McGill University is a public research university located in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The university bears the name of James McGill, a prominent Montreal merchant from Glasgow, Scotland and alumnus of Glasgow University, whose bequest formed the beginning of the university(SONY PCG-5G2L battery). Founded in 1821, McGill was chartered during the British colonial era, 46 years before the Canadian Confederation, making it one of the oldest universities in Canada.
As of 2011, McGill ranked 17th in the world in the QS World University Rankings. According to the 2011 Emerging/Trendence Global Employability Ranking, McGill was ranked 19th in the world for popularity among major employers. (SONY PCG-5G3L battery)In the Maclean's 21st Annual University Ranking (2011), McGill was ranked 1st in Canada among all institutions offering medical and doctoral degrees, maintaining this ranking for the seventh year in a row.
With almost 215,000 living alumni worldwide, students and professors at McGill have been recognized in fields ranging from the arts and sciences(SONY PCG-F305 battery), to business, politics, and sports. Notable alumni include eleven Nobel Laureates, one hundred and thirty-two Rhodes Scholars, three astronauts, two Canadian prime ministers, eleven justices of the Canadian Supreme Court, three foreign leaders, nine Academy Award winners, three Pulitzer Prize winners, and twenty-eight Olympic medalists(SONY PCG-5J1L battery).
The main campus is set upon 32 hectares (79 acres) at the foot of Mount Royal in Downtown Montreal, covering much of the Golden Square Mile. A second campus, the Macdonald Campus, is situated on 6.5 square kilometres (2.5 sq mi) of fields and forested land in Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, 30 km (19 mi) west of the downtown campus(SONY PCG-5J2L battery). With 21 faculties and professional schools, McGill offers degrees and diplomas in over 300 fields of study, including medicine and law. Although the language of instruction is English, students have the right to submit any graded work in English or in French, except when learning a particular language is an objective of the course. Approximately 34,000 students attend McGill, with international students comprising one-fifth of the student population(SONY PCG-5K2L battery).
Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning
The creation of the Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning (RIAL) in 1801, and its formation of two new Royal Grammar Schools in 1816, acted as turning points for Canada in two particular ways. First, the schools "were created by legislation, the District Public Schools Act of 1807, and they showed the government's willingness to support the costs of education and even the salary of a schoolmaster(SONY PCG-5L1L battery). Second, the law involved the state in education, an important first step in the creation of nondenominational schools." The original two schools closed in 1846; by the mid-19th century the RIAL lost control of the other 82 grammar schools it had administered. Its sole remaining purpose was to administer the McGill bequests on behalf of the college. McGill College continued to grow, now having the sole aim of providing post-secondary education(SONY PCG-6S2L battery). The RIAL continues to exist today; it is the corporate identity that runs the university and its various constituent bodies, including the former Macdonald College (now Macdonald Campus), the Montreal Neurological Institute and the Royal Victoria College (the former women's college turned residence). Since the revised Royal Charter of 1852(SONY PCG-6S3L battery), The Trustees of the RIAL comprise the Board of Governors of McGill University. One of Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll`s works as a sculptor is the statue of her Royal mother Queen Victoria erected in front of the Royal Victoria College, Montreal.
James McGill, the original benefactor of McGill University.
James McGill, born in Glasgow, Scotland on 6 October 1744, was a successful English and French-speaking merchant in Quebec, having matriculated into Glasgow University in 1756. (SONY PCG-6V1L battery) Between 1811 and 1813 he drew up a will leaving his "Burnside estate", a 19-hectare (47-acre) tract of rural land and 10,000 pounds to the Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning.
Upon McGill's death in December 1813 the Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning, established in 1801 by an Act of the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada, added the establishing of a University pursuant to the conditions of McGill's will to its original function of administering elementary education in Lower Canada(SONY PCG-6W1L battery). As a condition of the bequest, the land and funds had to be used for the establishment of a "University or College, for the purposes of Education and the Advancement of Learning in the said Province." The will specified that the college would be required to bear his name and must be established within 10 years of his death; otherwise the bequest would revert to the heirs of his wife. (SONY PCG-7111L battery)
On March 31, 1821, after protracted legal battles with the Desrivieres family (the heirs of his wife), McGill College received a royal charter from King George IV. The Charter provided that the College should be deemed and taken as a University, with the power of conferring degrees.
The Arts Building, built in 1839 and designed by John Ostell, is the oldest building on campus still standing(SONY PCG-71511M battery).
Despite having a royal charter, McGill College was inactive until 1829 when the Montreal Medical Institution, which had been founded in 1823, became the college's first academic unit and Canada's first medical school. The Faculty of Medicine granted its first degree, a Doctor of Medicine and Surgery, in 1833; this was also the first medical degree to be awarded in Canada. (SONY PCG-6W3L battery) The Faculty of Medicine remained the school's only functioning faculty until 1843 when the Faculty of Arts commenced teaching in the newly constructed Arts Building and East Wing (Dawson Hall). The university also historically has strong linkage with the The Canadian Grenadier Guards, a military regiment in which James McGill served as the Lieutenant-Colonel(SONY PCG-7113L battery). This title is marked upon the stone that stands before the Arts building, from where the Guards step off annually to commemorate Remembrance Day.
Sir John William Dawson, Principal of McGill University 1855-1893.
Sir John William Dawson, McGill's principal from 1855 to 1893, is often credited with transforming the school into a modern university. He recruited the aid of Montreal's wealthiest citizens (eighty percent of Canada's wealth was then controlled by families who lived within the Golden Square Mile area that surrounded the university) (SONY PCG-7133L battery), many of whom donated property and funding needed to construct the campus buildings. Their names adorn many of the campus's prominent buildings. William Spier (architect) designed the addition of West Wing of the Arts Building for William Molson, 1861 Alexander Francis Dunlop designed major alterations to the East Wing of McGill College (now called the Arts Building, MCGill University) for Prof(SONY PCG-7Z1L battery). Bovey and the Science Dept., 1888. This expansion of the campus continued until 1920. Buildings designed by Andrew Taylor (Architect), include the Redpath Museum (1880), Macdonald Physics Building (1893), the Redpath Library (1893), the Macdonald Chemistry Building (1896), the Macdonald Engineering Building (1907), and the Strathcona Medical Building (1907)—since renamed the Strathcona Anatomy and Dentistry Building(SONY PCG-7Z2L battery) .
In 1885, the university's Board of Governors formally adopted the use of the name McGill University. The Faculty of Law was founded in 1848, making it Canada's oldest. The school of architecture at McGill University was founded in 1896.
Women's education at McGill began in 1884, when Donald Smith, also known as Lord Strathcona, began funding separate lectures for women, given by university staff members(SONY PCG-8Y1L battery). The first degrees granted to women at McGill were conferred in 1888. In 1899, the Royal Victoria College (RVC) opened as a residential college for women at McGill. Until the 1970s, all female undergraduate students, known as "Donaldas," were considered to be members of RVC. Beginning in the autumn of 2010, the newer Tower section of Royal Victoria College is a co-ed dormitory(SONY PCG-8Y2L battery), whereas the older West Wing remains strictly for women. Both the Tower and the West Wing of Royal Victoria College form part of the university's residence system. In 1900, the university established the MacLennan Travelling Library. McGill University waltz composed by Frances C. Robinson, was published in Montréal by W.H. Scroggie, c 1904. (SONY PCG-8Z2L battery)
In 1905, the university acquired a second campus when Sir William C. Macdonald, one of the university's major benefactors, endowed a college in Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, 32 kilometres west of Montreal. Macdonald College, now known as the Macdonald Campus, opened to students in 1907, originally offering programs in agriculture, household science, and teaching(SONY PCG-8Z1L battery).
McGill established the first post-secondary institutions in British Columbia to provide degree programs to the growing cities of Vancouver and Victoria. It created Victoria College in 1903, a two-year college offering first and second-year McGill courses in arts and science, which was the predecessor institution to the modern University of Victoria(SONY PCG-7112L battery). The province's first university was incorporated in Vancouver in 1908 as the McGill University College of British Columbia. The private institution granted McGill degrees until it became the independent University of British Columbia in 1915.
George Allan Ross (architect) designed the Pathological Building, 1922–23; the Neurological Institute, 1933; Neurological Institute addition 1938 at McGill University. (SONY PCG-6W2L battery) Jean Julien Perrault (architect) designed the McTavish Street residence for Charles E. Gravel, which is now called David Thompson House (1934).
The War Memorial Hall (more generally known as Memorial Hall) is a landmark building on the campus of McGill University. At the dedication ceremony the Governor General of Canada (Viscount of Tunis) laid the cornerstone(SONY PCG-5K1L battery). Dedicated on October 6, 1946, the Memorial Hall and adjoining Memorial Pool honour students who had enlisted and died in the First World War, and in the Second World War. In Memorial Hall, there are two Stained Glass Regimental badge World War I and World War II Memorial Windows by Charles William Kelsey c. 1950/1. (SONY PCGA-BP2E battery) A war memorial window (1950) by Charles William Kelsey in the McGill War Memorial Hall depicts the figure of St. Michael and the badges of the Navy, Army and the Air Force. Six other windows (1951) by Charles William Kelsey on the west wall of the memorial hall depict the coats of arms of the regiments in which the McGill alumni were members. There is a memorial archway at Macdonald College(SONY VGP-BPS2 battery), two additional floors added to the existing Sir Arthur Currie gymnasium, a hockey rink and funding for an annual Memorial Assembly. A Book of Remembrance on a marble table contains the names of those lost in both World Wars. The National Film Board of Canada documentary `Occupation` (1970), directed by Bill Reid, documents the occupation of the offices of the Political Science Department at McGill University in 1970 by striking political science students.` (SONY VGP-BPS3 battery)
McGill's student population includes 25,938 undergraduate and 8,881 graduate students representing diverse geographic and linguistic backgrounds. Of the entire student population, 54.7% are from Quebec and 25.4% are from the rest of Canada, while 20.0% are from outside of Canada (including the United States) (SONY VGP-BPS4 battery). International students hail from about 150 different countries, with Americans comprising about half of all international undergraduates and a third of all international postgraduates in the entering class of 2010. In recent years, a growing number of American students are attending McGill: many are attracted to the culture and dynamism of Montreal, the university's reputation(SONY VGP-BPS5 battery), and the relatively low tuition costs in comparison to many top public and private universities in the United States. Almost half of McGill students claim a first language other than English. While the university is located in a Francophone province, only 17.8% of the students claim French as their mother tongue, compared to 51.8% who claim English and 30.5% who claim some other language. (SONY VGP-BPS5A battery)
Faculties and schools
In the 2007–2008 school year, McGill offered over 340 academic programs in eleven faculties. The university also offers over 250 doctoral and master's graduate degree programs. Despite strong increases in university enrollment across North America, McGill has upheld a relatively low and appealing student-faculty ratio of 16:1. (SONY VGP-BPS8 battery) There are nearly 1,600 tenured or tenure-track professors and 4,300 adjunct and visiting professors teaching at the university.
22% of all students are enrolled in the Faculty of Arts, McGill's largest academic unit. Of the other larger faculties, the Faculty of Science enrolls 15%, the Faculty of Medicine enrolls 13%, the Centre for Continuing Education enrolls 12%, the Faculty of Engineering and the Desautels Faculty of Management enrol about 10% each. (SONY VGP-BPS8A battery) The remainder of all students are enrolled in McGill's smaller schools, including the Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Faculty of Education, Faculty of Law, Schulich School of Music, and the Faculty of Religious Studies. Since the 1880s, McGill has been affiliated with three Theological Colleges; the Montreal Diocesan Theological College (SONY VGP-BPL8 battery) (Anglican Church of Canada), The Presbyterian College, Montreal (Presbyterian Church in Canada), and United Theological College (United Church of Canada). The university's Faculty of Religious Studies maintains additional affiliations with other theological institutions and organizations, such as the Montreal School of Theology. (SONY VGP-BPS9 battery)
Schools at the university include the School of Architecture, the School of Computer Science, the School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition, the School of Nursing, the School of Social Work, the School of Urban Planning, and the McGill School of Environment. They also include the Institute of Islamic Studies (established in 1952) which offers graduate courses leading to the M.A. and Ph.D. degrees(SONY VGP-BPS9/S battery), and covering the history, culture, and civilization of Islam since its inception and up to modern times; the Institute is also served by one of the richest libraries in North America on Islamic studies with sources in many languages. The Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies (GPS) oversees the admission and registration of graduate students (both master's and Ph.D.). The GPS administers graduate fellowships, postdoctoral affairs, and the graduation process, including the examination of theses(SONY VGP-BPS9A battery). In conjunction with other units, it conducts regular program reviews in all study disciplines.
Founded in 1956, the McGill Executive Institute provides business seminars and custom executive education to companies, government services and non-profit organizations. Led primarily by McGill faculty, the executive courses and management training programs are designed for all managerial levels, from board members to senior-level executives to junior managers(SONY VGP-BPS9A/B battery).
Research centres and institutes
Centre for International Peace and Security Studies 
Research plays a critical role at McGill. According to the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, "Researchers at McGill are affiliated with about 75 major research centres and networks, and are engaged in an extensive array of research partnerships with other universities, government and industry in Quebec and Canada, throughout North America and in dozens of other countries." (SONY VGP-BPS9/B battery) Annually, around 100 inventions take place at McGill. In recognition of its research quality, McGill is affiliated with 11 Nobel Laureates and professors have won major teaching prizes. McGill's researchers are supported by the McGill University Library, which comprises 13 branch libraries and holds over six million items.
Since 1926, McGill has been a member of the Association of American Universities (AAU) (SONY VGP-BPS9A/S battery), an organization of leading research universities in North America. McGill is also a founding member of Universitas 21, an international network of leading research-intensive universities that work together to expand their global reach and advance their plans for internationalization(SONY VGP-BPL9 battery).
McGill is a member of the U15, a group of prominent research universities within Canada. McGill-Queen's University Press began as McGill in 1963 and amalgamated with Queen's in 1969. McGill-Queen's University Press focuses on Canadian studies and publishes the Canadian Public Administration Series. (SONY VGP-BPS10 battery)
Radon, discovered at McGill by physicist Ernest Rutherford
McGill is perhaps best recognized for its research and discoveries in the health sciences. William Osler, Wilder Penfield, Donald Hebb, Brenda Milner, and others made significant discoveries in medicine, neuroscience and psychology while working at McGill. The Montreal Neurological Institute is also located in McGill university, where many of these individuals worked(SONY VGP-BPL10 battery). The first hormone governing the Immune System (later christened the Cytokine 'Interleukin-2') was discovered at McGill in 1965 by Gordon & McLean. The invention of the world's first artificial cell was made by Thomas Chang, an undergraduate student at the university. While chair of physics at McGill, nuclear physicist Ernest Rutherford performed the experiment that led to the discovery of the alpha particle and its function in radioactive decay(SONY VGP-BPS11 battery), which won him the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1908. Alumnus Jack Szostak, now a professor of genetics at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize in medicine for discovering a key mechanism in the genetic operations of cells, an insight that has inspired new lines of research into cancer(SONY VGP-BPL11 battery).
William Chalmers invented Plexiglas while a graduate student at McGill. In computing, MUSIC/SP, software for mainframes once popular among universities and colleges around the world, was developed at McGill. A team also contributed to the development of Archie, a pre-WWW search engine. A 3270 terminal emulator developed at McGill was commercialized and later sold to Hummingbird Software(SONY VGP-BPL12 battery).
McGill is Canada's top-ranked university among those offering medical and doctoral degrees, ranking first in Canada for the seventh consecutive year in the Maclean's 21st annual University Rankings issue. The university has held first place in student awards for nine consecutive years, and consistently ranks first for reputation(SONY VGP-BPS12 battery), average size, and number of social sciences and humanities grants per full-time faculty. The Gourman Ranking of Canadian Universities also ranked McGill first in Canada in its 1998 report on undergraduate programs.
In the 2011 QS World University Rankings, McGill was ranked the best university in Canada, the second best public university in North America (behind University of Michigan), and 17th in the world(SONY VGP-BPS13 battery), going up two places since the 2010 THE-QS World University Rankings (in 2010 Times Higher Education World University Rankings and QS World University Rankings parted ways to produce separate rankings). McGill was also ranked 15th in the world for Employer Reputation by Q.S. Within specific fields, in 2009 McGill ranked 10th in the life sciences and biomedicine, 14th in the arts and humanities(SONY VGP-BPS13Q battery), 17th in the social sciences, 26th in the natural sciences, and 20th in technology. When McGill placed 12th overall in the 2007 ranking, the achievement was regarded as the "highest rank to be reached by a Canadian institution." McGill ranks 28th in the world according to the 2011 Times Higher Education World University Rankings. In the most recent ranking of world universities by U.S. News & World Report(SONY VGP-BPS13A/Q battery), McGill university is ranked 17th. In Shanghai Jiao Tong University's Academic Ranking of World Universities 2011, McGill ranked third in Canada and 64th in the world. In Newsweek's global rankings of 2011, the university ranks 13th among institutions outside the United States, and third in Canada. In 2011, the Trendence/Emerging Global Employability Ranking(SONY VGP-BPS13B/Q battery), based on a survey of hundreds of major employers in 10 different countries, ranked schools according to their perceived popularity among major job recruiters. McGill placed 19th in the world for employability in this ranking. In the 2008 College Prowler Online rankings for Academics at North American universities, McGill earned an A- for Academics; making it the only Canadian school to achieve a grade above a B-.(SONY VGP-BPS13/B battery)
In 2009, Forbes ranked McGill's business school, the Desautels Faculty of Management, 11th in the world among non-U.S. universities for its two-year MBA program. The Eduniversal Ranking placed the Desautels Faculty of Management of McGill University first in Canada and 8th in the world among business schools. The Financial Times(SONY VGP-BPS13B/B battery), in its global MBA ranking, placed Desautels 44th in the world in 2006 and 57th in 2011. The ranking placed it 33rd and 31st worldwide in the value for money and alumni recommended categories respectively. In BusinessWeek's Best International B-Schools Of 2008, Desautels was ranked among the top 16 international business schools, ranking fourth in intellectual capital with a selectivity of 32%.(SONY VGP-BPS13A/S battery)
Since Maclean's began ranking Canadian law schools in 2007, it has placed McGill's law school second overall for the second year in a row. In particular, McGill's law school, which requires reading knowledge of French and offers the joint B.C.L./LL.B. degree in both civil law and common law, ranked first by supreme court clerkships, second by elite firm hiring, third by faculty hiring, fourth by faculty journal citations, and eighth by national reach. (SONY VGP-BPS21A/B battery)
The Globe and Mails Canadian University Report awarded McGill top marks in its 2008 annual university survey. McGill received an A+ for Academic Reputation, the highest score of any large, medium, or small sized University. Additionally the school received an A- for: most satisfied students, quality of education, extracurricular activities, recreation and athletics(SONY VGP-BPS21B battery), and campus atmosphere; as well as A's in both library services and campus technology. The Canadian University Report awarded McGill's downtown campus a D for its 'on-campus' food services and a C for its on-campus pub Gerts.
Research Infosource named McGill "Research University of the Year" in its 2003 and 2005 rankings of Canada's Top 50 Research Universities. In 2007, Research Infosource ranked McGill the second-best research university in the country(SONY VGP-BPS21 battery), after the University of Toronto. They also ranked McGill University third in Canada in research-intensity and fourth in total-research funding, finding that McGill ranks in the top five universities in terms of research dollars per full-time faculty member and number of refereed publications per full-time faculty member. The study showed that research funding represents approximately $259,100 per faculty member, the fourth highest in the country. (SONY VGP-BPS21/S battery)
McGill was named one of "Canada's Top 100 Employers" in October 2008 and October 2009 by Mediacorp Canada Inc., and was featured in Maclean's newsmagazine.
The Sustainable Endowments Institute gave McGill a grade of "B" on the 2009 College Sustainability Report Card for its improvements in on-campus environmental sustainability, with only 34 schools earning higher grade. (SONY VGP-BPS13AS battery)
Playboy magazine, in its May 2006 issue, ranked McGill as the tenth best party school in North America. McGill was the only Canadian university in the list.
For Fall 2010, McGill accepted 13,709 (47.2%) of 29,059 undergraduate applicants, and 3,537 (34.4%) of 10,268 graduate applicants; about 6,000 undergraduates and 2,000 graduates matriculate each year. Among admitted students(SONY VGP-BPS13S battery), the median Quebec CEGEP r-score was 30.1, while the median grade 12 averages for students entering McGill from outside of Quebec ranged between 91% and 92% (A). For American students, the median SAT scores in the verbal, math, and writing sections were 690, 700, and 690 respectively, for a combined SAT score of around 2080; the median ACT score was 31(SONY VGP-BPS13B/S battery).
For law students, the median undergraduate GPA was 85% (or 3.7 on a 4.0 scale) and the median LSAT score was 163 (88.1th percentile) out of a possible 180 points. For medical students, the median undergraduate GPA was 3.8 out of 4.0 and the median MCAT score was 32.1. Among the 30% of applicants admitted to the Desautels Faculty of Management's MBA program, applicants had, on average, a GMAT score of 665, an age of 27, and 49 months of work experience. (SONY VGP-BPS13B/G battery)
A hockey game on campus in 1884, just seven years after McGill students wrote the then-new game's first rule book, with the Arts Building, Redpath Museum, and Morrice Hall (then the Presbyterian College) visible.
McGill's downtown campus at night viewed from Mount Royal. The circular building in the foreground is the McIntyre Medical Sciences Building(SONY VGP-BPS14 battery).
McGill's main campus is situated in downtown Montreal at the foot of Mount Royal. Most of its buildings are situated in a park-like campus located north of Sherbrooke Street and south of Pine Ave between Peel and Aylmer streets. The campus also extends west of Peel for several blocks, starting north of Docteur-Penfield. The campus is near the Peel and McGill metro stations(SONY VGP-BPL14 battery). All of the major university buildings were constructed using local grey limestone, which serves as a unifying element.
The university's first classes were held in at Burnside Place, James McGill's country home. Burnside Place remained the sole educational facility until the 1840s, when the school began construction on its first buildings: the central and east wings of the Arts Building. (SONY VGP-BPS14/B battery) The rest of the campus was essentially a cow pasture, a situation similar to the few other Canadian universities and early American colleges of the age.
The university's athletic facilities, including Molson Stadium, are located on Mount Royal, near the residence halls and the Montreal Neurological Institute. The Gymnasium is named in honour of General Sir Arthur William Currie(SONY VGP-BPS14/S battery).
McGill's residence system is relatively small for a school of its size, housing approximately 2,700 undergraduate students and a handful of graduate students. Most McGill students do not live in residence (known colloquially as "rez") after their first year of study, even if they are not from the Montreal area. With the exception of students returning as "floor fellows" or "dons"(SONY VGP-BPS14B battery), the majority of McGill residences are for first-year undergraduate students only. Senior students are expected to find off-campus housing.
Many first-year students live in the Bishop Mountain Residences ("Upper Rez"), a series of concrete dormitories on the slope of Mount Royal, consisting of McConnell Hall, Molson Hall, Gardner Hall, and Douglas Hall. Douglas Hall, which opened in 1937(SONY VGP-BPS22 battery), is distinguished by its impressive stone facade and wood interiors. McConnell, Molson, and Gardner Halls, all built in the 1960s, share a cafeteria, located at the centre of the three dormitories, known as Bishop Mountain Hall.
Royal Victoria College, the second-largest residence at McGill, was a women's only dormitory; however in September 2010 the dormitory became co-ed. McGill's second newest residence, aptly named New Residence Hall ("New Rez")(SONY VGP-BPS22 battery) is a converted four-star hotel located a few blocks east of campus. New Rez is the largest of the university's dormitories. Solin Hall is an apartment-style residence four metro stops from campus. The McGill Off-Campus Residence Experience (MORE) residences consist of a series of converted apartment buildings and houses, the largest of which is The Greenbriar, an apartment-style residence located across from the Milton Gates(SONY VGP-BPS18 battery).
In autumn 2008, due to increased demand for first-year housing, the University chose to lease four floors of a privately owned apartment building for use as a university residence. The building, called "515 Ste. Catherine", is on the corner of Rue Ste. Catherine and Rue City Councillors, close to campus yet in the heart of downtown Montreal. It was completely renovated and featured a gym, movie theater, and fully furnished apartments(SONY VGP-BPS22/A battery). However, the McGill Residence Office decided to forgo use of the building after summer 2009. In April 2009, McGill acquired the Four Points Sheraton Hotel at 475 Sherbrooke Street West. The hotel was converted into a new student residence, which opened in fall 2009. Although it is the newest residence, students either call it Carrefour, or, informally, "C4." Officially, however, the building has been named Carrefour Sherbrooke Residence Hall(SONY VGP-BPS22A battery).
Most second-year students transition to off-campus apartment housing, and apartment hunting is sometimes seen as a rite of passage for McGill students. Many students end up living in the "McGill Ghetto", the neighbourhood directly to the east of the downtown campus. In recent years, finding affordable housing has been challenging because of the city's tight housing market(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11S battery), particularly in neighbourhoods close to the McGill campus. Students have begun moving out to other areas because of rising rent prices.
McGill has begun an ambitious process to lay the groundwork for future development. A Task Force on Campus Planning has been created to study the issue. It has begun to consult widely within the McGill and greater community on a broad range of issues including community life, physical development plans, and other issues(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ15T battery). Its recommendations include how McGill can develop in a way that supports the University’s mission and goals, and continues to benefit and bring value to the surrounding areas and the greater Montreal community. Among the guiding principles of the Task Force’s work are commitment to community, responsible stewardship, maintenance of green space and the integrity of the mountain, and the preservation of heritage architectural assets. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ15G battery)
One recent initiative turned McGill into a car-free campus.
Redevelopment plan, McGill University Health Centre
In 2006, the Quebec government initiated a $1.6 billion LEED redevelopment project for the McGill University Health Centre (MUHC). The project will expand facilities to two separate campuses and consolidate the various hospitals of the MUHC on the site of an old CP rail yard adjacent to the Vendôme metro station(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ4000 battery). This site, known as Glen Yards, comprises 170,000 square metres (1,800,000 sq ft) and spans portions of Montreal's Notre-Dame-de-Grâce neighbourhood and the city of Westmount. The Glen Yards project has been controversial due to local opposition to the project, environmental issues, and the cost of the project itself. The project, which has received approval from the provincial government, was, in 2003, expected to be complete by 2010(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ460E battery). The new 'campus' is now expected to open in 2014 or 2015.
Main article: Macdonald Campus
Macdonald Campus under construction in 1906
The Macdonald Campus coat of arms
A second campus, the Macdonald Campus, in Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue houses the Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Science, the School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition, the Institute of Parasitology, and the McGill School of Environment. The Morgan Arboretum and the J. S. Marshall Radar Observatory are nearby(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ440N battery).
The Morgan Arboretum was created in 1945. It is a 2.5-square-kilometre (0.965 sq mi) forested reserve with the aim of 'teaching, research, and public education'. Its mandated research goals are to continue research related to maintaining the health of the Arboretum plantations and woodlands, to develop new programs related to selecting species adapted to developing environmental conditions and to develop silvicultural practices that preserve and enhance biological diversity in both natural stands and plantations. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ440E battery)
In 2007, McGill premiered its Office of Sustainability and added a second full-time position in this area, the Director of Sustainability in addition to the Sustainability Officer. Recent efforts in implementing its sustainable development plan include the new Life Sciences Center which was built with LEED-Silver certification and a green roof, as well as an increase in parking rates in January 2008 to fund other sustainability projects. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ430E battery) Other student projects include The Flat: Bike Collective, which promotes alternative transportation, and the Farmer's Market, which occurs during the fall harvest. The Farmer's Market and many other initiatives came out of student collaboration during the Rethink Conference 2008. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ280E battery)
McGill's Bellairs Research Institute, located in St. James, Barbados 13°10′N 59°35′W, is Canada's only teaching and research facility in the tropics. The institute has been in use for over 50 years. Its facilities are regularly utilized by the Canadian Space Agency for research.
The laboratories of the Huntsman Marine Science Centre are located in St. Andrews, N.B., on 300,000 square metres (3,200,000 sq ft) of land at the estuary of the St. Croix River. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ190 battery) It hosts the Atlantic Reference Centre, which is known throughout the Maritimes for its extensive marine biology collections. The HMS is a research facility "committed to the advancement of the marine sciences through basic and applied research" and acts as a field facility for research and teaching by McGill and other member universities(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ150E battery).
McGill's Gault Nature Reserve 45°32′N 73°10′W spans over 10 square kilometres (3.9 sq mi) of forest land, the largest remaining remnant of the primeval forests of the St. Lawrence River Valley. The first scientific studies at the site occurred in 1859. The site has been the site of extensive research activities: "Today there are over 400 scientific articles(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ160 battery), 100 graduate theses, more than 50 government reports and about 30 book chapters that are based on research at Mont St. Hilaire."
In addition to the McGill University Health Centre, McGill has been directly partnered with many teaching hospitals for decades, and also has a history of collaborating with many hospitals in Montreal. These cooperations allow the university to graduate over 1,000 students in health care each year. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ260E battery) McGill's contract-affiliated teaching hospitals include: Montreal Children's Hospital, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal Neurological Hospital, Montreal Chest Institute and Royal Victoria Hospital which are all now part of the McGill University Health Centre. Other hospitals that health care students may use include: Sir Mortimer B. Davis – Jewish General Hospital, Douglas Hospital and St. Mary's Hospital Center. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ140E battery)
University identity and culture
McGill’s coat of arms
The McGill coat of arms is derived from an armorial device assumed during his lifetime by the founder of the University, James McGill. The University's patent of arms was granted by England's Garter-King-at-Arms in 1922 and registered in 1956 with Lord Lyon King of Arms in Edinburgh and in 1992 with the Public Register of Arms, Flags and Badges of Canada(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11L battery). In heraldic terms, the coat of arms is described as follows: "Argent three Martlets Gules, on a chief dancette of the second, an open book proper garnished or bearing the legend In Domino Confido in letters Sable between two crowns of the first. Motto: Grandescunt Aucta Labore." The coat of arms consists of two parts, the shield and the scroll. The University publishes a guide to the use of the University's arms and motto. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11Z battery)
The university's symbol is the martlet, stemming from the presence of the mythical bird on the official arms of the university. The school's official colours are red and white. McGill's motto is Grandescunt Aucta Labore, Latin for "By work, all things increase and grow" (literally, "Things grown great increase by work," that is, things that grow to be great do so by means of work) (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11M battery).
The official school song is entitled "Hail, Alma Mater."
Though McGill allowed students to write graduation theses in French as early as 1835, McGill never became a Francophone or officially bilingual university. Today, McGill is one of only three English-language universities in Quebec; fluency in French is not a requirement to attend. The Faculty of Law does, however, require all students to be "passively bilingual"(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ18M battery), meaning that all students must be able to understand written and spoken French—or English if the student is Francophone—since English or French may be used at any time in a course. Though the University allowed some students to write theses in French from the time the University was founded, since 1964 students in all faculties have been able to write exams and papers in either English or French, provided that the objective of the class is not to learn a particular language. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ18 battery)
The 1960s were a period of profound social and political change in Quebec, when English was seen as the privileged language of commerce. McGill, where Francophones comprised only three percent of the students, could be seen as the force maintaining economic control by Anglophones of a predominantly French-speaking province. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ210CE battery)
The McGill français movement began in 1969, demanding that McGill become Francophone, pro-nationalist, and pro-worker. The movement was led by Stanley Gray, a political science professor (and possibly unaware of government plans after the recent (1968) legislation founding the Université du Québec) (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31S battery). It argued that, since McGill received the lion's share of government funding, paid by a taxpayer base that was largely Francophone, the university should be equally accessible to that segment of the population. Gray led a demonstration of 10,000 trade unionists, leftist activists, CEGEP students, and even some McGill students, at the university's Roddick Gates on March 28, 1969(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31Z battery). Protesters shouted "McGill français", "McGill aux Québécois", and "McGill aux travailleurs" (McGill for workers). However, the majority of students and faculty opposed such a position, and many of the protesters were arrested. The McGill français protest was, at the time, the second-largest protest in the history of Montreal. Francophone students(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31E battery), whether from Quebec or overseas, now make up approximately 18 percent of the student body, a goal set by the administration partially in the wake of the movement. The totally Francophone Université du Québec à Montréal had by 2011 an enrolment of 40,000.
The campus has an active students' union represented by the undergraduate Students' Society of McGill University (SSMU) and the Post-Graduate Students' Society of McGill University (PGSS) (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31J battery). SSMU was one of the first student societies in Canada to use an online voting system for campus elections. Due to the large postdoctoral population, the PGSS also contains a semi-autonomous Association of Postdoctoral Fellows (APF). In addition, each faculty has its own student governing body. There are hundreds of clubs and student organizations at the university. Many of them are centred around McGill's student union building, the University Centre(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31M battery). In 1992, students held a referendum which called for the University Centre to be named for actor and McGill alumnus William Shatner. The university administration refused to accept the name and did not attend the opening. Traditionally, the administration names buildings in honour of deceased members of the university community or for major benefactors—Shatner is neither. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31B battery)
McGill has three English-language student-run newspapers: the McGill Daily, the McGill Tribune and the The Bull & Bear. The McGill Daily was first published in 1911. The Daily is currently is published twice weekly. The Délit français is the Daily's French-language counterpart. The combined circulation of both papers is over 28,000. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ32 battery)The McGill Foreign Affairs Review is a student-run journal about international affairs. Since 1988, The Red Herring has been the main satire magazine of McGill University. CKUT (90.3 FM) is the campus radio station. TVMcGill is the University TV station, broadcasting on closed-circuit television and over the internet. The McGill University Faculty of Law is also home to three student-run academic journals(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ410 battery), including the world renowned McGill Law Journal, founded in 1952.
While fraternities and sororities are not a large part of student life at McGill, some, including fraternities Alpha Delta Phi, Sigma Chi, Alpha Epsilon Pi, Delta Upsilon, and Zeta Psi, and sororities Gamma Phi Beta, Kappa Kappa Gamma, Kappa Alpha Theta, and Alpha Omicron Pi, have been established for many years at the university. Phi Kappa Pi, Canada's only national fraternity(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21 battery), was founded at McGill and the University of Toronto in 1913 and continues to be active to this day. Events including Greek week, held annually during the first week of February, have been established to promote Greek life on campus. With just over 2% of the student body population participating, involvement is well below that of most American universities, but on par with most Canadian schools(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21S battery).
McGill has had a student club supporting lesbian, bisexual, gay, and transgender students since 1972. The group, originally named "Gay McGill", was renamed "Queer McGill" in 1998 to better identify with the diversity of its members. Queer McGill supports both students and non-student members of the McGill community. Membership in 2002 was over 400. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21M battery)
The three oldest a cappella groups on campus are Tonal Ecstasy, Effusion and Soulstice. These groups perform multiple times during the year at on- and off-campus events.
Student organizations at McGill are internationally recognized in a variety of ways. Many larger organizations and NGOs have a local presence on campus(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ38M battery). The International Relations Students Association of McGill (IRSAM) currently has consultative status with the UN's Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Since 1990, IRSAM has hosted an annual Model United Nations, McMUN, for university students and since 1993 it has hosted an annual Model United Nations, SSUNS, for high school students(Sony VAIO VGN-S battery).
Numerous other humanitarian groups can be found: UNICEF McGill, Oxfam McGill, End Poverty Now, Right to Play McGill, and Free the Children are just a few. Numerous student interest groups enhance university life while representing a variety of interests and perspectives(Sony VAIO VGN-SZ battery).
McGill is represented in Canadian Interuniversity Sport (CIS) by the McGill Redmen (men's) and the McGill Martlets (women's). Following a major restructuring of the varsity programme for the fall semester of 2010, McGill is currently home to 28 varsity teams. McGill's unique mascot, Marty the Martlet, was introduced during the 2005 Homecoming game, (Sony VGN-NR11S/S Battery)
The downtown McGill campus sport and exercise facilities include: the McGill Sports Centre (which includes the Tomlinson Fieldhouse and the Windsor Varsity Clinic), Molson Stadium, Memorial Pool, Tomlinson Hall, McConnell Arena, Forbes Field, many outdoor tennis courts and other extra-curricular arenas and faculties. (Sony VGN-NR11M/S Battery) The Macdonald Campus facilities, include an arena, a gymnasium, a pool, tennis courts, fitness centres and hundreds of acres of green space for regular use. The university's largest sporting venue, Molson Stadium, was constructed in 1914. Following an expansion project completed in 2010, it now seats just over 25,000, and is the current home field of the Montreal Alouettes. (Sony VGN-NR260E/S Battery)
The inventions of North American football, hockey, and basketball are all related to McGill in some way, with rugby rules providing the foundation for the others. Even the introduction of cross-country skiing has a McGill connection.
In 1868, the first recorded game of rugby in North America occurred in Montreal, between British army officers and McGill students, (Sony VGN-NR260E/T Battery) giving McGill the oldest university-affiliated rugby club in North America. Other McGill-originated sports evolved out of rugby rules: football, hockey, and basketball. The first game of North American football was played between McGill and Harvard on May 14, 1874, leading to the spread of American football throughout the Ivy League. One of the world's first organized hockey clubs, made up of McGill students, played their first game on January 31, 1877. (Sony VGN-NR260E/W Battery) Very soon thereafter, those McGill students wrote the first hockey rule book. McGill alumnus James Naismith invented basketball in early December 1891. Norwegian Herman "Jackrabbit" Smith-Johannsen popularized cross-country skiing in North America from McGill's Gault Estate in Mont St. Hilaire. Johannsen also helped coach Canada's 1932 Olympic team(Sony VGN-NR11Z/S Battery).
There has been a McGill alumnus or alumna competing at every Olympic Games since 1908. Swimmer George Hodgson won two gold medals at the 1912 Summer Olympics, ice hockey goaltender Kim St-Pierre won gold medals at the 2002 Winter Olympics and at the 2006 Winter Olympics. Other 2006 gold medalists are Jennifer Heil (women's freestyle mogul) and goaltender Charline Labonté (women's ice hockey) (Sony VGN-NR11Z/T Battery).
In 1996, the McGill Sports Hall of Fame was established to honour its best student athletes. Notable members of the Hall of Fame include James Naismith and Sydney Pierce.
A 2005 hazing scandal forced the cancellation of the final two games in the McGill Redmen football season. In 2006, McGill's Senate approved a proposed anti-hazing policy to define forbidden initiation practices. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21E battery)
The McGill University song book, compiled by a committee of graduates and undergraduates, was published in Montreal by W.F. Brown, circa 1896. Notable among a number of songs commonly played and sung at various events such as commencement and convocation, and athletic games are(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21Z battery):
'Alma Mater McGill,' with words by J. McDougall;
'L'Enfant du McGill,' with words by Louis-Honoré Fréchette, and music by Guillaume Couture;
'God Save McGill,' with words by W.M. Mackeracher, tune 'God Save the Queen';
'A Health to Old McGill,' with words by R.W. Huntingdon, and music by Mrs W.C. Baynes;
'McGill,' with words by C.W. Colby, sung to the tune 'The Gay Cavalier';
'McGill Revisited,' with words by John Cox,
'The Student of McGill,' with words by R.D. McGibbon(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21J battery)
This section does not cite any references or sources. (November 2011)
McGill maintains an academic and athletic rivalry with Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario. Animosity between rowing athletes at the two schools has inspired an annual boat race between the two universities in the spring of each year since 1997, inspired by the famous Oxford-Cambridge Boat Race. The football rivalry, which started in 1884, ended after Canadian university athletic divisions were re-organized in 2000(Sony VAIO VGN-FW11 battery); the Ontario-Quebec Intercollegiate Football Conference was divided into Ontario University Athletics and Quebec Student Sports Federation. The rivalry returned in 2002 when it transferred to the annual home-and-home hockey games between the two institutions. Queen's students refer to these matches as "Kill McGill" games, and usually show up in Montreal in atypically large numbers to cheer on the Queen's Golden Gaels hockey team(Sony VAIO VGN-FW11M battery). In 2007, McGill students arrived in bus-loads to cheer on the McGill Redmen, occupying a third of Queen's Jock Harty Arena.
The school also competes in the annual "Old Four (IV)" soccer tournament, with Queen's University, the University of Toronto and the University of Western Ontario.
McGill and Harvard also maintain their historical rivalry, represented by the biennial Harvard-McGill rugby games, alternately played in Montreal and Cambridge(Sony VAIO VGN-FW11S battery), MA. McGill is often regarded as being Canada's Harvard. This can also be seen when McGill is mentioned as "The Harvard of Canada" by Marge in The Simpsons, to which Lisa rebuffs. In addition, a popular student t-shirt sold at McGill spoofs this by displaying "Harvard - America's McGill".
In fiction, characters from movies and television shows have also been portrayed as McGill students, professors, or researchers. Fictional alumni from McGill include Lieutenant Alan McGregor, played by Gary Cooper in the movie Lives Of the Bengal Lancers (1935) (Sony VAIO VGN-FW21E battery), and Major Donald Craig, a Canadian commando serving with British special forces during World War II, portrayed by Rock Hudson in the 1967 war movie Tobruk (though the film was loosely based on real events, it is not clear whether or not Hudson's character was based on a real person: most likely he was a pastiche character, given a Canadian background as cover for Hudson's inability to emulate a British accent). In the Fox Network television drama House(Sony VAIO VGN-FW21J battery), James Wilson, an oncologist at the Princeton-Plainsboro Teaching Hospital is also a McGill alumnus. On the animated sitcom The Simpsons, the school was referenced by Marge as "The Harvard of Canada." Walter Langkowski, a researcher from the Marvel Comics Canadian superhero series Alpha Flight, is portrayed as a McGill-based biophysicist researching the gamma radiation accident which created the Hulk(Sony VAIO VGN-FW21L battery). Langkowski's discoveries transformed him into the superhero known as Sasquatch. McGill is also referenced in several of Kathy Reichs' Temperance Brennan novels.
The University of Glasgow, one of four ancient Scottish universities and member of the British Russell Group. Founded in 1451, the original benefactor of McGill College, James McGill, studied here in the 1750s before his family worked as merchants in the city. The two universities continue this link today as part of Universitas 21, an international student exchange programme(Sony VAIO VGN-FW41M battery).
The University of Edinburgh, one of four ancient Scottish universities and member of the British Russell Group. The University was founded as a civic institution in 1583 and has maintained a strong reputation in the study of medicine, among other disciplines. McGill's first (and, for several years, its only) faculty, Medicine, was founded by four physicians/surgeons who had trained in Edinburgh. (Sony VAIO VGN-FW41M/H battery) In common with Glasgow, Edinburgh shares an international exchange link with McGill through Universitas 21.
As a public university, McGill is not as dependent on its endowment for operating revenue as some of its international peers. The McGill endowment only provides approximately 10 per cent of the school's annual operating revenues. Nonetheless, McGill's endowment rests within the top 10 percent of all North American post-secondary institutions' endowments. (Sony VAIO VGN-FW21M battery) While McGill's conservative investment policy has protected it from the more substantial losses experienced at many other universities during the market crisis of 2008–2009, it still faced a 20% endowment decline from approximately $920 million to $740 million. Valued at $21,633 per student, the university maintains one of the largest endowments among Canadian universities on a per-student basis(Sony VAIO VGN-FW21Z battery).
In an open letter to faculty and students, Heather Munroe-Blum wrote: "The next few years do not promise to be easy. But in facing this challenge, McGill has a unique advantage in addition to that of the fundamental progress we have made. This university has lived with restricted resources and uncertainty for almost two hundred years – it is part of our culture. And yet, against this backdrop of hardship, we have always retained our commitment to excellence(Sony VAIO VGN-FW32J battery). We are one of the world’s great universities. This will not change. In my installation speech in the spring of 2003, I said McGill "punches above its weight." We will continue to do so. In order to stay the course, we must now move with confidence, pride, excitement and discipline to seize every opportunity to put McGill in an ideal position to leap forward with the inevitable recovery." (Sony VAIO VGN-FW17W battery)
Campaign McGill: History in the Making is a five-year comprehensive campaign that began in October 2007, with the goal of raising over $750 million for the purpose of further "attracting and retaining top talent in Quebec, to increase access to quality education and to further enhance McGill's ability to address critical global problems." (Sony VAIO VGN-FW31E battery) The largest goal of any Canadian university fundraising campaign in history, within the first six months, McGill had accumulated over $400 million towards its efforts. Support to McGill’s annual fund has actually increased during the market crisis. According to Principal Heather Munroe-Blum, she is confident that Campaign McGill will reach its $750 million goal by 2012(Sony VAIO VGN-FW139E battery).
Tuition fees vary significantly between in-province, out-of-province, and international students, with full-time Quebec students paying around $2,167.80 per year, Canadian students from other provinces paying around $5,858.10 per year, and international students paying $14,461.80–$24,840 per year. Students must also pay housing costs, though Montreal has some of the least expensive housing among large North American cities(Sony VAIO VGN-FW139E/H battery).
Since 1996, McGill, in accordance with the Ministère de l'Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport (MELS), has had eight categories that qualifies certain international students to be excused from paying international fees. These categories include: students from France, a quota of students from select countries which have agreements with MELS, which include Algeria, China, and Morocco, (Sony VAIO VGN-FW465J battery) students holding diplomatic status, including their dependents, and students enrolled in certain language programs leading to a degree in French.
Scholarships and financial aid
Scholarships at McGill are relatively difficult to attain, compared to other Canadian universities. This is predominantly due to the number of high academic achievers at the school. For out-of-province first year undergraduate students, a high school average of 95% is required to receive a guaranteed one-year entrance scholarship. (Sony VAIO VGN-FW31M battery) To be considered for the same scholarships, Quebec CEGEP students need a minimum r-score of 35.5, United States high school students need a minimum A average as well as at least 700 in each SAT or 33 in the ACT, and French Baccalaureate students need an average of 15.5 plus a minimum score of 14 in each course; similarly, students in the British education system need As in both GCSE Level and predicted Advanced Level results(Sony VAIO VGN-FW31J battery), and International Baccalaureate students need to attain a minimum overall average of 6.9 on predicted grades or a score of 42 on exam results. In general, entrance scholarship recipients rank in the top 1–2% of their class.
For renewal of previously earned scholarships, students generally need to be within the top 10% of their faculty. For in-course scholarships in particular, students must be within the top 5% of their faculty. (Sony VAIO VGN-FW31Z battery) McGill itself outlines scholarship considerations as follows: "Competition for basic and major scholarships is intense at McGill. An extraordinary number of exceptional applications are received each year and therefore we cannot award scholarships to all good candidates."
The university has joined Project Hero, a scholarship program cofounded by General (Ret'd) Rick Hillier for the families of fallen Canadian Forces members. (Sony VGN-NR11Z Battery)
Main article: List of McGill University people
As chair of physics at McGill, Ernest Rutherford was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1908 for his work in atomic physics.
In the arts, McGill students include three Pulitzer Prize winners, Templeton Prize winner Charles Taylor, essayist and novelist John Ralston Saul, a Companion of the Order of Canada along with Charles Taylor, Juno Award winner Sam Roberts, Singer-Songwriter Prita Chhabra and William Shatner(Sony VGN-NR11S Battery), best known for his portrayal of Captain Kirk on Star Trek and winner of several Emmy Awards. Nine Academy Award winners studied at McGill. Billboard charting musician and vocalist Mary Fahl also attended McGill University.
In the sciences, students include doctors, inventors, three astronauts and scientist Dr. Mark J. Poznansky, a member of the Order of Canada. On October 16, 2009, the 42nd American president, Bill Clinton accepted an Honorary Doctorate from McGill University. (Sony VGN-CR11Z Battery)
Charles Taylor studied at the University of Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar from McGill.
Some politicians and government officials both within Canada and abroad are McGill alumni, including two Canadian prime ministers and eleven justices of the Supreme Court of Canada. Progressive Conservative MP Robert Layton and his son, New Democratic Party leader and Leader of the Opposition Jack Layton, also attended McGill. (Sony VGN-CR11S Battery)Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga completed her Ph.D. at McGill and was elected as president of the Republic of Latvia in 1999 as the first female president in Eastern Europe after Turkey's Tansu Çiller. Ahmed Nazif also completed a Ph.D. at McGill in 1983 and has served as the youngest prime minister of Egypt since the republic's founding 1953. In the 2011 Canadian election, five McGill students—undergraduates Charmaine Borg, Matthew Dubé(Sony VGN-CR11M Battery), Mylène Freeman (graduating shortly after the election) and Laurin Liu plus graduate student Jamie Nicholls—were elected as NDP MPs. In the United States, 2006 McGill graduate Ilya Sheyman is a Democratic candidate for the U.S. House of Representatives.
Corporate leaders and media personalities have also studied at McGill. Leading Canadian philanthropist and entrepreneur Seymour Schulich donated $20 million, the highest donation to any music school in Canada, to the newly-named Schulich School of Music(Sony VGN-CR11E Battery). Henry Mintzberg, a professor at McGill's Desautels Faculty of Management is an acclaimed management thinker and contributes to The New York Times and The Economist. Mintzberg is an Officer of the Order of Canada. Co-founder and president of Matrox Electronic Systems Ltd., which innovates globally in graphics, video editing, and image processing, Lorne Trottier has donated $10 million towards services in information and technology at McGill(Sony VGN-CR21E Battery). The new engineering building is called Trottier, named after Lorne Trottier. Conrad Black, a major media magnate and convicted fraudster, also studied at McGill.
McGill students are also recognized as athletes, including various members of Canadian national teams and twenty-eight Olympic medalists. Since the Olympics began, McGill has produced 112 Olympians who have won a total of eight gold medals(Sony VGN-CR21S Battery), nine silver, and eleven bronze.
Jacob Viner, who would later go on to form the beginnings of the modern day Chicago School of Economics, earned his undergraduate degree from McGill. William Osler, one of the founders of the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, and the originator of the concept of medical residency, received his medical degree from McGill(Sony VGN-CR21Z Battery).
Professors at McGill have won 26 Prix du Québec, 14 Prix de l'Association francophone pour le savoir and 21 Killam Prizes. Eleven Nobel Laureates have studied or taught at McGill.
Since 1902, Canadian undergraduate students have been eligible for Rhodes Scholarships to study at the University of Oxford. More than any other university, McGill students have won 132 Rhodes Scholarships. (Sony VGN-CR31S Battery)These students include parliamentary and cabinet ministers David Lewis (1932), Alastair Gillespie (1947), and Marcel Massé (1963), the political philosopher Charles Taylor (1952), and the U.S. political advisor and inventor Jack Phillips (1978).
The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1583, is a public research university located in Edinburgh, the capital city of Scotland(Sony VGN-CR31E Battery).
Regarded as one of the most prestigious universities in the world, the university is ranked 6th and 7th in Europe according to the 2011 QS and Times Higher Education Ranking and 20th in the world by the 2011 QS rankings.
The university played an important role in leading Edinburgh to its reputation as a chief intellectual centre during the Age of Enlightenment, and helped give the city the nickname of the Athens of the north(Sony VGN-CR31Z Battery). Graduates of the university include some of the major figures of modern history, including the naturalist Charles Darwin, physicist James Clerk Maxwell, philosopher David Hume, mathematician Thomas Bayes, former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Gordon Brown, Deputy President of the British Supreme Court Lord Hope, surgeon and pioneer of sterilisation Joseph Lister(Sony VGN-CR41Z Battery), signatories of the American declaration of independence John Witherspoon and Benjamin Rush, inventor Alexander Graham Bell, first president of Tanzania Julius Nyerere, and a host of famous authors such as Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Robert Louis Stevenson, J. M. Barrie, and Sir Walter Scott. The University is also associated with 9 Nobel Prize winners, 1 Abel Prize winner and a host of Olympic gold medallists. (Sony VGN-CR41S Battery) It also continues to have links to the British Royal Family, with the Duke of Edinburgh being chancellor from 1953 to 2010, and Princess Anne from 2011.
The university is deeply embedded in the fabric of the city, with many of the buildings in the historic Old Town belonging to the university. Edinburgh receives approximately 47,000 applications every year, making it the third most popular university in the UK by volume of applicants. Entrance is intensely competitive, with 12 applications per place in the last admissions cycle. (Sony VGN-CR41E Battery)
It is the only Scottish university to be a member of both the elite Russell Group, and the League of European Research Universities, a consortium of 21 of Europe's most prominent and renowned research universities. In addition, the University has both historical links and current partnerships with prestigious academic institutions in the United States and Canada, including members of the Ivy League and U15(Sony VGN-CR42Z Battery).
King James's College, c.1647
The founding of the university is attributed to Bishop Robert Reid of St Magnus Cathedral, Kirkwall, Orkney, who left the funds on his death in 1558 that ultimately provided the University's endowment. The University was established by a Royal Charter granted by James VI in 1582. This was an unusual move at the time, as most universities were established through Papal bulls(Sony VGN-CR42S Battery). What makes the University of Edinburgh even more unusual is the fact that its funding was granted the following year by the Town Council, making it in many ways the first civic university. Known as the "Tounis College", it was renamed King James's College in 1617. It was the fourth Scottish university in a period when the much more populous and richer England had only two. By the 18th century Edinburgh was a leading centre of the European Enlightenment (Sony VGN-CR42E Battery) (see Scottish Enlightenment) and was regarded as one of the continent's principal universities.
The university's 'Old College'.
Before the building of Old College to plans by Robert Adam implemented after the Napoleonic Wars by the architect William Henry Playfair, the University of Edinburgh did not have a custom-built campus and existed in a hotchpotch of buildings from its establishment until the early 19th century. The university's first custom-built building was the Old College(Sony Vaio VGN-CR11S/L Battery), now the School of Law, situated on South Bridge. Its first forte in teaching was anatomy and the developing science of surgery, from which it expanded into many other subjects. From the basement of a nearby house ran the anatomy tunnel corridor. It went under what was then North College Street (now Chambers Street), and under the university buildings until it reached the university's anatomy lecture theatre(Sony Vaio VGN-CR11S/P Battery), delivering bodies for dissection. It was from this tunnel that the body of William Burke was taken after he had been hanged.
Towards the end of the 19th century, Old College was becoming overcrowded and Robert Rowand Anderson was commissioned to design new Medical School premises in 1875. The medical school was more or less built to his design and was completed by the addition of the McEwan Hall in the 1880s(Sony Vaio VGN-CR11S/W Battery).
The University's New College building
The building now known as New College was originally built as a Free Church college in the 1840s and has been the home of Divinity at the University since the 1920s.
The university is responsible for a number of historic and modern buildings across the City, including the oldest purpose-built concert hall in Scotland, and the second oldest in use in the British Isles, St Cecilia's Concert Hall(Sony Vaio VGN-CR11Z/R Battery); Teviot Row House, which is the oldest purpose built Student Union Building in the world; and the restored 17th-century Mylne's Court student residence which stands at the head of Edinburgh's Royal Mile.
The building which houses the university's Institute of Geography, was once part of the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13/B Battery)
Edinburgh University Library pre-dates the university by three years. Founded in 1580 through the donation of a large collection by Clement Littill, its collection has grown to become the largest university library in Scotland with over 2 million periodicals, manuscripts, theses, microforms and printed works. These are housed in the main University Library building in George Square – one of the largest academic library buildings in Europe(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13/L Battery), designed by Basil Spence – and an extensive series of Faculty and Departmental Libraries.
The two oldest Schools – Law and Divinity – are both well-esteemed in their respective subjects, with Law being based in Old College, and Divinity being based in New College, on the Mound. Students at the university are represented by Edinburgh University Students' Association (EUSA), which consists of the Students' Representative Council (SRC), founded in 1884 by Robert Fitzroy Bell, the Edinburgh University Union (EUU) which was founded in 1889(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13/P Battery). They are also represented by the Edinburgh University Sports Union (EUSU) which was founded in 1866.
The University's McEwan Hall building
In 2002 the University was re-organised from its 9 faculties into three 'Colleges'. While technically not a collegiate university, it now comprises the Colleges of Humanities and Social Sciences (HSS), Science & Engineering (SCE) and Medicine & Vet Medicine (MVM). Within these Colleges are 'Schools' – roughly equivalent to the departments they succeeded(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13/R Battery); individual Schools have a good degree of autonomy regarding their finances and internal organisation. This has brought a certain degree of uniformity (in terms of administration at least) across the university.
On 1 August 2011, the Edinburgh College of Art (founded in 1760) merged with the University of Edinburgh. At a result of the merger, Edinburgh College of Art has combined with the University’s School of Arts, Culture and Environment to form a new (enlarged) Edinburgh College of Art within the university. (Sony Vaio VGN-CR13/W Battery)
Along similar lines, all teaching is now done over two semesters (rather than 3 terms) – bringing the timetables of different Schools into line with one another, and coming into line with many other large universities (in the US, and to an increasing degree in the UK as well).
According to QS Academic Reputation 2011-2012, University of Edinburgh is placed first in Scotland, 5th in the UK, and 28th in the world in terms of academic reputation. (Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G Battery) It is ranked 49 in the world, 6 in the UK in reputation by Times Higher Education 2012.
The University of Edinburgh is a member of the Russell Group of research-led British universities and, along with Oxford and Cambridge, one of the only British universities to be a member both of the Coimbra Group and the LERU (League of European Research Universities): two leading associations of European universities. The University is also a member of Universitas 21, an international association of research-led universities(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G/B Battery).
The University’s position as one of the world’s leading research universities has been reaffirmed by the 2008 UK RAE results: the University of Edinburgh was ranked in the top five in the UK and first in Scotland by the volume of four star,‘world-leading’ research (63% of the University’s research activity was in the highest categories (4* and 3*), of which one third was recognised as “world-leading”) (Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G/L Battery).The results also indicate that the University is home to 37% of Scotland’s 4* research. It was rated at the highest level in veterinary medicine, informatics and linguistics. It also has an excellent performance in Art, Chemistry and Mathematics 
The QS World University Rankings 2011 ranked the University of Edinburgh 20th in the world, while the Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2011/2012 ranked it as 36th overall, 7th in Europe and 5th in the UK(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G/W Battery). In 2011, the Academic Ranking of World Universities placed University of Edinburgh as 53rd overall, 14th in Europe and 6th in the UK.
In the 2012/2013 UK University Rankings, the university was ranked 15th in the UK overall by The Guardian, 16th by The Independent/The Complete University Guide, 27th by The Sunday Times and 15th by The Times(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G/P Battery).
College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine
The Edinburgh Medical School's historical main building on Teviot Place.
The College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine has a long history as one of the best medical institutions in the world. In the last research assessment exercise, it was rated top in the UK for medical research submitted to the Hospital-based Clinical Subjects Panel. All of the work was rated at International level and 40% at the very highest “world-leading” level. (Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G/R Battery)
The eight original faculties formed four Faculty Groups in August 1992. Medicine and Veterinary Medicine became one of these, and in September 2002, became the smallest of three Colleges in the University.
From Natural Philosophy to Science and Engineering
In the sixteenth century science was taught as 'natural philosophy'. The seventeenth century saw the institution of the University Chairs of Mathematics and Botany, followed the next century by Chairs of Natural History, Astronomy, Chemistry and Agriculture(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13T/L Battery). During the eighteenth century, the University was a key contributor to the Scottish Enlightenment and it educated many of the leading scientists of the time. It was Edinburgh's professors who took a leading part in the formation of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1783. In 1785, Joseph Black, Professor of Chemistry and discoverer of carbon dioxide, founded the world's first Chemical Society. (Sony Vaio VGN-CR13T/P Battery)The nineteenth century was a time of huge advances in scientific thinking and technological development. The first named degrees of Bachelor and Doctor of Science were instituted in 1864, and a separate 'Faculty of Science' was created in 1893 after three centuries of scientific advances at Edinburgh. Chairs in Engineering and Geology were also created. In 1991 the Faculty of Science was renamed the Faculty of Science and Engineering(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13T/R Battery), and in 2002 it became the College of Science and Engineering.
The Edinburgh College of Art forms (since 2011) part of the 'central' university campus.
As its topics of study have grown and diversified the university has expanded its campuses such that it now has six main sites:
The Central Area includes George Square, the Informatics Forum, The Dugald Stewart Building, Old College, New College, McEwan Hall, St Cecilia's Hall, Teviot Row House, the old Medical School buildings in Teviot Place(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13T/W Battery), and surrounding streets in Edinburgh's Southside. It is the oldest region, occupied primarily by the College of Humanities and Social Science, and the Schools of Computing & Informatics and the School of Law, as well as the main university library. The Appleton Tower is also used for teaching first year undergraduates in science and engineering. Meanwhile, Teviot Place continues to house pre-clinical medical courses and biomedical sciences despite relocation of the Medical School to Little France(Sony Vaio VGN-CR21/B Battery). Nearby are the main EUSA buildings of Potterrow, Teviot and Pleasance. Old residents of George Square include Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. A number of these buildings are used to host events during the Edinburgh International Festival every summer. The main library (Edinburgh University Library) is also located at George Square. New College, overlooks Princes Street and only a short walk from Waverley Rail Station and other Edinburgh landmarks(Sony Vaio VGN-CR21E/L Battery). The building is on the Mound, which houses the School of Divinity - parts of which are also used by the Church of Scotland.
Main article: King's Buildings
The King's Buildings (KB) is located further south of the city. Most of the Science and Engineering College's research and teaching activities take place at the King's Buildings, which occupy a 35 hectare site. It includes C H Waddington Building( the Centre for Systems Biology at Edinburgh ), James Clerk Maxwell Building (the administrative and teaching centre of the School of Physics and Astronomy and the School of Mathematics) (Sony Vaio VGN-CR21E/P Battery), The Royal Observatory, William Rankine Building (School of Engineering’s Institute for Infrastructure and Environment) and other schools' buildings. There are three libraries at KB: Darwin Library, James Clerk Maxwell Library and Robertson Engineering and Science Library. A new library called The King's Buildings Library will open in time for the 2012/13 session. It also houses National e-Science Centre (NeSC), Scottish Microelectronics Centre (SMC) (Sony Vaio VGN-CR21E/W Battery), Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre (SUERC), Scottish Institute for Enterprise, etc.
St Leonard's Hall, Pollock Halls of Residence
Main article: Pollock Halls of Residence
Pollock Halls, adjoining Holyrood Park to the east, provides accommodation (mainly half board) for a minority of students in their first year. Two of the older houses in Pollock Halls were demolished in 2002 and a new building (Chancellor's Court) has been built in their place, leaving a total of ten buildings. Self-catered flats elsewhere account for the majority of university-provided accommodation(Sony Vaio VGN-CR21S/L Battery). The area also includes a £9 million redeveloped John McIntyre Conference Centre, which is the University's premier conference space.
Main article: Little France
Little France , the Chancellor's Building was opened on 12 August 2002 by The Duke of Edinburgh and houses the £40 million Medical School at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh. It was a joint project between private finance, the local authorities and the University to create a large modern hospital, veterinary clinic and research institute(Sony Vaio VGN-CR21S/P Battery). It has two large lecture theatres and a medical library. It is connected to the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh by a series of corridors. Queen's Medical Research Institute was opened in 2005, which provides facilities for research into the understanding of common diseases(Sony Vaio VGN-CR21S/W Battery).
The Easter Bush campus houses the Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, The Roslin Institute, Jeanne Marchig International Centre for Animal Welfare Education and The Veterinary Oncology and Imaging Centre. The Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, founded in 1823 by William Dick, is a world leader in veterinary education, research and practice(Sony Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N Battery). The new £42 million, two storey, 11,500 square metre building opened in 2011. The Roslin Institute is an animal sciences research institute which is sponsored by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council. The Institute won international fame in 1996, when Ian Wilmut, Keith Campbell and their colleagues created Dolly the sheep, the first mammal to be cloned from an adult cell, at the institute. A year later Polly and Molly were cloned, both sheep contained a human gene(Sony Vaio VGN-CR21Z/R Battery).
Moray House main quadrangle.
Main article: Moray House
Moray House School of Education just off the Royal Mile, used to be the Moray House Institute for Education until this merged with the University in August 1998. The University has since extended Moray House's Holyrood site to include a redeveloped and extended major building housing Sports Science, Physical Education and Leisure Management facilities adjacent to its own Sports Institute in the Pleasance(Sony Vaio VGN-CR23/B Battery).
Modern architecture at the University of Edinburgh
The University's Teviot Row House student union building
The student-run Bedlam Theatre, home to the Edinburgh University Theatre Company.
The Pleasance student union, home to numerous societies.
Main article: Edinburgh University Students' Association
The Edinburgh University Students' Association (EUSA) consists of the unions and the Student Representative Council. The union buildings include Teviot Row House, Potterrow, Kings Buildings House, the Pleasance, and shops, cafés and refectories across the various campuses(Sony Vaio VGN-CR23/P Battery). Teviot Row House is claimed to be the oldest purpose-built student union building in the world. EUSA represents students to the university and the outside world. It is also responsible for over 250 student societies at the University. The association has four sabbatical office bearers – a president and three vice presidents. The association is affiliated to the National Union of Students(Sony Vaio VGN-CR23/R Battery).
Theatre and Comedy
The city of Edinburgh is an important cultural hub for comedy, amateur and fringe theatre throughout the UK. Amateur dramatic societies at the University benefit from this, and especially from being based in the home of the Edinburgh Fringe Festival which brings thousands of paying fans and amateur theatre companies to the city every August from all over the world. (Sony Vaio VGN-CR23/L Battery)
Edinburgh University Theatre Company (EUTC), founded in 1896 as the Edinburgh University Drama Society is notable for running Bedlam Theatre, the oldest student-run theatre in Britain. Bedlam Theatre is an award winning Edinburgh Fringe venue. The EUTC also fund and run acclaimed  student improvised comedy troupe The Improverts during term time and fringe. Alumni include Ian Charleson, Kevin McKidd, Greg Wise and Miles Jupp(Sony Vaio VGN-CR23/N Battery).
The Edinburgh University Savoy Opera Group (EUSOG) are an opera/musical theatre company founded by students in 1961 to promote and perform the comic operettas of William Gilbert and Arthur Sullivan, collectively known as Savoy Operas after the theatre in which they were originally staged(Sony VAIO VGN-NW21EF/S battery).
The Edinburgh University Footlights are a musical theatre company founded in 1989. It produces two large scale shows a year.
Other notable societies include: Edinburgh University Studio Opera, Edinburgh University Shakespeare Company, Theatre Paradok and The Edinburgh Revue.
The Student is a weekly Scottish newspaper produced by students at the University of Edinburgh. Founded in 1887 by Robert Louis Stevenson(Sony VAIO VGN-NW21JF battery), it is the oldest student newspaper in the United Kingdom. It has held the title of Best Student Newspaper in Scotland, awarded by the Herald Student Press Awards, for four years running, from 2006 to 2010.
The Journal is an independent publication, established in 2007 by three students at the University of Edinburgh, and also distributes to the four other higher education institutions in the city - Heriot-Watt University, Napier University(Sony VAIO VGN-NW21MF battery), Queen Margaret University and the Edinburgh College of Art. It is the largest such publication in Scotland, with a print run of 14,000 copies and is produced by students from across the city.
Fresh Air is an alternative music student radio station, one of the oldest surviving student radio stations in the UK. It was founded in October 3, 1992 and has since won "Student Radio Station of the Year" award at the Student Radio Association in 2004 & Station of the year 2011(Scottish new music awards) (Sony VAIO VGN-NW21MF/W battery).
The Edinburgh Rascal - a monthly satirical zine.
The Junior Financier - an annual magazine produced by the Edinburgh University Trading and Investment Club.
Edinburgh University Science Magazine (EUSci) - an award winning student science magazine.
Colloquia - a cross-disciplinary academic journal focused on open-publishing and radical ideas, produced by a primarily-student collective. (Sony VAIO VGN-NW31EF/W battery)
Edinburgh University's student sport consists of 67 clubs from the traditional football and rugby to the more unconventional korfball or gliding. Run by the Edinburgh University Sports Union, these 67 clubs have seen Edinburgh rise to 4th place in the British Universities' Sports Association (BUSA) rankings in 2006-07 and have been in the British Top 5 sporting Universities since 2005(Sony VAIO VGN-NW21ZF battery).
During the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, the University of Edinburgh alumni and students secured four medals - three gold and a silver. The three gold medals were won by the cyclist Chris Hoy and the silver was won by Katherine Grainger in female rowing.
There are a number of campaigning societies at the university. One of the largest of these is environment and poverty campaigning group People & Planet(Sony VAIO VGN-NW31JF battery). International development organisations include Edinburgh Global Partnerships, which was established as a student-led charity in 1990. There is also a significant left-wing presence on campus, including an active anti-cuts group, an anarchist society, Edinburgh University Socialist Society, feminist society, Young Greens, and a Students for Justice in Palestine group. Protests, demonstrations and occupations are a regular occurence at the university(Sony VAIO VGN-NW320F/B battery).
Alumni and faculty
Alexander Graham Bell, inventor of the telephone, first studied at the University of Edinburgh.
Main article: List of University of Edinburgh people
Alumni and faculty of the university have included economist Adam Smith, signatories to the US Declaration of Independence James Wilson and John Witherspoon, Prime Ministers Gordon Brown, Lord Palmerston and Lord John Russell (Sony VAIO VGN-NW320F/TC battery) (the latter matriculated at Edinburgh, but did not graduate), engineers Alexander Graham Bell and William Rankine, naturalist Charles Darwin and biologist Ian Wilmut, physicists James Clerk Maxwell, Max Born, Sir David Brewster, Tom Kibble, Peter Guthrie Tait and Peter Higgs, writers Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Robert Louis Stevenson, J.M. Barrie, Sir Walter Scott and Alistair Moffat(Sony VAIO VGN-NW35e battery), actor Ian Charleson, composers Kenneth Leighton, James MacMillan, and William Wordsworth, chemists Joseph Black, Daniel Rutherford, Alexander R. Todd and William Henry, botanist Robert Brown, medical pioneers Joseph Lister and James Simpson, mathematician Colin Maclaurin, philosopher David Hume, geologist James Hutton, former BP CEO Tony Hayward, chemist and two-time recipient of Alexander von Humboldt research prize for senior scientists Narayan Hosmane(Sony VAIO VGN-NW11S/S battery), Dr. Valentin Fuster, the only cardiologist to receive all four major research awards from the world's four major cardiovascular organizations, and mathematician and president of the Royal Society of Edinburgh Sir Michael Atiyah.
Dalhousie University, Canadian U15 university, founded in 1818. In the early 19th century, George Ramsay, the ninth Earl of Dalhousie and Nova Scotia Lieutenant-Governor at the time, wanted to establish a Halifax college open to all, regardless of class or creed(Sony VAIO VGN-NW11Z/S battery). The earl modeled the fledgling college after the University of Edinburgh, near his Scottish home.
McGill University, Canadian U15 university, founded in 1821, has strong Edinburgh roots and links to the University of Edinburgh as McGill's first (and, for several years, its only) faculty, Medicine, was founded by four physicians/surgeons who had trained in Edinburgh.
Queen's University, Canadian U15 university founded in 1841, was modelled after the University of Edinburgh, and continues to display strong Scottish roots and traditions today(Sony VAIO VGN-NW11S/T battery).
University of Pennsylvania, an American Ivy League university, has long-standing historical links with the University of Edinburgh, including modelling Penn's School of Medicine after Edinburgh's.