Lincoln Park is a 1,208 acre (4.9 km², 1.8875 mi², 488,86 ha) park along the lakefront of Chicago, Illinois' North Side, facing Lake Michigan. Lincoln Park is Chicago's largest public park. The park, named after Abraham Lincoln, stretches for seven miles (11 km) from Ohio Street (400 N) on the south to near Ardmore Avenue (5800 N) on the north, just north of the Lake Shore Drive terminus at Hollywood Avenue. Sony VAIO PCG-8131M batterySeveral museums are located between North Avenue (1600 N) and Diversey Parkway (2800 N) in the neighborhood that takes its name from the park, Lincoln Park. The park further to the north is characterized by parkland, beaches, recreational areas, nature reserves, and harbors. To the south, there is a more narrow strip of beaches east of Lake Shore Drive, almost to downtown. Lincoln Park, with 20 million visitors a year, is the second most visited park in the United States. Sony VAIO PCG-8152M battery
The park's recreational facilities include 15 baseball areas, 6 basketball courts, softball fields, soccer fields, 35 tennis courts, 163 volley ball courts, field houses, a target archery field, a driving range and golf course. The park also includes a number of harbours with boating facilities, as well as public beaches. There are landscaped gardens, public art, bird refuges, a zooSony VAIO PCG-31311M battery, the Lincoln Park Conservatory, the Chicago History Museum, the Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum, the Alfred Caldwell Lily Pool, and a theater on the lake with regular outdoor performances during the summer.
A concert in Lincoln Park circa 1907.
In 1860, Lake Park (also called Cemetery Park), the precursor of today's park, was established by the city on the lands just to the north of the city's burial ground. Five years later, on June 12, 1865, the park was renamed to honor the recently assassinated President Abraham LincolnSony VAIO PCG-31111M battery.
Added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1994, part of the oldest section of today's Lincoln Park near North Avenue began its existence as the City Cemetery in 1843. This was subdivided into a Potter's Field, Catholic cemetery, Jewish cemetery, and the general City Cemetery. These cemeteries were the only cemeteries in the Chicago area until 1859Sony VAIO PCG-8112M battery. In 1852, David Kennison, who is said to have been born in 1736, died and was buried in City Cemetery. Another notable burial in the cemetery was Chicago Mayor James Curtiss, whose body was lost when the cemetery was added to the park.
Photochrom of the Grant Memorial ca. 1901
Throughout the late 1850s, there was discussion of closing the cemetery or abandoning it because of health concerns. In the fall of 1858, Dr. John H. Rauch MD suggested that the burial grounds were a health risk, which "might serve extremely well for plantations of grove and forest trees" that would be "useful and ornamental to the city." Sony VAIO PCG-7186M battery The idea was dropped during the Civil War, but revived by Dr. Rauch after the war ended.  By 1864, the city council had decided to add all the 120-acre (0.49 km2) cemetery lands north of North Avenue to the park by relocating the graves. The cemetery sections south of North Avenue were also relocated but this land was left for residential development. To this day, the Couch mausoleum can still be seen as the most visible reminder of the history as a cemeterySony VAIO PCG-7171M battery, standing amidst trees, behind the Chicago History Museum. Ira Couch, who is interred in the tomb, was one of Chicago's earliest innkeepers, opening the Tremont House in 1835. Couch is believed to not be the only person interred in the old burial ground in Lincoln Park. A plaque placed nearby states that "the remains of six Couch family members and one family friend are in the tomb." Partially due to the destruction of the Chicago Fire on tombstonesSony VAIO PCG-9Z1M battery, it was difficult to remove many of the remains. As recently as 1998, construction in the park has revealed more bodies left over from the nineteenth century.
Another large and notable group of graves relocated from the site of today's Lincoln Park were those of approximately 4,000 Confederate prisoners of war who died at Camp Douglas. Many prisoners perished between 1862 and 1865 as a result of the poor condition they were in when taken on the battlefield, or of disease and privation existing at the Federal prisonSony VAIO PCG-5S1M battery. Although the camp was located south of downtown Chicago, near the stockyards, the remains were originally interred at the site of today's Lincoln Park. Today, their gravesites may be found at Oak Woods Cemetery in the southern part of Chicago. A one acre (4,000 m²) mass grave and a monument erected by Southerners and Chicago friends in 1895 memorializes these Southerners whose earthly remnants remain in the NorthSony VAIO PCG-5P1M battery. Author George Levy believes that remains of many of the confederate prisoners are still to be found beneath what are currently baseball fields, the former site of the potter's field.
From the 1860s through the 1950s the park expanded South and then North along seven miles (11 km) of Chicago's Lakefront. (See reference notes 1, 2 and 3). The establishment of public parkland along all of Chicago's lakefront was a central tennet of the 1909 Burnham Plan for the development of ChicagoSony VAIO PCG-5N2M battery.
Another aspect of park history were the Young Lords Lincoln Park neighborhood sit ins and take-overs of institutions under the leadership of Jose Cha Cha Jimenez, protesting the displacement of Latinos by Mayor Richard J. Daley's urban renewal policies. It was also the scene of violent events that took place during the 1968 Democratic National Convention. These events transpired around the convention center, Grant ParkSony VAIO PCG-3C2M battery, Old Town, and the park adjacent (on Clark Street) called Lincoln Park.
“I pointed out that it was in the best interests of the City to have us in Lincoln Park ten miles (16 km) away from the Convention hall. I said we had no intention of marching on the Convention hall, that I didn't particularly think that politics in America could be changed by marches and rallies, that what we were presenting was an alternative life style, and we hoped that people of Chicago would come up, and mingle in Lincoln Park and see what we were aboutSony VAIO PCG-8161M battery. ”
— Abbie Hoffman, from the Chicago 7 trial
Zoo, Conservatory, and museums
Lincoln Park Zoo Nature Boardwalk
Lincoln Park Conservatory
Alfred Caldwell Lily Pool in Lincoln Park is a National Historic Landmark listing.
Peggy Notabeart Nature Museum-Chicago Academy of Sciences, south wing with tallgrass prairie overlook
Main article: Lincoln Park Zoo
Lincoln Park is well known for the Lincoln Park Zoo, a free zoo that is open year-round. Lincoln Park Zoo is home to a wide variety of animals. The zoo includes big cats, polar bears, penguins, gorillas, reptiles, monkeys, and other species totalling nearly 1,250 animalsSony VAIO PCG-8141M battery. Two sections of Lincoln Park Zoo have been set aside for children. The partially indoor Pritzker Family Children's Zoo includes habitats of various North American wildlife, and the Farm-in-the-Zoo Presented by John Deere is a working reproduction of a Midwestern farm containing horses and livestock such as pigs, cows, and sheep. At the Farm-in-the-Zoo, children can feed and interact with the animals and view live demonstrations of farm work such as the milking of cowsSony VAIO PCG-3J1M battery. In 2010, the Zoo transformed the South Pond, to create a wildlife marsh habitat, with a Nature Boardwalk.
Main article: Lincoln Park Conservatory
The Lincoln Park Conservatory offers year round displays of plants from many different climates around the world. Today's conservatory was built in stages from 1890 to 1895. It consists of a vestibule, four display halls and fifteen propagating and growing houses. The vestibule and Palm House were built and opened to the public in 1892 and contain giant palms and rubber treesSony VAIO PCG-3H1M battery, including a 15 m (50 ft) fiddle-leaf rubber tree planted in 1891. In the Palm House, one can also find Garden Figure, a sculpture by Frederick Hibbard. The Fern Room or Fernery was opened in 1895. It contains plants of the forest floor, primarily a vast collection of ferns. The Tropical Room was originally called the stove house. Opened in 1895, it contained an assortment of tropical plants suspended from bark-covered wallsSony VAIO PCG-3F1M battery. It is now called the Orchid Room and has a collection of approximately 25,000 natural species. The Display House is used for seasonal flower and plant exhibits. A docent program run by the Chicago Park District and Lincoln Park Conservancy, provides free tours of the Conservatory and its outdoor gardens from 1-4 p.m. on Fridays, Saturdays, and Sundays and from 9 to Noon on Saturdays
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Main article: Alfred Caldwell Lily Pool
Located on Fullerton Parkway between Stockton and Cannon Drives, the Alfred Caldwell Lily Pool is an historic example of Prairie School landscape architecture. The Lily Pool was listed on the National Register of Historic Places and as a National Historic Landmark on February 17, 2006. The Lily Pool had originally been built to cultivate tropical water lilies in 1889. Sony VAIO PCG-9Z2L battery In the 1930s, landscape architect Alfred Caldwell was hired by the Works Progress Administration to redesign the pool in the Prairie School style. From 1998 to 2002, the Lily Pool underwent an extensive restoration by the Lincoln Park Conservancy and Chicago Park District, which earned the site its historic designations, and renamed the site after Alfred Caldwell. The Lily Pool is open seasonally from mid-April to mid-November from 7:30 a.m. to the earlier of dusk or 7:30 p.m. every daySony VAIO PCG-9Z1L battery. A docent program run by the Chicago Park District and Lincoln Park Conservancy offers free tours from 1-4 p.m. on Fridays, Saturdays, and Sundays, and from 9 - Noon on Saturdays during operating season.
Main article: Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum
First established in 1857 as the Chicago Academy of Sciences and now occupying its new facility in 1999 as the Nature Museum, it descends from the Park District's first museum in the parks. The museum's exhibits include displays about the ecological history of the Illinois regionSony VAIO PCG-9131L battery, a live butterfly house, and a green home demonstration. The butterfly house features more than 200 species of exotic butterflies. The museum also offers educational programs for adults and children.
Main article: Chicago History Museum
Located at Clark Street and North Avenue, the Chicago History Museum is dedicated to everything about Chicago's human history. Perhaps among its most well-known possessions are Abraham Lincoln's deathbed and several furniture pieces from the room where he died in the Petersen HouseSony VAIO PCG-8161L battery, as well as clothing he and wife Mary Todd Lincoln wore the evening of his assassination. The museum also houses Chicago's most important collection of materials related to local history. In addition to the exhibits, the museum continues to house an extensive research library which includes books and other published materials, manuscripts, paintings, sculptures and photosSony VAIO PCG-8152L battery.
Children playing in Lincoln Park in winter snowstorm
Montrose Harbor and other harbors provide marina and docking facilities
First tee at Waveland Golf Course
Lincoln Park runs through five Chicago neighborhoods: from north to south, they are Edgewater, Uptown, Lake View, Lincoln Park and Near North. Along its seven mile (11 km) streach, Lincoln Park has many specialized spaces for recreational activities. The Park contains playgrounds, tennis and basketball courts, boating facilities, beaches, field and beach housesSony VAIO PCG-8141L battery, running and bike paths, playing fields and pitches for football, rugby, baseball, softball, cricket, soccer, volleyball, archery, a golf course, driving range, and areas for horseback riding.
Main article: Chicago beaches#Lincoln Park Beaches
There are seven public beaches for swimming, sunbathing and beach volleyball along the Park's 7 mile shoreline that are guarded during the summer months. The beaches from north to south are, Thorndale, Hollywood, and Foster in Edgewater; Montrose in Uptown; North Avenue in Lincoln Park; and Oak Street and Ohio in Near North. The first City of Chicago public beach, North Avenue Beach, opened in Lincoln Park in 1895. Sony VAIO PCG-8131L battery
The Waveland Avenue Golf Course (now, Sydney R Marovitz) in the Uptown and Lakeview, Chicago neighborhoods section of the park provides a lakside setting for the game. (41°57′9″N 87°38′27.4″W) Known for its challenging narrow fairways, it offers nine tees on a par 36 course. Further south, inland of Lakeshore Drive, is a driving range and miniature golfcourseSony VAIO PCG-81312L battery.
There are three harbors in the Park providing marina and docking facilities for boaters: north to south, they are Montrose in Uptown, Lakeview's Belmont Harbor, and Diversey Harbor in the Lakeview and the Lincoln Park Neighborhoods . Montrose Harbor provides 630 dock facilities and is home to the Chicago Corinthian Yacht Club. Sony VAIO PCG-81214L battery Belmont Harbor provides 730 moorings, a fuel dock and a ship store. The Chicago Yacht Club has a Belmont station and the Belmont Yacht Club is located here. Diversey Harbor has 714 moorings and the Diversey Yacht Club provides a fueling dock. There is also a public launch at Diversey. In addition, the park also has rowing, sculling, and crewing channelsSony VAIO PCG-81115L battery.
Chicago Lakefront Trail
The Chicago Lakefront Trail (abbreviated as LFT) is an 18-mile multi-use path in Chicago, Illinois along the coast of Lake Michigan. It is popular with cyclists and joggers. It is designed to promote bicycle commuting. From north to south, it runs through Lincoln Park, Grant Park, Burnham Park and Jackson ParkSony VAIO PCG-81114L battery.
Green Heron at the North Pond Nature Sanctuary
The North Pond Nature Sanctuary (41°55′42.12″N 87°38′15.66″W), located between Fullerton, Diversey, Stockton and Cannon, is a ten-acre pond that has become an important wildlife area. Historically the site was a dune, then a dumping ground, and converted in 1999-2000 into a natural area with a littoral zone that greatly improved the water quality by re-establishing native Midwestern ecologySony VAIO PCG-81113L battery. The upland restoration of prairie, savanna, and woodland plants has included only top quality native species such as little bluestem, sky-blue aster, nodding wild onion, side-oats grama, butterfly weed, purple prairie clover, rough blazing star, wild quinine, prairie phlox, coneflowers, false dragonhead, northern prairie dropseed, showy goldenrod, rattlesnake masterSony VAIO PCG-7142L battery, shooting star, and wild bergamot. The North Pond Nature Sanctuary is notable as the site where Mayor Richard M. Daley and the US Fish and Wildlife Service signed an Urban Conservation Treaty for Migratory Birds in April, 2004, making the city eligible for federal funds to restore habitat for the lakefront migratory pathway for birdsSony VAIO PCG-7141L battery.
Restoration with native plants has drawn a great diversity of wildlife to this urban pond including many species of birds, turtles, frogs, and even a few beavers. Great Blue Herons, Black-crowned Night Herons, Green Herons, Mallards, Wood Ducks, Song Sparrows and woodpeckers can regularly be spotted at the North Pond Nature SanctuarySony VAIO PCG-71111L battery.
Lake dune and beach grass (left), and tallgrass prairie and woodland reserve (right), in Lincoln Park at Montrose Point, a former Nike missile base site turned nature reserve.
Further north in the park, in the Lake View neighborhood (3600 N), there is the Bill Jarvis Migratory Bird Sanctuary (41°56′54.64″N 87°38′26.47″W; formerly, Lincoln Park Addison Migratory Bird Sanctuary). First constructed in the 1920sSony VAIO PCG-61411L battery, its spring is supplied with city water to mimic a natural lake marsh environment. It is a unique reserve in that most of its 7-acre (28,000 m2) area is entirely fenced around to preserve the habitat from human encroachment. Instead, a nature trail and a viewing platform are at its surrounding perimeter. In 1968, the entire site was almost bulldozed for park development but its Lake View neighbors led a successful campaign to save and restore itSony VAIO PCG-61112L battery. Today it hosts more than 150 species of birds including, six species of herons, like the black crowned night heron; wood ducks; woodcock; hawks; yellow-billed cuckoos; hummingbirds; thrushes; vireos; 34 species of warblers; and 18 native species of sparrows. In addition, small mammals such as rabbit, opossum, raccoon, and occasionally fox and coyote make there home hereSony VAIO PCG-61111L battery.
In the Uptown neighborhood (4400 N;41°57′47.95″N 87°38′1.75″W), there is the 15-acre (61,000 m2) Montrose Point Bird Sanctuary (including “The Magic Hedge”). Its history is perhaps unusual for a nature preserve. During the Cold War, Montrose point, which juts out into Lake Michigan, was used by the United States Army as a Nike missile base. The Army camouflaged their missile launchers and barracks behind honeysuckle hedges.Sony VAIO PCG-5T4L battery When the Army left in the 1970s, bird watchers noticed how the honeysuckle attracted birds. They successfully lobbied the park district for a new preserve. Now, after extensive replanting, the site supports woodland, tall prairie, and lake dune habitat that annually attracts tens of thousands of migratory birds of more than 300 different speciesSony VAIO PCG-5T3L battery.
Looking North, Lincoln Park is all the green (and sand) areas in this picture, streaching to the horizon. Lake Shore Drive runs up the middle. The visible Lincoln Park beaches are Oak Street Beach (bottom right) and North Ave Beach (upper-middle right). The Zoo and original park are in the green area to the left of Lake Shore Drive (upper-middle left). Top center are more of Lincoln Park's green northern reachesSony VAIO PCG-5T2L battery, including Montrose Point juting out into the lake. Not visible are Ohio Street beach (to the south of this picture) and the beaches, harbors and parklands, beyond the northern horizon.
Lincoln Park is known for its statuary. Walking through the park, one sees many of Chicago's great works of art. There is a famous statue of Abraham Lincoln in Lincoln Park by Augustus Saint-Gaudens, the same sculptor who created the Lincoln statue in Grant Park. Replicas of Lincoln Park's "Standing Lincoln" can be found at Lincoln's tombSony VAIO PCG-5S3L battery, Springfield and in Parliament Square, London. The statue is located at Dearborn and North Avenues. It was fully restored in 1989 by the Lincoln Park Conservancy's Adopt-A-Monument Program, and 8,200 s.f. of formal gardens were added in front of the monument.
The only other person who is immortalized by statues in both Grant and Lincoln Parks is Alexander Hamilton, the Lincoln Park statue is sculpted by John AngelSony VAIO PCG-5S2L battery. Just as there is an Abraham Lincoln statue in Grant Park, there is a massive memorial to Ulysses S. Grant in Lincoln Park overlooking Cannon Drive. The sculpture was created in 1891 by Louis Rebisso.
John Gelert's Hans Christian Andersen (1896) on Stockton Drive near Webster Avenue provides a tribute to the Danish storyteller. The Eugene Field Memorial (1922) designed by Edward McCartan remembers the Chicago Daily News columnist and poet who wrote "Little Boy Blue" and "Winken, Blinken, and Nod." Sony VAIO PCG-5S1L battery William Ordway Partridge's statue of William Shakespeare (1894) provides a third great story-teller in Lincoln Park. This seated Shakespeare provides a lap for children to climb onto. A bust of Sir Georg Solti, the former conductor of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra was also situated in the Lincoln Park Conservatory's formal garden until its relocation to Grant Park in October, 2006. Statues honoring the German poets Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Schiller can also be found in Lincoln parkSony VAIO PCG-5R2L battery. The large Goethe statue is located near Diversey and Stockton. The smaller Schiller statue is located near the western entrance to the zoo.
At Addison Street stands a 40-foot (12 m) totem pole depicting Kwanusila the Thunderbird. Finally, a statue of John Peter Altgeld (1915), the nineteenth-century Illinois Governor who pardoned the Haymarket Square rioters, can be seen just south of Diversey. This statue was created by Gutzon Borglum and unveiled on September 6, 1915Sony VAIO PCG-5R1L battery. Borglum went on to become the sculptor of the Mount Rushmore Monument.
Miami ( /maɪˈæmi/ or /maɪˈæmə/) is a city located on the Atlantic coast in southeastern Florida and the county seat of Miami-Dade County, the most populous county in Florida and the eighth-most populous county in the United States with a population of 2,500,625. The 42nd largest city proper in the United States, with a population of 408,568, it is the principalSony VAIO PCG-5P4L battery, central, and most populous city of the South Florida metropolitan area, and the most populous metropolis in the Southeastern United States. According to the US Census Bureau, Miami's metro area is the seventh most populous and fifth-largest urban area in the United States, with a population of around 5.5 million.
Miami is a major center and a leader in finance, commerce, culture, media, entertainment, the arts, and international tradeSony VAIO PCG-5P2L battery. In 2010, Miami was classified as a Alpha- World City in the World Cities Study Group’s inventory. In 2010, Miami ranked seventh in the United States in terms of finance, commerce, culture, entertainment, fashion, education, and other sectors. It ranked thirty-third among global cities. In 2008, Forbes magazine ranked Miami "America's Cleanest City", for its year-round good air qualitySony VAIO PCG-5N4L battery, vast green spaces, clean drinking water, clean streets and city-wide recycling programs. According to a 2009 UBS study of 73 world cities, Miami was ranked as the richest city in the United States, and the world's fifth-richest city in terms of purchasing power. Miami is nicknamed the "Capital of Latin America", is the 2nd largest U.S. city (after El Paso) with a Spanish-speaking majority, and the largest city with a Cuban-American plurality. Sony VAIO PCG-5N2L battery
Downtown Miami and South Florida are home to the largest concentration of international banks in the United States, and is home to many large companies both nationally and internationally. The Civic Center is a major center for hospitals, research institutes, medical centers, and biotechnology industriesSony VAIO PCG-51513L battery. For more than two decades, the Port of Miami, known as the "Cruise Capital of the World," has been the number one cruise passenger port in the world, accommodating some of the world's largest cruise ships and operations, and is currently the busiest in both passenger traffic and cruise lines.
Approximately 400 men voted for Miami's incorporation in 1896 in the building to the leftSony VAIO PCG-51511L battery.
The Downtown Miami Historic District is the city's largest historic district, with buildings ranging from 1896-1939 in the heart of Downtown
Main article: History of Miami
See also: National Register of Historic Places listings in Miami, Florida
The Miami area was first inhabited for more than one thousand years by the Tequestas, but was later claimed for Spain in 1566 by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés. A Spanish mission was constructed one year later in 1567. In 1836, Fort Dallas was built, and the Miami area subsequently became a site of fighting during the Second Seminole WarSony VAIO PCG-51412L battery.
Miami holds the distinction of being "the only major city in the United States conceived by a woman, Julia Tuttle," who was a local citrus grower and a wealthy Cleveland native. The Miami area was better known as "Biscayne Bay Country" in the early years of its growth. Some published reports described the area as a promising wilderness. The area was also characterized as "one of the finest building sites in Florida." Sony VAIO PCG-51411L batteryThe Great Freeze of 1894–95 hastened Miami's growth, as the crops of the Miami area were the only ones in Florida that survived. Julia Tuttle subsequently convinced Henry Flagler, a railroad tycoon, to expand his Florida East Coast Railway to the region, for which she became known as "the mother of Miami." Miami was officially incorporated as a city on July 28, 1896 with a population of just over 300. Sony VAIO PCG-51312L battery It was named for the nearby Miami River, itself named for the Mayaimi Indians who previously lived around Lake Okeechobee.
Miami prospered during the 1920s with an increase in population and infrastructure but weakened after the collapse of the Florida land boom of the 1920s, the 1926 Miami Hurricane and the Great Depression in the 1930s. When World War II began, Miami, well-situated due to its location on the southern coast of FloridaSony VAIO PCG-51311L battery, played an important role in the battle against German submarines. The war helped to expand Miami's population; by 1940, 172,172 people lived in the city. After Fidel Castro rose to power in 1959, many Cubans sought refuge in Miami, further increasing the population. In the 1980s and 1990s, various crises struck South Florida, among them the Arthur McDuffie beating and the subsequent riot, drug wars, Hurricane Andrew, and the Elián González uproar. NeverthelessSony VAIO PCG-51211L battery, in the latter half of the 20th century, Miami became a major international, financial, and cultural center.
Miami and its metropolitan area grew from just over one thousand residents to nearly five and a half million residents in just 110 years (1896–2006). The city's nickname, The Magic City, comes from this rapid growth. Winter visitors remarked that the city grew so much from one year to the next that it was like magic. Sony VAIO PCG-41112L battery
The mouth of the Miami River at Brickell Key.
The city proper is home to less than 1 in 13 residents of South Florida. Additionally, 52% of Miami-Dade County's population doesn't live in any incorporated city.
Miami and its suburbs are located on a broad plain between the Florida Everglades to the west and Biscayne Bay to the east that also extends from Florida Bay north to Lake Okeechobee. The elevation of the area never rises above 40 ft (12 m) and averages at around 6 ft (1.8 m) Sony VAIO PCG-3A4L batteryabove mean sea level in most neighborhoods, especially near the coast. The highest undulations are found along the coastal Miami Rock Ridge, whose substrate underlies most of the eastern Miami metropolitan region. The main portion of the city lies on the shores of Biscayne Bay which contains several hundred natural and artificially created barrier islands, the largest of which contains Miami Beach and South Beach. The Gulf Stream, a warm ocean currentSony VAIO PCG-3A3L battery, runs northward just 15 miles (24 km) off the coast, allowing the city's climate to stay warm and mild all year.
View from one of the higher points in Miami, west of downtown. The highest natural point in Miami is in Coconut Grove, near the bay, along the Miami Rock Ridge at 24 feet (7.3 m) above sea level.
The surface bedrock under the Miami area is called Miami oolite or Miami limestone. This bedrock is covered by a thin layer of soil, and is no more than 50 feet (15 m) thick. Miami limestone formed as the result of the drastic changes in sea level associated with recent glaciations or ice agesSony VAIO PCG-3A2L battery. Beginning some 130,000 years ago the Sangamonian Stage raised sea levels to approximately 25 feet (7.6 m) above the current level. All of southern Florida was covered by a shallow sea. Several parallel lines of reef formed along the edge of the submerged Florida plateau, stretching from the present Miami area to what is now the Dry Tortugas. The area behind this reef line was in effect a large lagoonSony VAIO PCG-3A1L battery, and the Miami limestone formed throughout the area from the deposition of oolites and the shells of bryozoans. Starting about 100,000 years ago the Wisconsin glaciation began lowering sea levels, exposing the floor of the lagoon. By 15,000 years ago, the sea level had dropped to 300 to 350 feet (110 m) below the contemporary level. The sea level rose quickly after that, stabilizing at the current level about 4000 years ago, leaving the mainland of South Florida just above sea levelSony VAIO PCG-394L battery.
Beneath the plain lies the Biscayne Aquifer, a natural underground source of fresh water that extends from southern Palm Beach County to Florida Bay, with its highest point peaking around the cities of Miami Springs and Hialeah. Most of the South Florida metropolitan area obtains its drinking water from this aquifer. As a result of the aquifer, it is not possible to dig more than 15 to 20 ft Sony VAIO PCG-393L battery (4.6 to 6.1 m) beneath the city without hitting water, which impedes underground construction. For this reason, the mass transit systems in and around Miami are elevated or at-grade.
Most of the western fringes of the city extend into the Everglades, a subtropical marshland located in the southern portion of the U.S. state of Florida. This causes occasional problems with local wildlife such as alligators venturing into Miami communities and major highwaysSony VAIO PCG-391L battery.
In terms of land area, Miami is one of the smallest major cities in the United States. According to the US Census Bureau, the city encompasses a total area of 55.27 sq mi (143.1 km2). Of that area, 35.67 sq mi (92.4 km2) is land and 19.59 sq mi (50.7 km2) is water. That means Miami comprises over 400,000 people in a mere 35 square miles (91 km2), making it one of the most densely populated cities in the United StatesSony VAIO PCG-384L battery, along with New York City, San Francisco, and Chicago among others. Miami is located at 25°47′16″N 80°13′27″W.
Main article: Climate of Miami
Typical summer afternoon thunderstorm rolling in from the Everglades.
Miami has a tropical monsoon climate (Köppen climate classification Am) with hot and humid summers and short, warm winters, with a marked drier season in the winter. Its sea-level elevation, coastal location, position just above the Tropic of Cancer, and proximity to the Gulf Stream shapes its climate. With January averaging 67.2 °F (19.6 °C)Sony VAIO PCG-383L battery, winter features mild to warm temperatures; cool air usually settles after the passage of a cold front, which produces much of the little amount of rainfall. Lows sometimes fall below 50 °F (10 °C), but very rarely below 35 °F (2 °C). Highs generally range between 70–77 °F (21–25 °C). The wet season begins some time in May, ending in mid-October. During this period, temperatures are in the mid 80s to low 90s (29–35 °C) Sony VAIO PCG-382L battery, accompanied by high humidity, though the heat is often relieved by afternoon thunderstorms or a sea breeze that develops off the Atlantic Ocean, which then allow lower temperatures, but conditions still remain very muggy. Much of the year's 55.9 inches (1,420 mm) of rainfall occurs during this period.
Extremes range from 27 °F (−2.8 °C) on February 3, 1917 to 100 °F (38 °C) on July 21, 1940. Miami has never recorded an accumulation of snow, and has only once recorded snow flurries, on January 19, 1977Sony VAIO PCG-381L battery.
Hurricane season officially runs from June 1 through November 30, although hurricanes can develop beyond those dates. The most likely time for Miami to be hit is during the peak of the Cape Verde season which is mid-August through the end of September. Although tornadoes are uncommon in the Miami area, a tornado struck the city in 1925 and again in 1997Sony VAIO PCG-7185L battery.
Miami is partitioned into many different sections, roughly into North, South, West and Downtown. The heart of the city is Downtown Miami and is technically on the eastern side of the city. This area includes Brickell, Virginia Key, Watson Island, and the Port of Miami. Downtown is South Florida's central business district, and Florida's largest and most influential central business districtSony VAIO PCG-7184L battery. Downtown has the largest concentration of international banks in the U.S. along Brickell Avenue. Downtown is home to many major banks, courthouses, financial headquarters, cultural and tourist attractions, schools, parks and a large residential population. East of Downtown, across Biscayne Bay is South Beach. Just northwest of Downtown, is the Civic Center, which is Miami's center for hospitalsSony VAIO PCG-7183L battery, research institutes and biotechnology with hospitals such as Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami VA Hospital, and the University of Miami's Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine.
The southern side of Miami includes Coral Way, The Roads and Coconut Grove. Coral Way is a historic residential neighborhood built in 1922 connecting Downtown with Coral Gables, and is home to many old homes and tree-lined streetsSony VAIO PCG-7182L battery. Coconut Grove was established in 1825 and is the location of Miami's City Hall in Dinner Key, the Coconut Grove Playhouse, CocoWalk, many nightclubs, bars, restaurants and bohemian shops, and as such, is very popular with local college students. It is a historic neighborhood with narrow, winding roads, and a heavy tree canopy. Coconut Grove has many parks and gardens such as Villa VizcayaSony VAIO PCG-7181L battery, The Kampong, The Barnacle Historic State Park, and is the home of the Coconut Grove Convention Center, as well as many of the country's most prestigious private schools, and numerous historic homes and estates.
The western side of Miami includes Little Havana, West Flagler, and Flagami, and is home to many of the city's traditionally immigrant neighborhoods. Although at one time a mostly Jewish neighborhoodSony VAIO PCG-7174L battery, today western Miami is home to immigrants from mostly Central America and Cuba, while the west central neighborhood of Allapattah is a multicultural community of many ethnicities.
The northern side of Miami includes Midtown, a district with a great mix of diversity with many West Indians, Hispanics, European Americans, bohemians, and artists. Edgewater, and Wynwood, are neighborhoods of Midtown and are made up mostly of high-rise residential towers and are home to the Adrienne Arsht Center for the Performing ArtsSony VAIO PCG-7173L battery. The wealthier residents usually live in the northeastern part, in Midtown, the Design District, and the Upper East Side, with many sought after 1920s homes and home of the MiMo Historic District, a style of architecture originated in Miami in the 1950s. The northern side of Miami, also has notable African American and Caribbean immigrant communities such as Little Haiti, Overtown (home of the Lyric Theater), and Liberty CitySony VAIO PCG-7172L battery.
Entertainment and performing arts
Adrienne Arsht Center for the Performing Arts, the second-largest performing arts center in the United States.
Miami is home to many entertainment venues, theaters, museums, parks and performing arts centers. The newest addition to the Miami arts scene is the Adrienne Arsht Center for the Performing Arts, the second-largest performing arts center in the United States after the Lincoln Center in New York CitySony VAIO PCG-7171L battery, and is the home of the Florida Grand Opera. Within it are the Ziff Ballet Opera House, the center's largest venue, the Knight Concert Hall, the Carnival Studio Theater and the Peacock Rehearsal Studio. The center attracts many large scale operas, ballets, concerts, and musicals from around the world and is Florida's grandest performing arts center. Other performing arts venues in Miami include the Gusman Center for the Performing ArtsSony VAIO PCG-7162L battery, Coconut Grove Playhouse, Colony Theatre, Lincoln Theatre, New World Center, Actor's Playhouse at the Miracle Theatre, Jackie Gleason Theatre, Manuel Artime Theater, Ring Theatre, Playground Theatre, Wertheim Performing Arts Center, the Fair Expo Center and the Bayfront Park Amphitheater for outdoor music events.
The city attracts a large number of musicians, singers, actors, dancers, and orchestral players. Miami has numerous orchestrasSony VAIO PCG-7161L battery, symphonies and performing art conservatories. Some of these include the Florida Grand Opera, Frost School of Music, Miami City Ballet, Miami Conservatory, Miami Wind Symphony, New World School of the Arts, New World Symphony Orchestra, as well as the music, theater and art schools of the city's many universities and schoolsSony VAIO PCG-7154L battery.
Miami is also a major fashion center, home to models and some of the top modeling agencies in the world. Miami is also host to many fashion shows and events, including the annual Miami Fashion Week and the Mercedes-Benz Fashion Week Miami held in the Wynwood Art District. Sony VAIO PCG-7153L battery
Museums and art
The city is home to numerous museums as well, many of which are in Downtown. These include the Bass Museum, Coral Gables Museum, Frost Art Museum, Historical Museum of Southern Florida, Jewish Museum of Florida, Lowe Art Museum, Miami Art Museum, Miami Children's Museum, Miami Science Museum, Museum of Contemporary ArtSony VAIO PCG-7152L battery, Vizcaya Museum and Gardens, Wolfsonian-FIU Museum and the Miami Cultural Center, home of the Miami Main Library. Miami is also the home of the world's largest art exhibition, dubbed the "Olympics of Art", Art Basel Miami. The event is held annually in December, and attracts thousands of visitors from around the worldSony VAIO PCG-7151L battery.
The Barnacle Historic State Park, built in 1891 in Miami's Coconut Grove neighborhood.
Miami's tropical weather allows for year-round outdoors activities. The city has numerous marinas, rivers, bays, canals, and the Atlantic Ocean, which make boating, sailing, and fishing popular outdoors activities. Biscayne Bay has numerous coral reefs which make snorkeling and scuba diving popular. There are over 80 parks and gardens in the city.
Sony VAIO PCG-7148L battery The largest and most popular parks are Bayfront Park and Bicentennial Park (located in the heart of Downtown and the location of the American Airlines Arena and Bayside Marketplace), Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Key Biscayne (Crandon Park and Bill Baggs Cape Florida State Park), Tropical Park, Peacock Park, Morningside Park, Virginia Key, and Watson Island.
Other popular cultural destinations in the area include Jungle Island, Zoo Miami, Miami Seaquarium, Coral Castle, St. Bernard de Clairvaux Church, and the Charles Deering EstateSony VPCW21M2E/WI battery.
The city is a major music production city and attracts many annual music festivals, such as Ultra Music Festival
Miami music is varied. Cubans brought the conga and rumba to Miami from their homelands instantly popularizing it in American culture. Dominicans brought bachata, and merengue, while Colombians brought vallenato and cumbia, and Brazilians brought samba. West Indians and Caribbean people have brought reggae, soca, kompa, zouk, calypso, and steel pan to the area as wellSony VPCW21C7E battery.