city was recaptured in 1902 from the Al Rashid family by King Abdulaziz Ibn Saud. He went on to establish the modern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932, with Riyadh the capital of the nation. (Sony VAIO VGN-SR25G/B battery)

Summer temperatures are very hot, approaching 50 degrees Celsius. The average high temperature in July is 43.5°C. Winters are mild with cold, windy nights. The overall climate is arid, receiving very little rainfall, but the city receives a fair amount of rain in March and April. It is also known to have many dust storms. The dust is often so thick that visibility is under 10 meters.

Olaya District is the commercial heart of the city, with accommodation, entertainment, dining and shopping options. The Kingdom Center, Al Faisalyah and Al-Tahlya Street are the area's most prominent landmarks(Sony VAIO VGN-SR25G/P battery).

The Diplomatic Quarter, or DQ as it is popularly known, is home to foreign embassies and international organizations as well as residential structures and malls. With lush gardens and numerous sports facilities, it is also one of the city's greenest areas. It is especially known for its fine architecture, and is considered[by whom?] a model for other Islamic cities around the world. Despite its name, the special privileges offered in the Diplomatic Quarter constitute a controversial issue(Sony VAIO VGN-SR25G/S battery). All Saudi laws must be obeyed and there are occasional patrols by the Mutaween, or Saudi religious police. However, foreign diplomats and their families are allowed certain privileges and it is not very uncommon to see foreign diplomats and their wives strolling on the streets of the DQ in shorts and short-sleeve shirts(Sony VAIO VGN-SR25M/B battery).

Cable-stayed bridge in Riyadh

The centre of the city, Al-Bathaa and Al-Dirah, is also its oldest part. At its heart lies the 19th-century Al Masmak fort, which is one of the city's major attractions; to the west lies the Riyadh Museum of History and Archeology and the Murabba' Palace, an old residence of first Saudi king, Ibn Saud, now a museum. The Qasr Al-Hukm, or Palace of Justice, is nearby. It is here that the Governor of Riyadh Province meets citizens, listens to their grievances and problems(Sony VAIO VGN-SR25S/B battery), and stays abreast of all aspects of the region's life. The Al-Dira area also contains commercial markets and traditional buildings, such as the Al-Mu'eiqilia market and the city's Grand Mosque.

Architectural landmarks

[edit]Vernacular architecture of Old Riyadh

The old town of Riyadh within the city Walls did exceed an area of 1 square km, therefore very few significant architectural remnants of the original walled oasis town of Riyadh exist today. The most prominent is the al-Masmak fort and some parts of the original wall structure with its gate which have been restored and reconstructed. There are also a number of traditional mud-brick houses within these old limits, however they are for the most part dilapidated(Sony VAIO VGN-SR25T/P battery).

Expansion outside the city walls was slow to begin with, although there were some smaller oases and settlements surrounding Riyadh[citation needed]. The first major construction beyond the walls was King Abdulaziz's Murabba' palace. It was constructed in 1936, completed in 1937, and a household of 800 people moved into it in 1938. The palace was big enough to be mistaken as the city of Riyadh by travelers approaching it from the north. During the life King Abdulaziz(Sony VAIO VGN-SR25T/S battery), the palace was subject to numerous expansions of the grounds and buildings. It was constructed in the style of Najdi architecture consisting of mud-bricks, and marked by a level of architectural maturity that was unprecedented on that scale[citation needed]. Presently, only a fragment of what it encompassed is restored and rebuilt in the traditional manner. However, the palace is now part of a bigger complex called "The King Abdulaziz Historical Centre"(Sony VAIO VGN-SR26/P battery).

There are other traditional villages and towns in the area around traditional Riyadh which the urban sprawl reached and currently encompasses. These are Diriyah, Manfuha and Wadi Laban to name a few. Unlike in the early days of development in Riyadh during which vernacular structures were razed to the ground without consideration, there is a new-found appreciation for traditional architecture. The Saudi Commission for Tourism and Antiquities is making efforts for revitalizing the historic architecture in Riyadh and other parts of the kingdom. (Sony VAIO VGN-SR29VN/S battery)

Main article: Kingdom Centre

The tower is built on 94,230 square meters of land. The Kingdom Centre is owned by a group of companies including Kingdom Holding Co. headed by Al-Waleed bin Talal, a prince of the Saudi royal family, and is the headquarters of his holding company, the Kingdom Holding Company. The project cost 2 billion Saudi Arabian Riyals and the contract was undertaken by Saudi Arabia's EL-Seif Engineering Contracting Co.. (Sony VAIO VGN-SR29XN/S battery) The Kingdom Centre is located on Al-Urubah Road between King Fahd Road and Olaya Street in the growing business district of Al-Olaya.[clarification needed] The Kingdom Centre is the winner of the 2002 Emporis Skyscraper Award, selected as the "best new skyscraper of the year for design and functionality". A three-level shopping center, which also won a major design award, fills the east wing. The large opening is illuminated at night in continuously changing colors. The shopping center has a separate floor for women only to shop where men are not allowed to enter(Sony VAIO VGN-SR31M/S battery).

This castle was built around 1865 under the reign of Mohammed ibn Abdullah ibn Rasheed (1289–1315 AH), the ruler of Ha'il to the north, who had wrested control of the city from the rival clan of Al Saud. In January 1902 Ibn Saud, who was at the time living in exile in Kuwait succeeded in capturing the Masmak fortress from its Rashid garrison. The event, which restored Saudi control over Riyadh, has acquired almost mythical status in the history of Saudi Arabia(Sony VAIO VGN-SR33H/P battery). The story of the event is often retold, and has as its central theme the heroism and bravery of the King Abd Abdulaziz Ibn Saud.

Riyadh is one of the richest cities in the Middle East and the 80th richest city in the world. Once a small walled city, Riyadh has developed into a dynamic metropolis over the years. Along with the urban areas of Dhahran, Dammam, Khobar and Jeddah, Riyadh has become a focal point for both travel and trade(Sony VAIO VGN-SR33H/S battery).

In addition to being the center of power, the city is also a commercial hub. Numerous educational, financial, agricultural, cultural, technical, and social organizations have set up base here. The architecture is mostly modern, including contemporary high-rise towers, but the Al-Dira district, the nucleus of the city, has been rebuilt in a style meant to evoke the old mud-brick buildings of pre-20th century Nejd(Sony VAIO VGN-SR33H battery).

From the beginning of oil exploration in Saudi Arabia to the present day, the government has promoted growth in the private sector by privatizing industries such as power and telecommunications. Saudi Arabia announced plans for privatizing the electricity companies. A lot of these new private conglomerates and companies headquarters are located in Riyadh, along with National Banks headquarters. Because of that, Riyadh is considered as the capital city financial and business center of the Middle East(Sony VAIO VGN-SR35G/B battery).

King Khalid International Airport has a major impact on the commercial movement in Riyadh, providing air transportation for millions of people each year and shipping goods to the city from all continents. When Sama, a local low-cost airline existed, its head office was in Riyadh.[21][22]

[edit]King Abdullah Financial District

The king Abdullah Financial District.

It will be the Middle East's first financial district on a scale, and of regulatory and technological standards, to match the major global financial centres(Sony VAIO VGN-SR35G/P battery). Explaining the background to the Kingdom's ambitious but attainable strategy, His Majesty said: 'We are blessed with a robust economy, a stable currency and a strong financial sector with equally strong supervision.' The intention to construct the world's first major financial district of the twenty first century is the latest stage in what is already a carefully planned and implemented programme of financial modernisation by Saudi Arabia(Sony VAIO VGN-SR35G/S battery).

King Fahd Road

King Fahd road is the main road in Riyadh city and considered as the most beautiful street of Riyadh. It was constructed in 1980-1981. Many business places in Riyadh prefer to locate their head offices on King Fahd road, and headquarters of major companies and organizations are located on both sides of the road. Huge malls, business towers and skyscrapers are widely distributed on this road(Sony VAIO VGN-SR35M/B battery). However, many roads are becoming more attractive to businesses as King Fahd road is now crowded most times of the day. King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz road, Mohammed bin Fahd "Tahlia", Prince Sultan, north ring road have all became alternatives for business and companies' head offices.

The northern end reaches the Airport over another highway. According to many opinions[who?], King Fahd Road is one of the most beautiful street in Saudi Arabia, making the road a popular tourist attraction. Famous landmarks such as Kingdom Centre, Al Faisaliyah Center, Al Anoud Tower and the Ministry of Interior building are also located on King Fahd Road. (Sony VAIO VGN-SR35T/B battery) However, it is fast becoming second to King Abdullah Street which has seen major building projects and a train track and tunnel system is currently under construction.

[edit]The Industrial City

See also: Water supply and sanitation in Saudi Arabia

The industrial areas are located on the East and the North-East of the city, including some of the world's largest factories of oil-related industries. Aramco has large operations in the area which includes oil refineries. Electricity and water-treatments plants supply the city with their much-needed energy and water, which also reach the nearby towns. (Sony VAIO VGN-SR35T/P battery)

In the city's municipal cemeteries, graves are not permitted to have tombstones, but in March 2012 local authorities approved a project to mark each grave using electronic devices. Spokesman Sulaiman Al-Bathi explained: "This will put an end to the old methods used by families, relatives and friends to identify the graves of their loved ones".[23]

Like other Saudi cities, the Nejdi dish kabsa is the most traditional meal in Riyadh. The Yemeni dish mandi is also a popular meal, particularly as a lunchtime meal. Fast food is also popular in the city, with several multinational chains(Sony VAIO VGN-SR35T/S battery).

[edit]Museums and collections

In 1999 a new central Museum was built in Riyadh at the eastern side of the King Abdul Aziz Historical Centre. This National Museum of Saudi Arabia combined several collections and pieces that had up till then been scattered over several Institutions and places in Riyadh and the Kingdom. For example the meteorite fragment known as the "Camel's Hump" that was on display at the King Saud University in Riyadh became the new entry piece of the National Museum of Saudi Arabia(Sony VAIO VGN-SR38/B battery).

The Royal Saudi Air Force Museum or Saqr Al-Jazira is located on the East Ring Road of Riyadh between exits 10 and 11. It contains a collection of aircraft and aviation-related items used by the Royal Saudi Air Force and Saudia.

See also: Riyadh TV Tower

Riyadh is served by four Arabic, two English, and one Urdu language newspapers, Asharq Al-Awsat (which is owned by the city governor), Al-Riyadh, Al-Jazeera and Al-Watan. The Saudi Gazette and Arab News are in English, whereas the Urdu News is read by Urdu speakers in the city. Television stations serving the city area include Saudi TV1, Saudi TV2, Saudi TV Sports, Al-Ekhbariya, ART channels network(Sony VAIO VGN-SR38/P battery). Arabic is the main language used in television and radio but radio broadcasts are also made in different languages such as Urdu, French, or English; other languages are also used by cable, satellite and other speciality television providers. The Riyadh TV Tower is a 170 m (560 ft) high television tower with an observation deck overlooking Riyadh. Construction was begun on the tower in 1978 and finished in 1981. It is considered part of the Ministry of Information(Sony VAIO VGN-SR38/Q battery).

Football is the most popular sport in Riyadh. The city hosts four major football clubs, Al-Hilal, which has a reputation for being the most widely supported club in Saudi Arabia, was established in 1957 and has won thirteen championships in the Saudi Premier League. Al-Nasr club is another team in the top league.It was established in 1955, and has been named champion of the Saudi League five times(Sony VAIO VGN-SR41M/P battery). Another well-known club, Al Shabab, which was established in 1947 and holds six championships. There is also Al-Riyadh Club, which was established in 1954, as well as many other minor clubs.

The city also hosts several large stadiums such as King Fahd International Stadium with a seating capacity of 70,000. The stadium hosted the FIFA Confederations Cup three times, in the years 1992, 1995 and 1997. And also the FIFA U-20 World Cup in 1989(Sony VAIO VGN-SR41M/S battery).

See also: Najdi Arabic

The Riyadh city area has a distinctive regional speech pattern called the Najdi dialect. It is often considered to be one of the most recognizable accents within the Arabic language. Najdi Arabic is widely spoken in the desert regions of central and eastern Saudi Arabia. English is also widely spoken and is understood by many residents of Riyadh.

Riyadh's King Khalid International Airport (IATA: RUH), located 35 kilometers north from the city center, is the city's main airport(Sony VAIO VGN-SR45H/B battery). It's one of the seven international airports in the country serving over 15 million passengers a year. This Airport faces a huge load of passengers which is increasing every year, especially during the Muslim festive season in which mostly foreign residents travel to their home countries. In addition, there is also the (Riyadh old airport) or (Riyadh Air Base airport) as it names know, the Air Base airport now is use via official delegations and dignitaries(SONY Vaio VGN-NS10E/S Battery).

The city is served by a modern major highway system. The main Eastern Ring Road connects the city's south and north, while the Northern Ring Road connects the city's east and west. King Fahd Road runs through the center of the city from north to south, in parallel with the East Ring Road. Makkah Road, which runs east-west across the city's center, connects eastern parts of the city with the city's main business district and the diplomatic quarters(SONY Vaio VGN-NS10J/S Battery).

Saudi Railway Authority operates two separate passenger and cargo lines between Riyadh and Dammam passing through Hofuf, and Haradh. Two future railway projects connecting Riyadh with Jeddah and Mecca in the western region and connecting Riyadh with Buraidah, Ha'il and Northern Saudi Arabia are underway. Developers are the RC corporation, wholly owned by H O’Donovan, W Daly and S Burgoyne, however, are now being built single-handedly by H O'Donovan(SONY Vaio VGN-NS10L/S Battery).

Public transport

The Saudi Arabian Public Transport Co. (SAPTCO), the national bus system, does not provide public transportation inside the city, but transports passengers to several cities across the kingdom and neighboring countries.

A metro has been approved, with six lines planned.

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