Honduras And Tegucigalpa

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Honduras is a republic in Central America. It was at times referred to as Spanish Honduras to differentiate it from British Honduras, which became the modern-day state of Belize.[6] The country is bordered to the west by Guatemala, to the southwest by El Salvador, to the southeast by Nicaragua, to the south by the Pacific Ocean at the Gulf of Fonseca, and to the north by the Gulf of Honduras, a large inlet of the Caribbean Sea(Dell N3010 battery).

Honduras was home to several important indigenous cultures, most notably the Maya. Much of the country was conquered by Spain which introduced its now predominant language and many of its customs in the sixteenth century. It became independent in 1821 and has been a republic since the end of Spanish rule(Dell Inspiron N4010 battery).

The area of Honduras is about 112,492 km² and the population exceeds eight million. Its northern portions are part of the Western Caribbean Zone. Honduras is most notable for production of minerals, coffee, tropical fruit, sugar cane and recently for export of clothing in the international market(Dell INSPIRON 1100 battery).

Higueras – a reference to the gourds that come from the Jicaro tree, many of which were found floating in the waters off the northwest coast of Honduras.

Honduras – literally "depths" in Spanish. Columbus is traditionally quoted as having written "Gracias a Dios que hemos salido de esas Honduras" (English: "Thank God we have come out of those depths") while along the northeastern coast.[7] However, William Davidson notes that there is no form of this quotation in the primary documents of Columbus's voyage(Dell Inspiron 1200 battery), and that it in fact comes from accounts over a century later.

Honduras from fondura, a Leonese language word meaning anchorage which is one of the first words for the region to appear on a map in the second decade of the 16th century applied to the bay of Trujillo. It was not until the end of the 16th century that Honduras was used for the whole province. Prior to 1580, Honduras referred to the eastern part of the province, and Higueras referred to the western part. (Dell Inspiron 1420 battery)

Another early name is Guaymuras, revived as the name for the political dialogue in 2009 that took place in Honduras as opposed to Costa Rica.

Mayan Stelae, an emblematic symbol of the Honduran Mayan civilization at Copan.

Pre-colonial period

In pre-Columbian times, modern Honduras was part of the Mesoamerican cultural area. In the west, the Maya civilization flourished for hundreds of years. The dominant state within Honduras's borders was that based in Copán(Dell Inspiron 1464 battery). Copán fell with the other Lowland centres during the conflagrations of the Terminal Classic, the early 9th century. The Maya of this civilization survive in western Honduras as the Ch'orti', isolated from their Choltian linguistic peers to the west.

Remains of other Pre-Columbian cultures are found throughout the country. Archaeologists have studied sites such as Naco and La Sierra in the Naco Valley, Los Naranjos on Lake Yojoa, Yarumela in the Comayagua Valley, La Ceiba and Salitron Viejo (Dell Inspiron 1564 battery) (both now under the Cajon Dam reservoir), Selin Farm and Cuyamel in the Aguan valley, Cerro Palenque, Travesia, Curruste, Ticamaya, Despoloncal in the lower Ulua river valley, and many others.

Conquest period

On his fourth and the final voyage to the New World in 1502, Christopher Columbus became the first European to visit the Bay Islands on the coast of Honduras.[10] Columbus landed near the modern town of Trujillo, in the vicinity of the Guaimoreto Lagoon(Dell Inspiron 1764 battery).

In 1524 the Spanish arrived on Honduras led by Hernan Cortes, bringing forces down from Mexico. Much of the conquest was done in the following two decades, first by groups loyal to Cristóbal de Olid, and then by those loyal of Francisco Montejo but most particularly by those following Alvarado. In addition to Spanish resources, the conquerors relied heavily armed forces from Mexico—Tlaxcalans and Mexica armies of thousands who lived on in the region as garrisons(Dell Inspiron 1520 battery). Resistance to conquest was led in particularly by Lempira,and many regions in the north never fell to the Spanish, notably the Miskito Kingdom. After the Spanish conquest, Honduras became part of Spain's vast empire in the New World within the Kingdom of Guatemala. Trujillo and Gracias were the first city-capitals. The Spanish ruled the region for approximately three centuries(Dell Inspiron 1521 battery).

Colonial period

Honduras was organized as a province of the "Kingdom of Guatemala" and the capital was fixed, first at Trujillo on the Atlantic coast, and later at Comayagua, and finally at Tegucigalpa in the central part of the country.

Silver mining was a key factor in the Spanish conquest and settlement of Honduras.[11] Initially the mines were worked by local people through the encomienda system(Dell inspiron 1525 battery), but as disease and resistance made this less available, slaves from other parts of Central America were brought in, and following the end of the local slave trading period at the end of the sixteenth century, African slaves, mostly from Angola were obtained.[12] After about 1650, very few slaves or other outside workers arrived in Honduras(Dell inspiron 1526 battery).

Although the Spanish conquered the southern or Pacific portion of Honduras fairly quickly they were less successful in the northern or Atlantic side. They managed to found a few towns along the coast, at Puerto Caballos and Trujillo in particular, but failed to conquer the eastern portion of the region and many pockets of independent indigenous people as well(Dell Inspiron 1720 battery). The Miskito Kingdom, located in the northeast was particularly effective in resisting conquest. The Miskitos, in turn found support from northern European privateers, pirates and especially the English colony of Jamaica, which placed much of it under their protection after 1740.

Fortaleza de San Fernando de Omoa was built by the Spanish to protect the coast of Honduras from English pirates(Dell Inspiron 2000 battery).

Independence and the nineteenth century

Honduras became independent from Spain in 1821 and was for a time under the Mexican Empire. After 1838 it was an independent republic and held regular elections.

Comayagua was the capital of Honduras until 1880, when it was transferred to Tegucigalpa.

In the decades of 1840 and 1850 Honduras participated in several failed attempts to restore Central American unity, such as the Confederation of Central America (1842–1845) (Dell INSPIRON 2600 battery), the covenant of Guatemala (1842), the Diet of Sonsonate (1846), the Diet of Nacaome (1847) and National Representation in Central America (1849–1852).

Although Honduras eventually adopted the name Republic of Honduras, the unionist ideal never waned, and Honduras was one of the Central American countries that pushed hardest for the policy of regional unity.

Since independence, nearly 300 small internal rebellions and civil wars have occurred in the country, including some changes of government(Dell INSPIRON 3800 battery).

Liberal policies favoring international trade and investment began in the 1870s, and soon foreign interests became involved first in shipping, especially tropical fruit (most notably bananas) from the north coast, and then in railway building. In 1888, a projected railroad line from the Caribbean coast to the capital, Tegucigalpa, ran out of money when it reached San Pedro Sula, resulting in its growth into the nation's main industrial center and second largest city(Dell INSPIRON 4000 battery).

International influence in the 20th century

In the late nineteenth century United States-based infrastructure and fruit growing companies were granted substantial land and exemptions to develop the northern regions. As a result, thousands of workers came to the north coast to work in the banana plantations and the other industries that grew up around the export industry. The banana exporting companies(Dell Inspiron 5000 battery), dominated by Cuyamel Fruit Company (until 1930), United Fruit Company, and Standard Fruit Company, built an enclave economy in northern Honduras, controlling infrastructure and creating self-sufficient, tax exempt sectors that contributed relatively little to economic growth. In addition to drawing many Central American workers to the north, the fruit companies also encouraged immigration of workers from the English-speaking Caribbean, notably Jamaica and Belize(Dell INSPIRON 500M battery), who introduced an African descended, English speaking and largely Protestant population into the country, though many left after changes in the immigration law in 1939.[13]

Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, Honduras joined the Allied Nations on 8 December 1941. Along with twenty-five other governments, Honduras signed the Declaration by United Nations on 1 January 1942(Dell INSPIRON 5100 battery).

Constitutional crises in the 1940s led to reforms in the 1950s, and as a result of one such reform, workers were given permission to organize, which led to a general strike in 1954 that paralyzed the northern part of the country for more than two months, but which led to more general reforms(Dell INSPIRON 510M battery).

In 1969, Honduras and El Salvador fought what would become known as the Football War.[14] There had been border tensions between the two countries after Oswaldo López Arellano, a former president of Honduras, blamed the deteriorating economy on the large number of immigrants from El Salvador. From that point on, the relationship between the two countries grew acrimonious and reached a low when El Salvador met Honduras(Dell INSPIRON 6000 battery) for a three-round football elimination match as a preliminary to the World Cup. Tensions escalated, and on 14 March 1969, the Salvadoran army launched an attack on the Honduras army. The Organization of American States negotiated a cease-fire, which took effect on 20 July and brought about a withdrawal of Salvadoran troops in early August.[14] Contributing factors to the conflict were a boundary dispute and the presence of thousands of Salvadorans living in Honduras illegally(Dell INSPIRON 600M battery). After the week-long football war, as many as 130,000 Salvadoran immigrants were expelled.[15] El Salvador had agreed on a truce to settle the boundary issue, but Honduras later paid war damage costs for expelled refugees.[14]

Hurricane Fifi caused severe damage while skimming the northern coast of Honduras on 18 and 19 September 1974. Melgar Castro (1975–78) and Paz Garcia (1978–82) largely built the current physical infrastructure and telecommunications system of Honduras(Dell Inspiron 6400 battery).

In 1979, the country returned to civilian rule. A constituent assembly was popularly elected in April 1980 and general elections were held in November 1981. A new constitution was approved in 1982 and the PLH government of Roberto Suazo assumed power. Roberto Suazo won the elections with a promise to carry out an ambitious program of economic and social development in Honduras in order to tackle the country's recession(Dell INSPIRON 7000 battery). President Roberto Suazo Cordoba launched ambitious social and economic development projects, sponsored by American development aid. Honduras became host to the largest Peace Corps mission in the world, and nongovernmental and international voluntary agencies proliferated. (Dell INSPIRON 700M battery)

During the early 1980s, the United States established a continuing military presence in Honduras with the purpose of supporting the Contra guerillas fighting the Nicaraguan government and also developed an air strip and a modern port in Honduras. Though spared the bloody civil wars wracking its neighbors, the Honduran army quietly waged a campaign against Marxist-Leninist militias such as Cinchoneros Popular Liberation Movement(Dell Inspiron 710m battery), notorious for kidnappings and bombings,[17] and many non-militants. The operation included a CIA-backed campaign of extrajudicial killings by government-backed units, most notably Battalion 316.[18]

Beach at Roatán.

In 1998, Hurricane Mitch caused such massive and widespread destruction that former Honduran President Carlos Roberto Flores claimed that fifty years of progress in the country were reversed(Dell INSPIRON 8200 battery). Mitch obliterated about 70% of the crops and an estimated 70–80% of the transportation infrastructure, including nearly all bridges and secondary roads. Across the country, 33,000 houses were destroyed, an additional 50,000 damaged, some 5,000 people killed, 12,000 injured – for a total loss estimated at $3 billion USD.

21st century

The 2008 Honduran floods were severe and around half the country's roads were damaged or destroyed as a result(Dell INSPIRON 8600 battery).

In 2009, a constitutional crisis culminated in a transfer of power from the president to the head of Congress.[23] Countries all over the world, the OAS, and the UN formally and unanimously condemned the action as a coup d'état[21] and refused to recognize the de facto[24] government, though a document submitted to the United States Congress declared the ouster to be legal according to the opinion of the lawyers consulted by the Library of Congress. (Dell INSPIRON 9100 battery) In any event the Honduran Supreme Court also ruled the proceedings to be legal.The government that followed the De Facto Regime, set up a Truth Commission, Comision de la Verdad y Reconciliacion, which after more than a year of research and debate[26] concluded the ousting to be a Coup D'État "to the executive power", illegal in their opinion. (Dell INSPIRON 9200 battery)

Honduras has had many leaders from several parties since gaining its independence from Spain and from Mexico; nineteen have served as president during the period when Honduras was a part of the Federal Republic of Central America. Sixty-seven men have served as president of the Republic of Honduras. The current Honduras president is President Porfirio Lobo. In addition there have been several joint governments(Dell INSPIRON 9300 battery).

Contemporary politics

Honduras has five registered political parties: National Party (Partido Nacional de Honduras: PNH); Liberal Party (Partido Liberal de Honduras: PLH); Social Democrats (Partido Innovación y Unidad-Social Demócrata: PINU-SD), Social Christians (Partido Demócrata-Cristiano de Honduras: DCH); and Democratic Unification (Partido Unificación Democrática: UD). PNH and PLH have ruled the country for decades. In the last years, Honduras has had six Liberal presidents(Dell Inspiron 9400 battery): Roberto Suazo Córdova, José Azcona del Hoyo, Carlos Roberto Reina, Carlos Roberto Flores, Manuel Zelaya and Roberto Micheletti, and three Nationalists: Rafael Leonardo Callejas Romero, Ricardo Maduro and Porfirio Lobo Sosa. The elections have been full of controversies, including questions about whether Azcona was born in Spain, and whether Maduro should have been able to stand, given he was born in Panama(Dell Inspiron E1505 battery).

In 1963, a military coup was mounted against the democratically elected president Ramón Villeda Morales. This event started a string of Military Governments which held power almost uninterrupted until 1981 when Suazo Córdova (LPH) was elected president and Honduras changed from a military authoritarian regime(Dell Inspiron E1705 battery).

In 1986, there were five Liberal candidates and four Nationalists running for president. Because no one candidate obtained a clear majority, the so-called "Formula B" was invoked and Azcona del Hoyo became president. In 1990, Callejas won the election under the slogan "Llegó el momento del Cambio" (English: "The time for change has arrived")(Dell Inspiron Mini 9 battery), which was heavily criticized for resembling El Salvador's "ARENAs" political campaign.[citation needed] Once in office, Callejas Romero gained a reputation for illicit enrichment, and has been the subject of several scandals and accusations.[citation needed] It was during Flores Facusse's mandate that Hurricane Mitch hit the country and decades of economic growth were eradicated in less than a week(Dell Latitude D400 battery).

Government ministries are often incapable of carrying out their mandate due to budgetary constraints. In an interview with Rodolfo Pastor Fasquelle, Minister of Sports & Culture and one of three 'super ministers' responsible for coordinating the ministries related to public services (security and economic being the other two), published in Honduras This Week on 31 July 2006, it was related that 94% of the department budget was spent on bureaucracy and only 6% went to support activities and organizations covered by the mandate(Dell STUDIO 1450 battery). Wages within that ministry were identified as the largest budget consumer.

President Maduro's administration "de-nationalized" the telecommunications sector in a move to promote the rapid diffusion of these services to the Honduran population. As of November 2005, there were around 10 private-sector telecommunications companies in the Honduran market, including two mobile phone companies. As of mid 2007, the issue of tele-communications continues to be very damaging to the current government. (Dell Vostro 1400 battery) The country's main newspapers are La Prensa, El Heraldo, La Tribuna and Diario Tiempo. The official newspaper is La Gaceta.

A Presidential and General Election was held on 27 November 2005. Manuel Zelaya of the Liberal Party of Honduras (Partido Liberal de Honduras: PLH) won, with Porfirio Pepe Lobo of the National Party of Honduras (Partido Nacional de Honduras: PNH) coming in second. The PNH challenged the election results, and Lobo Sosa did not concede until 7 December. (Dell Vostro 1500 battery) Towards the end of December, the government finally released the total ballot count, giving Zelaya the official victory. Zelaya was inaugurated as Honduras' new president on 27 January 2006.

Zelaya precipitated a national crisis by trying to hold a non-binding national referendum to ask the Honduran people: "Do you agree that, during the general elections of November 2009 there should be a fourth ballot to decide whether to hold a Constituent National Assembly that will approve a new political constitution?" (Dell XPS M1210 battery) This possible Assembly then might not or more likely might have proposed constitutional changes to term-limits – as the military and the Supreme Court deemed possible – and other more likely, unrelated and legal constitutional changes.[33]

2009 Honduran constitutional crisis

The 2009 Honduran constitutional crisis[34] resulted in an event the international community almost universally refers to as a coup d'état. The coup lasted from 28 June 2009 to 27 January 2010. President Manuel Zelaya attempted to hold a "non-binding referendum" on 28 June asking voters if the upcoming November elections should include an additional ballot box(Dell XPS M1330 battery). The ballot box would ask if the Honduran people wished to form a Constitutional Assembly in the term of the newly elected president.[35] The Supreme Court upheld a lower court ruling that found a prior referendum based on the same issue unconstitutional and prohibited it. (Dell XPS 1340 battery)

Referendum

Zelaya ignored the Supreme Court and decided to proceed on the referendum, basing his decision on the Law of Citizen Participation, passed in 2006. Zelaya dismissed the head of the military command, General Romeo Vásquez Velásquez, for disobeying an order to hold the poll, but the Supreme Court ordered his reinstatement. The Supreme Court then ordered the military (who as a non-civilian force had no jurisdiction over the matter) to detain Zelaya(Dell XPS M1530 battery). The vote on the referendum was scheduled for 28 June 2009. In the early morning on that day, the army[38] arrested Zelaya at his home.

Zelaya was held in a U.S. airbase outside Tegucigalpa[39] before being forcibly sent to San José, Costa Rica.[40] Zelaya attempted reentry into the country on several occasions. According to the constitution, it is illegal to expatriate any Honduran citizen.[41] Roberto Micheletti, the former President of the Honduran Congress and a member of the same party as Zelaya(Dell XPS M170 battery), was sworn in as President by the National Congress on the afternoon of Sunday 28 June[42] for a term that ended on 27 January 2010.[43]

No country recognised the de facto government as legitimate; all members of the UN condemned the removal of Zelaya as a coup d'état. Some Republican Party members of the U.S. Congress voiced support at the time for the new government. (Dell XPS M1710 battery) On 21 September 2009, Zelaya returned to Honduras and entered the Brazilian embassy. From its roof, he attempted to incite his supporters in a rebellion. The government disrupted utility services to the embassy and imposed a curfew in an attempt to maintain order in the area when Zelaya's supporters protested around the embassy(Dell XPS M1730 battery).

The following day, in Decree PCM-M-016-2009, the government suspended five Constitutional rights: personal liberty (Article 69), freedom of expression (Article 72), freedom of movement (Article 81), habeas corpus (Article 84) and freedom of association and assembly. It closed a leftist radio and a television station. The decree suspending human rights was officially revoked on 19 October 2009 in La Gaceta. (Dell XPS M2010 battery)

2009 election

The presidential election on 29 November 2009 was held under a tense state of political turmoil and ongoing coup. Porfirio Lobo Sosa of the National Party of Honduras defeated the candidate of the Liberal Party of Honduras, civil engineer Elvin Ernesto Santos Ordoñez. Sosa was sworn into office as president in 2010, and declared his wish to bring order to the country and reapply for membership in the Organization of American States(Dell Latitude E5400 battery).

Departments and municipalities

Departmental division of Honduras

See also: Departments of Honduras and Municipalities of Honduras

Honduras is divided into 18 departments. The capital city is Tegucigalpa in the Central District within the department of Francisco Morazán.

Honduras borders the Caribbean Sea on the north coast and the Pacific Ocean on the south through the Gulf of Fonseca. It mostly lies between latitudes 13° and 17°N (a small area lies south of 13°, and the Swan Islands are north of 17°), and longitudes 83° and 90°W.

The climate varies from tropical in the lowlands to temperate in the mountains. The central and southern regions are relatively hotter and less humid than the northern coast(Dell Latitude E5500 battery).

The Honduran territory consists mainly of mountains, but there are narrow plains along the coasts, a large undeveloped lowland jungle La Mosquitia region in the northeast, and the heavily populated lowland Sula valley in the northwest. In La Mosquitia, lies the UNESCO world-heritage site Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve, with the Coco River which divides the country from Nicaragua(Dell Latitude E6400 battery).

The Islas de la Bahía and the Swan Islands (all off the north coast) are part of Honduras. Misteriosa Bank and Rosario Bank, 130 to 150 km (80–93 miles) north of the Swan Islands, fall within the EEZ of Honduras.

The region is considered a biodiversity hotspot because of the numerous plant and animal species that can be found there. Like other countries in the region, Honduras contains vast biological resources(Dell Latitude E6500 battery). The country hosts more than 6,000 species of vascular plants, of which 630 (described so far) are orchids; around 250 reptiles and amphibians, more than 700 bird species, and 110 mammal species, half of them being bats.[50]

In the northeastern region of La Mosquitia lies the Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve, a lowland rainforest which is home to a great diversity of life. The reserve was added to the UNESCO World Heritage Sites List in 1982(Dell Inspiron Mini 12 battery).

Honduras has rain forests, cloud forests (which can rise up to nearly three thousand meters above sea level), mangroves, savannas and mountain ranges with pine and oak trees, and the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System. In the Bay Islands there are bottlenose dolphins, manta rays, parrot fish, schools of blue tang and whale shark(Dell XPS M140 battery).

The economy has continued to grow slowly, but the distribution of wealth remains very polarized with average wages remaining low. Economic growth in the last few years has averaged 7% a year, one of the highest rates in Latin America, but 50% of the population, approximately 3.7 million people, still remains below the poverty line.[51] It is estimated that there are more than 1.2 million people who are unemployed, the rate of unemployment standing at 27.9%(Dell XPS 13 battery). According to the Human Development Index, Honduras is the sixth poorest/least developed country in Latin America, after Haiti, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Guyana, and Bolivia.

Sky Residence Club, one of the tallest building in Tegucigalpa, standing at 318 feet (97 meters) in the Lomas del Mayab neighborhood.

Honduras was declared one of the heavily indebted poor countries by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, and was made eligible for debt relief in 2005(Dell XPS 16 battery).

The government operates both the electricity (ENEE) and land-line telephone services (HONDUTEL), as ENEE receives heavy subsidies for its chronic financial problems. HONDUTEL, however, is no longer a monopoly, as the telecommunication sector was opened to private sector on 25 December 2005, as was required under the CAFTA. The price of petroleum is controlled, and the Congress often ratifies temporary price regulations for basic commodities(Dell XPS 1640 battery).

Gold, silver, lead and zinc are produced at mines owned by foreign companies.[52]

After years of decline against the U.S. dollar, lempira recently stabilized at around 19 lempiras per dollar. In June 2008, the exchange rate between U.S. dollar and lempira was approximately 1 to 18.85.

In 2005, Honduras signed the CAFTA, the free trade agreement with the United States. In December 2005, Puerto Cortes, the main seaport in Honduras, was included in the U.S. Container Security Initiative. (Dell XPS 1645 battery)

On 7 December 2006, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and the Department of Energy announced the first phase of the Secure Freight Initiative, an unprecedented effort to build upon existing port security measures by enhancing the U.S. government’s authority to scan containers from overseas for nuclear and radiological materials to better assess the risk of inbound containers(Dell XPS 1647 battery). The initial phase of Secure Freight involves the deployment of nuclear detection and other devices to six foreign ports: Port Qasim in Pakistan; Puerto Cortes in Honduras; Southampton in the United Kingdom; Port Salalah in Oman; Port of Singapore; and the Gamman Terminal at Port Busan in Korea. Since early 2007, containers from these ports have been scanned for radiation and other risk factors before they are allowed to depart for the United States. (Dell Latitude 131L battery)

State within a state

To enhance the economy, on September 4, 2012 Honduras government has signed a memorandum of understanding with a group of international investors to build a zone (city) with their own laws, tax system, judiciary and police, but the opponents tried to lodge a suit at the supreme court about it ('state within a state'). (Dell Latitude C400 battery)

Main article: Social Conditions in Honduras

Over the centuries, the territory of Honduras has known a number of social systems, ranging from ancient forager groups through early complex societies to more elaborated ones, such as those of the Maya and Lenca. Spanish conquest built on these, and their traditions carried over into the post independence period(Dell Latitude C500 battery). Honduras' emergence in the late nineteenth century as a cash crop producing exporter and then its limited industrialization through the maquiladora system have brought about the conditions of today.

In both 2010 and 2011, Honduras was ranked as having the highest rate of intentional homicide in the world.

See also: Hondurans

According to the CIA World Factbook, Honduras has a population of 8,143,564 as at July 2011; the CIA World Factbook states that the population makeup is(Dell Latitude C510 battery): "mestizo (mixed Amerindian and European) 90%, Amerindian 7%, black 2%, white 1%".[1] However, in Honduras as in Latin American countries in general, racial breakdowns of population conform to local perceptions of race, and also social status which may tend to over represent some groups and under represent others, and thus such statistics must be understood in that light(Dell Latitude C540 battery).

Ninety percent of the Honduran population is Mestizo and white[1] (a mixture of Amerindian and European ancestry). About 7% of the Honduran population are members of one of the seven recognized indigenous groups.

About 2% of Honduras's population is black,[1] or Afro-Honduran, and mainly reside on the country's Caribbean coast(Dell Latitude C600 battery). Most are the descendants of the slaves and indentured servants from the West Indian islands brought to Honduras. Another large group (about 150,000 today) are the Garifuna, descendants of an Afro-Carib population which revolted against British authorities on the island of St. Vincent and were forcibly moved to Belize and Honduras during the 18th century. Garífunas are part of Honduran identity through theatrical presentations such as Louvavagu(Dell Latitude C610 battery). A final group are workers brought in from the English-speaking Caribbean, primarily Jamaica and Barbados, to work on the fruit plantations started by mostly North American companies such as United Fruit Company in the late 19th and early 20th century.

Honduras hosts a significant Palestinian community (the vast majority of whom are Christian Arabs).[56] The Palestinians arrived in the country in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, establishing themselves especially in the city of San Pedro Sula(Dell Latitude C640 battery). The Palestinian community, well integrated in Honduras, is prominent in business, commerce, banking, industry, and politics. There is also an East Asian community that is primarily Chinese descent, and to a lesser extent Japanese. Some Korean, Ryukyuan, Vietnamese and Filipino peoples also make up a small percentage due to their arrival to Honduras as contract laborers in the 1980s and 1990s(Dell Latitude C800 battery). There are also an estimated 1000 Sumos (or Mayangnas) that live in Honduras, the majority of whom reside on the Caribbean coast.

Since 1975, emigration from Honduras has accelerated as job-seekers and political refugees sought a better life elsewhere. Although many Hondurans have relatives in Nicaragua, Spain, Mexico, El Salvador and Canada, the majority of Hondurans living abroad are in the United States(Dell Latitude C810 battery).

Cardinal Oscar Andres Rodriguez was one of the strongest candidates to become Pope after the death of John Paul II.

Although most Hondurans are nominally Roman Catholic (which would be considered the main religion), according to one report, membership in the Roman Catholic Church is declining while membership in Protestant churches is increasing(Dell Latitude C840 battery). The International Religious Freedom Report, 2008, notes that a CID Gallup poll reported that 47% of the population identified themselves as Catholic, 36% as evangelical Protestant, and 17% provided no answer or considered themselves "other." Customary Catholic church tallies and membership estimates 81% Catholic where the priest (in more than 185 parishes) is required to fill out a pastoral account of the parish each year(Dell Latitude D410 battery).

The CIA Factbook has Honduras listed as 97% Catholic and 3% Protestant.[1] Commenting on statistical variations everywhere, John Green of Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life notes that: "It isn't that ... numbers are more right than [someone else's] numbers ... but how one conceptualizes the group.[59] Often people attend one church without giving up their "home" church. Many who attend evangelical megachurches in the US, for example(Dell Latitude D420 battery), attend more than one church.[60] This shifting and fluidity is common in Brazil where two-fifths of those who were raised evangelical are no longer evangelical and Catholics seem to shift in and out of various churches, often while still remaining Catholic.[61]

Most pollsters suggest an annual poll taken over a number of years would provide the best method of knowing religious demographics and variations in any single country(Dell Latitude D430 battery). Still, in Honduras are thriving Anglican, Presbyterian, Methodist, Seventh-day Adventist, Lutheran, Latter-day Saint (Mormon) and Pentecostal churches. There are Protestant seminaries. The Catholic Church, still the only "church" that is recognized, is also thriving in the number of schools, hospitals, and pastoral institutions (including its own medical school) that it operates(Dell Latitude D500 battery). It archbishop, Oscar Andres Rodriguez Maradiaga, is also very popular, both with the government, other churches, and in his own church. Practitioners of the Buddhist, Jewish, Islamic, Bahá'í, Rastafari and indigenous denominations and religions exist.[62]

Health

The fertility rate is approximately 3.7 per woman.[63] The under-five mortality rate is at 40 per 1,000 live births.[63] The health expenditure was US$ (PPP) 197 per person in 2004.[63] There are about 57 physicians per 100,000 people. (Dell Latitude D505 battery)

The most renowned Honduran painter is Jose Antonio Velásquez. Other important painters include Carlos Garay, and Roque Zelaya. Two of Honduras' most notable writers are Froylan Turcios and Ramón Amaya Amador. Others include Marco Antonio Rosa, Roberto Sosa, Lucila Gamero de Medina, Eduardo Bähr, Amanda Castro, Javier Abril Espinoza(Dell Latitude D510 battery), Teófilo Trejo, and Roberto Quesada. Some of Honduras' notable musicians include Rafael Coello Ramos, Lidia Handal, Victoriano Lopez, Guillermo Anderson, Victor Donaire, Matilde Quan, Moises Canelo,Julio Quan Francisco Carranza and Camilo Rivera Guevara.

Hondurans are often referred to as Catracho or Catracha (fem) in Spanish. The word was coined by Nicaraguans and derives from the last name of the Spanish Honduran General Florencio Xatruch(Dell Latitude D520 battery), who, in 1857, led Honduran armed forces against an attempted invasion by North American adventurer William Walker. The nickname is considered complimentary, not derogatory. The main language is Spanish, spoken by 94% as first language. Minority languages are spoken by less than 4%. These are Amerindian languages such as Garifuna, Miskito, and Pech; Honduras Sign Language; and English on the Bay Islands off the north coast(Dell Latitude D600 battery).

Honduras This Week is a weekly English-language newspaper that has been published for seventeen years in Tegucigalpa. On the islands of Roatan, Utila and Guanaja, the Bay Islands Voice has been a source of monthly news since 2003.

Honduran cuisine makes extensive use of coconut, in both sweet and savory foods, and even in soups(Dell Latitude D610 battery).

The José Francisco Saybe theater in San Pedro Sula is home to the Círculo Teatral Sampedrano (Theatrical Circle of San Pedro Sula)

Celebrations

Sawdust Carpets of Comayagua During the Easter Celebrations.

Some of Honduras' national holidays include Honduras Independence Day on 15 September and Children's Day or Día del Niño, which is celebrated in homes, schools and churches on 10 September; on this day, children receive presents and have parties similar to Christmas or birthday celebrations. Some neighborhoods have piñatas on the street(Dell Latitude D620 battery). Other holidays are Easter, Maundy Thursday, Good Friday, Day of the Soldier (3 October to celebrate the birth of Francisco Morazán), Christmas, El Dia de Lempira on 20 July,[64] and New Year's Eve.

Honduras Independence Day festivities start early in the morning with marching bands. Each band wears different colors and features cheerleaders. Fiesta Catracha takes place this same day: typical Honduran foods such as beans(Dell Latitude D630 battery), tamales, baleadas, cassava with chicharron, and tortillas are offered. On Christmas Eve, the people reunite with their families and close friends to have dinner, then give out presents at midnight. In some cities fireworks are seen and heard at midnight. On New Year's Eve there is food and "cohetes", fireworks and festivities. Birthdays are also great events, and include the famous “piñata” which is filled with candies and surprises for the children invited(Dell Latitude D800 battery).

La Feria Isidra is celebrated in La Ceiba, a city located in the north coast, in the second half of May to celebrate the day of the city's patron saint Saint Isidore. People from all over the world come for one week of festivities. Every night there is a little carnaval (carnavalito) in a neighborhood. Finally, on Saturday there is a big parade with floats and displays with people from many countries. This celebration is also accompanied by the Milk Fair(Dell Latitude D810 battery), where many Hondurans come to show off their farm products and animals.

In the spring is the Semana Santa religious celebration, including one of the main events of this holy week is "the one and only legal cockfight of the year".

Main article: Education in Honduras

See also: List of schools in Honduras

In Honduras about 83.6% of the population of the country is literate. The net primary enrollment rate was 94% in 2004,[63] while in 2007 the primary school completion rate was reported to be 40%.[citation needed] Honduras has bilingual (Spanish and English) and even trilingual (Spanish, English, German/Turkish) schools[67] and numerous universities(Dell Latitude D820 battery).

The university is ruled by National Autonomous University of Honduras which have centers in the most important cities in Honduras.

About half of the electricity sector in Honduras is privately owned. The remaining generation capacity is run by ENEE (Empresa Nacional de Energía Eléctrica). Key challenges in the sector are:

How to finance investments in generation and transmission in the absence of either a financially healthy utility or of concessionary funds by external donors for these types of investments(Dell Latitude D830 battery);

How to re-balance tariffs, cut arrears and reduce commercial losses – including electricity theft – without fostering social unrest; and

How to reconcile environmental concerns with the government's objective to build two new large dams and associated hydropower plants.

How to improve access in rural areas.

Water supply and sanitation

Water supply and sanitation in Honduras varies greatly from urban centers to rural villages. Larger population centers generally have modernized water treatment and distribution systems(Dell Latitude 2100 battery), however water quality is often poor because of lack of proper maintenance and treatment. Rural areas generally have basic drinking water systems with limited capacity for water treatment. Many urban areas have sewer systems in place for the collection of wastewater, however proper treatment of wastewater is scarce. In rural areas, sanitary facilities are generally limited to latrines and basic septic pits(Dell Latitude 2110 battery).

Water and sanitation services were historically provided by Servicio Autonomo de Alcantarillas y Aqueductos (SANAA). In 2003, a new "water law" was passed which called for the decentralization of water services. With the 2003 law, local communities have the right and responsibility to own, operate, and control their own drinking water and wastewater systems(Dell Latitude E4300 battery). Since passage of the new law, many communities have joined together to address water and sanitation issues on a regional basis.

Many national and international non-government organizations have a history of working on water and sanitation projects in Honduras. International groups include, but are not limited to, the Red Cross, Water 1st, Rotary Club(Dell Vostro 1310 battery), Catholic Relief Services, Water for People, EcoLogic Development Fund, CARE, CESO-SACO, Engineers Without Borders USA, Flood The Nations, SHH, Global Brigades, and Agua para el Pueblo in partnership with AguaClara at Cornell University.

In addition, many government organizations working on projects include: the European Union, USAID, the Army Corps of Engineers, Cooperacion Andalucia, the government of Japan, and many others(Dell Vostro 1320 battery).

Transportation in Honduras consists of the following infrastructure: 699 km of railways; 13,603 km of roadways;[1] seven ports and harbors;[citation needed] and 112 airports altogether (12 Paved, 100 unpaved).[1] Responsibility for policy in the transport sector rests with the Ministry of Public Works, Transport and Housing (SOPRTRAVI after its Spanish acronym) (Dell Vostro 1510 battery).

The flag of Honduras is composed of 3 equal horizontal stripes, with the upper and lower ones being blue and representing the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea. The central stripe is white. It contains five blue stars representing the five states of the Central American Union. The middle star represents Honduras, located in the center of the Central American Union(Dell Vostro 1520 battery).

The Coat of Arms was established in 1945. It is an equilateral triangle, at the base is a volcano between three castles, over which is a rainbow and the sun shining. The triangle is placed on an area that symbolizes being bathed by both seas. Around all of this an oval containing in golden lettering: "Republic of Honduras, Free, Sovereign and Independent"(Dell Vostro 2510 battery).

The National Anthem of Honduras is a result of a contest carried out in 1914 during the presidency of Manuel Bonilla. In the end, it was the poet Augosto C. Coello that ended up writing the anthem, with the participation of German composer Carlos Hartling writing the music. The anthem was officially adopted on 15 November 1915, during the presidency of Alberto Membreño. The anthem is composed of a choir and seven stroonduran,that is very long(Dell Vostro 1014 battery).

The national flower is the famous orchid, Rhyncholaelia digbyana (formerly known as Brassavola digbyana), which replaced the rose in 1969. The change of the National Flower was carried out during the administration of general Oswaldo López Arellano, thinking that Brassavola digbiana "is an indigenous plant of Honduras; having this flower exceptional characteristics of beauty, vigor and distinction", as the decree dictates it(Dell Inspiron 1410 battery).

The National Tree of Honduras is the Honduras Pine (Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis). Also the use of the tree was regulated, "to avoid the unnecessary destructions caused by choppings or fires of forest."

The National Mammal is the White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus), which was adopted as a measure to avoid excessive depredation. It is one of two species of deer that live in Honduras. The National Bird of Honduras is the Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) (Dell Vostro 1015 battery). This bird was much valued by the pre-Columbian civilizations of Honduras.

Wilson Palacios, one of the most well-known athletes from Honduras, plays for the Honduras national football team and for Stoke City of the English Premier League.

Legends and fairy tales are paramount within the Honduras culture; Lluvia de Peces (Fish Rain) is an example of this. The legend of El Cadejo, La Llorona and La Ciguanaba (La Sucia) are also popular(Dell Inspiron 1088 battery).

Tegucigalpa (Spanish pronunciation: [teɣusiˈɣalpa], formally Tegucigalpa, Municipality of the Central District Spanish: Tegucigalpa, Municipio del Distrito Central or Tegucigalpa, M.D.C.[3]), and commonly referred as Tegus,[1][8] is the capital of Honduras and seat of government of the Republic, along with its twin sister Comayagüela. (Dell Inspiron Mini 1012 battery)

Founded on September 29, 1578 by the Spanish,[10] it became the country's capital on October 30, 1880 under President Marco Aurelio Soto.[11] The current Constitution of Honduras, enacted in 1982, names the sister cities of Tegucigalpa[a] and Comayagüela[b] as a Central District[c] to serve as the permanent national capital, under articles 8 and 295(SONY PCG-5G2L battery).

During the short-lived Constitution of the Republic of Central America of 1921, Tegucigalpa served as a Federal District and capital of then-newly formed as one nation: the states of El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras.[14] After this failed attempt to maintain a Central American republic, Honduras returned to become an individual sovereign nation and on January 30, 1937, Article 179 of the 1936 Honduran Constitution was reformed under Decree 53 to established Tegucigalpa and Comayagüela as a Central District(SONY PCG-5G3L battery).

Tegucigalpa is located in the southern-central highland region of Honduras[16] in the department of Francisco Morazán of which it is also the departmental capital.[17] It is situated in a valley, surrounded by mountains and both Tegucigalpa and Comayagüela, being sister cities, are physically separated by the Choluteca River.[18] The Central District is the largest of the 28 municipalities in the Francisco Morazán department. (SONY PCG-F305 battery)

Tegucigalpa is Honduras' largest and most populous city as well as the nation's political and administrative center. Tegucigalpa is host to 25 foreign embassies and 16 consulates[20][21] in addition to being the home base of several state-owned entities such as ENEE and Hondutel, the national energy and telecommunications companies, respectively.[22] The city is also home to the country's most important university, the National Autonomous University of Honduras, (SONY PCG-5J1L battery) as well as the national soccer team.[24] The capital's international airport, Toncontín, is notorious around the world for its extremely short runway for an international airport and the unusual maneuvers pilots must undertake upon landing or taking off to avoid the nearby mountains.

The Central District Mayor's Office (Alcaldia Municipal del Distrito Central) is the city's governing body,[28] headed by a mayor[29] and 10 aldermen forming the Municipal Corporation (Corporación Municipal). (SONY PCG-5J2L battery) Being the department's seat as well, the governor's office of Francisco Morazán is also located in the capital. In 2008, the city operated on an approved budget of 1.555 billion lempiras (US$82,189,029).[31] In 2009, the city government reported a revenue of 1.955 billion lempiras (US$103,512,220). (More than any other capital city in Central America, except Panama City) (SONY PCG-5K2L battery)

Tegucigalpa's infrastructure has not kept with the population growth.[32] Deficient urban planning,[33] densely condensed urbanization, and poverty[34] are ongoing problems.[35] Heavily congested roadways where current road infrastructure is unable to efficiently handle the over 400 thousand vehicles create havoc on a daily basis.[36] Both current national and local governments have taken approaches at improving or increasing infrastructure as well as to reducing poverty in the city(SONY PCG-5L1L battery).

Most sources indicate that the origin and meaning of the word Tegucigalpa is derived from the Nahuatl language.[39] The most widely accepted version suggests that it comes from the Nahuatl word Taguz-galpa, which translates to cerros de plata in Spanish (hills of silver in English), but this interpretation is uncertain since the natives who occupied the region at time were unaware of the existence of mineral deposits in the area(SONY PCG-6S2L battery).

Another source suggests that Tegucigalpa derives from another language in which it means painted rocks, as explained by Leticia Oyuela in her book "Minimum History of Tegucigalpa".[40] Other theories indicate it may derive from the term Togogalpa which refers to tototi (small green parrot, in Nahuatl) and Toncontín, a small town near Tegucigalpa (toncotín was a Mexican dance of Nahuatl origin) (SONY PCG-6S3L battery).

In Mexico, it is believed the word Tegucigalpa is from the Nahuatl word Tecuztlicallipan, meaning "place of residence of the noble" or Tecuhtzincalpan, meaning "place on the home of the beloved master".[43]

Honduran philologist Alberto de Jesús Membreño, in his book "Indigenous Toponymies of Central America", states that Tegucigalpa is a Nahuatl word meaning "in the homes of the sharp stones" and rules out the traditional meaning "hills of silver" arguing that Taguzgalpa was the name of the ancient eastern zone of Honduras. (SONY PCG-6V1L battery)

Los Dolores Church, built 1735

Tegucigalpa was founded by Spanish settlers as Real de Minas de San Miguel de Tegucigalpa on September 29, 1578 on the site of an existing native settlement of the Pech, Tolupans and the Twahkas.[45] The first mayor of Tegucigalpa was Juan de la Cueva, who took office in 1579.[46] The Dolores Church (1735), the San Miguel Cathedral (1765), the Casa de la Moneda (1780), and the Immaculate Conception Church (1788) were some of the first important buildings constructed. (SONY PCG-6W1L battery)

Almost 200 years later, on June 10, 1762, this minin

g town became Real Villa de San Miguel de Tegucigalpa y Heredia under the rule of Alonso Fernández de Heredia, then-acting governor of Honduras. The late 18th and early 19th centuries saw disruption in Tegucigalpa's local government, from being extinguished in 1788 to becoming part of Comayagua in 1791 to returning to self-city governance in 1817. (SONY PCG-7111L battery)

In 1817, then-mayor Narciso Mallol started the construction of the first bridge, a ten-arch masonry, connecting both sides of the Choluteca River. Upon completion four years later, it linked Tegucigalpa with her neighbor city of Comayagüela.[49] In 1821, Tegucigalpa legally became a city.[50] In 1824, the first Congress of the Republic of Honduras, declared Tegucigalpa and Comayagua, then the two most important cities in the country, to alternate as capital of the country. (SONY PCG-71511M battery)

After October 1838, following Honduras' independence as a single Republic, the capital continued to switch back and forth between Tegucigalpa and Comayagua until October 30, 1880, when Tegucigalpa was declared the permanent capital of Honduras by then-president Marco Aurelio Soto.[11] A popular myth claims that the society of Comayagua(SONY PCG-6W3L battery), the long-time colonial capital of Honduras, publicly disliked the wife of President Soto, who took revenge by moving the capital to Tegucigalpa.[52] A more likely theory is that the change took place because President Soto was an important partner of the Rosario Mining Company, an American silver mining company, whose operations were based in San Juancito, close to Tegucigalpa, and he needed to be close to his personal interests. (SONY PCG-7113L battery)

By 1898, it was decided that both Tegucigalpa and Comayagüela, being neighbor cities on the banks of the Choluteca River, would form the capital, but with separate names and separate local governments.[54] During this period, both cities had a population of about 40,000 people.

The Metropolitan Cathedral, built between 1765 and 1786.

Between the 1930s and 1960s, Tegucigalpa continued to grow reaching a population of over 250,000 people, giving way to what would become one of the biggest neighborhoods in the city(SONY PCG-7133L battery), the Colonia Kennedy; the nation's autonomous university, the UNAH; and the construction of the Honduras Maya Hotel.[55] It still remained relatively small and provincial until the 1970s, when migration from the rural areas began in earnest. During the 1980s, several avenues, traffic overpasses, and large buildings were erected, a relative novelty to a city characterized until then by two-story buildings.[56] However, lacking the enforcement of city planning and zoning laws(SONY PCG-7Z1L battery), it led to highly disorganized urbanization. This lack of proper urbanization as the population has grown is evident on the surrounding slopes of the several hills in the city where some of the city's most impoverished neighborhoods have prevailed.[57]

On October 30, 1998, Hurricane Mitch devastated the capital, along with the rest of Honduras.[58] For five days, Mitch pounded the country creating devastating landslides and floods, causing the death of thousands as well as heavy deforestation and the destruction of thousands of homes. (SONY PCG-7Z2L battery) A portion of Comayagüela was destroyed along with several neighborhoods on both sides of the Honduran capital. After the hurricane, infrastructure in Tegucigalpa was severely severed. Even 12 years later, remnants of Hurricane Mitch are still visible specially along the banks of the Choluteca River.[60][61]

Today, Tegucigalpa continues to sprawl far beyond its former colonial core: towards the east, south and west, creating a large but disorganized metropolis(SONY PCG-8Y1L battery). In an effort to modernize the capital, increase its infrastructure and improve the quality of life of its inhabittants, the current administration has passed several ordinances and projects to turn the city around within the upcoming years.[62]

Residential neighborhood in eastern Tegucigalpa.

Tegucigalpa is located on a chain of mountains at elevations of 935 metres (3,068 ft) on its lowest points and 1,463 metres (4,800 ft) on its highest suburban areas(SONY PCG-8Y2L battery). Like most of the interior highlands of Honduras, the majority of Tegucigalpa's current area was occupied by open woodland. The area surrounding the city continues to be open woodland supporting pine forest interspersed with some oak, scrub, and grassy clearings as well as needle leaf evergreen and broadleaf deciduous forest(SONY PCG-8Z2L battery).

The metropolitan area of both Tegucigalpa and Comayagüela cover a total area of 77.6 square miles (201 km2) while the entire Municipality of the Central District covers a total area of 539.1 square miles (1,396 km2).[63] Geological faults have been identified in the District's high regions surrounding the capital which are a threat to the neighborhoods on and below the hills. (SONY PCG-8Z1L battery)

The Choluteca River, which runs crossing the city from south to north, physically separates Tegucigalpa and Comayagüela.[65] El Picacho Hill, a rugged mountain of moderate height convert rises above the downtown area; several neighborhoods, both upscale residential and lower income, are located on its slopes. The city consists of gentle hills, and the ring of mountains surrounding the city tends to trap pollution.[66] During the dry season, a dense cloud of smog lingers in the basin until the first rains fall(SONY PCG-7112L battery).

Tucked in a valley and bisected by a river makes Tegucigalpa prone to flooding during the rainy season, as experienced to the fullest during Hurricane Mitch and to a lesser degree every year during the rainy season. Despite being several thousand feet above sea level, the city currently lacks an efficient flood control system, including canals and sewerage powerful enough to channel rain water back into the river to flow down to the ocean(SONY PCG-6W2L battery). The river itself is a threat since it isn't deep enough below the streets nor there are levies high enough to prevent it from breaking out.[67] There are currently more than 100 neighborhoods deemed zones of high risk, several of them ruled out as uninhabitable in their entirety.[57]

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