National University of Singapore And École Polytechnique

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The National University of Singapore is Singapore's oldest university. It is the largest university in the country in terms of student enrollment and curriculum offered.

The university's main campus is located in southwest Singapore at Kent Ridge, with an area of approximately 1.5 km2 (0.58 sq mi). The Bukit Timah campus houses the Faculty of Law, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy and research institutes(SONY PCG-5G2L battery), while the Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School Singapore is located at the Outram campus.

The former British Prime Minister Tony Blair had named NUS as the headquarters of his Asian Faith and Globalization Initiative together with Durham University in the UK and Yale University in the USA to deliver an exclusive programme in partnership with Tony Blair Faith Foundation. (SONY PCG-5G3L battery)

The university is widely considered to be one of the most prestigious universities in Asia.[4] In 2011, NUS was ranked 28th in the world and 3rd in Asia by the QS World University Rankings.



In September 1904, Tan Jiak Kim led a group of representatives of the Chinese and other non-European communities, and petitioned the Governor of the Straits Settlements, Sir John Anderson(SONY PCG-F305 battery), to establish a medical school in Singapore. Tan, who was the first president of the Straits Chinese British Association, managed to raise $87,077, of which the largest amount of $12,000 came from himself. On 3 July 1905, the medical school was founded, and was known as the Straits Settlements and Federated Malay States Government Medical School(SONY PCG-5J1L battery).

In 1912, the medical school received an endowment of $120,000 from the King Edward VII Memorial Fund, started by Lim Boon Keng. Subsequently on 18 November 1913, the name of the school was changed to the King Edward VII Medical School. In 1921, it was again changed to the King Edward VII College of Medicine to reflect its academic status(SONY PCG-5J2L battery).

In 1928, Raffles College was established to promote arts and social sciences at tertiary level for Malayan students.

Establishment of the university

Two decades later, Raffles College was merged with the King Edward VII College of Medicine to form the University of Malaya on 8 October 1949. The two institutions were merged to provide for the higher education needs of the Federation of Malaya and Singapore(SONY PCG-5K2L battery).

The growth of UM was very rapid during the first decade of its establishment and resulted in the setting up of two autonomous divisions in 1959, one located in Singapore and the other in Kuala Lumpur.

In 1960, the governments of then Federation of Malaya and Singapore indicated their desire to change the status of the divisions into that of a national university(SONY PCG-5L1L battery). Legislation was passed in 1961 establishing the former Kuala Lumpur division as the University of Malaya while the Singapore division was renamed the University of Singapore on 1 January 1962.

[edit]Present form

The National University of Singapore was formed with the merger of the University of Singapore and Nanyang University in 1980. This was done in part due to the government's desire to pool the two institutions' resources into a single(SONY PCG-6S2L battery), stronger entity, and promote English as Singapore's only main language. The original crest of Nanyang University with three intertwined rings was incorporated into the new coat-of-arms of NUS.

Today, the National University of Singapore has 16 faculties and schools across three campus locations in Singapore – Kent Ridge, Bukit Timah and Outram – and provides a broad-based curriculum underscored by multi-disciplinary courses and cross-faculty enrichment(SONY PCG-6S3L battery).


NUS has a semester-based modular system for conducting courses. It adopts features of the British system, such as small group teaching (tutorials) and the American system (course credits). Students may transfer between courses within their first two semesters, enroll in cross-faculty modules or take up electives from different faculties (compulsory for most degrees) (SONY PCG-6V1L battery). Other cross-disciplinary initiatives study programmes include double-degree undergraduate degrees in Arts & Social Sciences and Engineering; Arts & Social Sciences and Law; Business and Engineering; and Business and Law.

NUS has 16 faculties and schools, including a Music Conservatory. Currently, it has seven overseas colleges at major entrepreneurial hubs in Shanghai and Beijing (China), Israel, India, Stockholm (Sweden), Silicon Valley and Bio Valley (US). (SONY PCG-6W1L battery)

NUS Overseas Colleges

The NUS Overseas Colleges (NOC) programme started in 2001, providing students with an educational experience in entrepreneurial and academic hubs around the world. Students spend 6-12 months overseas, interning at start-up companies and taking entrepreneurship related courses at partner Universities[10]. There are 7 colleges, in the Silicon Valley (US) (SONY PCG-7111L battery), Philadelphia (US), Shanghai (China), Beijing (China), Stockholm (Sweden), India and Israel. Assoc Prof Teo Chee Leong is the Director of NOC.

The local equivalent is the Innovative Local Enterprise Achiever Development (iLEAD) initiative, where students intern at innovative Singapore companies. This is a 7-8 month programme that cultivates an entrepreneurial mindset, and develops leadership and management skills(SONY PCG-71511M battery).

NOC set up an entrepreneurial-themed residence[11], known as N-House. Located within the NUS Prince George’s Park residence, this houses about 90 students, who are graduates of the NOC and iLEAD programmes. N-House incorporates common areas such as a meeting room, study area and recreation space. Entrepreneurial activities are also organised by the N-House residents(SONY PCG-6W3L battery), and these include entrepreneurial sharing sessions, business idea pitching and networking events[12].

Students have called the NOC programme a life-changing experience[13]. There are over 1,000 NOC and iLEAD graduates - many have gone on to start companies, or work in start-up companies . Some notable NOC and iLEAD alumni include:

Darius Cheung and Rishi Irani – Co-founders tencube, which was acquired by McAfee in July 2010(SONY PCG-7113L battery)

Mohan Belani – Director e27 Singapore

Tan Bee Thiam – Founder Asian Film Archive and 13 Little Pictures

Kelly Choo – Co-founder Brandtology


NUS began its entrepreneurial education endeavours in the 1980s, with the setting up of the Centre for Management of Innovation and Technopreneurship in 1988. In 2001, this was renamed the NUS Entrepreneurship Centre (NEC), and became a division of NUS Enterprise. NEC is currently headed by Professor Wong Poh Kam and its activities are organised into 4 areas(SONY PCG-7133L battery), including a business incubator, experiential education, entrepreneurship development, and entrepreneurship research.

Faculties and schools

Block EA, Faculty of Engineering

[edit]Arts and Social Sciences

Main article: Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences of National University of Singapore

FASS majors is organised into three divisions – Asian Studies, Humanities and Social Sciences – under which 15 departments and programmes are grouped. It is also home to the Office of Programmes which offers four multidisciplinary programmes and five minor Programmes of study, and the Centre for Language Studies which teaches 12 different languages(SONY PCG-7Z1L battery).

Asian Studies carry a range of majors including

European Studies is currently the only cross-departmental subject available.

The faculty also offers Minor programmes (for both FASS and non-FASS undergraduates) in China Studies, American Studies, European Studies, Cultural Studies, Gender Studies, Religious Studies, and STS (Science, Technology and Society). The Centre for Language Studies, which is part of FASS, offers introductory, intermediate and advanced courses on the Arabic(SONY PCG-7Z2L battery) , Chinese, French, German, Hindi, Indonesian, Japanese, Korean, Malay, Thai and Vietnamese languages. Graduate academic programmes are offered by all departments.[16]

Business School

Main article: NUS Business School

NUS Business School

NUS Business School was founded as the Department of Business Administration in 1965. It has six departments: Accounting, Strategy and Policy, Decision Sciences, Finance, Management and Organization, and Marketing.[18] Collectively, the departments offer classes in the Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA) and Bachelor of Business Administration (Accountancy) [BBA(Acc)] Programmes(SONY PCG-8Y1L battery).

Graduate programmes offered include the Master of Business Administration (MBA), NUS MBA Double Degree (conducted jointly with Peking University), UCLA-NUS Executive MBA Programme, Asia-Pacific Executive MBA (English and Chinese), S3 Asia MBA (conducted jointly with Fudan University and Korea University) (SONY PCG-8Y2L battery).


Main article: NUS School of Computing

NUS School of Computing

The School of Computing (SoC), established in 1998,, has two departments – Computer Science and Information Systems. The department of Computer Science offers three undergraduate degree programmes – Computer Science, Communications and Media, and Computational Biology.[20] The department of Information Systems offers five undergraduate programmes(SONY PCG-8Z2L battery) – Computing in Information Systems, Computing in Electronic Commerce, Concurrent Degree Programme that combines a Bachelor of Computing (in Information Systems) (Honours) from NUS and a Master of Philosophy (Management) from Cambridge University, Concurrent Degree Programme that combines a Bachelor of Computing (in Information Systems) (SONY PCG-8Z1L battery) (Honours) from NUS School of Computing and a Master of Science (Management) from the NUS School of Business, as well as a Double Degree Programme, with a Bachelor of Computing (in Information Systems) (Honours) from NUS School of Computing, and a Bachelor of Business Administration / Business Administration (Accountancy) from the NUS School of Business. (SONY PCG-7112L battery)


The Faculty of Dentistry had its early beginnings in 1929 as a Department of Dentistry within the King Edward VII College of Medicine. It was the first dental school to be established in a British colony in the east. The faculty conducts a four-year dental course leading to the Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS) degree. The undergraduate programme comprises two pre-clinical (SONY PCG-6W2L battery) (first two years) and two clinical years. The Faculty of Dentistry is organised into 3 academic departments covering the disciplines of Oral, and Maxillofacial Surgery, Preventive Dentistry and Restorative Dentistry. Dental education is delivered through comprehensive didatic and clinical sessions. The broad experience and specialisation of the academic staff combine to provide the dental undergraduate with the requisite skills for general practice(SONY PCG-5K1L battery).

[edit]Design and Environment

The School of Design and Environment (SDE) comprises three departments: Architecture, Building and Real Estate and a Division of Industrial Design.[24] Degree courses in building and estate management were first offered in 1969 in the then Department of Building and Estate Management. This was subsequently changed to the School of Building and Real Estate(SONY VGP-BPS8 battery). In June 2000 the Faculty of Architecture, Building and Real Estate changed its name to the School of Design & Environment. As a result of this change, Building and Real Estate were established as separate departments.

SDE offers four undergraduate programmes: Bachelor of Arts (Architecture) (Hons), Bachelor of Arts (Industrial Design) (Hons), Bachelor of Science (Project and Facilities Management) (Hons), and Bachelor of Science (Real Estate) (Hons) (SONY VGP-BPS8A battery). Graduate programmes offer specialisations in architecture, landscape architecture, building and real estate including scientific aspects of environmental control, building operations, project management and property management.[25]


Faculty of Engineering

The Faculty of Engineering (FOE) was launched in 1968. It is the largest faculty in the university and widely regarded as one of the top engineering schools in the world. In 2011 NUS Engineering was ranked 9th in the world for engineering and technology by the QS World University Rankings and 19th by the Times Higher Education(SONY VGP-BPL8 battery). In the 2012 QS World Subject Ranking, NUS engineering excelled, ranking 5th in Civil and Mechanical Engineering, 7th in Chemical, Materials and Industrial Engineering, 9th in Computer Engineering and 11th in Electrical Engineering.

FOE offers both undergraduate and graduate degree programmes in the following fields.[26]


Concurrent Degree (B.Eng Engineering + M.Sc Management)

In addition, NUS offers 2 additional engineering programmes aimed at stretching students to their potential(SONY VGP-BPS9 battery).

NUS Global Engineering Programme (GEP)

This programme is introduced in 2009 to groom engineers-leaders with a global outlook. The programme encompasses the completion of the B.Eng (Hons) programme in 3 years, of which at least half a year of student exchange to top overseas universities (which includes Georgia Tech, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of Wisconsin-Madison, KAIST, HKUST, Imperial College London) (SONY VGP-BPS9/S battery). After which students continue to do a Masters at one of NUS partner universities. Whilst admission to the graduate programme is not guaranteed, many past students have gained placements in elite graduate schools, such as Cornell, ETH Zurich, etc. The programme comes with a GEP scholarship that covers undergraduate tuition fees and living allowance. All eligible candidate will be invited to an interview by top FOE Professors to assess suitability for the programme(SONY VGP-BPS9A battery).

Design Centric Curriculum (DCC)[28]

The Design-Centric Curriculum (DCC) is a flexible and innovative alternative learning pathway for engineering students uniquely offered by the NUS Faculty of Engineering. It complements the many options available to NUS engineering students. The DCC aims to nurture engineering graduates who not only possess depth of expertise in their fields of specialization, but also are able to(SONY VGP-BPS9A/B battery):

Take on new challenges and be comfortable with tackling the unfamiliar

Identify and define problems and formulate innovative and creative solutions

Take ideas from conceptualization through to design, implementation and operation

Engage in systems-level thinking and deal with complex systems

Articulate ideas effectively

Lead or work in a multi-disciplinary team

Appreciate the cultural and social dimensions of design(SONY VGP-BPS9/B battery)

Also, FOE also offers part-time undergraduate courses for polytechnic graduates and working professionals leading to the Bachelor of Technology (B-Tech) Programme.

Graduate programmes include

Master of Engineering (All engineering fields)

Master of Science (All engineering fields)

NUS-UIUC Master of Science (Chemical Engineering)

NUS-TU Delft Double Masters in Civil Engineering (Hydraulic Engineering/Water Management)

NUS-Imperial College London Joint PhD(SONY VGP-BPS9A/S battery)

NUS-Superlec Joint PhD

NUS-TU Eindhoven Joint PhD

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD).[29]

FOE consists of several divisions/departments. These divisions/departments are: Bioengineering; Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering; Civil & Environmental Engineering; Electrical & Computer Engineering; Engineering Science Programme; Industrial & Systems Engineering; Materials Science & Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and Division of Engineering and Technology Management. (SONY VGP-BPL9 battery)


The law school was first established as a Department of Law in the then University of Malaya in 1956. The first law students were admitted to the Bukit Timah campus of the university the following year. In 1977, the faculty shifted to the Kent Ridge campus, but in 2006 it relocated back to the Bukit Timah site(SONY VGP-BPS10 battery).

Apart from the traditional LLB which runs for four years, the law school also offers double honours degrees in Business Administration & Law, Economics & Law,[31] Law & Life Sciences,[32] and a concurrent degree program in Law & Public Policy.[33] For graduate students, the law school offers coursework LLM specializations[34] in areas such as Corporate and Financial Services Law(SONY VGP-BPL10 battery), Intellectual Property & Technology Law, International & Comparative Law, Maritime Law and Asian Legal Studies.

Students seeking a global legal qualification can opt for the dual degree programme known informally as NYU@NUS which is a collaboration between NUS and New York University School of Law. The programme commences in Singapore in May, with NYU faculty flying to Singapore for intensive classes(SONY VGP-BPS11 battery), continues with the NUS semesters, and concludes in New York City with a programme designed to complement preparation to sit the New York Bar Exam. Students who want to combine their NUS degree with significant time in China should consider the LL.M. in International Business Law, which takes place in Singapore and Shanghai and is offered in partnership with the East China University of Political Science and Law. There is also and a PhD programme that’s available for graduate students(SONY VGP-BPL11 battery).

Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine

Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine

The Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (杨潞龄医学院) was first established as the Straits Settlements and Federated Malay States Government Medical School in 1905. The School comprises departments such as the Alice Lee Centre for Nursing Studies, Anaesthesia, Anatomy, Biochemistry, Diagnostic Radiology, Epidemiology and Public Health(SONY VGP-BPL12 battery), Medicine, Microbiology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Ophthalmology, Orthopaedic Surgery, Otolaryngology, Paediatrics, Pathology, Pharmacology, Physiology, Psychological Medicine, and Surgery. The School uses the British undergraduate medical system, offering a full-time undergraduate programme leading to the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS). For Nursing(SONY VGP-BPS12 battery), the Bachelor of Science (Nursing) (conducted by the Alice Lee Centre for Nursing Studies) is offered. In 2011, the School is ranked as the top medical school in Asia and 12th in the world overall by the QS World University Rankings by Subject (Medicine).

Graduate programmes include:

Master of Medicine specialises in Anaesthesiology, Diagnostic Radiology, Emergency Medicine, Family Medicine, Internal Medicine(SONY VGP-BPS13 battery), Obestetrics & Gynaecology, Occupational Medicine, Ophthalomology, Orthopaedic Surgery, Otorhinolaryngology Paediatric Medicine, Psychiatry, Public Health, and Surgery. The MMed is often taken at the same time as the MRCP(UK), offered by the British Royal Colleges.

Research-oriented MSc or PhD degree programmes to train biomedical scientists

MBBS-PhD Programme to train medical-scientists for academia and industry(SONY VGP-BPS13Q battery)

Part-time Graduate Diploma programmes in Dermatology, Family Medicine, Geriatric Medicine and Occupational Medicine

Master of Nursing

[edit]Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School Singapore

Main article: Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School

The Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School Singapore is an innovative collaboration between Duke University in North Carolina, United States and the National University of Singapore. It follows the American model of post-baccalaureate medical education. Students begin their medical studies after earning a bachelor’s degree. In this way(SONY VGP-BPS13A/Q battery), Duke-NUS is able to offer an innovative opportunity for students with the potential to excel in the field of medicine and biomedical sciences.[37]

The school’s curriculum is based on that of Duke University’s School of Medicine: basic sciences (first year); clinical rotations (second year) and independent scholarship and research (third year). Upon successfully completing the course of study and fulfilling all requirements after their fourth year(SONY VGP-BPS13B/Q battery), students will be awarded a Joint Doctor of Medicine (M.D) degree from Duke University and the National University of Singapore.

Duke-NUS also offers an M.D./PhD programme for students who are committed to intensive research-oriented clinical practice careers, combining biomedical research with the practice of clinical medicine. All MD/PhD candidates will complete the first two years of the MD programme(SONY VGP-BPS13/B battery). In lieu of their third year, candidates will begin the PhD programme. The PhD typically takes four years to complete, but timing will depend on the student’s area of research. After completing their PhD, students will return to the MD programme to complete their final year. It is estimated that it will take seven years to complete an MD/PhD at Duke-NUS.[38] Students(SONY VGP-BPS13B/B battery), who are admitted, will be offered a full scholarship for the PhD component as well as for the remaining tuition required to complete their M.D. training.

A five-year PhD degree study in Integrated Biology and Medicine, which incorporates key aspects of Duke and NUS graduate programmes, is also available for students wishing to develop a successful career in biomedical research(SONY VGP-BPS13A/S battery).


Main article: Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore

Faculty of Science

The Faculty of Science (FOS) comprises the departments of Biological Sciences, Chemistry, Mathematics, Pharmacy, Physics, and Statistics & Applied Probability.

Listed below are the primary majors offered by the Faculty. Except for Computational Biology and Pharmacy which are strict 4-year honours programmes, all majors allow students to graduate with a Bachelor's degree(SONY VGP-BPS21A/B battery).

Department of Biological Sciences

Computational Biology – jointly supported by the School of Computing

Environmental Studies (Specialisation in Environmental Biology) – jointly supported by the Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences

Life Sciences – jointly supported by the Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine

Life Sciences (Specialisation in Environmental Biology)

Life Sciences (Specialisation in Biomedical Sciences)

Life Sciences (Specialisation in Molecular and Cell Biology)

Department of Statistics and Applied Probability(SONY VGP-BPS21B battery)


Statistics (with specialisation in Biostatistics)

Statistics (with specialisation in Finance and Business Statistics)

The faculty also offers a spread of minors, multidisciplinary programmes and special programmes for the educational broadening and enhancement of the students.

[edit]Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy

Main article: Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy

The Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy (LKYSPP) (李光耀公共政策学院) was formally established in 2004 as an autonomous graduate school of the National University of Singapore. Although the School was formally launched in 2004, it inherited NUS' Public Policy Programme(SONY VGP-BPS21 battery), which was established in 1992 in partnership with Harvard University’s John F Kennedy School of Government.

LKYSPP offers three master degree programmes:

[edit]NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering

NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering (NGS) was established in 2003. The principal purpose of NGS is "to promote integrative PhD research encompassing both laboratory work and coursework programmes which not only transcend (SONY VGP-BPS21/S battery)traditional subject boundaries but also provides students with a depth of experience about science and the way it is carried out".[39]

Students admitted to NGS are invited to apply for the A*STAR Pre-Graduate Scholarship.[40]

NGS’ PhD programmes are firmly anchored in cross-disciplinary research. It offers a spectrum of research areas, spanning science, engineering, related aspects of medicine, and interactive & digital media. NGS also offers the following PhD degree programmes(SONY VGP-BPS13AS battery). • Joint NUS-Imperial College Phd Programme • NUS PhD-MBA

University Scholars Programme

Main article: University Scholars Programme

The University Scholars Programme (USP) aims to develop the intellectual, leadership, and personal potential of promising students. Students in the Programme graduate with an honours degree from their faculty if they meet the minimum requirements by the home department or school and a certificate that recognizes them as University Scholars having participated in the programme(SONY VGP-BPS13S battery). USP students are scholars in the sense that they love learning, and though many may also be awarded financial aid in the form of scholarships or studentships.

USP is an honours programme where students are concurrently enrolled in one of six faculties or schools – Arts and Social Sciences, Business, Computing, Design and Environment, Engineering, and Science. The students do 30% of their academic work with USP, and 70% in their home faculty or school where they do their majors(SONY VGP-BPS13B/S battery). USP classes are taught in seminar style, with class sizes ranging from 10 to 35 so as to allow maximum interaction between professors and students. USP modules focus on critical thinking, analysis and interdisciplinary thought. The programme emphasizes students' ability to communicate and, through analysis, make connections across diverse fields(SONY VGP-BPS13B/G battery).

Starting from August 2011, this ten-year-old programme includes a residential component where USP students live and learn together in the new USP residential college in NUS's University Town. All USP students will stay at the USP residential college in Year One and a second year over the course of their studies. Entry to the programme is highly competitive. Application is by transcript(SONY VGP-BPS14 battery), essay, and interview with our professors and alumni. Students are admitted based on their academic potential and co-curricular achievements, together with their passion, motivation, and curiosity.

[edit]Yong Siew Toh Conservatory of Music

The Yong Siew Toh Conservatory of Music (YSTCM) (杨秀桃音乐学院) is a collaboration between NUS and the Peabody Institute of Johns Hopkins University. Singapore’s first conservatory of music, YSTCM was founded as the Singapore Conservatory of Music in 2001(SONY VGP-BPL14 battery). The School was renamed Yong Siew Toh Conservatory of Music in recognition of a gift from the family of the late Dr Yong Loo Lin in memory of his daughter.

The Conservatory presently offers a Bachelor of Music (Honours) degree, with majors in Performance (Piano and Orchestral Instruments) and Composition. This is a four-year full-time music degree programme with an emphasis on music performance and music academics(SONY VGP-BPS14/B battery).

[edit]Residential colleges

[edit]NUS University Town

The NUS University Town (UTown) opened its doors in August 2011. Located across the NUS Kent Ridge campus; this is where some 2,400 undergraduate students, 1,700 graduate students and 1,000 researchers will work, live, and learn in close proximity. There are two residential colleges (Cinnamon and Tembusu Colleges), an Education Resource Centre and a Graduate Residence(SONY VGP-BPS14/S battery). When fully completed, there will be another two residential colleges for undergraduate students.

Cinnamon College

Cinnamon College houses the University Scholars Programme. The USP residential college community is set to provide a stimulating environment for intellectual and personal growth, and the USP experience will be intensely reinforced through the integration of curriculum, learning-beyond–the-classroom activities, and residential programmes(SONY VGP-BPS14B battery). The USP residential college will house 600 students and contain the administrative and faculty offices for USP and teaching classrooms.

USP students will take modules at the college and follow the current USP curriculum. They will be required to take eight multidisciplinary modules specially designed for USP students, including the Writing and Critical Thinking module and University Scholars Seminars(SONY VGP-BPS22 battery). Students will have various options to fulfill their USP advanced curriculum requirements that include individual research with faculty mentors, and industrial and entrepreneurial attachments. Students also get to participate in overseas programmes and exchanges with some of the best universities in the world. They will be part of a closely knitted community and network of USP alums, faculty, staff and students(SONY VGP-BPS22 battery).

Tembusu College

Tembusu College is one of the first two Residential Colleges in University Town, a new extension to the main NUS campus at Kent Ridge. Tembusu houses mainly undergraduates, in addition to resident faculty, distinguished visiting scholars, and a few graduate fellows. Freshmen (matriculating first-year students) enrolling in any NUS faculty or programme apply to the College at the same time they apply to NUS(SONY VGP-BPS18 battery). Entry is competitive (an essay-based application followed by an interview) as only 200–230 students can be enrolled in any given year. Some students from non-modular faculties (whose course requirements may be reduced or waived) and students from overseas exchange programmes add to the residential mix. Students from any NUS faculty are eligible to apply(SONY VGP-BPS22/A battery).

The College offers five multi-disciplinary modules fulfilling the "University-Level Requirements" (2 General Education modules, 2 Breadth modules, and 1 Singapore Studies module) which most NUS undergraduates must read to graduate. Students read the rest of their modules in their home faculties. A University Town Residential Programme Certificate is issued to eligible students along with the regular degree scroll(SONY VGP-BPS22A battery). Students from non-modular faculties (i.e. Law, Medicine, and Dentistry) also belong to the College, but with course-work tailored to their specific programmes. The Rector of Tembusu College is Singapore's Ambassador-at-Large and former U.N. Ambassador Prof. Tommy Koh, who is also the former Dean of the NUS Faculty of Law(SONY Vaio VGN-CR120E/W battery).

[edit]Teaching centres

[edit]Centre for Development of Teaching and Learning

The Centre for Development of Teaching and Learning (CDTL) was first established in 1984 as the Centre for Educational Technology (CET). It was renamed to CDTL in 1996. The Centre oversees functions such as:

Facilitating informed reflection among faculty on[46]:

concepts of teaching, learning, and university education, and

teaching practices that are consistent with these concepts;

encouraging and spearheading educational innovations and initiatives(SONY Vaio VGN-CR120E/R battery);

conducting research on educational philosophy, pedagogical theory, and educational practices;

assisting University administration in the formulation of educational policies in matters such as teacher appraisal, peer review, selecting outstanding educators, student feedback and student assessment(SONY Vaio VGN-CR120E/P battery);

developing and implementing teacher education programmes for faculty and teaching assistants;

providing educational consultation and assistance to faculty; and

exploring and promoting pedagogically sound innovative applications of instructional technology to teaching and learning, in collaboration with CIT.

Centre for Instructional Technology(SONY Vaio VGN-CR120E/L battery)

The Centre for Instructional Technology (CIT) was formed in 1999 to drive the use of technology in teaching and learning at NUS. It provides for the exploration, development and application of digital and audio-visual technologies to support and enhance teaching and learning. This is done through the NUS-developed Integrated Virtual Learning Environment and by developing new applications/services and incorporating multimedia content in courses for academia. (SONY Vaio VGN-CR120E battery)

Centre for English Language Communication

The Centre for English Language Communication (CELC) was established in 1979 as the English Language Proficiency Unit (ELPU). It is a non-faculty teaching department in the National University of Singapore. CELC focuses on four areas:

Developing students' English Language Skills;

Enhancing students' communication skills;

Providing training in English for Academic purposes; and

Researching issues related to language teaching and learning.

[edit]Institute of Systems Science(SONY Vaio VGN-CR120 battery)

A specialty training institute of NUS, the Institute of Systems Science (ISS) offers professional information technology continuing education to managers and IT practitioners. ISS is a lifelong learning centre for strategic IT management, software technology, and knowledge engineering. ISS offers postgraduate degree programs(SONY Vaio VGN-CR11H/B battery), professional development short courses and certification training programs such as the Certified Information Technology Project Manager (CITPM) course. ISS is also a research center in on-line is education – its ISS Virtual Institute offers e-learning courses in IT Security and Object Oriented Analysis & Design.

[edit]NUS Extension

NUS Extension is the continuing education arm of NUS. It offers a comprehensive suite of courses in the following learning platforms(SONY Vaio VGN-CR116E battery):

Professional and Management (Staying Relevant)

Enterprise Leadership (Cultivating Leaders)

Entrepreneurship Development (Nurturing Entrepreneurs)

Personal Enrichment (Enhancing the Individual)

In addition to courses for open enrolment, NUS Extension offers training programmes that are specially tailored to meet the unique needs of each individual organisation.[48]

NUS High School of Mathematics and Science

Main article: NUS High School of Mathematics and Science

NUS High School of Mathematics and Science Campus(SONY Vaio VGN-CR116 battery)

NUS High School of Mathematics and Science is a school specializing in math and science, and provides secondary and pre-tertiary education to many students with an inclination to these fields. Being an independent department of NUS, NUS High School students are instructed in the modular system, with a curriculum accredited by NUS, and have access to certain NUS resources. Also, all NUS High School students have the privilege of electing to read any NUS modules from three faculties: Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences(SONY Vaio VGN-CR115E battery), Faculty of Engineering and Faculty of Science before matriculation as long as they have the necessary foundation knowledge, as opposed to students of other secondary institutions who can only read one or two modules at best. The campus is also part of the NUS fibre optic network with an underground extension linking it to the main network(SONY Vaio VGN-CR115 battery).


Strategic research initiatives to help the university achieve its goal of knowledge creation include:

Leveraging on available expertise to establish a base of research across a broad range of disciplines

Building peaks of research excellence

Growing global research links

Forging strong links between research and graduate education

Among the major research focuses at NUS are biomedical and life sciences, physical sciences, engineering, nanoscience and nanotechnology, materials science and engineering, infocommunication and infotechnology(SONY Vaio VGN-CR110 battery), humanities and social sciences, and defence-related research.

One of several niche research areas of strategic importance to Singapore being undertaken at NUS is bioengineering. Initiatives in this area include bioimaging, tissue engineering and tissue modulation. Another new field which holds much promise is nanoscience and nanotechnology. Apart from higher-performance but lower-maintenance materials for manufacturing(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ battery), defence, transportation, space and environmental applications, this field also heralds the development of accelerated biotechnical applications in medicine, health care and agriculture.

[edit]Research institutes and centres

Currently, NUS hosts 21 university-level research institutes and centres in various fields such as research on Asia, risk management, logistics, engineering sciences, mathematical sciences, biomedical and life sciences, nanotechnology to marine studies. Besides that(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11S battery), NUS also hosts three Research Centres of Excellence which are the Cancer Science Institute of Singapore, Centre for Quantum Technologies and Mechanobiology Institute, Singapore – a partner in Singapore's fifth Research Centre of Excellence (RCE). Besides University-level RICs, NUS also has close affiliation with many National Research Centres / Institutes.

[edit]Major research facilities

Comparative Medicine (CM)

CM is set up to provide professional and technical service for laboratory animal care, veterinary medical services, and animal research project support for NUS staff and students(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ15T battery).

National University Medical Institutes (NUMI)

NUMI focuses its efforts on the development of centralized research facilities and services for the Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine in NUS and developing research programs in cancer and cardiovascular diseases.

Besides such centralized facilities, many Faculties and Departments have facilities and equipment which could be made available to other NUS colleagues. More details could be obtained from the respective Faculty / Department website(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ15G battery).

Technology Commercialisation

Industry Liaison Office

The NUS Industry Liaison Office (ILO) manages the University’s technology transfer and promotes research collaborations with industry and partners. ILO manages NUS intellectual property, commercialises its intellectual assets and facilitates the spinning off of technologies into start-up companies. Ms Irene Cheong[51] is the Director of ILO(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ4000 battery).

Some recent industry partnerships enabled by ILO include a research agreement with Agilent, a licensing agreement with Cambridge Display Technology (a Sumitomo Chemical Group company), and a partnership with the Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics. NUS spin-off companies supported by ILO include BioMers, Gatekeeper Laboratories, Clearbridge BioMedics, Clearbridge VitalSigns[58], and BioLynx Technologies(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ460E battery).

ILO has set up the Research to Market (R2M) portal[60], to showcase NUS technologies and engage with industry. Technology sectors include the life sciences, interactive digital media, physical sciences and multi-disciplinary technologies. Another activity organised by ILO is the Technology Commercialisation Forum[61] (TCF), an annual event that brings together industry(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ440N battery), academia, researchers, investors and entrepreneurs to examine trends and issues involved in commercialising technology. In 2012, ILO has collaborated with the Association of University Technology Managers (AUTM) to organise TCF concurrently with AUTM Asia[62].

ILO organises technology specific events, looking to facilitate technology commercialisation in industry sectors. TechLaunch[63] is an event that focuses on technologies in the field of augmented reality, media search, image processing, gaming, language processing, web analysis and video processing(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ440E battery).

World rankings

NUS is consistently ranked amongst the best universities in Asia and the world. The Academic Ranking of World Universities places it in the range of 100–150 among world universities. In 2011, Quacquarelli Symonds in its QS World University Rankings[67] ranked NUS 28th in the world and 3rd among Asian Universities.

The 2011–12 Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranked NUS 40th in the world,[69] and the 3rd in Asia(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ430E battery).

In their 2011 rankings, Forbes ranked the NUS Business School's Master of Business Administration (MBA) programme has emerged top in Singapore and Asia on Forbes' list and placed fourth Internationally after IESE Business School. The Financial Times places NUS School of Business at 23rd in their global MBA ranking tables(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ280E battery).


Global classroom

NUS uses technology to link up campuses on different continents. An example is the Singapore-MIT Alliance which utilises Internet 2 technology to bring students from Singapore and MIT together in one virtual classroom for lectures and interactions via videoconferencing.

Other initiatives implemented includes Integrated Virtual Learning Environment, which is used for IT-based teaching and learning resources(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ190 battery). A secure Plug-and-Play environment provides wireless connectivity to the university’s computer network and the Internet on campus.

[edit]Global networking

NUS is a member of a bunch of organisations involved in education and research. These include International Alliance of Research Universities (IARU), Association of Pacific Rim Universities (APRU), ASEAN University Network (AUN), Global Enterprise for Micro-Mechanics and Molecular Medicine (GEM4) and Universitas 21 (U21) (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ150E battery).

[edit]International teaching and research partners

NUS has several formalized teaching and research collaborations[73]:

Research and Teaching Institutes

Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School Singapore

German Institute of Science & Technology

Joint Laboratories with Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)

Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy

Risk Management Institute

Singapore – MIT Alliance(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ160 battery)

Yale-NUS, also known as Yale NUS College, is a liberal arts college in Singapore planned to open in August 2013, as a joint project of Yale University, and the National University of Singapore.

Pericles Lewis, a professor at Yale, has been appointed the founding president, effective 1 July 2012(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ260E battery).

[edit]Campus facilities and resources

University Cultural Centre

[edit]IT and computing services

The IT facilities and network are generally provided by its central IT department, Computer Centre. The university’s optical fibre network is one of the largest campus networks in the Asia Pacific region.[citation needed] NUSNET is used in research, teaching, learning and administration. In 2004, a campus-wide grid computing network based on UD Grid MP was deployed, connecting at least 1,000 computers(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ140E battery). This becomes one of the largest such virtual supercomputing facilities in the region.

[edit]Library services

The NUS Libraries comprises 7 libraries, namely, the Central Library, the Chinese Library, the CJ Koh Law Library, the Hon Sui Sen Memorial Library, the Medical Library, the Music Library, and the Science Library. Its primary clients are the NUS and NUS-affiliated research institutes(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11L battery), students, teaching, research and administrative staff members, as well as a sizeable group of external members. Its collection encompasses subjects in architecture, building and real estate, business, dentistry, engineering, computer science, the humanities and social sciences, law, medicine, music, nursing and science. As of June 2010, there are close to 1.5 million unique titles, and 23,290 microform resources in the collection. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11Z battery) The Library Portal, a one-stop gateway, offers the university community 24-hour access via the Internet to a rich array of electronic collection and services provided by the NUS Libraries. Besides the rich resources, the NUS Libraries provide an environment conducive for individual research and spaces for group interaction and learning(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11M battery).

Student accommodation

An internal shuttle bus in NUS

There are about 6,000 residential places distributed between Halls of Residence and Student Residences on campus. There is a free Internal Shuttle Bus Service that plies the entire campus seven days a week.

Rooms are furnished with beds, mattresses, wardrobes, study tables, bookshelves and fans. There is a very small number of air-conditioned single rooms with attached bathrooms(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ18M battery). Points for telephone, cable television and the university's computer network are available in each room. The accommodation is divided into single room (single-occupancy) or double room (double-occupancy). Laundry rooms equipped with washing machines and coin-operated tumble dryers are located in each student accommodation(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ18 battery).

[edit]Halls of residence

NUS has 6 Halls of Residence with about 3,000 residential places.

Each hall has a Senior Common Room Committee (SCRC) comprising the Resident Fellows (staff). Headed by a Hall Master, which is tasked to look after residents' well being. Residents are represented by elected student members to the Junior Common Room Committee (JCRC), which helps to promote the hall's social and cultural life(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ210CE battery).

Kent Ridge Hall

The six Halls of Residence are:

Eusoff Hall (345 single rooms; 70 double rooms)

Kent Ridge Hall (507 single)

King Edward VII Hall (350 single; 60 double)

Raffles Hall (213 single; 128 double)

Sheares Hall (509 single)

Temasek Hall (345 single; 70 double)

[edit]Student residences

NUS also has 3 Student Residences for undergraduate students with clusters of 11 to 15 single rooms with their own kitchen and bathroom facilities. Kitchen and dining areas are equipped with basic cooking appliances. The newly built university town houses Graduate Residence for graduate students with the option of both apartments and single rooms. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31S battery)

Each residence has a team of Resident Assistants (senior students) and Resident Advisors (either an academic or non-academic staff) to assist with any concerns that students may have. The 3 Student Residences are:

The École polytechnique (commonly known as Polytechnique or, in France, by the nickname X) is a state-run institution of higher education and research in Palaiseau, Essonne, France, near Paris.

The Polytechnique is renowned for its four year undergraduate/graduate[2] Master's program. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31Z battery) Called the Ingénieur polytechnicien (polytechnic engineer) program, this attracts the strongest students from the two-year post-secondary-school science and math preparatory programs for the grandes écoles, provides those who pass the famously selective entrance exam with a broad scientific education,[4] and opens the way for many of them to careers in positions of influence in government, industry, finance, and research. In addition to the 2000 polytechnic engineer students (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31E battery) (of which only 1000 study on campus), there are 200 students pursuing two-year[5] Master's degrees and 500 doctoral students, for a relatively small total enrollment of 2700.

The Polytechnique was established during the French Revolution[6] in 1794 by Gaspard Monge, and it became a military school under Napoleon in 1804. It is still under the control of the French Ministry of Defence today. Initially, the school was located in the Latin Quarter of central Paris(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31J battery), and it moved to Palaiseau on the Saclay Plateau about 14 km (8.7 mi) southwest of Paris in 1976.[7] It is a founding member of the ParisTech grouping of leading Paris-area engineering schools, established in 2007.

The Polytechnique is one of the grandes écoles that have traditionally prepared technocrats to lead French government and industry, and has been one of the most privileged routes into the elite divisions of the civil service known as the grands corps de l'état(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31M battery). This role is evolving. Since 1995, Polytechnique has admitted a significant number[8] of international applicants to its polytechnic engineer program,[9] and 20% of each cohort are now foreign students.[10] The portion of graduates pursuing further university education, such as a second Master's degree or a doctorate, rather than entering the French civil service, has been growing in recent years to over 30%(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31B battery).


The cadets of Polytechnique rushed to the defence of Paris against the foreign armies in 1814. A statue set in the honour courtyard of the school commemorates this deed. A copy was installed in West Point.

The École has more than 200 years of tradition:[11]

1794: The École centrale des travaux publics is founded by Lazare Carnot and Gaspard Monge, during the French Revolution, at the time of the National Convention. It is renamed "École polytechnique" one year later(">Sony VAIO VGN-FZ32 battery).

1805: Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte settles the École on Montagne Sainte-Geneviève, in the Quartier Latin, in central Paris (48.847747°N 2.349043°E), as a military academy and gives its motto Pour la Patrie, les Sciences et la Gloire (For the Nation, science and glory).

1814: Students took part in the fights to defend Paris from the Sixth Coalition(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ410 battery).

1830: Fifty students participated the July Revolution.

1914–1918: Students are mobilised and the school is transformed into a hospital. More than two hundred students were killed during the war.

1939–1945: Polytechnique is moved away to Lyon in the free zone. More than four hundred polytechnicians died for France during the Second World War (Free French, French Resistance, Nazi camps) (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21 battery).

1970: The École becomes a state supported civilian institution, under the auspice of the Ministry of Defence.

1972: Women are admitted to Polytechnique for the first time.

1976: The École moves from Paris to Palaiseau (approx 25 km / 15 miles from Paris)

1985: The École starts delivering Ph.D. degrees.

1994: Celebration of the bicentennial chaired by President François Mitterrand

2000: A new cursus is set in place, passing to 4 years and reforming the polytechnicien curriculum

2005: The École starts delivering Master's degrees(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21S battery).

2007: The École is a founding member of UniverSud Paris and ParisTech.

Organization and administration

Military status

Polytechnique flag guard on Bastille Day Military Parade 2008.

Polytechnique is a higher education establishment[12] run under the supervision of the French ministry of Defence, through the General Delegation for Ordnance[13] (administratively speaking, it is a national public establishment of an administrative character).

Though no longer a military academy, it is headed by a general, and employs military personnel in executive, administrative and sport training positions. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21M battery)Both male and female French undergraduate polytechniciens are regular officers[15] and have to go through a period of military training before the start of studies.

However, the military aspects of the school have lessened with time, with a reduced period of preliminary military training, and fewer and fewer students pursuing careers as military officers after leaving the school. On special occasions(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ38M battery), such as the military parade on the Champs-Élysées on Bastille Day, the polytechniciens wear the 19th-century-style “grand uniform”, with the famous bicorne, or cocked hat, but students have not typically worn a uniform on campus since the elimination of the “internal uniform” in the mid-1980s(Sony VAIO VGN-SZ battery).

[edit]Activities and teaching staff

Polytechnique has a combined undergraduate-graduate general engineering teaching curriculum as well as a graduate school. In addition to the faculty coming from its local laboratories, it employs many researchers and professors from other institutions, including other CNRS, INRIA and CEA laboratories as well as the École Normale Supérieure and nearby institutions such as the École Supérieure d'Électricité (Supélec) (Sony VGN-NR11S/S Battery), the Institut d'Optique or the Université Paris-Sud, creating a varied and high-level teaching environment.[18]

Contrary to French public universities, the teaching staff at Polytechnique are not civil servants (fonctionnaires)[19] but contract employees operating under regulations different from those governing university professors. An originality of Polytechnique is that in addition to full-time teaching staff (exercice complet) (Sony VGN-NR11M/S Battery), who do research at the École in addition to a full teaching service, there are partial-time teaching staff (exercice incomplet) who do not do research on behalf of the École and carry only a partial teaching load.[20] Part-time teaching staff are often recruited from research institutions (CNRS, CEA, INRIA...) operating inside the École campus, in the Paris region, or even sometimes elsewhere in France(Sony VGN-NR260E/S Battery).

[edit]Academic Profile

Benoît Mandelbrot during his speech at the ceremony when he was made an officer of the Legion of Honour on September 11, 2006, at the École polytechnique

[edit]The Polytechnicien studies

“The mission of the Ecole Polytechnique is to train students capable of devising and achieving complex and innovative projects at the highest level possible, thanks to a strong pluriscientific culture(Sony VGN-NR260E/T Battery). Our mission is also to train young men and women in leadership skills so that they can become tomorrow's outstanding scientists, researchers, managers and public officials.[21]  ”

The Polytechnicien program is broader than typical French university studies, often including topics beyond one's specialty. This focus on breadth rather than depth has been hotly debated over the years, but it nevertheless forms a characteristic of the Polytechnicien program. It is particularly useful for cross fertilization purposes between different fields(Sony VGN-NR260E/W Battery), as graduates from Polytechnique most often have abilities in several disciplines; for example, they must follow at least six different topics during their second year. Humanities and sports are also mandatory parts of the curriculum, adding to the differences with most French university programs.


The admission to Polytechnique in the polytechnicien cycle is made through a very selective entrance examination(Sony VGN-NR11Z/S Battery), and requires at least two years of preparation after high school in classes préparatoires. Admission includes a week of written examinations during the spring followed by oral examinations that are handled in batches (séries) over the summer.[22]

About 400 French students are admitted each year. Foreign students, having followed a classe préparatoire curriculum (generally, French residents or students from former French colonies in Africa) can also enter through the same competitive exam (they are known as “EV1”) (Sony VGN-NR11Z/T Battery). Foreign students can also apply through a “second track” (“EV2”) following undergraduate studies. In total, there are about 100 foreign students each year and 64 nationalities are represented.[23] Most of them come from Lebanon, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Peru, China, Vietnam, Iran, Romania, Turkey and Russia, India but some also from Canada, Cuba, Singapore, Malaysia and the United States(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21E battery). Finally, some foreign students come for a single year from other top institutions in Europe and the United States.[24]


Four years of study are required for the engineering degree:[25] one year of military service and scientific "common trunk" (respectively 8 months and 4 months), one year of multidisciplinary studies, and one year of specialized studies (“majors”). With the X2000 reform, a fourth year of studies, in another institution than Polytechnique, was introduced(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21Z battery).

First year

The curriculum begins with 8 months during which French students undergo civilian or military service. In the past, military service lasted 12 months and was compulsory for all French students; the suppression of the draft in France made this requirement of Polytechnique somewhat anachronistic, and the service was recast as a period of “human and military formation” (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21J battery). All the French students spend one month together in La Courtine in a military training center. By the end of this month, they are assigned either to a civilian service or to the Army, Navy, Air Force or Gendarmerie. Students who are assigned to a military service complete a two-month military training in French officer schools such as Saint-Cyr or École Navale. Finally, they are spread out over a wide range of units for a five month long assignment to a French military unit (Sony VAIO VGN-FW11 battery) (which can include, but is not limited to, infantry and artillery regiments, naval ships and air bases).[26] While French students stay under military status during their studies at Polytechnique, and participate in a variety of ceremonies and other military events, for example national ceremonies, such as those of Bastille Day or anniversaries of the armistices of the World Wars, they do not undergo military training per se after having completed their service in the first year. (Sony VAIO VGN-FW11M battery) They receive at the end of the first year the full dress uniform, which comprises black trousers with a red strip (a skirt for females), a coat with brass buttons and a belt, a small sword and a cocked hat (officially called a bicorne).

Francophone foreign students do a civilian service. Civilian service can, for instance, consist of being an assistant in a high school in a disadvantaged French suburb(Sony VAIO VGN-FW11S battery).

Then, a four-month period begins in which all students take the same five courses: Mathematics, Applied Mathematics, Physics, Computer Science and Economics.

Second year

The second year is a year of pluridisciplinary studies. The set of disciplines spans most areas of science (mathematics, applied mathematics, mechanics, computing science, biology, physics, chemistry, economics) and some areas in the humanities (Sony VAIO VGN-FW21E battery) (foreign languages, general humanities...). Students have to choose 8 courses in at least 6 different disciplines.

Third year

In the third year, students have to choose an in-depth program (programme d'approfondissement), which often focuses on a discipline or sometimes an interdisciplinary subject. This year is ended by a research internship (3 months to 5 months) (Sony VAIO VGN-FW21J battery).

Fourth year

The fourth year is the beginning of more specialized studies: students not entering a Corps de l'État must join either a Master's program, a doctorate program, another ParisTech college or institute such as the École des Mines de Paris or ENSAE, or a specialization institute such as Supaéro in Toulouse or ENSPM in Rueil-Malmaison(Sony VAIO VGN-FW21L battery). The reason for this is that the generic education given at Polytechnique is more focused on developing thinking skills than preparing for the transition to an actual engineering occupation, which requires further technical education. Increasingly, students chose to spend their fourth year studying in a foreign university. About a quarter of 3rd year students chose this path in 2008(Sony VAIO VGN-FW41M battery). American universities are a favourite, but the Ecole Polytechnique has agreements with universities in a large set of countries.

[edit]Class rank and career path

Grades of the second year of the curriculum are used to rank the students. Traditionally, this exit ranking of the school had a very high importance, and some peculiarities of the organizations of studies and grading can be traced to the need for a fair playing ground between students(Sony VAIO VGN-FW41M/H battery).

For French nationals, the ranking is actually part of a government recruitment program: a certain number of seats in civil or military Corps, including elite civil servant Corps such as the Corps des Mines, are open to the student body each year. At some point during their course of study, students specify a list of Corps that they would like to enter in order of preference(Sony VAIO VGN-FW21M battery), and they are enrolled into the highest one according to their ranking. The next stepping stone for Polytechnique graduates, or polytechniciens, on this path is to enter one of four technical civil service training schools: the École des Mines, the École des Ponts et Chaussées, the ENST, or the ENSAE, thus joining one of the civil service bodies known as the grands corps techniques de l'État. Those who pursue this path are known as X-Mines(Sony VAIO VGN-FW21Z battery), X-Ponts, X-Télécoms and X-INSEE, respectively, with the X prefix, for Polytechnique, identifying them as particularly elite members of their corps.

Since the X2000 reform, the importance of the ranking has lessened. Except for the Corps curricula, universities and schools where the Polytechniciens complete their educations now base their acceptance decisions on transcripts of all grades(Sony VAIO VGN-FW32J battery).

Tuition and financial obligations

For French nationals, tuition is free as long as the full curriculum is completed, and a salary is received throughout the school years at the level of a reserve officer in training. French students, through the student board (Caisse des élèves or Kès), redistribute some of their salary to foreign students, most of whom also benefit from grants(Sony VAIO VGN-FW17W battery).

There is no particular financial obligation for students following the curriculum, and then entering an application school or graduate program that Polytechnique approves of. However, French students who choose to enter a civilian or military corps after Polytechnique are expected to complete 10 years of public service following their admission to the school (i.e. their 3 years at school count towards their time of service) (Sony VAIO VGN-FW31E battery). If a student enters a Corps but does not fulfill those 10 years of public service (e.g. resigns from his or her Corps), the tuition fees are due to the school. Sometimes, when an alumnus quits a Corps to join a private company, that company will pay for the tuition fees which are then called the pantoufle (slipper) (Sony VAIO VGN-FW139E battery).

[edit]The graduate school

Polytechnique organizes various Master's programs, by itself or in association with other schools and universities (in the Paris region, École Normale Supérieure, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris VI, École Supérieure d'Électricité (Supélec), other member institutions of ParisTech, Toulouse area and foreign partner universities) on a wide variety of topics(Sony VAIO VGN-FW139E/H battery). Access to those programs is not restricted to polytechniciens, although they are invited to join them and they make up one half of the students. The following Master's programmes are offered:

Applied Mathematics (Mathematics and Modelling – Probability Theory and Finance – Probability Theory and Aleatory Models)

Chemistry (Molecular Chemistry)

Complex Information Systems (Design and Management of Complex Information Systems)

Computer Science (Fundamental Computer Science)

Economics (Quantitative Economics & Finance [M1] – Economic Analysis and Policy – Economics of Energy, Environment, Sustainable Development - Economics of Markets and Organizations) (Sony VAIO VGN-FW465J battery)

Mathematics (Analysis, Arithmetic and Geometry)

Mechanics (Materials and Structural Mechanics - Sustainable building Materials – Fluid Mechanics: fundamentals and applications – Oceans, Atmosphere, Climate, Space Observations)

Molecular and Cellular Biology (Structural and Functional Engineering of Biomolecules)

Physics and Applications (Sony VAIO VGN-FW31M battery) (Fundamental Concepts in Physics: Theoretical, Quantum, Solid State, Liquid & Soft Matter Physics - Optics, Matter and Plasmas – Materials Science and Nano-Objects – Fusion Sciences - Quantum Devices - Nanosciences - High Energy Physics)

Sciences, Technologies, Society (Project, Innovation, Conception – Network Industry and Digital Economy - LoPHiSS/Science of Cognition & Complex Systems)

and Polytechnique takes part in two degrees awarded by ParisTech:

Nuclear Energy

Transportation and Sustainable Development: Master ParisTech – Fondation Renault

About 50% of Master's students come from abroad(Sony VAIO VGN-FW31J battery).

[edit]The doctoral program

The school also has a doctoral program open to students with a master's degree or equivalent.[27] Doctoral students generally work in the laboratories of the school; they may also work in external institutes or establishments that cannot, or will not, grant doctorates.

About 35% of doctoral students come from abroad(Sony VAIO VGN-FW31Z battery).

International Rankings

In international rankings, Polytechnique is often placed among the best universities of the world.

The Academic Ranking of World Universities, also known as the Shanghai Rankings, places Polytechnique in 2010 at 201-300 worldwide, and 8-13 in France.

The THE-QS World University Rankings and its successor QS World University Rankings[28] (From 2010 two separate rankings are produced by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings and the QS World University Rankings) (Sony VGN-NR11Z Battery) have placed Polytechnique 36th in the 2011 rankings, #2 among French institutions, behind École Normale Supérieure.

Polytechnique is known for its extremely competitive entrance exam. It is the most selective French engineering school.[32] In rankings by French newspapers, Polytechnique almost always secures first place among French institutions. According to salary surveys its graduates are among the highest paid of all French graduates(Sony VGN-NR11S Battery).


It has many research laboratories operating in various scientific fields (physics, mathematics, computer science, economics, chemistry, biology, etc.), most operated in association with national scientific institutions such as CNRS, CEA, or also INRIA(Sony VGN-NR110E Battery).

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