Oman (i/oʊˈmɑːn/ oh-maan; Arabic: عمان ʻUmān), officially called the Sultanate of Oman (Arabic: سلطنة عُمان Salṭanat ʻUmān), is an Arab state in southwest Asia on the southeast coast of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to the northwest, Saudi Arabia to the west, and Yemen to the southwest(AKKU Sony VGP-BPS13). The coast is formed by the Arabian Sea on the southeast and the Gulf of Oman on the northeast. The Madha and Musandam enclaves are surrounded by the UAE on their land borders, with the Strait of Hormuz and Gulf of Oman forming Musandam's coastal boundaries(AKKU Sony VGP-BPS13A/B).
For a period, Oman was a moderate regional power, formerly having a sultanate extending across the Strait of Hormuz to Iran, and modern day Pakistan, and far south to Zanzibar on the coat of south-east Africa. Over time, as its power declined, the sultanate came under heavy influence from the United Kingdom, though Oman was never formally part of the British Empire, or a British protectorate(AKKU Sony VGP-BPS13B/B). The Omani royal family claim that Oman has been ruled by the Al Said dynasty since 1744, although without substantial proof. Oman has long-standing military and political ties with the United Kingdom and the United States, although it maintains an independent foreign policy(AKKU Sony VGP-BPS13/S).
Oman is an absolute monarchy in which the Sultan of Oman exercises ultimate authority but its parliament has some legislative and oversight powers. In November 2010, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) listed Oman, from among 135 countries worldwide, as the nation most-improved during the preceding 40 years(AKKU Sony VGP-BPS13B/S). According to international indices, Oman is one of the most developed and stable countries in the Arab World.
Main article: History of Oman
World Heritage Graves in Al Ayn, Oman
Dereaze, located in the city of Ibri, is the oldest known human settlement in the area, dating back as many as 8,000 years to the late Stone Age. Archaeological remains have been discovered here from the Stone Age and the Bronze Age; findings have included stone implements, animal bones(AKKU Sony VGP-BPS13A/S), shells and fire hearths, with the later dating back to 7615 BC as the oldest signs of human settlement in the area. Other discoveries include hand-moulded pottery bearing distinguishing pre-Bronze Age marks, heavy flint implements, pointed tools and scrapers.
On a mountain rock-face in the same district, animal drawings have been discovered(AKKU Sony VGP-BPS13A/Q). Similar drawings have also been found in the Wadi Sahtan and Wadi Bani Kharus areas of Rustaq, consisting of human figures carrying weapons and being confronted by wild animals. Siwan in Haima is another Stone Age location and some of the archaeologists have found arrowheads, knives, chisels and circular stones which may have been used to hunt animals(AKKU Sony VGP-BPS13B/Q).
Wadi Shab, Oman, 2004
Sumerian tablets refer to a country called Magan or Makan, a name believed to refer to Oman's ancient copper mines. Mazoon, another name used for the region, is derived from the word muzn, which means heavy clouds which carry abundant water. The present-day name of the country, Oman, is believed to originate from the Arab tribes who migrated to its territory from the Uman region of Yemen(AKKU Sony VGP-BPS13Q); many such tribes settled in Oman, making a living by fishing, herding or stock breeding, and many present day Omani families are able to trace their ancestral roots to other parts of Arabia.
From the 6th century BC to the arrival of Islam in the 7th century AD, Oman was controlled and/or influenced by three Persian dynasties(Sony VGP-BPL8 Battery), the Achaemenids, Parthians and Sassanids. In the 6th century BC, the Achaemenids exerted a strong degree of control over the Omani peninsula, most likely ruling from a coastal center such as Sohar. By about 250 BC, the Parthian dynasty had brought the Persian Gulf under their control and extended their influence as far as Oman(Sony VGP-BPL8A Battery), establishing garrisons in Oman to help control the trade routes in the Persian Gulf. In the 3rd century AD, the Sassanids succeeded the Parthians and held the area until the rise of Islam four centuries later.
Arrival of Islam
The Bahla Fort is a UNESCO World Heritage site
Omanis were among the first people to embrace Islam. The conversion of the Omanis is usually ascribed to Amr ibn al-As(Sony VGN-FZ130E/B Battery), who was sent by Muhammad around 630 AD to invite Jayfar and 'Abd, the joint rulers of Oman at that time, to accept the faith. In accepting Islam, Oman became an Ibadhi state, ruled by an elected leader, the Imam. During the early years of the Islamic mission, Oman played a major role in the Wars of Apostasy that occurred after the death of Muhammad(Sony VGN-FZ130E/BA Battery), and also took part in the great Islamic conquests by land and sea in Iraq, Persia and beyond. Oman's most prominent role in this respect was through its extensive trading and seafaring activities in East Africa and the Far East, particularly during the 19th century, when it propagated Islam to many of East Africa's coastal regions, certain areas of Central Africa(Sony VGN-FZ130E/BB Battery), India, Southeast Asia and China. After its conversion to Islam, Oman was ruled by Umayyads between 661–750, Abbasids between 750–931, 932–933 and 934–967, Qarmatians between 931–932 and 933–934, Buyids between 967–1053, and the Seljuks of Kirman between 1053–1154(Sony VGP-BPL9 Akku).
A decade after Vasco da Gama discovered the seaway to India in 1498, Portuguese explorers arrived in Oman and occupied Muscat for a 140-year period, between 1508 and 1648. In need of an outpost to protect their sea lanes, the Portuguese colonists built up and fortified the city, where remnants of their colonial architectural style still remain(Sony VGP-BPL9/B Akku).
Rebellious tribes eventually drove out the Portuguese, but were pushed out themselves about a century later, in 1741, by the leader of a Yemeni tribe leading a massive army from various allied tribes, beginning the current line of ruling sultans. Excepting a brief Persian invasion in the late 1740s, Oman has been self-governing ever since(Sony VGP-BPL9/S Akku).
No foreign power controlled the entirety of what is now Oman. The majority of the territory was always ruled by tribes, with colonial control contained to a few strategic port cities. Oman, as it exists now was never under the total sway of European colonization, unlike true "colonies" such as the British in India(Sony VGP-BPL9A/B Akku).
Oman, East Africa and the Indian Ocean
The Sultan's Palace in Zanzibar, which was once Oman's capital and residence of its Sultans.
In the 1690s, Saif bin Sultan, the Imam of Oman, pressed down the East African coast. A major obstacle to his progress was Fort Jesus, housing the garrison of a Portuguese settlement at Mombasa. After a two-year siege, the fort fell to bin Sultan in 1698(Sony VGP-BPL9A Akku). Thereafter the Omanis easily ejected the Portuguese from Zanzibar and from all other coastal regions north of Mozambique, with the aid of the Somalis. Zanzibar was a valuable property as the main slave market of the East African coast, and became an increasingly important part of the Omani empire, a fact reflected by the decision of the 19th century Sultan of Oman(Sony VGP-BPL9 Akku), Sa'id ibn Sultan, to make it his main place of residence in 1837. Sa'id built impressive palaces and gardens in Zanzibar. Rivalry between his two sons was resolved, with the help of forceful British diplomacy, when one of them, Majid, succeeded to Zanzibar and to the many regions claimed by the family on the East African coast(Sony VGP-BPS21 Akku). The other son, Thuwaini, inherited Muscat and Oman.
A History of Omani presence is also known in Comoros archipelago in the Indian ocean, which led to a great influence in the Comorian culture from the clothing, to the wedding ceremenies. It is said that the capital of Comoros, Moroni, was once the capital of the Omani sultanate empire and a centre of trade for the empire(Sony VGP-BPS21A Akku).
Oman and Gwadar
Main article: Gwadar
In 1783, Oman's Saiad Sultan, defeated ruler of Muscat, was granted sovereignty over Gwadar, a coastal city located in the Makran region of what is now the far southwestern corner of Pakistan, near the present-day border of Iran and at the mouth of the Gulf of Oman.[note 1] He was to continue this sovereignty, via an appointed wali (Sony VGP-BPS21B Akku) (or "governor"), after regaining control of Muscat, and he maintained close relations with the Emirs of Sindh. The Sultans of Muscat retained sovereignty over Gwadar until the 1950s. In 1955, Makran acceded to Pakistan and was made a district – although Gwadar, at the time, was not included in Makran. In 1958, Gwadar and its surrounding areas were returned to Pakistan by Muscat(Sony VGP-BPS21A/B Akku), and were given the status of Tahsil of the Makran district.[note 2]
Main article: Dhofar Rebellion
The Dhofar Rebellion was launched in the province of Dhofar against the Sultanate of Muscat and Oman and Britain from 1962 to 1975. As the rebellion threatened to overthrow the Sultan's rule in Dhofar, Sultan Said bin Taimur was deposed by his son Qaboos bin Said, who introduced major social reforms and modernised the state's administration(Sony VGP-BPS21/S Akku). The rebellion was ended by the intervention of Iranian Imperial forces, Pakistani Baluchistan Imperial ground forces, British Royal Air Force air power and major offensives by the expanded Sultan of Oman's Armed Forces.
2011 Omani protests
Main article: 2011 Omani protests
The Sultan's Al Alam Palace in Old Muscat
Main articles: Politics of Oman and Human rights in Oman(Akku Sony VGP-BPL14)
The head of state and of the government is the hereditary sultan, Qaboos bin Said Al Said, who appoints a cabinet called the "Diwans" to assist him. In the early 1990s, the sultan instituted an elected council, the Consultative Assembly of Oman, It had advisory roles until 2011, when Sultan Qaboos decided to give legislative powers to the council( Akku Sony VGP-BPL14 ), allowing the newly elected parliament to question ministers, propose laws and suggest changes to government regulations.
There are no legal political parties in Oman. As more and more young Omanis return from education abroad, it seems likely that the traditional, tribal-based political system will have to be adjusted(Akku Sony VGP-BPS14/S ). A State Consultative Council, established in 1981, consisted of 55 appointed representatives of government, the private sector, and regional interests.
Main article: Foreign relations of Oman
Since 1970, Oman has pursued a moderate foreign policy and expanded its diplomatic relations dramatically. Oman is among the very few Arab countries that have maintained friendly ties with Iran(Akku Sony VGP-BPL14/B). Wikileaks disclosed US diplomatic cables which have shown that cordial relations between Oman and Iran have borne fruit for the United Kingdom (in helping release British sailors imprisoned by Iran). The same cables also portray the Omani government as wishing to maintain cordial relations with Iran and as having continuously turned down US diplomats requesting Oman to take a sterner stance against Iran(Akku Sony VGP-BPS14/B ).
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Main article: Sultan of Oman's Armed Forces
Oman's armed forces, the Sultan's Armed Forces (SAF), including Royal Household troops, numbered 120,000 in 2010, consisting of: 105,000 personnel in the Royal Army of Oman (RAO) (AKKU sony VAIO VGN-FW21E), equipped with over 120 main battle tanks and 37 Scorpion tanks; 8,100 personnel in the Royal Air Force of Oman (RAFO) operating 180–200 combat aircraft, trainers, transports and helicopters; and 6,200 personnel in the Royal Navy of Oman (RNO) sailing 64 patrol and coastal vessels. Paramilitary units include the Tribal Home Guard (Firqats) (AKKU Sony VAIO VGN-FW21I) of 8,000 personnel organized in small tribal teams, a Royal Oman Police (ROP) coast guard of 400, and a small ROP air wing. Funded directly by the Sultan, the elite Royal Household brigade, naval unit, and air unit number 6,400, including two special forces regiments. Oman holds one of the world's largest amounts of Scud missiles(AKKU Sony VAIO VGN-FW21L), ranging at an estimate of over 30,000 ballistic missiles. In 2008 Oman spent 7.7% of GDP on military expenditures. According to Times Online, Oman is home to the world's only camel-backed bagpipe military band.
Coast of Sur, Oman
Main articles: Geography of Oman and Geology of Oman
Geography of Oman
Coastline 2,092 km(AKKU Sony VAIO VGN-FW21Z)
Bordering countries Saudi Arabia, UAE and Yemen
Oman lies between latitudes 16° and 28° N, and longitudes 52° and 60° E.
A vast gravel desert plain covers most of central Oman, with mountain ranges along the north (Al Hajar Mountains) and southeast coast, where the country's main cities are also located: the capital city Muscat, Sohar and Sur in the north, and Salalah in the south. Oman's climate is hot and dry in the interior and humid along the coast(AKKU Sony VAIO VGN-FW21M). During past epochs Oman was covered by ocean, witnessed by the large numbers of fossilized shells existing in areas of the desert away from the modern coastline.
Desert landscape in Oman
The peninsula of Musandam (Musandem) exclave, which has a strategic location on the Strait of Hormuz, is separated from the rest of Oman by the United Arab Emirates(AKKU Sony VAIO VGN-FW31M). The series of small towns known collectively as Dibba are the gateway to the Musandam peninsula on land and the fishing villages of Musandam by sea, with boats available for hire at Khasab for trips into the Musandam peninsula by sea.
Oman's other exclave, inside UAE territory, known as Madha, located halfway between the Musandam Peninsula and the main body of Oman(AKKU Sony VAIO VGN-FW31J), is part of the Musandam governorate, covering approximately 75 km2 (29 sq mi). Madha's boundary was settled in 1969, with the north-east corner of Madha barely 10 m (32.8 ft) from the Fujairah road. Within the Madha exclave is a UAE enclave called Nahwa, belonging to the Emirate of Sharjah, situated about 8 km (5 mi) along a dirt track west of the town of New Madha(AKKU Sony VAIO VGN-FW31E), consisting of about forty houses with a clinic and telephone exchange.
Main article: Climate of Oman
Oman has a hot climate and very little rainfall. Annual rainfall in Muscat averages 100 mm (3.9 in), falling mostly in January. Dhofar is subject to the southwest monsoon, and rainfall up to 640 mm (25.2 in) has been recorded in the rainy season from late June to October(AKKU Sony VAIO VGN-FW31Z). While the mountain areas receive more plentiful rainfall, some parts of the coast, particularly near the island of Masirah, sometimes receive no rain at all within the course of a year. The climate generally is very hot, with temperatures reaching around 50 °C (122.0 °F) (peak) in the hot season, from May to September(AKKU Sony VAIO VGN-FW31ZJ).
Flora and fauna
Nakhal palm tree farms in the Batina Region, Sultanate of Oman
Desert shrub and desert grass, common to southern Arabia, are found, but vegetation is sparse in the interior plateau, which is largely gravel desert.
The greater monsoon rainfall in Dhofar and the mountains makes the growth there more luxuriant during summer(AKKU Sony VAIO VGN-FW32Z); coconut palms grow plentifully in the coastal plains of Dhofar and frankincense is produced in the hills, with abundant oleander and varieties of acacia.
The Al Hajar Mountains are a distinct ecoregion, the highest points in eastern Arabia with wildlife including the Arabian tahr(AKKU Sony VAIO PCG-5G2L).
Indigenous mammals include the leopard, hyena, fox, wolf, and hare, oryx and ibex. Birds include the vulture, eagle, stork, bustard, Arabian partridge, bee eater, falcon and sunbird. in 2001 Oman had nine endangered species of mammals and five endangered types of birds and nineteen threatened plant species(AKKU Sony VAIO PCG-5G3L ). Decrees have been passed to protect endangered species, including the Arabian leopard, Arabian Oryx, Mountain gazelle, Goitered Gazelle, Arabian tahr, Green sea turtle, Hawksbill Turtle and Olive ridley turtle, but UNESCO have de-listed the Oman Arabian Oryx sanctuary from the World Heritage list due to the government's decision to reduce the site to 10% of its former size(Sony VAIO PCG-5J1L Akku).
Main article: Regions and governorates of Oman
Since 28 October 2011, Oman is divided into eleven governorates (muhafazah):
Ad Dhahirah North
Al Batinah North
Al Batinah South
Ash Sharqiyah North
Ash Sharqiyah South
Below the governorates, Oman is divided into provinces (wilayat) (Sony VAIO PCG-5J2L Akku).
Drought and limited rainfall contribute to shortages in the nation's water supply, so maintaining an adequate supply of water for agricultural and domestic use is one of Oman's most pressing environmental problems, with limited renewable water resources; 94% of available water is used in farming and 2% for industrial activity(Sony VAIO PCG-5K2L Akku), with the majority sourced from fossil water in the desert areas and spring water in hills and mountains. Drinking water is available throughout the country, either piped or delivered.
The soil in coastal plains, such as Salalah, have shown increased levels of salinity, due to over exploitation of ground water and encroachment by seawater in the water table(Sony VAIO PCG-5K1L Akku). Pollution of beaches and other coastal areas by oil tanker traffic through the Strait of Hormuz and Gulf of Oman is also a persistent risk.
Demographics of Oman
Languages Arabic,Balochi, English
Religion Ibadi Islam
Ethnic groups Arab, Baloch, South Asian and African
Life expectancy 73.13 years
Main article: Demographics of Oman
According to the 2010 census, the total population was 2.773 million and of those, 1.96 million were Omanis. The population has grown from 2.340 million in the 2003 census(Sony VAIO PCG-6S1L Akku). In Oman, about 50% of the population lives in Muscat and the Batinah coastal plain northwest of the capital; about 200,000 live in the Dhofar (southern) region, and about 30,000 live in the remote Musandam Peninsula on the Strait of Hormuz.
Some 600,000 foreigners live in Oman, most of whom are guest workers from Pakistan, Bangladesh, Egypt, India and the Philippines(Sony VAIO PCG-6S2L Akku).
The Sultan Qaboos Grand Mosque is the largest Mosque in Oman and one of the largest in the world.
Around 75% of the population consists of Ibadhi, a form of Islam distinct from the Sunni and Shia denominations, 24% Sunni Muslims and the Shiia forming the remaining 1% of the Omani population(Sony VAIO PCG-6W1L Akku). The Oman government does not keep statistics on religious affiliation, but most citizens are Muslims. Non-Muslim religious communities individually constitute less than 5% of the population and include various groups of Hindus, Buddhists, Zoroastrians, Sikhs, Baha'is, and Christians. Christian communities are centered in the major urban areas of Muscat(Sony VAIO PCG-6W2L Akku), Sohar, and Salalah and include Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and various Protestant congregations, organizing along linguistic and ethnic lines. More than 50 different Christian groups, fellowships, and assemblies are active in the Muscat metropolitan area, formed by migrant workers from Southeast Asia, although there are small communities of ethnic Indian Hindus and Christians that have been naturalized(Sony VAIO PCG-6W3L Akku). Many of the non-Muslims in Oman are due to the historical and cultural influence of India.
Economy of Oman
The Central Bank of Oman
Currency Omani Riyal (R$, OMR)
Fiscal year Calendar year
Central Bank Central Bank of Oman
Stock Market Muscat Stock Market
Main article: Economy of Oman
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Oman's Basic Statute of the State expresses in Article 11 that, "The National Economy is based on justice and the principles of a free economy."
Omani citizens enjoy good living standards, but the future is uncertain with Oman's limited oil reserves. Other sources of income, agriculture and industry, are small in comparison and count for less than 1% of the country's exports(Sony VAIO PCG-7112L Akku), but diversification is seen as a priority in the government of Oman. Agriculture, often subsistence in its character, produces dates, limes, grains and vegetables, but with less than 1% of the country under cultivation Oman is likely to remain a net importer of food.
Since the slump in oil prices in 1998, Oman has made active plans to diversify its economy and is placing a greater emphasis on other areas of industry, such as tourism(Sony VAIO PCG-7113L Akku).
Oil and gas
Petrochemical tanks in Sohar
Oman's proved reserves of petroleum total about 5.5 billion barrels, 24th largest in the world. Oil is extracted and processed by Petroleum Development Oman (PDO), with proven oil reserves holding approximately steady, although oil production has been declining. In 2009, production was estimated at 816,000 barrels per day(Sony VAIO PCG-7131L Akku).
Commercial export of oil began in 1967 and since Sultan Qaboos' accession to the throne in 1970, many more oil fields have been found and developed. In June 1999, PDO discovered a new oil field in southern Oman after drilling and testing three wells which demonstrated the commercial viability of the reservoir(Sony VAIO PCG-7132L Akku).
Work is continuing on the RO 503.876 million (US$1.3 billion) oil refinery project in Sohar, which was due to go into operation in 2006 with a 116,400 barrels per day (18,510 m3/d) refining capacity, with the short to mid-term future of Oman resting on the project. In 2004 the Oman Oil Refinery was supplied with about 78,200 barrels per day (Sony VAIO PCG-7133L Akku) (12,430 m3/d) for refining, while PDO began using steam injection technology in several wells to increase their productivity.
Natural gas has increased greatly in importance due to the exploitation of gas fields and the opening of a processing plant at Sur, on the coast south of Muscat. Oman's natural gas reserves are estimated at 849.5 billion cubic meters(Sony VAIO PCG-7z1L Akku), ranking 28th in the world, and production in 2008 was about 24 billion cubic meters per year.
Oman's mineral resources include chromite, dolomite, zinc, limestone, gypsum, silicon, copper, gold, cobalt and iron. Several industries have grown up around them as part of the national development process which, in turn, have boosted the minerals sector's contribution to the nation’s GDP as well as providing jobs for Omanis(Sony VAIO PCG-7z1L Akku). The mineral sector's operations include mining and quarrying, with several projects recently completed, including: an economic feasibility study on silica ore in Wadi Buwa and Abutan in the Wusta Region, which confirmed that there were exploitable reserves of around 28 million tonnes at the two sites; a feasibility study on the production of magnesium metal from dolomite ore(Sony VAIO PCG-8Y1L Akku); a draft study on processing limestone derivatives; a project to produce geological maps of the Sharqiyah Region; economic feasibility studies on the exploitation of gold and copper ores in the Ghaizeen area; a study on raw materials in the wilayats of Duqm and Sur for use in the Sultanate's cement industry(Sony VAIO PCG-8Y2L Akku); and a study on the construction of a new minerals laboratory at Ghala in the Governorate of Muscat.
The industrial sector is a cornerstone of the Sultanate’s long-term (1996–2020) development strategy for diversifying the sources of national income and reducing dependence on oil(Sony VAIO PCG-8Z1L Akku); it is also capable of helping to meet Oman's social development needs and generate greater added value for national resources by processing them into manufactured products.
The Seventh Five-Year Development Plan creates the conditions for an attractive investment climate, providing a strategy for the industrial sector aiming to develop the information technology and telecommunications industries(Sony VAIO PCG-8Z2L Akku). The Knowledge Oasis Muscat complex has been set up and expanded, and Omani companies are developing their technological potential through collaboration with various Japanese and German institutions.
There are industrial estates in Sohar, Sur, Salalah, Nizwa and Buraimi providing industries with the resources for expansion(Akku Sony VGN-NR11M/S). Provision of Natural gas to the industrial estates in Sohar and Salalah, help to promote expansion of those industries reliant on large quantities of energy; tax exemptions are given as an incentive to encourage their expansion and development, with the industrial sector expected to contribute 15% to the country's GDP by 2020. (Akku Sony VGN-NR11S/S)
Sohar port is expected to transform Oman's economy
The Omani economy has been radically transformed over a series of development plans beginning with the First Five-year Plan (1976–1980). At Sultan Qaboos's instruction, "Vision 2020", a plan for Oman's economic future up to the year 2020, was set out at the end of the first phase of the country's development, from 1970–1995(Akku Sony VGN-NR11Z/S), outlining the country's economic and social goals over the 25 years of the second phase of the development process (1996–2020).
Oman 2020, held in June 1995, has developed the following aims with regard to securing Oman's future prosperity and growth:
To have economic and financial stability
To reshape the role of the Government in the economy and to broaden private sector participation
To diversify the economic base and sources of national income(Akku Sony VGN-NR11Z/T)
To globalize the Omani economy
To upgrade the skills of the Omani workforce and develop human resources
A free-trade agreement with the United States took effect 1 January 2009, eliminating tariff barriers on all consumer and industrial products, also providing strong protections for foreign businesses investing in Oman.
Main article: Tourism in Oman
Al-Bustan Palace Hotel
Oman is known for its popular tourist attractions(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11E Battery). Wadis, deserts, beaches, and mountains are areas which make Oman unique among its neighboring Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC) nations (wadis in particular). With a coastline of 1700 km, Oman offers clean beaches popular with visitors. Few beaches are private, except some attached to the beach resort hotels(Akku Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11L), or those adjoining military or official property. Wadis are green, lush oases of palm trees, grasses, and flowers. Some wadis have year-round running water, with deep, cool pools in which it is quite safe to swim if the currents are slow. A Falaj (pl. aflaaj) is a system for the distribution of water and is commonly used to describe irrigation channel systems downstream of water sources(Akku Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11M). Some aflaaj in Oman were built more than 1,500 years ago, whilst others were built at the beginning of the 20th century. In many areas, the only water available is attained by drilling wells to depths of dozens of meters.
Numerous forts and castles are included among Oman's cultural landmarks and, together with its towers and city walls(Akku Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11S), have historically been used as defensive bastions or look-out points, as well as the seats of administrative and judicial authority. There are over 500 forts, castles, and towers in various architectural styles, built to defend more than 3200 km coastline from potential invaders(Akku Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11Z).
Inside of Grand Hyatt at Muscat
Souqs can be found in many of the towns throughout the country. One of the oldest preserved souqs in Oman is Muttrah, on the Corniche, consisting of a maze of pathways; gold and silver jewelry is found in abundance as well as numerous wooden carvings, ornaments and spices and traditional implements(Akku Sony VAIO VGN-FZ130E/B). Household goods make up the bulk of the wares. Today the capital area also has a number of Western European-style Shopping Malls, mainly situated in Qurum, but also extending to the Al Khuwair area of Muscat, where a variety of shops, ranging from boutiques to chain stores, can be found(Akku Sony VAIO VGN-FZ140E). The largest mall in the country is the Muscat City Centre which includes a French Carrefour hypermarket. Another mall namely the Muscat Grand Mall is expected to open soon and it will be the largest mall in Oman.Now 10 other big hypermarkets are there in Oman named Lulu Hypermarket(Akku Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21E).
Other popular tourist activities include sand skiing in the desert, scuba diving, rock climbing, trekking, surfing & sailing, cave exploration, birdwatching, bull fighting, and camel races. The Sohar Music Festival happening in Sohar every October/November attracts more and more tourists each year(Akku Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21J). The Muscat Festival, usually held in January and February, is similar to the Dubai Shopping Festival, but smaller in scale, where traditional dances are held, temporary theme parks open, and concerts take place. Another popular event is The Khareef Festival held in Salalah, Dhofar, which is 1,200 km from the capital city of Muscat, during the monsoon season (August) (Akku Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21M) and is similar to Muscat Festival. During this latter event the mountains surrounding Salalah are popular with tourists as a result of the cool weather and lush greenery, rarely found anywhere else in Oman.
The estimated workforce was 920,000 in 2002. These days average pay is around 100 OMR to 150 OMR per month. A large proportion of the indigenous population were still engaged in subsistence agriculture or fishing(Akku Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21S). The skilled local labor force is small, and many of the larger industries depend on foreign workers from Pakistan, Bangladesh, Philippines, India, and Sri Lanka. Oman's foreign workers send an estimated US$30 billion annually to their Asian and African home states, more than half of them earning a monthly wage of less than US$400 (Akku Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21Z). The largest foreign community is from the south Indian states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka or come from Maharastra, Gujarat and the Punjab, representing more than half of entire workforce in Oman. Salaries for overseas workers are known to be less than for Omani nationals, though still from two to five times higher than for the equivalent job in India(Akku Sony VAIO VGN-FZ38M) .
The minimum working age for Omani citizens is 13, but this provision is not enforced against the employment of children in family businesses or on family farms. The minimum working age for foreign workers is 21. The minimum wage for non-professional workers was US$260 per month in 2002. However, many classes of workers (Akku Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31E) (domestic servants, farmers, government employees) are not required to receive the minimum wage and the government is not consistent in its enforcement of the minimum wage law. The private sector working week is 40 to 45 hours long, while government officials have a 35-hour working week. (Akku Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31J)
Oman Law was amended during February 2010 to allow the formation of labor unions. There are now approximately 70 Labor Unions within the Sultanate. The law actually allows peaceful protests. Collective bargaining is not permitted, however there exist labor-management committees in firms with more than 50 workers(Akku Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31M). These committees are not authorized to discuss conditions of employment, including hours and wages. The Labor Welfare Board provides a venue for grievances.
As oil prices have risen to a record high, so has inflation. The government depends mostly on oil revenue, more than on tax returns from companies and other government-owned companies. The government is also Oman's largest employer(SONY Vaio VGN-NS38M Battery), so the high interest that government gets increases the prices of food and construction equipment. The government did support the fuel prices so it doesn't increase the inflation and to make the price suitable for people on low wages.
The minimum wage has been changed from 120 Rials a month to 140 Rials because of high records of inflation driven by high prices of oil(SONY Vaio VGN-NS31S Battery). In February 2011, the minimum wage was increased from 140 Rials per month to 200 Rials per month.
Main article: Transport in Oman
Oman maintains the following road links to its neighboring countries:
United Arab Emirates: Oman has several good road connections at Buraimi (Al Ain), Waddi Hatta (Wajaja), Khamat Mulahah (Fujairah) and Bukha(SONY Vaio VGN-NS31M Battery).
Yemen: Route 47: Raysut to Sarfait in Oman – Yemen border. The road then goes to Hawf, Al Faydami, Al Ghaydah. Another road is from Thumrait to Al Mazyonah in Oman – Yemen border.The road then goes to Shisan, Al Kurah, Al Ghaydah.
Saudi Arabia: Desert road through Al Mashash. There is also a new road under construction to link the two countries(SONY Vaio VGN-NS31Z Battery).
Oman National Transport Company or ONTC is the Oman's public bus service company. Muscat International Airport and Salalah Airport are the two main airports in Oman. A rail link has been proposed connecting all major GCC nations and Oman is party to this project. The Muscat Port or Port Sultan Qaboos (Mina Qaboos as its locally known) (SONY Vaio VGN-NS21Z Battery) is the prime maritime gateway of Oman. Other ports have been built in Salalah and Sohar. The Sohar port will be one of the largest in the region once construction completely finishes. Oman is also constructing the Al Duqm Port & Drydock and drydock.
Oman Air is the national carrier of Oman. Formerly Gulf Air was the national carrier of the Sultanate, but as other Arab nations withdrew from the joint venture, Oman too withdrew. It was the last country to do so(SONY Vaio VGN-NS21M Battery).
The Oman Ferries Company maintains the two diesel-powered, high-speed, car ferries – Shinas and Hormouz. The ferries are used for travel between Muscat and Khasab. Khasab is strategically located in Musandam on the southern tip of the Strait of Hormuz and is controlled by Oman. Mainland Oman is separated by a small strip of UAE territory from Musandam(SONY Vaio VGN-NS21S Battery).
Main article: Education in Oman
Before 1970, only three formal schools existed in the whole country with fewer than 1000 students receiving education in them. Since Sultan Qaboos came to power in 1970, the government has given high priority to education to develop a domestic work force, which the government considers a vital factor in the country's economic and social progress(SONY Vaio VGN-NS12S Battery). Today there are over 1000 state schools and about 650,000 students. In 1986, Oman's first university, Sultan Qaboos University, opened. University of Nizwa is also one of the fastest growing Universities in Oman with a newly completed research center and a growing department of Information Systems(SONY Vaio VGN-NS12M Battery). The department of Information Systems of the University of Nizwa is perhaps the biggest in the Gulf in terms of students' population. Among notable American Professors include Dr. Richmond Adebiaye who is considered an expert in Information Systems and Security. Other post-secondary institutions in Oman include Higher College of Technology and its six other colleges of technology(SONY Vaio VGN-NS11Z Battery), six colleges of applied sciences (including a teacher's training college), a college of banking and financial studies, an institute of Sharia sciences, and several nursing institutes. Some 200 scholarships are awarded each year for study abroad.
University of Nizwa
The University of Nizwa was established in 2002 by the Decree of His Majesty the Sultan Qaboos as the first non-profit university in the Sultanate of Oman(SONY Vaio VGN-NS11M Battery); it remains the only institution of its kind in the nation. Upon the satisfaction of all requirements set forth by the Ministry of Higher Education and the Higher Education Council, the University of Nizwa was granted legal status by ministerial decision No. 1/2004 on 3 January 2004(SONY Vaio VGN-NS11L Battery). On 16 October 2004, the University of Nizwa opened the doors to its inaugural class of 1,200 students, 88% of whom were Omani women. The current campus is located near the base of the famous Jabal al-Akhdhar in Birkat al-Mouz, 20 km NW of Nizwa. The construction of a new campus, located near the new Farq-Hail highwa began in March 2010(SONY Vaio VGN-NS11J Battery). The university is currently in the final stage of institutional accreditation in accordance with the academic standards established by the Oman Academic Accreditation Authority.
Though the student body comprises native Arabic speakers, the official language of academic instruction is English, making the university a bilingual institution. English language proficiency is achieved in a year-long intensive course as part of the academic General Foundation Program(SONY Vaio VGN-NS11E Battery).
Pre-university education in Oman has three stages: primary, preparatory, and secondary. Six years of primary schooling are followed by preparatory school. Academic results of the preparatory exams determine the type of secondary education the student will receive. Nine private colleges exist, providing two-year post secondary diplomas(SONY Vaio VGN-NS10L Battery). Since 1999, the government has embarked on reforms in higher education designed to meet the needs of a growing population, only a small percentage of which are currently admitted to Higher Education Institutions. Under the reformed system, four public regional universities will be created, and incentives are provided by the government to promote the upgrading of the existing nine private colleges and the creation of other degree-granting private colleges. (SONY Vaio VGN-NS10J Battery)
The adult illiteracy rate was estimated at 28.1% for the year 2000 (males, 19.6%; females, 38.3%). In 1998, there were 411 primary schools with 313,516 students and 12,052 teachers. Student-to-teacher ratio stood at 26 to 1. In secondary schools in 1998, there were 12,436 teachers and 217,246 students(SONY Vaio VGN-NS10E Battery). As of 1999, 65% of primary-school-age children were enrolled in school, while 59% of those eligible attended secondary school. In the same year, public expenditure on education was estimated at 3.9% of GDP. In 1993, there were 252 literacy centers and 176 adult education centers. Three teachers' colleges were functioning as of 1986(SONY Vaio VGN-NS38M/W Battery). The Institute of Agriculture at Nazwa became a full college by 1985. Sultan Qaboos University opened in 1986. In 1998, all higher-level institutions had 1,307 teachers and 16,032 students.
Apart from the schools for Omani nationals, various other schools are present in Oman too that accommodate the children of the huge expatriate population of Oman. These include Indian Schools, Bangaldeshi Schools, Sri Lankan Schools, Pakistani Schools(SONY Vaio VGN-NS38M/P Battery), The American School in Muscat, The American British Academy and the Philippine School Muscat.
Science and technology
A water oasis in Oman provides a source of drinking water for animals and humans.
Most research conducted in Oman has been done at the behest of the government; agriculture, minerals, water resources, and marine sciences have drawn the most attention. Sultan Qaboos University, founded in 1985, has colleges of science, medicine, engineering, and agriculture(SONY Vaio VGN-NS31Z/W Battery). In 1987–97, science and engineering students accounted for 13% of college and university enrollments.
The Institute of Health Sciences, under the Ministry of Health, was founded in 1982. Muscat Technical Industrial College (later renamed the Higher College of Technology), founded in 1984, has departments of computing and mathematics(SONY Vaio VGN-NS31Z/S Battery), laboratory science, and electrical, construction, and mechanical engineering. The Oman Natural History Museum, founded in 1983, includes the national herbarium and the national shell collection. All of these organizations are located in Muscat.
The central desert of Oman is an important source of meteorites for scientific analysis(SONY Vaio VGN-NS31Z/P Battery). Since 1999, search campaigns in Oman have provided about 20% of the world's meteorites. These include rare meteorites from Mars and the Moon. The meteorite accumulations in the gravelly central desert play an important role in increasing knowledge of conditions in the early solar systemv(SONY Vaio VGN-NS31S/S Battery).
As of 1999, there were an estimated 1.3 physicians and 2.2 hospital beds per 1,000 people. In 1993, 89% of the population had access to health care services. In 2000, 99% of the population had access to health care services. During the last three decades, the Oman health care system has demonstrated and reported great achievements in health care services and preventive and curative medicine(SONY Vaio VGN-NS31M/W Battery). In 2001, Oman was ranked number 8 by the World Health Organization.
Main article: Culture of Oman
See also: Islam in Oman, List of traditional games in Oman, Music of Oman, Cinema of Oman, and Women in Oman
This unreferenced section requires citations to ensure verifiability.
Although Arabic is Oman's official language, there are native speakers of different dialects, as well as Balochi (the language of the Baloch from Baluchistan western-Pakistan, eastern Iran) (SONY Vaio VGN-NS31M/P Battery), and southern Afghanistan or offshoots of Southern Arabian, and some descendants of Sindhi sailors. Also spoken in Oman are Semitic languages only distantly related to Arabic, but closely related to Semitic languages in Eritrea and Ethiopia. Swahili and English are also widely spoken in the country due to the historical relations between Oman and Zanzibar the two languages have been linked historically(SONY Vaio VGN-NS21Z/S Battery. The dominant indigenous language is a dialect of Arabic and the country has also adopted English as a second language. Almost all signs and writings appear in both Arabic and English. A significant number also speak Urdu, due to the influx of Pakistani migrants during the late 1980s and the 1990s(SONY Vaio VGN-NS21S/W Battery).
Khanjar knife, traditional dagger of Oman, circa 1924
Oman is famous for its khanjar knives, which are curved daggers worn during holidays as part of ceremonial dress. During the Medieval era, khanjars became highly popular as they symbolized Muslim sailors, and later various types of khanjars were made(SONY Vaio VGN-NS21S/S Battery), representing various sailing nations in the Muslim world. Today, traditional clothing is worn by most Omani men. This typically consists of an ankle-length, collarless robe called a dishdasha that buttons at the neck with a tassel hanging down. Traditionally, this tassel would be dipped in perfume. Today the tassel is merely a traditional part of the dishdasha(SONY Vaio VGN-NS21M/W Battery).
Women wear the hijab and abaya. Some women cover their faces and hands, but most do not. The abaya is a traditional dress and currently comes in different styles. The Sultan has forbidden the covering of faces in universities. On holidays, such as Eid, the women wear traditional dress(SONY Vaio VGN-NS21M/P Battery), which is often very brightly colored and consists of a mid-calf length tunic over trousers. The Abaya is mostly worn in the capital, whereas in the interior regions brightly colored dresses are the usual attire.
Main article: Cuisine of Oman
The main daily meal is usually eaten at midday, while the evening meal is lighter. During Ramadan, dinner is served after the Taraweeh prayers, sometimes as late as 11 pm(SONY Vaio VGN-NS12S/S Battery). Maqbous is a rice dish, with yellow rice and saffron served and cooked over spicy red or white meat. Arsia is a festival meal, served during celebrations, which consists of mashed rice flavoured with spices. Another popular festival meal is shuwa, which is meat cooked very slowly (sometimes for up to 2 days) in an underground clay oven(SONY Vaio VGN-NS12M/W Battery). The meat becomes extremely tender and it is infused with spices and herbs before cooking to give it a very distinct taste. Fish is often used in main dishes too, and the kingfish is a popular ingredient. Mashuai is a meal consisting of a whole spit-roasted kingfish served with lemon rice. Rukhal bread is a thin, round bread originally baked over a fire made from palm leaves(SONY Vaio VGN-NS12M/S Battery). It is eaten at any meal, typically served with Omani honey for breakfast or crumbled over curry for dinner. Chicken, fish and mutton are regularly used in dishes.
Although spices, herbs, onion, garlic and lime are liberally used in traditional Omani Cuisine, unlike similar Asian food, it is not hot or spicy. Omani Cuisine is also distinct from the Indigenous foods of other Arab states of the Arabian Peninsula and even varies within the Sultanate's different regions(SONY Vaio VGN-NS11Z/S Battery). There are also significant differences in cuisine between different regions of Oman.
Sports of Oman
Popular sports Football, volleyball, handball, basketball and hockey.
National sports teams 5
National sports clubs 48
National colors Red, white, green
Ali Al-Habsi is an Omani professional association football player. He currently plays in the Premier League as a goalkeeper for Wigan Athletic(SONY Vaio VGN-NS11ZR/S Battery).
The government aims to give young people a fully rounded education by providing activities and experience in the sporting, cultural, intellectual, social and scientific spheres, and to excel internationally in these areas and for this reason, in October 2004, the government created a Ministry of Sports Affairs to replace the General Organization for youth, sports and cultural affair(SONY Vaio VGN-NS11S/S Battery)s.
The 2009 Gulf Cup of Nations, the 19th edition, took place in Muscat, from 4 to 17 January 2009 and was won by the Omani national football team.
The International Olympic Committee awarded the former GOYSCA its prestigious prize for Sporting excellence in recognition of its contributions to youth and sports and its efforts to promote the Olympic spirit and goals(SONY Vaio VGN-NS11SR/S Battery).
The Oman Olympic Committee played a major part in organizing the highly successful 2003 Olympic Days, which were of great benefit to the sports associations, clubs and young participants. The football association took part, along with the handball, basketball, rugby union, hockey, volleyball, athletics, swimming, and tennis associations. In 2010, Muscat hosted the 2010 Asian Beach Games(SONY Vaio VGN-NS11M/S Battery).
They also host tennis tournaments in different age divisions each year. Inside the Sultan Qaboos Sports Complex stadium contains a 50 meter pool for swimming which is used for international tournaments from different schools in different countries. The Tour of Oman, a professional cycling 6-day stage race, is held in February(SONY Vaio VGN-NS11MR/S Battery).
Oman also hosted the Asian 2011 FIFA Beach Soccer World Cup qualifiers, where 11 teams are competing for 3 spots at the FIFA World Cup.
Oman is perhaps the only Gulf nation to have bullfighting events organised in its territories. Al-Batena area is prominent for such events. Wide audiences turn up to see the events unfold. Omani bullfighting is however not a violent event(SONY Vaio VGN-NS11L/S Battery). The origins of Bullfighting in Oman are unknown though many locals here believe it was brought to Oman by the Moors of Spanish origin. Yet others say it has a direct connection with Portugal which colonized the Omani coastline for nearly 2 centuries(