Jakarta And East Timor

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Jakarta, officially known as the Special Capital Region of Jakarta (Indonesian: Daerah Khusus Ibu Kota Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia.

Located on the northwest coast of Java, Jakarta is the country's economic, cultural and political centre, and with a population of 10,187,595 as of November 2011,[3] it is the most populous city in Indonesia and in Southeast Asia, and is the thirteenth most populated city in the world. The official metropolitan area, known as Jabodetabek (SONY PCG-5G2L battery) (a name formed by combining the initial syllables of Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang and Bekasi), is the second largest in the world, yet the metropolis's suburbs still continue beyond it. Jakarta is listed as a global city in the 2008 Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC) research.[4] and has an area of 661 square kilometres (255 sq mi). This area has population of well over 28 million,[5] making it one of the world's largest conurbations in terms of number of inhabitants(SONY PCG-5G3L battery).

In 2011, Jakarta ranked 17th among the world's 200 largest cities, a jump from its 2007 ranking of 171. Jakarta has grown more rapidly than Kuala Lumpur, Beijing and Bangkok.[6]

Established in the fourth century, the city became an important trading port for the Kingdom of Sunda. It was the de facto capital of the Dutch East Indies (when it was known as Batavia) and has continued as the capital of Indonesia since the country's independence was declared in 1945(SONY PCG-F305 battery).

The city is the seat of the ASEAN Secretariat. Jakarta is served by the Soekarno-Hatta International Airport, Halim Perdanakusuma International Airport, and Tanjung Priok Harbour; it is connected by several intercity and commuter railways, and served by several bus lines running on reserved busways(SONY PCG-5J1L battery).

The place that is now called Jakarta has been home to multiple settlements along with their respective names: Sunda Kelapa (397–1527), Jayakarta (1527–1619), Batavia (1619–1949), and Djakarta (1949–1972).

Its current name is derived from the word "Jayakarta". The origins of this word lie in the Old Javanese and thus ultimately in the Sanskrit language. "Jayakarta" translates as "victorious deed", "complete act", or "complete victory"(SONY PCG-5J2L battery).

Jakarta is nicknamed Big Durian, because the city is seen as the Indonesian equivalent of New York City (the Big Apple).[7]

The 5th century Tugu inscription discovered in Tugu district, North Jakarta

The area in and around modern Jakarta was part of the fourth century Sundanese kingdom of Tarumanagara, one of the oldest Hindu kingdoms in Indonesia.[8] Following the decline of Tarumanagara, its territories, including the Jakarta area, became part of the Kingdom of Sunda. From 7th to early 13th century port of Sunda is within the sphere of influence of Srivijaya maritime empire(SONY PCG-5K2L battery). According to the Chinese source, Chu-fan-chi, written circa 1200, Chou Ju-kua reported in the early 13th century Srivijaya still ruled Sumatra, the Malay peninsula, and western Java (Sunda). The source reports the port of Sunda as strategic and thriving, pepper from Sunda being among the best in quality. The people worked in agriculture and their houses were built on wooden piles.[9] The harbour area became known as Sunda Kelapa and by the fourteenth century, it was a major trading port for Sunda kingdom(SONY PCG-5L1L battery).

The first European fleet, four Portuguese ships from Malacca, arrived in 1513 when the Portuguese were looking for a route for spices.[10] The Kingdom of Sunda made an alliance treaty with Portugal by allowing the Portuguese to build a port in 1522 in order to defend against the rising power of the Sultanate of Demak from central Java.[11] In 1527, Fatahillah, a Javanese general from Demak attacked and conquered Sunda Kelapa(SONY PCG-6S2L battery), driving out the Portuguese. Sunda Kelapa was renamed Jayakarta,[11] and became a fiefdom of the Sultanate of Banten which became a major Southeast Asia trading centre.

Through the relationship with Prince Jayawikarta from the Sultanate of Banten, Dutch ships arrived in Jayakarta in 1596. In 1602, the English East India Company's first voyage, commanded by Sir James Lancaster, arrived in Aceh and sailed on to Banten where they were allowed to build a trading post. This site became the centre of English trade in Indonesia until 1682. (SONY PCG-6S3L battery)

Jayawikarta is thought to have made trading connections with the English merchants, rivals of the Dutch, by allowing them to build houses directly across from the Dutch buildings in 1615.[13]

See also: List of colonial buildings and structures in Jakarta

The former Stadhuis of Batavia, the seat of Governor General of VOC. The building now serves as Jakarta History Museum, Jakarta Old Town area(SONY PCG-6V1L battery).

When relations between Prince Jayawikarta and the Dutch deteriorated, Jayawikarta's soldiers attacked the Dutch fortress. Prince Jayakarta's army and the English were defeated by the Dutch, in part owing to the timely arrival of Jan Pieterszoon Coen (J.P. Coen). The Dutch burned the English fort, and forced the English to retreat on their ships. The victory consolidated Dutch power and in 1619 they renamed the city Batavia(SONY PCG-6W1L battery).

Commercial opportunities in the capital of the Dutch colony attracted Indonesian and especially Chinese immigrants. This sudden population increase created burdens on the city. Tensions grew as the colonial government tried to restrict Chinese migration through deportations. Following a revolt, 5,000 Chinese were massacred by the Dutch and natives on 9 October 1740 and the following year, Chinese inhabitants were moved to Glodok outside the city walls. (SONY PCG-7111L battery)The city began to move further south as epidemics in 1835 and 1870 encouraged more people to move far south of the port. The Koningsplein, now Merdeka Square was completed in 1818, the housing park of Menteng was started in 1913,[15] and Kebayoran Baru was the last Dutch-built residential area.[14] By 1930 Batavia had more than 500,000 inhabitants,[16] including 37,067 Europeans. (SONY PCG-71511M battery)

During World War II, the city was renamed from Batavia to "Jakarta" (short form of Jayakarta) by the Indonesian nationalists after conquering the city from the Dutch in 1942 with the help of the Japanese forces.

Following World War II, Indonesian Republicans withdrew from Allied-occupied Jakarta during their fight for Indonesian independence and established their capital in Yogyakarta. In 1950, once independence was secured, Jakarta was once again made the national capital. (SONY PCG-6W3L battery) Indonesia's founding president, Sukarno, envisaged Jakarta as a great international city, and instigated large government-funded projects with openly nationalistic and modernist architecture.[19][20] Projects included a clover-leaf highway, a major boulevard (Jalan MH Thamrin-Sudirman), monuments such as The National Monument, Hotel Indonesia, a shopping centre, and a new parliament building. In October 1965, Jakarta was the site of an abortive coup attempt in which 6 top generals were killed(SONY PCG-7113L battery), precipitating a violent anti-communist purge in which half-a million people were killed, including many ethnic Chinese,[21] and the beginning of Suharto's New Order. A monument stands where the generals' bodies were dumped.

In 1966, Jakarta was declared a "special capital city district" (daerah khusus ibukota), thus gaining a status approximately equivalent to that of a state or province.[22] Lieutenant General Ali Sadikin served as Governor from the mid-60's commencement of the "New Order" through to 1977(SONY PCG-7133L battery); he rehabilitated roads and bridges, encouraged the arts, built several hospitals, and a large number of new schools. He also cleared out slum dwellers for new development projects—some for the benefit of the Suharto family—and tried to eliminate rickshaws and ban street vendors. He began control of migration to the city in order to stem the overcrowding and poverty.[25] Foreign investment contributed to a real estate boom which changed the face of the city. (SONY PCG-7Z1L battery)

Jalan Jenderal Sudirman, Jakarta's main avenue and business district.

The boom ended with the 1997/98 East Asian Economic crisis putting Jakarta at the center of violence, protest, and political maneuvering. After 32 years in power, support from President Suharto began to wane. Tensions reached a peak in when four students were shot dead at Trisakti University by security forces; four days of riots and violence ensued that killed an estimated 1,200, and destroyed or damaged 6,000 buildings. (SONY PCG-7Z2L battery) Much of the rioting targeted Chinese Indonesians.[28] Suharto resigned as president, and Jakarta has remained the focal point of democratic change in Indonesia.[29] Jemaah Islamiah-connected bombings occurred almost annually in the city between 2000 and 2005,[14] with another bombing in 2009.[30]

Map of the cities (kotamadya) in Jakarta province. Each city is divided into subdistricts (kecamatan) (SONY PCG-8Y1L battery).

Officially, Jakarta is not a city, but a province with special status as the capital of Indonesia. It has a governor (instead of a mayor), and is divided into several sub-regions with their own administrative systems. As a province, the official name of Jakarta is Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta ("Special Capital City District of Jakarta"), which in Indonesian is abbreviated to DKI Jakarta(SONY PCG-8Y2L battery).

Jakarta is divided into five kota or kotamadya ("cities" – formerly municipalities), each headed by a mayor – and one regency (kabupaten) headed by a regent. In August 2007, Jakarta held its first ever election to choose a governor, whereas previously the city's governors were appointed by the local house of representatives. The poll is part of a country-wide decentralization drive, allowing for direct local elections in several areas. (SONY PCG-8Z2L battery)

The cities/municipalities of Jakarta are:

Central Jakarta (Jakarta Pusat) is Jakarta's smallest city and home to most of Jakarta's administrative and political center. It is characterized by large parks and Dutch colonial buildings. Landmarks include the National Monument (Monas), the Istiqlal Mosque, the Jakarta Cathedral, and museums. (SONY PCG-8Z1L battery)

West Jakarta (Jakarta Barat) has the highest concentration of small-scale industries in Jakarta. The area includes Jakarta's Chinatown and Dutch colonial landmarks such as the Chinese Langgam building and Toko Merah. West Jakarta contains part of Jakarta Old Town.[33]

South Jakarta (Jakarta Selatan), originally planned as a satellite city, is now the location of large upscale shopping centres and affluent residential areas. Jakarta Selatan functions as Jakarta's ground water buffer, (SONY PCG-7112L battery) but recently the green belt areas are threatened by new developments. Much of the CBD area of Jakarta is concentrated in Setia Budi, South Jakarta, bordering the Tanah Abang/Sudirman area of Central Jakarta.

East Jakarta (Jakarta Timur) territory is characterized by several industrial sectors erected in this city.[35] There are also still some areas of swamps and rice fields in this city. (SONY PCG-6W2L battery)

North Jakarta (Jakarta Utara) is the only city in Jakarta that is bounded by the sea (Java Sea). It is the location of the Tanjung Priok Port. Large-scale and medium-scale industries are concentrated in North Jakarta. North Jakarta contains part of Jakarta Old Town, formerly known as Batavia since the 17th century, and was a centre of VOC trade activity in Dutch East Indies. Also located in North Jakarta is Ancol Dreamland (Taman Impian Jaya Ancol), currently the largest integrated tourism area in South East Asia. (SONY PCG-5K1L battery)

The only regency (kabupaten) of Jakarta is:

Thousand Islands (Kepulauan Seribu), formerly a subdistrict of North Jakarta, is a collection of 105 small islands located on Java Sea. It has a high conservation value because of its unique and special ecosystems. Marine tourism, such as diving, water bicycle, and wind surfing, is the most important touristic activity in this territory. The main transportation between these islands are speed boat or small ferries. (SONY VGP-BPS9 battery)

Government

In September 1945, the government of Jakarta City was changed from the Japanese Djakarta Toku-Betsu Shi into the Jakarta National Administration. This first government was held by a Mayor until the end of 1960 when the office was changed to that of a Governor. The last mayor of Jakarta was Sudiro, until he was replaced by Dr Sumarno as Governor of the province (as the city had now become) (SONY VGP-BPS9/S battery).

In 1974, Based on the Act No. 5 of 1974 relating to the Fundamentals of Regional Government, Jakarta was confirmed as the capital of Indonesia and one of Indonesia's 26 provinces.[38]

See also: List of Governors of Jakarta

The ability of the regional government to respond to the many problems of Jakarta is constrained by extremely limited finances. In 2012, the total budget available to the Jakarta regional government is expected to be around Rp 36 trillion (about $US 4 billion), equivalent to around $US 350 per citizen(SONY VGP-BPS9A battery). Priority areas of spending are expected to be education, transport, flood control measures, environment programs, and various types of social spending (such as housing).

The Jakarta provincial government, like all other provincial governments in Indonesia, relies on transfers from the central government for the bulk of budget income. Local (non-central government) sources of revenue are incomes from various taxes such as vehicle ownership and vehicle transfer fees and so on. (SONY VGP-BPS9A/B battery)

In recent years, the Jakarta provincial government has consistently run a surplus of between 15-20% of total planned spending, largely because of delays in procurement procedures and other inefficiencies in the spending process. The regular underspending is a matter of frequent public comment but the legal and administrative blockages that cause the underspending problem seem very difficult to overcome. (SONY VGP-BPS9/B battery)

Jakarta is located on the northwest coast of Java, at the mouth of the Ciliwung River on Jakarta Bay, which is an inlet of the Java Sea. Officially, the area of the Jakarta Special District is 662 km2 of land area and 6,977 km2 of sea area.[41] Jakarta lies in a low, flat basin, averaging 7 metres (23 ft) above sea level;[citation needed] 40% of Jakarta, particularly the northern areas, is below sea level, (SONY VGP-BPS9A/S battery)while the southern parts are comparatively hilly. Rivers flow from the Puncak highlands to the south of the city, across the city northwards towards the Java Sea; the most important[clarification needed] is the Ciliwung River, which divides the city into the western and eastern principalities. Other rivers include the Pesanggrahan, and Sunter.

These rivers, combined with Jakarta's low topography make it prone to flooding from swollen rivers in the wet season and high sea tides(SONY VGP-BPL9 battery). Other contributing factors include clogged sewage pipes and waterways that service an increasing population, in addition to deforestation near rapidly urbanizing Bogor and Depok in Jakarta's hinterland. Furthermore, Jakarta is an urban area with complex socio-economic problems that indirectly contribute to triggering a flood event.[43] Major floods occurred in 1996 when 5,000 hectares of land were flooded[46] and 2007.[47] Losses from infrastructure damage and state revenue were at least 5.2 trillion rupiah (572 million US dollars) (SONY VGP-BPS10 battery) and at least 85 people were killed[48] and about 350,000 people forced from their homes.[49] Approximately 70% of Jakarta's total area was flooded with water up to four meters deep in parts of the city.

In May 2011, the Jakarta Environmental Management Agency categorized all rivers in Jakarta as polluted; 71% of them were heavily polluted, 20% were partly polluted and 9% were lightly polluted. (SONY VGP-BPL10 battery)

East Flood Canal (BKT) in eastern Jakarta was a national project which began in 2003 and late 2009 reached the Java sea and will be accomplished in 2011. It was 23.5 kilometers length which linking five rivers: Cipinang, Sunter, Buaran, Jati Kramat and Cakung. It will reduce flood and hope as a 2 kilometers rowing sport venue too.[53] To ease from flood, Jakarta Emergency Dredging Innitiave (JEDI) phase-2 will make underground canal (siphon) from Ciliwung river to Cipinang river and then go through to East Flood Canal(SONY VGP-BPS11 battery). It will lowering flood at Cawang, Kampung Melayu, Bukit Duri and Kebun Baru. The length will be one kilometer and will be finished at 2016.[54]

Besides flood from the rivers, Jakarta is also sinking about 5 to 10 centimeters each year and up to 20 centimeters in northern Jakarta mainland. To solve it, the Netherlands will give $4 million for a feasibility study to build a dike on Jakarta Bay. The ring dike will be provided with pumping system and retention area, would regulate and control seawater and use also as additional toll road. The project will be built by 2025. (SONY VGP-BPL11 battery)

The Thousand Islands, which are administratively a part of Jakarta, are located in Jakarta Bay north of the city.

Jakarta has a hot and humid climate on the boundary between tropical monsoon (Am) and savanna (Aw) according to the Köppen climate classification system. Despite being located relatively close to the equator, the city has distinct wet and dry seasons. The wet season in Jakarta covers the majority of the year, running from November through June(SONY VGP-BPL12 battery). The remaining four months forms the city’s dry season. Located in the western part of Java, Jakarta’s wet season rainfall peak is January with average monthly rainfall of 389 millimetres (15.3 in), and its dry season low point is September with a monthly average of 30 millimetres (1.2 in).

As the economic and political capital of Indonesia, Jakarta attracts many domestic immigrants who bring their various languages, dialects, foods and customs.

The Golden Snail (Keong Emas), established in the 1970s during the New Order era, is an IMAX theatre located in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, East Jakarta(SONY VGP-BPS12 battery).

The "Betawi" (Orang Betawi, or "people of Batavia") are the descendants of the people living in and around Batavia and recognized as an ethnic group from around the 18th–19th century. The Betawi people are mostly descended from various Southeast-Asian ethnic groups brought or attracted to Batavia to meet labor needs, and include people from different parts of Indonesia. (SONY VGP-BPS13 battery) The language and Betawi culture are distinct from those of the Sundanese or Javanese, forming itself as a language island in the surrounding area. The language is mostly based on the East Malay dialect and enriched by loan words from Dutch, Portuguese, Sundanese, Javanese, Chinese, and Arabic. Nowadays, the Jakarta dialect (Bahasa Jakarta), used as a street language by people in Jakarta, is loosely based on the Betawi language(SONY VGP-BPS13Q battery).

Betawi arts have a low profile in Jakarta, and most Betawi have moved to the suburbs of Jakarta, displaced by new migrants. It is easier to find Java- or Minang-based wedding ceremonies rather than Betawi weddings in Jakarta. It is easier to find Javanese Gamelan instead of Gambang Kromong (a mixture between Betawi and Chinese music) or Tanjidor (a mixture between Betawi and Portuguese music) or Marawis (a mixture between Betawi and Yaman music) (SONY VGP-BPS13A/Q battery). However, some festivals such as the Jalan Jaksa Festival or Kemang Festival include efforts to preserve Betawi arts by inviting artists to give performances.[58]

There has been a significant Chinese community in Jakarta for many centuries. The Chinese in Jakarta traditionally reside around old urban areas, such as Pinangsia, Pluit and Glodok (Jakarta Chinatown) areas. They also can be found in old chinatowns of Senen and Jatinegara. Officially, they make up 6% of the Jakartan population(SONY VGP-BPS13B/Q battery), although this number may be under-reported.[59] Chinese culture also had influenced Betawi culture, such as the popularity of Chinese cakes and sweets, firecrackers, to Betawi wedding attire that demonstrates Chinese and Arab influences.

Jakarta has several performing art centers, such as the Taman Ismail Marzuki (TIM) art center in Cikini, Gedung Kesenian Jakarta near Pasar Baru, Balai Sarbini in Plaza Semanggi area, Bentara Budaya Jakarta in Palmerah area, Pasar Seni (Art Market) in Ancol(SONY VGP-BPS13/B battery), and traditional Indonesian art performances at the pavilions of some provinces in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah. Traditional music is often found at high-class hotels, including Wayang and Gamelan performances. Javanese Wayang Orang performances can be found at Wayang Orang Bharata theater near Senen bus terminal. As the nation's largest city and capital, Jakarta has lured much national and regional talent who hope to find a greater audience and more opportunities for success(SONY VGP-BPS13B/B battery).

Jakarta hosts several prestigious art and culture festivals, and exhibitions, such as the annual Jakarta International Film Festival (JiFFest), Jakarta International Java Jazz Festival, Jakarta Fashion Week, Jakarta Fashion & Food Festival (JFFF), Jakarta Fair, Indonesia Creative Products and Jakarta Arts and Crafts exhibition. Flona Jakarta is a flora-and-fauna exhibition, held annually in August at Lapangan Banteng Park, featuring flowers, plant nurseries, and pets(SONY VGP-BPS13A/S battery). The Jakarta Fair is held annually from mid-June to mid-July to celebrate the anniversary of the city and is largely centered around a trade fair. However this month-long fair also features entertainment, including arts and music performances by local bands and musicians.

Several foreign art and culture centers are also established in Jakarta, and mainly serve to promote culture and language through learning centers, libraries, and art galleries. Among these foreign art and cultural centers are China Confucius Institute(SONY VGP-BPS21A/B battery), Netherlands Erasmus Huis, UK British Council, France Centre Culturel Français, Germany Goethe-Institut, Japan Foundation, and the Jawaharlal Nehru Indian Cultural Center.

See also: List of museums and cultural institutions in Indonesia

National Museum of Indonesia in Central Jakarta

The museums in Jakarta cluster around the Central Jakarta Merdeka Square area, Jakarta Old Town, and Taman Mini Indonesia Indah.

The Jakarta Old Town contains museums that are former institutional buildings of Colonial Batavia. Some of these museums are: Jakarta History Museum (former City Hall of Batavia), Wayang Museum (Puppet Museum) (former Church of Batavia) (SONY VGP-BPS21B battery), the Fine Art and Ceramic Museum (former Court House of Justice of Batavia), the Maritime Museum (former Sunda Kelapa warehouse), Bank Indonesia Museum (former Javasche Bank), and Bank Mandiri Museum (former Nederlandsche Handels Maatschappij).

Several museums clustered in central Jakarta around the Merdeka Square area include: National Museum of Indonesia (also known as Gedung Gajah ("the Elephant Building"), Monas (National Monument) (SONY VGP-BPS21 battery), Istiqlal Islamic Museum in Istiqlal mosque, and Jakarta Cathedral Museum on the second floor of Jakarta Cathedral. Also in the central Jakarta area is the Taman Prasasti Museum (former cemetery of Batavia), and Textile Museum in Tanah Abang area.

The recreational area of Taman Mini Indonesia Indah in East Jakarta contains fourteen museums, such as Indonesia Museum, Purna Bhakti Pertiwi Museum, Asmat Museum, Bayt al-Qur'an Islamic Museum, Pusaka (heirloom) Museum, and other science-based museum such as Research & Technology Information Centre, Komodo Indonesian Fauna Museum, Insect Museum, Petrol and Gas Museum, plus the Transportation Museum(SONY VGP-BPS21/S battery).

Other museums are Satria Mandala Military Museum, Museum Sumpah Pemuda, and Lubang Buaya.

Jakarta has a vast range of food available at hundreds of eating complexes located all over the city, from modest street-side foodstalls and traveling vendors to the high-class expensive restaurants. The traditional Padang restaurants and low-budget Javanese Warteg (Warung Tegal) foodstalls are ubiquitous in the capital(SONY VGP-BPS13S battery). Next to a myriad of selections of Indonesian food and regional specialties from all over Indonesia, there is also international food, especially Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Thai, Indian, American, French, Middle Eastern, and modern fusion food.[60] One of the most popular local dishes in Jakarta is Soto Betawi, which is a cow milk or coconut milk broth with beef tendons, intestines, tripe. The other popular foods include: kerak telor, gado-gado, sate, nasi goreng and kue cucur(SONY VGP-BPS13B/S battery).

Jakarta's economy depends heavily on financial service, trade, and manufacturing. Industries in Jakarta include electronics, automotive, chemicals, mechanical engineering and biomedical sciences manufacturing.

The economic growth of Jakarta in 2007 was 6.44% up from 5.95% the previous year, with the growth in the transportation and communication (15.25%), construction (7.81%) and trade, hotel and restaurant sectors (6.88%).(SONY VGP-BPS13B/G battery)In 2007, GRP (Gross Regional Domestic Product) was Rp. 566 trillion (around $US 56 billion). The largest contributions to GDRP were by finance, ownership and business services (29%); trade, hotel and restaurant sector (20%), and manufacturing industry sector (16%).[38] In 2007, the increase in per capita GRDP of DKI Jakarta inhabitants was 11.6% compared to the previous year(SONY VGP-BPS14 battery)

Both GRDP by at current market price and GRDP by at 2000 constant price in 2007 for the Municipality of Central Jakarta (Jakarta Pusat), which was Rp 146 million and Rp 81 million, was higher than other municipalities in DKI Jakarta.[38]

[edit]Governance

A new law in 2007 forbids the giving of money to beggars, buskers and hawkers, bans squatter settlements on river banks and highways, and prohibits spitting and smoking on public transportation. Unauthorized people cleaning car windscreens and taking tips for directing traffic at intersections will also be penalized. Critics of the new legislation claim that such laws will be difficult to enforce and it tends to ignore the desperate poverty of many of the capital's inhabitants. (SONY VGP-BPL14 battery)

Copying an idea implemented in Singapore's Orchard Road, in 2011, the Jakarta administration said that it would restrict on-street parking on Jl Hayam Wuruk (Haram Wuruk St) and Jl Gajah Mada in Central Jakarta. It said it would also remove illegal vendors and beggars from pavements and streets in the area.[62] In practice, these measures have only been partially successful.

For more details on this topic, see Water privatization in Jakarta(SONY VGP-BPS14/B battery).

Two private companies, PALYJA and Aetra, provide piped water supply in the western and eastern half of Jakarta respectively under 25-year concession contracts signed in 1998. A public asset holding company called PAM Jaya owns the infrastructure. 80% of the water distributed in Jakarta comes through the West Tarum Canal system from Jatiluhur reservoir on the Citarum River 70 km (43 mi) southeast of the city(SONY VGP-BPS14/S battery). Water supply had been privatized by government of then President Suharto in 1998 to the French company Suez Environnement and the British company Thames Water International. Both foreign companies subsequently sold their concessions to Indonesian companies. Customer growth in the 7 first years of the concessions had been lower than before, despite substantial inflation-adjusted tariff increases during this period. In 2005 tariffs were frozen, leading the private water companies to cut down on investments(SONY VGP-BPS14B battery).

According to PALYJA in its western half of the concession the service coverage ratio increased substantially from 34% in 1998 to 59% in 2007 and 65% in 2010.[63] According to data by the Jakarta Water Supply Regulatory Body, access in the eastern half of the city served by PTJ increased from about 57% in 1998 to about 67% in 2004, but stagnated after that.[64] However, other sources cite much lower access figures for piped water supply to houses(SONY VGP-BPS22 battery), excluding access provided through public hydrants: One study estimated access as low as 25% in 2005,[65] while another source estimates it to be as low as 18.5% in 2011.[66] Those without access to piped water supply get water mostly from wells that are often salty and polluted with bacteria.

The 2010 census counted some 9.58 million people, well above all government estimates.[67] The area of DKI Jakarta is 662.33 km2, suggesting a population density of 14,464 people/km2 as the ninth largest urban population density in the world. (SONY VGP-BPS22 battery)Inwards immigration tended to negate the effect of family planning programs.[38] The population has risen from 1.2 million in 1960 to 8.8 million in 2004, counting only its legal residents.[citation needed]

The population of Greater Jakarta (Jabodetabek Region) is 28,019,545.[69] However, even these definitions of Greater Jakarta are proving to be outdated for Indonesian President Yudhoyono(SONY VGP-BPS18 battery), who is considering expanding the definition to include areas such as Purwakarta and Sukabumi,[70] along with a possible relocation of government functions to areas without severe congestion, thereby improving coordination of government agencies in the capital region. With such a definition, the population easily surpasses 30 million based on 2010 Census figures. (SONY VGP-BPS22/A battery)

Istiqlal Mosque with Cathedral in the background.

Most of Jakarta's landmarks, monuments and statues were built during Sukarno era around the 1960s and completed in Suharto era, while some are the colonial Dutch East Indies heritage. Near the national monument stands a Mahabharata themed Arjuna Wijaya chariot statue and fountain. Further south through Jalan Thamrin, the main avenue of Jakarta, the Selamat Datang monument stands on the fountain in the center of Hotel Indonesia roundabout(SONY VGP-BPS22A battery). Other landmarks include the Istiqlal Mosque, the Jakarta Cathedral and Immanuel Church. The former Batavia Stadhuis in Jakarta Old Town is also the city's landmark. The Wisma 46 building in Central Jakarta is currently the highest building in Jakarta and Indonesia.

Some of statues and monuments in Jakarta are nationalist, such as the West Irian Liberation monument(SONY Vaio VGN-CR120E/W battery). Several Indonesian national heroes are commemorated in statues, such as Diponegoro and Kartini statues in Merdeka Square, Sudirman and Thamrin statues located in each respectable avenues, also Sukarno and Hatta statues in Proclamation Monument also on the entrance of Soekarno–Hatta International Airport.

Most of the visitors attracted to Jakarta are domestic tourists from all over Indonesia. As the gateway of Indonesia, Jakarta often serves as the stop-over for foreign visitors on their way to Indonesian popular tourist destinations such as Bali and Yogyakarta(SONY Vaio VGN-CR120E/P battery). Other than attracted to monuments, landmarks, and museums around Merdeka square and Jakarta Old Town, tourist attractions include Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Ragunan Zoo, Sunda Kelapa old port and the Ancol Dreamland complex on Jakarta Bay, including Dunia Fantasi theme park, Sea World, Atlantis Water Adventure, and Gelanggang Samudra(SONY Vaio VGN-CR120E/L battery).

Jakarta is a shopping hub in the nation also one of the best places to shop in South East Asia. The city has numerous shopping malls and traditional markets. The annual "Jakarta Great Sale" is held every year on June and July to celebrate Jakarta's anniversary with about 73 participating shopping centers in 2012.[71] left|thumb|Grand Indonesia located in Central Jakarta

Malls such as Plaza Indonesia, Plaza Senayan and Senayan City provides numerous selections of luxury brands(SONY Vaio VGN-CR120E battery). Mall Taman Anggrek, Pondok Indah Mall and Central Park Jakarta cater high-street brands such as UK's Topshop and Europe's Zara [72]

right|thumb|Central Park Mall located in West Jakarta

United Kingdom's number one department store, Debenhams has 3 outlets in the city, the first one on Senayan City, Supermall Karawaci and Lippo Mall Kemang Village. Japan's international Sogo department store has about 6 department stores which spread around shopping malls in the city(SONY Vaio VGN-CR11H/B battery). Seibu flagship store is located on Grand Indonesia Shopping Town. And French luxury department store, Galeries Lafayette will open its doors for the first time on South East Asia in Pacific Place Jakarta.

Internationally known luxury brands such as Louis Vuitton, Bulgari, Chanel, Gucci, Christian Louboutin, Balenciaga, and Giorgio Armani can be easily found on Jakarta's luxury shopping malls(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11S battery).

Satrio-Casablanca corridor, 3.5 kilometre-long street that is a new shopping belt in Jakarta.[73] Many multistorey shopping centres are located here, such as Kuningan City, Mal Ambassador, and Kota Kasablanka. And Satrio-Casablanca's largest shopping centre, Ciputra World Jakarta, will opened in 2013(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ15T battery).

Traditional markets include Blok M, Tanah Abang, Senen, Pasar Baru, Glodok, Mangga Dua, Cempaka Mas, and Jatinegara. In Jakarta there are also markets that sells specified collectable items, such as antique goods in Surabaya Street and gemstones in Rawabening Market.

The National Monument in the center of Medan Merdeka Park

Taman Lapangan Banteng (Buffalo Field Park) is located in Central Jakarta near the Istiqlal Mosque, Jakarta Cathedral, and the Jakarta Central Post Office. It is about 4.5 hectares(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ15G battery). Initially it was called Waterlooplein of Batavia and functioned as the ceremonial square during the Netherlands Indies colonial period. A number of colonial monuments and memorials erected on the square during the colonial period were demolished during the Sukarno era. The most notable monument in the square is the Monumen Pembebasan Irian Barat (Monument of the Liberation of West Irian). During the 1970s and 1980s the park was used as a bus terminal(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ4000 battery). In 1993 the park was turned into a public space again. It has become a recreation place for people and is occasionally also used as an exhibition place or for other events.[74] The Jakarta Flona (Flora dan Fauna), the flower and decoration plants and pet exhibition, is held in this park around August annually.

Taman Mini Indonesia Indah (Miniature Park of Indonesia), in East Jakarta, has 10 mini parks. But the most popular is The Bird Park or Aviary(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ460E battery)

Spherical cage Bird Park in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah.

Taman Suropati is located in Menteng city subdistrict in Central Jakarta. The park is surrounded by several Dutch colonial buildings. Taman Suropati was known as Burgemeester Bisschopplein during the Dutch colonial time. The park is circular shaped with a surface area of 16,322 m2. There are several modern statues in the park made by artists of the ASEAN countries, which contributes to the nickname of the park "Taman persahabatan seniman ASEAN" ("Park of the ASEAN artists friendship").(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ190 battery) Also located in the Menteng area are the Taman Menteng and Situ Lembang pond parks. The Taman Menteng was built on the former Persija soccer Stadium.

Jakarta Green park in Central Jakarta

Taman Monas (Monas Park) or Taman Medan Merdeka (Medan Merdeka Park) is a huge square where the symbol of Jakarta, Monas or Monumen Nasional (National Monument) is located. The enormous space was created by Dutch Governor General Herman Willem Daendels (1810) and was originally named Koningsplein (Kings Square) (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ150E battery). On 10 January 1993, President Soeharto initiated action for the beautification of the square. Several features in the square are a deer park and 33 trees that represents the 33 provinces of Indonesia.[76]

In June 2011, Jakarta has only 10.5 percent Ruang Terbuka Hijau (Green Open Space) and will be added to 13.94 percent Public Green Open Space. Public Parks are include in Public Green Open Space. By 2030, the administration also hope there are 16 percent Private Green Open Space. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ160 battery)

The Bung Karno Stadium during soccer match between Indonesia vs South Korea in 2007 AFC Asian Cup

Jakarta was host to the Asian Games in 1962,[78] host of the Asian Cup 2007 beside Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam,[79] and has hosted the regional-scale Southeast Asian Games in 1979, 1987 and 1997. In 2011, Jakarta together with Palembang, again host the Southeast Asian Games(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ260E battery).

Jakarta's most popular home football club is Persija, which plays its matches in their home stadium at Bung Karno Stadium. The home match of Persija often draws its large fan – cladded with Persija's typical orange kit – to watch the match in the main stadium. The large spectators flocking to the main stadium usually worsen the traffic congestion in Jakarta. Another premiere division team is Persitara which plays its matches in the Kamal Muara Stadium in Kamal area(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ140E battery).

The biggest stadium in Jakarta is the Gelora Bung Karno Stadium with a capacity of 88,083 seats.[80] The Senayan sports complex has several sport venues, including the Bung Karno soccer stadium, Madya Stadium, Istora Senayan, aquatic arena, baseball field, basketball court, badminton court, a shooting range, several indoor and outdoor tennis court and a golf driving range. The Senayan complex was built in 1959 to accommodate the Asian Games in 1962(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11L battery). For basketball, the Kelapa Gading Sport Mall in Kelapa Gading, North Jakarta, with a capacity of 7,000 seats, is the home arena of the Indonesian national basketball team.

Jakarta pedestrians, joggers and bicyclists take over the main avenue during Car-Free Day.

The Jakarta Car-Free Days are held weekly on Sunday on the main avenues of the city, Jalan Sudirman and Jalan Thamrin, from 6 am to 11 am. The briefer Car-Free Day which lasts from only 6 am to 9 am is held on every other Sunday(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11Z battery). The event invites local pedestrians to do sports and exercise and have their activities on the streets that are normally full of cars and traffic. Along the road from the Senayan traffic circle on Jalan Sudirman, South Jakarta, to the "Selamat Datang" Monument at the Hotel Indonesia traffic circle on Jalan Thamrin, all the way north to the National Monument in Central Jakarta, cars are cleared out for pedestrians. Morning gymnastics, calisthenics and aerobic exercises(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11M battery), futsal games, jogging, bicycling, skateboarding, badminton, karate, and on-street library and musical performances take over the roads and the main parks in Jakarta.[81]

Jakarta is strained by transportation problems.[82] The city suffers a lack of urban public transport services due to prioritized development of road networks, which were mostly designed to accommodate private vehicles.[83] Most trips, however, are undertaken by non-motorized transportation (particularly walking) and numerous modes of public or demand-responsive transportation services(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ18M battery).

Some major roads in Jakarta are implementing 3 passengers in a car regulation during rush hours.

A structured road network had been developed in the early 19th century as a part of the Java Great Post Road by Daendels, which connects most major cities throughout Java. During the following decades, the road network was expanded to a great extent, although it could not keep up with the rapidly increasing numbers of motorized vehicles, resulting in highly congested traffic(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ18 battery).

A notable feature of Jakarta's present road system is the toll road network. Composed of an inner and outer ring road and five toll roads radiating outwards, the network provides inner as well as outer city connections. The outer ring road is under construction, but it is largely in use. While 6 Jakarta Elevated Toll Roads are still in tender progress(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ210CE battery).

See also: List of toll roads in Indonesia

The five radiating toll roads are the:

Prof. Dr. Sedyatmo Toll Road linking to Soekarno-Hatta International Airport

Jakarta-Tangerang Toll Road linking to Tangerang and further to Merak in the west

Jakarta-Serpong Toll Road linking to Serpong

Jagorawi Toll Road linking to Bogor and Ciawi in the south

Jakarta-Cikampek Toll Road linking to Bekasi and Cikampek in the east

Throughout the years, several attempts have been made to reduce traffic congestion on Jakarta’s main arteries(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31S battery). Implemented solutions include a 'three-in-one' rush-hour law, during which cars with fewer than three passengers are prohibited from driving on the main avenues. Another example is the ban on trucks passing main avenues during the day.[86]

Public road transportation

In 1966, an estimated 160,000 pedicabs (becak) operated in the city; as much as 15% of Jakarta's total workforce was engaged in becak driving. In 1971, becak were banned from major roads, and shortly thereafter the government attempted a total ban(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31Z battery), which substantially reduced their numbers but did not eliminate them. A campaign to eliminate them succeeded in 1990 and 1991, but during the economic crisis of 1998, some returned amid less effective government attempts to control them.[87]

"Auto rickshaws", called bajaj, provide local transportation in the back streets of some parts of the city. From the early 1940s to 1991 they were a common form of local transportation in the city(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31E battery).

The TransJakarta bus rapid transit service (known as Busway) was developed in the context of development reform (or reformasi) and used Bogota's TransMilenio system as a model.[88] Jakarta's first busway line, from Blok M to Jakarta Kota opened in January 2004 and as of 28 December 2011, eleven out of fifteen corridors are in use.

The Kopaja and MetroMini economy minibus systems also provide important services for Jakarta commuters with numerous routes which criss cross the city(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31J battery).

Although ojeks are not an official form of public transport, they can be found throughout Indonesia and in Jakarta. They are especially useful on the crowded urban roads and narrow alleyways, which other vehicles cannot reach. In November 2011, Taxijek was launched in Jakarta. It is essentially a taxi, but with a motorcycle instead of an automobile. Besides a taximeter and the company's driver identity card(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31M battery), the passenger has access to a helmet, disposable shower caps to use underneath the helmet and an extra raincoat. Contrary to common ojeks, Taxijeks are allowed to enter gated communities and they usually charge a lower fare.[89]

[edit]Electronic Road Pricing

Due to the city's acute gridlock, the Jakarta administration will implement Electronic Road Pricing in 10 districts: Tanah Abang, Menteng, Setiabudi, Tebet, Matraman, Senen, Gambir, Tambora, Sawah Besar and Taman Sari. The projects will initiate once it is approved by the Finance Ministry. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31B battery)

Long-distance railways and local tram services were first introduced during the Dutch colonial era. While the trams were replaced with buses in the post-colonial era, long-distance railways continued to connect the city to its neighboring regions as well as cities throughout Java. The surrounding cities of Jakarta are served by KRL Jabotabek, a mass rapid transit system which serves commuters both in and around Jakarta(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21 battery). The major rail stations are Gambir, Jakarta Kota, Jatinegara, Pasar Senen, Manggarai, and Tanah Abang. During rush hours, the number of passengers greatly exceeds the system's capacity, and crowding is common.

There had been plans for a monorail and part of it was already under construction, but the project stalled in 2004 and was officially abandoned as of 2008, mostly due to a lack of investors to fund it all. If completed, the monorail would have been made up of two lines: the green line serving Semanggi-Casablanca Road-Kuningan-Semanggi and the blue line serving Kampung Melayu-Casablanca Road-Tanah Abang-Roxy. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21S battery)

A two-line metro (MRT) system is proposed, with a north-south line between Kota and Lebak Bulus, without connections to the cancelled monorail lines; and an east-west line, which will connect to the north-south line at Sawah Besar Station. In the end the JMRT would be a combination of both subways and elevated rails. The metro system construction started in April 2012,[92] with the first, 15.2 km-long line between Hotel Indonesia and Lebak Bulus(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21M battery), and the north-south line MRT network is scheduled to be operational by 2016.[93] Jakarta Capital City Government had decided to build rail-based mass transits because this type of transport is capable of carrying passengers in large quantities quickly and cheaply.[94]

Front view of Soekarno-Hatta International Airport Terminal 3.

Soekarno-Hatta International Airport (CGK) is the main airport serving the greater Jakarta area. The airport is named after the first President of Indonesia, Soekarno, and the first vice-president, Mohammad Hatta(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ38M battery). The airport is often called Cengkareng or Soetta by Indonesians. The airport's IATA code, CGK, originates from the name of the Cengkareng locality ,[95] a district situated to the northwest of the city. It is Indonesia's busiest airport handling over 50 million passengers annually.[96] A second airport, Halim Perdanakusuma International Airport (HLP) serves mostly private and VIP/presidential flights. Other airports in the Jabotabek metropolitan area include Pondok Cabe Airport and an airfield on Pulau Panjang, part of the Thousand Island archipelago(Sony VGN-NR11S/S Battery).

On 6 June 2007, the city administration introduced the Waterway (officially Angkutan Sungai), a new river boat service along the Ciliwung River.[82][97] However, because of the large amount of floating garbage which kept jamming the propeller, it is no longer in service. The varying water levels during the dry and wet seasons were also a contributing factor to the close-down(Sony VGN-NR11M/S Battery).

Jakarta's main seaport Tanjung Priok serves many ferry connections to different parts of Indonesia. Tanjung Priok is the largest seaport in Indonesia, with an annual traffic capacity of around 45 million tonnes of cargo and 4,000,000 TEU's. The port is also an important employer in the area, with more than 18,000 employees who provide services to more than 18,000 ships every year. The Port of Jakarta has 20 terminals: general cargo(Sony VGN-NR260E/S Battery), multipurpose terminal, scraps terminal, passenger terminal, dry bulk terminal, liquid bulk terminal, oil terminal, chemicals terminal and three container terminals, 76 berths, a quay length of 16,853 metres, a total storage area of 661,822 m2 and a storage capacity of 401,468 tonnes.[98]

In December 2011, Muara Angke Port has been renovated yet with cost Rp130 billion ($14.4 million) in 3 hectares area. Next, Muara Angke Port will be used for public transport port to Thousand Islands, while Marina Ancol Port will be used as tourist ship port. (Sony VGN-NR260E/T Battery)

See also: List of universities in Indonesia and List of schools in Indonesia

Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia.

Jakarta is home to a number of universities, of which the University of Indonesia is the largest. It is a state-owned university with campuses in Salemba and Depok.[100]

STOVIA (School tot Opleiding van Indische Artsen) was the first high school in Jakarta, established in 1851.[101] As the largest city and the capital, Jakarta houses a large number of students from various parts of Indonesia, many of whom reside in dormitories or home-stay residences. For basic education, there are a variety of primary and secondary schools(Sony VGN-NR260E/W Battery), tagged with public (national), private (national and bi-lingual national plus) and international schools. Four of the major international schools located in Jakarta are the Gandhi Memorial International School, IPEKA International Christian School, Jakarta International School and the British International School (BIS). Other international schools include the Jakarta International Korean School, Bina Bangsa School, Jakarta International Multicultural School,[102] Australian International School, (Sony VGN-NR11Z/S Battery) New Zealand International School,[104] Singapore International School, and Sekolah Pelita Harapan

East Timor (i/ˌiːst ˈtiːmɔr/) or Timor-Leste (/tiˈmɔr ˈlɛʃteɪ/), officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, is a country in Southeast Asia.[6] It comprises the eastern half of the island of Timor, the nearby islands of Atauro and Jaco, and Oecusse, an exclave on the northwestern side of the island, within Indonesian West Timor. The country's size is about 15,410 km² (5,400 sq mi). (Sony VGN-NR11Z/T Battery)

East Timor was colonised by Portugal in the 16th century, and was known as Portuguese Timor until Portugal's decolonisation of the country. In late 1975, East Timor declared its independence, but later that year was invaded and occupied by Indonesia and was declared Indonesia's 27th province the following year. In 1999, following the United Nations-sponsored act of self-determination(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21E battery), Indonesia relinquished control of the territory and East Timor became the first new sovereign state of the 21st century on May 20, 2002. East Timor is one of only two predominantly Roman Catholic countries in East Asia, the other being the Philippines.

East Timor has a lower-middle-income economy.[8] It continues to suffer the aftereffects of a decades-long independe

nce struggle against Indonesia, which damaged infrastructure and displaced thousands of civilians. It is placed 147th by Human Development Index (HDI). Nonetheless it is expected to have the sixth biggest GDP growth in the world for 2013. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21Z battery)

It is a member of the United Nations and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries.

"Timor" derives from timur, the word for "east" in Indonesian and Malay, which became Timor in Portuguese and entered English as Portuguese Timor. Lorosa'e (lit "rising sun") is the word for "east" in Tetum, for Timór Lorosa'e.

The official names under the Constitution are República Democrática de Timor-Leste in Portuguese and Repúblika Demokrátika Timor-Leste in Tetum(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21J battery).

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) official short form in English and all other languages is Timor-Leste (codes: TLS & TL), which has been adopted by the United Nations,[10] the European Union,[11] and the national standards organisations of France (AFNOR), the United States of America (ANSI),[12] United Kingdom (BSI), Germany (DIN) and Sweden (SIS). A notable exception to this practice is Australia, which uses "East Timor"(Sony VAIO VGN-FW11 battery).

Main article: History of East Timor

It is believed that descendants from at least three waves of migration still live in East Timor. The first were related to the principal Australoid indigenous groups of New Guinea and Australia, and arrived before 40,000 years ago. Around 3000 BC, Austronesians migrated to Timor, and are thought to be associated with the development of agriculture on the island.[citation needed] Thirdly, proto-Malays arrived from south China and north Indochina. (Sony VAIO VGN-FW11M battery) Before colonialism Timor was included in Chinese and Indian trading networks, being in the 14th century an exporter of aromatic sandalwood, slaves, honey and wax. It was the relative abundance of sandalwood in Timor that attracted European explorers to the island in the early 16th century.[14] During that time, European explorers reported that the island had a number of small chiefdoms or princedoms(Sony VAIO VGN-FW11S battery).

The Portuguese established outposts in Timor and Maluku. Effective European occupation of a small part of the territory began in 1769, when the city of Dili was founded and the colony of Portuguese Timor declared.[16] A definitive border between the Dutch colonised western half of the island and the Portuguese colonised eastern half of the island was established by the Permanent Court of Arbitration of 1914, (Sony VAIO VGN-FW21E battery) and it remains the international boundary between the successor states East Timor and Indonesia. For the Portuguese, East Timor remained little more than a neglected trading post until the late nineteenth century, with minimal investment in infrastructure, health, and education. Sandalwood remained the main export crop with coffee exports becoming significant in the mid-nineteenth century. In places where Portuguese rule was asserted, it tended to be brutal and exploitative. (Sony VAIO VGN-FW21J battery)

At the beginning of the twentieth century, a faltering home economy prompted the Portuguese to extract greater wealth from its colonies, which was met with Timorese resistance.[18] During World War II, the Japanese occupied Dili, and the mountainous interior became the scene of a guerrilla campaign, known as the Battle of Timor. Waged by Allied forces and Timorese volunteers against the Japanese(Sony VAIO VGN-FW21L battery), the struggle resulted in the deaths of between 40,000 and 70,000 Timorese.[19] Following the end of the war, Portuguese control was reinstated.

The decolonisation process instigated by the 1974 Portuguese revolution saw Portugal effectively abandon the colony of East Timor. A civil war between supporters of East Timorese political parties, the Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor (Fretilin) and the Timorese Democratic Union (UDT) (Sony VAIO VGN-FW41M battery), broke out in 1975 as the UDT attempted a coup which Fretilin resisted with the help of local Portuguese military.[20] Independence was unilaterally declared on November 28, 1975. The Indonesian government was fearful of an independent communist state within the Indonesian archipelago, and at the height of the Cold War, Western governments were supportive of Indonesia's position. The Indonesian military launched a full-scale invasion of East Timor in December 1975. Indonesia declared East Timor as its 27th province on July 17, 1976. (Sony VAIO VGN-FW41M/H battery) The UN Security Council opposed the invasion and the territory's nominal status in the UN remained "non-self-governing territory under Portuguese administration."

Demonstration for independence from Indonesia

Indonesia's occupation of East Timor was marked by violence and brutality. A detailed statistical report prepared for the Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor cited a minimum bound of 102,800 conflict-related deaths in the period 1974–1999, namely, approximately 18,600 killings and 84,200 "excess" deaths from hunger and illness. (Sony VAIO VGN-FW21M battery) The East Timorese guerrilla force, Falintil, fought a campaign against the Indonesian forces from 1975–1999. The 1991 Dili Massacre was a turning point for the independence cause internationally, and an East Timor solidarity movement grew in Portugal, Australia, and the United States.

Following the resignation of Indonesian President Suharto, a UN-sponsored agreement between Indonesia and Portugal allowed for UN-supervised popular referendum in August 1999(Sony VAIO VGN-FW21Z battery). The resulting clear vote for independence was met with a punitive campaign of violence by Timorese pro-integration militia with the support of elements of the Indonesian military. An Australian-led international peacekeeping force, International Force for East Timor (INTERFET), was sent (with Indonesian permission) until order was restored. The administration of East Timor was taken over by the UN through the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) in October 1999. (Sony VAIO VGN-FW32J battery) The INTERFET deployment ended in February 2000 with the transfer of military command to the UN.[24] East Timorese independence was formalised on May 20, 2002 with Xanana Gusmão sworn in as the country's first President. East Timor became a member of the UN on September 27, 2002.

The following year, Gusmão declined another presidential term and in the build-up to the April 2007 presidential elections there were renewed outbreaks of violence. José Ramos-Horta was elected President in the May 2007 election. (Sony VAIO VGN-FW17W battery) Ramos-Horta was critically injured in an attempted assassination in February 2008. Prime Minister Gusmão also faced gunfire separately but escaped unharmed. Australian reinforcements were immediately sent to help keep order.[26]

In 2006, the United Nations sent in security forces to restore order when unrest and factional fighting forced 15 percent of the population (155,000 people) to flee their homes. In March 2011, the UN handed-off operational control of the police force to the East Timor authorities(Sony VAIO VGN-FW31E battery), but more than 1,200 UN police officers still patrol on the street. After the 2012 presidential election, the missions are scheduled to end.[27]

Map of Timor showing cities and main roads.

Located in Southeast Asia,[28] the island of Timor is part of the Maritime Southeast Asia, and is the largest and easternmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands. To the north of the island are the Ombai Strait, Wetar Strait and the greater Banda Sea. The Timor Sea separates the island from Australia to the south, and the Indonesian Province of East Nusa Tenggara lies to East Timor’s west(Sony VAIO VGN-FW139E battery).

Much of the country is mountainous, and its highest is Tatamailau (also known as Mount Ramelau) at 2,963 meters (9,721 ft).The climate is tropical and generally hot and humid. It is characterised by distinct rainy and dry seasons. The capital, largest city and main port is Dili, and the second-largest city is the eastern town of Baucau. East Timor lies between latitudes 8° and 10°S, and longitudes 124° and 128°E(Sony VAIO VGN-FW139E/H battery).

The easternmost area of East Timor consists of the Paitchau Range and the Iralalaro (de) area, which contains the county’s first conservation area, the Nino Konis Santana National Park.[citation needed] It contains the last remaining tropical dry forested area within the country. It hosts a number of unique plant and animal species and is sparsely populated.[29] The northern coast is characterised by a number of coral reef systems that have been determined to be at risk. (Sony VAIO VGN-FW31M battery)

The head of state of East Timor is the President of East Timor, who is elected by popular vote for a five-year term. Although the role is largely symbolic, the president does have veto power over certain types of legislation. Following elections, the president appoints the leader of the majority party or majority coalition as the Prime Minister of East Timor. As head of government, the prime minister presides over the Council of State or cabinet(Sony VAIO VGN-FW31J battery).

The unicameral Timorese parliament is the National Parliament or Parlamento Nacional, whose members are elected by popular vote to a five-year term. The number of seats can vary from a minimum of fifty-two to a maximum of sixty-five, though it exceptionally has eighty-eight members at present, due to this being its first term of office. The East Timorese constitution was modelled on that of Portugal. The country is still in the process of building its administration and governmental institutions(Sony VAIO VGN-FW31Z battery).

Government departments include the Policia Nacional de Timor-Leste (police), East Timor Ministry for State and Internal Administration, Civil Aviation Division of Timor Leste and Immigration Department of Timor Leste.

Administrative divisions

Main articles: Districts of East Timor, Subdistricts of East Timor, and Sucos of East Timor

East Timor is divided into thirteen administrative districts. The districts are subdivided into 65 subdistricts, 442 sucos (villages) and 2,225 aldeias (hamlets).

East Timor has a market economy that is dependent upon exports of a few commodities such as coffee, marble, oil and sandalwood(Sony VGN-NR11Z Battery).

In late 1999, much of East Timor’s civil infrastructure of was destroyed by departing Indonesian troops and anti-independence militias, and 260,000 people fled into West Timor. An international program led by the UN, manned by civilian advisers, 5,000 peacekeepers (8,000 at peak) and 1,300 police officers, substantially reconstructed the infrastructure. By mid-2002, all but about 50,000 of the refugees had returned(Sony VGN-NR11S Battery).

The Portuguese colonial administration granted concessions to Oceanic Exploration Corporation to develop petroleum and natural gas deposits in the waters southeast of Timor. However, this was curtailed by the Indonesian invasion in 1976.[citation needed] The resources were divided between Indonesia and Australia with the Timor Gap Treaty in 1989.[34] East Timor inherited no permanent maritime boundaries when it attained independence. (Sony VGN-NR110E Battery) repudiating the Timor Gap Treaty as illegal. A provisional agreement (the Timor Sea Treaty, signed when East Timor became independent on May 20, 2002) defined a Joint Petroleum Development Area (JPDA), and awarded 90% of revenues from existing projects in that area to East Timor and 10% to Australia.[35] A 2005 agreement between the governments of East Timor and Australia mandated that both countries put aside their dispute over maritime boundaries(Sony VGN-NR110E/T Battery), and that East Timor would receive 50% of the revenues from the resource exploitation in the area (estimated at A$26 billion or about US$20 billion over the lifetime of the project)[36] from the Greater Sunrise development.[37]

Subdistricts suffering from hunger in November 2007

In 2007, a bad harvest led to deaths in several parts of East Timor. In November 2007, eleven subdistricts still needed food supplied by international aid.

There are no patent laws in East Timor. (Sony VGN-NR110E/S Battery)

Main article: Demographics of East Timor

The population of East Timor is about 1,143,667.[6] It has grown considerably because of a high birth rate and the return of refugees.[citation needed] The population is especially concentrated in the area around Dili.

The Timorese are called Maubere collectively by some of their political organizations, an originally derogatory name turned into a name of pride by Fretilin. They consist of a number of distinct ethnic groups, most of whom are of mixed Malayo-Polynesian and Melanesian/Papuan descent. (Sony VGN-CR11Z Battery) The largest Malayo-Polynesian ethnic groups are the Tetum[40] (or Tetun) (100,000), primarily in the north coast and around Dili; the Mambae (80,000), in the central mountains; the Tukudede (63,170), in the area around Maubara and Liquiçá; the Galoli (50,000), between the tribes of Mambae and Makasae; the Kemak (50,000) in north-central Timor island; and the Baikeno (20,000), in the area around Pante Macassar. The main tribes of predominantly Papuan origin include the Bunak (50,000) (Sony VGN-CR11S Battery), in the central interior of Timor island; the Fataluku (30,000), at the eastern tip of the island near Lospalos; and the Makasae, toward the eastern end of the island. In addition, like other former Portuguese colonies where interracial marriage was common, there is a smaller population of people of mixed Timorese and Portuguese origin, known in Portuguese as mestiços(Sony VGN-CR11M Battery). The East Timorese mestiço best-known internationally is José Ramos-Horta, the spokesman for the resistance movement in exile, and now President of East Timor. Mário Viegas Carrascalão (de), Indonesia's appointed governor between 1987 and 1992, is also a mestiço. East Timor also has a small Chinese minority, most of whom are Hakka. Most left after the Indonesian invasion, with most moving to Australia although many Sino-Timorese have returned, including Pedro Lay, the Minister for Infrastructure(Sony VGN-CR11E Battery).

Balide (de) church, Dili

Upon independence, East Timor became one of only two predominantly Roman Catholic countries in Asia (along with the Philippines), although nearby parts of Indonesia also have Catholic majorities, including West Timor and Flores. The population predominantly identifies as Roman Catholic (97%), though local animist traditions have a persistent and strong influence on the culture. The number of churches has grown from 100 in 1974 to over 800 in 1994. (Sony VGN-CR21E Battery)Religious minorities include Muslims (1%) (including former Prime Minister Mari Alkatiri)[citation needed] and Protestants (1%) (including Taur Matan Ruak, Commander of the Falintil-FDTL).[citation needed]Smaller Hindu (0.5%), Buddhist (0.1%) and traditional animist minorities make up the remainder. Church membership grew considerably under Indonesian rule, as Indonesia's state ideology Pancasila does not recognize traditional beliefs and requires all citizens to believe in God(Sony VGN-CR21S Battery). Although the struggle was not about religion, as a deep-rooted local institution the Church not only symbolized East Timor's distinction from predominantly Muslim Indonesia, but also played a significant role in the resistance movement, as personified by Bishop Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo, the 1996 Nobel Peace Prize laureate.[45] The constitution acknowledges the Church's role among the East Timorese people and stipulates a secular state that guarantees freedom of religion to everyone(Sony VGN-CR21Z Battery).

Biggest language groups in sucos of East Timor.

East Timor's two official languages are Portuguese and Tetum. Tetum belongs to the Austronesian family of languages spoken throughout Southeast Asia.[46] The predominant form of Tetum, known as Tetun-Dili, grew out of the dialect favoured by the colonisers at Dili and, thus, has considerable Portuguese influence. Other dialects of Tetum are also widely used in the country, including Tetun-Terik which is spoken along the southwestern coast(Sony VGN-CR31S Battery). Indonesian and English are defined as working languages under the Constitution in the Final and Transitional Provisions, without setting a final date. Another 15 indigenous languages are spoken: Bekais (de), Bunak, Dawan, Fataluku, Galoli, Habun (de), Idalaka, Kawaimina, Kemak, Lovaia, Makalero, Makasai, Mambai, Tokodede, and Wetarese(Sony VGN-CR31E Battery).

Under Indonesian rule, the use of Portuguese was banned, but it was used by the clandestine resistance, especially in communicating with the outside world.[citation needed] The language, along with Tetum, gained importance as a symbol of resistance and freedom. It was adopted as one of the two official languages for this reason and as a link to nations in other parts of the world. It is now being taught and promoted widely with the help of Brazil, Portugal, and the Latin Union(Sony VGN-CR31Z Battery).

According to East Timor's 2010 census, along with other local languages, Tetum is the most common means of communication between ordinary Timorese: Almost 90% of Timorese use Tetum in their daily life, while Indonesian is still widely used in the media and school from high school to university by an estimated 35%. It is estimated that English is understood by 31.4% of the population. 23.5% speak(Sony VGN-CR41Z Battery), read and write Portuguese, which is up significantly from less than 5% in the 2006 UN Development Report.[47][48] A large proportion of words in Tetum are derived from Portuguese, and it also shares many Malay-derived words with Indonesian. Many Indonesian words are still in common use in Tetum and other Timorese languages, particularly numbers.

East Timor is a member of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, also known as the Lusophone Commonwealth, and a member of the Latin Union(Sony VGN-CR41S Battery). It is the only independent state in Asia with Portuguese as an official language, although it is also one of the official languages of China's Special Administrative Region of Macau.

About half the adult population are illiterate.[49] Illiteracy is higher among women.[50] Illiteracy was at 90% at the end of Portuguese rule.[citation needed] In 2006, 10%–30% of primary-school age children did not attend school. (Sony VGN-CR41E Battery)

The country has the National University of East Timor. Indonesian plays a considerable role in education.[citation needed] Since the departure of the Portuguese, schools have increased from 50 to more than 800. There are also four colleges.

Health

Life expectancy at birth was at 60.7 in 2007.[49] The fertility rate is at six births per woman.[49] Healthy life expectancy at birth was at 55 years in 2007. Government expenditure on health was at US$150 (PPP) per person in 2006.[49] Many people in East Timor lack safe drinking water.[50]

There were two hospitals and 14 village healthcare facilities in 1974. By 1994 there were 11 hospitals and 330 healthcare centres(Sony VGN-CR42Z Battery).

In June 2011, the United Nations Population Fund released a report on "The State of the World's Midwifery".[51] It contained new data on the midwifery workforce and policies relating to newborn and maternal mortality for 58 countries. The 2010 maternal mortality rate per 100,000 births for Timor-Leste is 370. This is compared with 928.6 in 2008 and 1016.3 in 1990. (Sony VGN-CR42S Battery) The under 5 mortality rate, per 1,000 births is 60 and the neonatal mortality as a percentage of under 5's mortality is 48. The aim of this report is to highlight ways in which the Millennium Development Goals can be achieved, particularly Goal 4 (reduce child mortality) and Goal 5 (improve maternal health). In Timor-Leste the number of midwives per 1,000 live births is 8 and 1 in 44 shows us the lifetime risk of death for pregnant women.[52]

Main article: Culture of East Timor(Sony VGN-CR42E Battery)

The culture of East Timor reflects numerous influences, including Portuguese, Roman Catholic, and Indonesian, on the indigenous Austronesian and Melanesian cultures of Timor. East Timorese culture is heavily influenced by Austronesian legends. For example, Timorese creation myth has it that an aging crocodile transformed into the island of Timor as part of a debt repayment to a young boy who had helped the crocodile when it was sick. (Sony Vaio VGN-CR11S/L Battery) As a result of that transformation, the island is shaped like a crocodile and the boy's descendants are the native Timorese who inhabit the island. The phrase "leaving the crocodile" refers to the pained exile of Timorese from their island.

There is also a strong tradition of poetry in the country. Prime Minister Xanana Gusmão, for example, is a distinguished poet. As for architecture, some Portuguese-style buildings can be found, along with the traditional totem houses of the eastern region. (Sony Vaio VGN-CR11S/P Battery) These are known as uma lulik (sacred houses) in Tetum, and lee teinu (houses with legs) in Fataluku. Craftsmanship is also widespread, as is the weaving of traditional scarves or tais.

Sports organisations joined by East Timor include the International Olympic Committee (IOC), the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF), the International Badminton Federation (IBF), joined the Union Cycliste Internationale, the International Weightlifting Federation, the International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF) (Sony Vaio VGN-CR11S/W Battery), and East Timor's national football team joined FIFA. East Timorese athletes competed in the 2003 Southeast Asian Games held 2003. In the 2003 ASEAN Paralympics Games, East Timor won a bronze medal. In the Athens 2004 Olympic Games, East Timorese athletes participated in athletics, weightlifting and boxing. East Timor won three medals in Arnis at the 2005 Southeast Asian Games. East Timor competed in the first Lusophony Games, (Sony Vaio VGN-CR11Z/R Battery) and in October 2008, the country earned its first international points in a FIFA match with a 2–2 draw against Cambodia.

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