Guinea And Senegal 1

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Guinea, officially the Republic of Guinea (French: République de Guinée), is a country in West Africa. Formerly known as French Guinea (Guinée française), it is today sometimes called Guinea-Conakry to distinguish it from its neighbour Guinea-Bissau and the Republic of Equatorial Guinea. (Dell D6400 battery) It has a population of 10,057,975 and an area of 246,000 square kilometres (94,981 sq mi). Forming a crescent as it curves from its western border on the Atlantic Ocean toward the east and the south, it shares its northern border with Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, and Mali, and its southern border with Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Côte d'Ivoire. The sources of the Niger River, Gambia River, and Senegal River are all found in the Guinea Highlands. (Dell HF674 battery)

Conakry is Guinea's capital, largest city, and economic centre. Other major cities in the country include Kankan, Nzérékoré, Kindia, Labe, Guéckédou, Mamou and Boke. Guinea's 10 million people belong to twenty-four ethnic groups. The largest and most prominent groups are the Fula (40%), Mandingo (30%), and Susu (20%)(Dell N3010 battery). It is a predominantly Islamic country, with Muslims representing about 85 percent of the population. Christians, mostly Roman Catholic, make up about 10 percent[6] of the population, and are mainly found in the southern Guinea forestiere region. French is the official language of Guinea, and is the main language of communication in schools, government administration(Dell Inspiron N4010 battery), the media, and the country's security forces. More than twenty four indigenous languages are also spoken, of which the most common are Fula, Susu and Mandinka. Fula is widely used in the Fouta Djallon region in central Guinea, Mandinka in Eastern Guinea, and Susu in the coastal region of northwestern Guinea.[7]

Guinea's economy is largely dependent on agriculture and mineral production.[8] It is the world's second largest producer of bauxite, and has rich deposits of diamonds and gold. (Dell INSPIRON 1100 battery)

The issue of human rights in the country remains controversial. In its 2012 Freedom in the World report, Freedom House named the country "partly free" for the second year in a row, an improvement over its former status as one of the least free countries in Africa.[9] The United States Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, which produces annual human rights reports on the country(Dell Inspiron 1200 battery), claims the most pressing human rights issues are the use of torture by security forces, and abuse of women and children through such acts as female genital mutilation.

Main article: History of Guinea

The land that is now Guinea belonged to a series of African empires until France colonized it in the 1890s, and made it part of French West Africa. Guinea declared its independence from France on 2 October 1958. From independence until the presidential election of 2010(Dell Inspiron 1420 battery), Guinea was governed by a number of autocratic rulers, which has contributed to making Guinea one of the poorest countries in the world.

Monument to commemorate the 1970 military victory over the Portuguese invasion.

Ahmed Sékou Touré rule

Ahmed Sékou Touré became President upon Guinea's independence in 1958, establishing one-party dictatorship, with a closed, socialized economy and no tolerance for human rights, free expression, or political opposition, which was ruthlessly suppressed. The country was named the People's Revolutionary Republic of Guinea(Dell Inspiron 1464 battery).

Economic costs were extensive. The state took over farms and other production. Imposition of price controls started an era of pervasive black markets and smuggling even though it was punishable by death. Touré relied on his own Malinke ethnic group to fill positions in the party and government.[17] Touré's party officials took monopoly of social and economic life(Dell Inspiron 1564 battery). A police and intelligence apparatus spied on everyone.[20] More than a million people fled the repression into neighboring countries. It has been estimated that almost 5,000 people were executed or died from torture or starvation at the Camp Boiro, a Soviet-style concentration camp.

After almost three decades in power, Touré died unexpectedly on 26 March 1984.

Recent history(Dell Inspiron 1764 battery)

In a coup d'état several hours following Touré's death, Lansana Conté became the President. The constitution and parliament were suspended and a committee for national recovery was established. Conté remained in power until his death on 23 December 2008.[24]

In several hours following his death, Moussa Dadis Camara seized control of Guinea as the head of a junta.[25] On 28 September 2009(Dell Inspiron 1520 battery), the junta ordered its soldiers to attack people who had gathered to protest any attempt by Camara to become[citation needed] President.[26] The soldiers went on a rampage of rape, mutilation, and murder.[27]

On 3 December 2009, an aide shot Camara during a dispute about the rampage of September 2009. Camara went to Morocco for medical care. Vice-President (and defense minister) Sékouba Konaté flew back from Lebanon to run the country in Camara's absence. (Dell Inspiron 1521 battery)

On 12 January 2010 Camara was flown from Morocco to Burkina Faso.[30] After meeting in Ouagadougou on 13 and 14 January, Camara, Konaté and Blaise Compaoré, President of Burkina Faso, produced a formal statement of twelve principles promising a return of Guinea to civilian rule within six months. It was agreed that the military would not contest the forthcoming elections(Dell inspiron 1525 battery), and Camara would continue his convalescence outside Guinea. On 21 January 2010 the military junta appointed Jean-Marie Doré as Prime Minister of a six-month transition government, leading up to elections.

The presidential election was set to take place on 27 June and 18 July 2010, it was held as being the first free and fair election since independence in 1958. The first round took place normally on 27 June 2010 with ex Prime Minister Cellou(Dell inspiron 1526 battery) Dalein Diallo and his rival Alpha Condé emerging as the two runners-up for the second round. However, due to allegations of electoral fraud, the second round of the election was postponed until 19 September 2010.[36] A delay until 10 October was announced by the electoral commission (CENI), subject to approval by Sékouba Konaté.[37] Yet another delay until 24 October was announced in early October.[38] Elections were finally held on 7 November. Voter turnout was high, and the elections went relatively smoothly. (Dell Inspiron 1720 battery)

16 November 2010, Alpha Condé, the leader of the opposition party Rally of the Guinean People (RGP), was officially declared the winner of a 7 November run-off in Guinea's presidential election. He has promised to reform the security sector and review mining contracts if elected. (Dell Inspiron 2000 battery)

On the night of 18 July 2011, President Condé's residence was attacked in an attempted coup. The attack included a fierce firefight and rocket propelled grenades. The president was unharmed.[41] Sixteen people have been charged with the attempted assassination. Most of those indicted are close associates of Konaté. (Dell INSPIRON 2600 battery)

The National Assembly of Guinea, the country's legislative body, has not met since 2008 when it was dissolved after the military coup in December. Elections have been postponed many times since 2007 and, most recently, were scheduled for 8 July 2012. In April 2012, President Condé postponed the elections indefinitely, citing the need to ensure that they were "transparent and democratic"(Dell INSPIRON 3800 battery).

Regions and prefectures

Main articles: Regions of Guinea, Prefectures of Guinea, and Sub-prefectures of Guinea

Satellite image of Guinea

The Republic of Guinea covers 245,857 square kilometres (94,926 sq mi) of West Africa about 10 degrees north of the equator. Guinea is divided into four natural regions with distinct human, geographic, and climatic characteristics:

Maritime Guinea (La Guinée Maritime) covers 18% of the country

Mid-Guinea (La Moyenne-Guinée) covers 20% of the country

Upper-Guinea (La Haute-Guinée) covers 38% of the country(Dell INSPIRON 4000 battery)

Forested Guinea (Guinée forestière) covers 23% of the country, and is both forested and mountainous

Guinea is divided into seven administrative regions and subdivided into thirty-three prefectures.

Geography

Main article: Geography of Guinea

At 245,857 km2 (94,926 sq mi), Guinea is roughly the size of the United Kingdom and slightly smaller than the US state of Oregon. There are 320 km (200 mi) of coastline and a total land border of 3,400 km (2,100 mi). Its neighbours are Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) (Dell Inspiron 5000 battery), Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Senegal and Sierra Leone. It lies mostly between latitudes 7° and 13°N, and longitudes 7° and 15°W (a small area is west of 15°).

The country is divided into four main regions: the Basse-Coté lowlands, populated mainly by the Susu ethnic group; the cooler, mountainous Fouta Djallon that run roughly north-south through the middle of the country, populated by Fulas, the Sahelian Haute-Guinea to the northeast, populated by Malinké(Dell INSPIRON 500M battery), and the forested jungle regions in the southeast, with several ethnic groups. Guinea's mountains are the source for the Niger, the Gambia, and Senegal Rivers, as well as the numerous rivers flowing to the sea on the west side of the range in Sierra Leone and Côte d'Ivoire.

The highest point in Guinea is Mount Nimba at 1,752 m (5,748 ft). Although the Guinean and Ivorian sides of the Nimba Massif are a UNESCO Strict Nature Reserve, the portion of the so-called Guinean Backbone continues into Liberia, where it has been mined for decades(Dell INSPIRON 5100 battery); the damage is quite evident in the Nzérékoré Region at 7°32′17″N 8°29′50″W.

Malinke fisher women on the Niger River, Niandankoro, Kankan Region, in eastern Guinea.

Guinea has abundant natural resources including 25 percent or more of the world's known bauxite reserves. Guinea also has diamonds, gold, and other metals. The country has great potential for hydroelectric power. Bauxite and alumina are currently the only major exports. Other industries include processing plants for beer(Dell INSPIRON 510M battery), juices, soft drinks and tobacco. Agriculture employs 80 percent of the nation's labor force. Under French rule, and at the beginning of independence, Guinea was a major exporter of bananas, pineapples, coffee, peanuts, and palm oil.

Guinea possesses over 25 billion tonnes (metric tons) of bauxite – and perhaps up to one-half of the world's reserves. In addition(Dell INSPIRON 6000 battery), Guinea's mineral wealth includes more than 4-billion tonnes of high-grade iron ore, significant diamond and gold deposits, and undetermined quantities of uranium. Guinea has considerable potential for growth in agricultural and fishing sectors. Soil, water, and climatic conditions provide opportunities for large-scale irrigated farming and agro industry. Possibilities for investment and commercial activities exist in all these areas(Dell INSPIRON 600M battery), but Guinea's poorly developed infrastructure and rampant corruption continue to present obstacles to large-scale investment projects.

Joint venture bauxite mining and alumina operations in northwest Guinea historically provide about 80% of Guinea's foreign exchange. Bauxite is refined into alumina, which is later smelted into aluminium. The Compagnie des Bauxites de Guinea (CBG), which exports about 14 million tonnes of high-grade bauxite annually(Dell Inspiron 6400 battery), is the main player in the bauxite industry. CBG is a joint venture, 49% owned by the Guinean Government and 51% by an international consortium known as Halco Mining Inc., a joint venture of Dadco Mining and Rio Tinto Alcan.[44] The Compagnie des Bauxites de Kindia (CBK), a joint venture between the Government of Guinea and Russki Alumina, produces some 2.5 million tonnes annually(Dell INSPIRON 7000 battery), nearly all of which is exported to Russia and Eastern Europe. Dian Dian, a Guinean/Ukrainian joint bauxite venture, has a projected production rate of 1,000,000 t (1,102,311 short tons; 984,207 long tons) per year, but is not expected to begin operations for several years. The Alumina Compagnie de Guinée (ACG), which took over the former Friguia Consortium, produced about 2.4 million tonnes in 2004 as raw material for its alumina refinery(Dell INSPIRON 700M battery). The refinery exports about 750,000 tonnes of alumina. Both Global Alumina and Alcoa-Alcan have signed conventions with the Government of Guinea to build large alumina refineries with a combined capacity of about 4 million tonnes per year.

Graphical depiction of Guinea's product exports in 28 color coded categories.

Diamonds and gold also are mined and exported on a large scale. AREDOR, a joint diamond-mining venture between the Guinean Government (50%) and an Australian(Dell Inspiron 710m battery), British, and Swiss consortium, began production in 1984 and mined diamonds that are 90% gem quality. Production stopped from 1993 until 1996, when First City Mining, of Canada, purchased the international portion of the consortium. The bulk of diamonds are mined artisanally. The largest gold mining operation in Guinea is a joint venture between the government and Ashanti Goldfields of Ghana. Société Minière de Dinguiraye (SMD) also has a large gold mining facility in Lero(Dell INSPIRON 8200 battery), near the Malian border.

Guinea has large reserves of the steel-making raw material, iron ore. Rio Tinto is the majority owner of the $6 billion Simandou iron ore project, which the firm says is the world's best unexploited resource.[45] Rio Tinto has signed a binding agreement with Aluminum Corp. of China Ltd. to establish the joint venture for the Simandou iron ore project. This project is said to be of the same magnitude as the Pilbara in Western Australia(Dell INSPIRON 8600 battery)]. In the 1960s, Thomas Price, then vice president of US-based steel company Kaiser Steel, said, "I think this [the Pilbara] is one of the most massive ore bodies in the world."[46]

In September 2011, Guinea adopted a new mining code. The law set up a commission to review deals struck during the chaotic days between the end of dictatorship in 2008 and Condé coming to power(Dell INSPIRON 9100 battery).

In June 2012 The Sunday Times revealed that in April 2011, five months before the Mining Code became law, Mohamed Lamine Fofana, the mining minister, agreed a USD25 million loan with Palladino Capital, an investment vehicle registered in the British Virgin Islands by South African business man Walter Hennig. The deal was also signed by the finance minister, Kerfalla Yansane and Samuel Mebiane, who was listed as a “proxy holder” for Palladino. (Dell INSPIRON 9200 battery) This loan of USD25 million has never been publicly revealed to Guineans, or ticked off in the national budget, although President Alpha Conde has said that "contracts that commit Guinea will be published on the Internet."[49] The terms of the loan include a provision that if the Guinean government defaults, Palladino can convert the debt into an equivalent value in shares in the operations of one of the subsidiaries of the national mining company to a maximum of 30% stake. (Dell INSPIRON 9300 battery)

According to independently confirmed sources and an investigation conducted by Business Day of Johannesberg, Tokyo Sexwale, Mark Willcox (CEO of Sexwale’s Mvelaphanda Holdings) and several other businessmen of "South African, Polish, and British extraction" are behind Hennig and the $25 million loan.[51] This type of agreement is in violation with the Mining Code(Dell Inspiron 9400 battery), which stipulates in Article 150 that "The State reserves the right to sell all or part of its participation in cash, without pre-emption rights of other shareholders of the holder of the mining company, through a bidding process that is open and transparent."[49]

Labour MP Eric Joyce is one of many who believe the loan could allow Palladino Capital, and by extension Walter Hennig, to gain a large stake in Guinea’s mining industry at a bargain price. George Soros has called on the Guinean government to fully investigate the loan. (Dell Inspiron E1505 battery)

The loan was allegedly intended as a start-up for a state mining company though any potential investigation into the matter now will have to determine whether this was the genuine motive or whether the loan was intended to benefit political or individual interests in return for mining concessions. (Dell Inspiron E1705 battery)

As a result of the loan to Guinea, the firm was to be granted as much as 49% of the equity stake and voting rights in the state mining company, as well as the option to choose to negotiate minority or majority stakes in any state-linked mining asset without reference to an open-bid licence process(Dell Inspiron Mini 9 battery). Additionally, Guinea would not be permitted to sell any state interest in a mining asset without first offering the option to Palladino and should the firm wish to acquire a stake in a mining asset, it would be granted the privilege of a six-month negotiating period. If a deal could not then be struck, Guinea would only be allowed to negotiate with a third party without first right of refusal from Palladino. (Dell Latitude D400 battery)

Problems and reforms

The Guinean Government adopted policies in the 1990s to return commercial activity to the private sector, promote investment, reduce the role of the state in the economy, and improve the administrative and judicial framework. Guinea has the potential to develop, if the government carries out its announced policy reforms, and if the private sector responds appropriately(Dell STUDIO 1450 battery). So far, corruption and favouritism, lack of long-term political stability, and the lack of a transparent budgeting process continue to dampen foreign investor interest in major projects in Guinea.

Reforms since 1985 include eliminating restrictions on agriculture and foreign trade, liquidation of some government-owned corporations, the creation of a realistic exchange rate, increased spending on education, and cutting the government bureaucracy(Dell Vostro 1400 battery). In July 1996, President Lansana Conté appointed a new government, which promised major economic reforms, including financial and judicial reform, rationalization of public expenditures, and improved government revenue collection. Under 1996 and 1998 International Monetary Fund (IMF)/World Bank agreements, Guinea continued fiscal reforms and privatization(Dell Vostro 1500 battery), and shifted governmental expenditures and internal reforms to the education, health, infrastructure, banking, and justice sectors.

Traditional farming in Guinea

The government revised the private investment code in 1998 to stimulate economic activity in the spirit of free enterprise. The code does not discriminate between foreigners and nationals and allows for repatriation of profits(Dell XPS GEN 2 battery). While the code restricts development of Guinea's hydraulic resources to projects in which Guineans have majority shareholdings and management control, it does contain a clause permitting negotiations of more favourable conditions for investors in specific agreements. Foreign investments outside Conakry are entitled to more favourable terms(Dell XPS M1210 battery). A national investment commission has been formed to review all investment proposals. Guinea and the United States have an investment guarantee agreement that offers political risk insurance to American investors through the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC). In addition, Guinea has inaugurated an arbitration court system, which allows for the quick resolution of commercial disputes(Dell XPS M1330 battery).

Cabinet changes in 1999, which increased corruption, economic mismanagement, and excessive government spending, combined to slow the momentum for economic reform. The informal sector continues to be a major contributor to the economy.

Until June 2001, private operators managed the production, distribution, and fee-collection operations of water and electricity under performance-based contracts with the Government of Guinea. However, the two utilities are plagued by inefficiency and corruption. (Dell XPS 1340 battery) Foreign private investors in these operations departed the country in frustration.

In 2002, the IMF suspended Guinea's Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) because the government failed to meet key performance criteria. In reviews of the PRGF, the World Bank noted that Guinea had met its spending goals in targeted social priority sectors. However, spending in other areas(Dell XPS M1530 battery), primarily defense, contributed to a significant fiscal deficit.[citation needed] The loss of IMF funds forced the government to finance its debts through Central Bank advances. The pursuit of unsound economic policies has resulted in imbalances that are proving hard to correct.

Under then-Prime Minister Diallo, the government began a rigorous reform agenda in December 2004 designed to return Guinea to a PRGF with the IMF. (Dell XPS M170 battery) Exchange rates have been allowed to float, price controls on gasoline have been loosened, and government spending has been reduced while tax collection has been improved. These reforms have not reduced inflation, which hit 27% in 2004 and 30% in 2005. Currency depreciation is also a concern. The Guinea franc was trading at 2550 to the dollar in January 2005(Dell XPS M1710 battery). It hit 5554 to the dollar by October 2006.

Despite the opening in 2005 of a new road connecting Guinea and Mali, most major roadways remain in poor repair, slowing the delivery of goods to local markets. Electricity and water shortages are frequent and sustained, and many businesses are forced to use expensive power generators and fuel to stay open(Dell XPS M1730 battery).

Even though there are many problems plaguing Guinea's economy, not all foreign investors are reluctant to come to Guinea. Global Alumina's proposed alumina refinery has a price tag above $2 billion. Alcoa and Alcan are proposing a slightly smaller refinery worth about $1.5 billion. Taken together, they represent the largest private investment in sub-Saharan Africa since(Dell XPS M2010 battery) the Chad-Cameroon oil pipeline. Also, Hyperdynamics Corporation, an American oil company, signed an agreement in 2006 to develop Guinea's offshore Senegal Basin oil deposits in a concession of 31,000 square miles (80,000 km2); it is pursuing seismic exploration.[54]

On 13 October 2009, Guinean Mines Minister Mahmoud Thiam announced that the China International Fund would invest more than $7bn (£4.5bn) in infrastructure(Dell Latitude E5400 battery). In return, he said the firm would be a "strategic partner" in all mining projects in the mineral-rich nation. He said the firm would help build ports, railway lines, power plants, low-cost housing and even a new administrative centre in the capital, Conakry.[55] In September 2011, Mohamed Lamine Fofana, the Mines Minister following the 2010 election, said that the government had overturned the agreement by the ex-military junta. (Dell Latitude E5500 battery)

Youth unemployment, however, remains a large problem. Guinea needs an adequate policy to address the concerns of the urban youth. The problem is the disparity between their life and what they see on television. As the youth cannot find jobs, seeing the economic power and consumerism of richer countries only serves to frustrate them further. (Dell Latitude E6400 battery)

Guinea signed a Production sharing agreement with Hyperdynamics Corporation of Houston in 2006 to explore a large offshore tract, recently in partnership with Dana Petroleum PLC (Aberdeen, United Kingdom). The initial well, the Sabu-1, is scheduled to begin drilling in October 2011 at a site in approximately 700 meters of water(Dell Latitude E6500 battery). The Sabu-1 will target a four-way anticline prospect with upper Cretaceous sands and is anticipated to be drilled to a total depth of 3,600 meters.[58]

Main article: Transport in Guinea

Further information: Rail transport in Guinea

The railway from Conakry to Kankan ceased operating in the mid-1980s[citation needed]. Domestic air services are intermittent. Most vehicles in Guinea are 20+ years old, and cabs are any four-door vehicle which the owner has designated as being for hire(Dell Inspiron Mini 12 battery). Locals, nearly entirely without vehicles of their own, rely upon these taxis (which charge per seat) and small buses to take them around town and across the country. There is some river traffic on the Niger and Milo rivers. Horses and donkeys pull carts, primarily to transport construction materials(Dell XPS M140 battery).

Iron mining at Simandou (South) in the southeast beginning in 2007 and at Kalia in the east is likely to result in the construction of a new heavy-duty standard gauge railway and deepwater port. Iron mining at Simandou (North) will load to a new port near Buchanan, Liberia, in exchange for which rehabilitation of the Conakry to Kankan line will occur. (Dell XPS 13 battery)

Conakry International Airport is the largest airport in the country, with flights to other cities in Africa as well as to Europe.

Demography

Main article: Demography of Guinea

Guinean children

The population of Guinea is estimated at 10.2 million. Conakry, the capital and largest city, is the hub of Guinea's economy, commerce, education, and culture.

Main article: Languages of Guinea

The official language of Guinea is French. Other significant languages spoken are Pular (Fulfulde or Fulani) Maninka (Malinke), Susu, Kissi, Kpelle, and Loma(Dell XPS 16 battery).

The population of Guinea comprises about 24 ethnic groups. The Fulas or Fulani (French: Peuls; Fula: Fulɓe), comprise 35% of the population and are mostly found in the Futa Djallon region. The Mandinka, also known as Mandingo or Malinké, comprise 25% of the population and are mostly found in eastern Guinea concentrated around the Kankan and Kissidougou prefectures(Dell XPS 1640 battery). The Soussou, comprising 15%, are predominantly in western areas around the capital Conakry, Forécariah, and Kindia. Smaller ethnic groups make up the remaining 15% of the population, including Kpelle, Kissi, Zialo, Toma and others.[citation needed] Approximately 10,000 non-Africans live in Guinea, predominantly Lebanese, French, and other Europeans.[59]

Further information: Islam in Guinea(Dell XPS 1645 battery)

The Conakry Grand Mosque in Guinea, one of the largest mosques in West Africa

Islam is the majority religion. Approximately 85% of the population is Muslim, while 8% is Christian, and 7% holds traditional animist beliefs. Guinean Muslims are generally Sunni and Sufi;[60] there are relatively few Shi'a in Guinea. Christian groups include Roman Catholics, Anglicans, Baptists, Seventh-day Adventists, and other Evangelical groups(Dell XPS 1647 battery). Jehovah's Witnesses are active in the country and recognized by the Government. There is a small Baha'i community. There are small numbers of Hindus, Buddhists, and traditional Chinese religious groups among the expatriate community.[61]

Main article: Military of Guinea

Guinea's armed forces are divided into five branches – army, navy, air force, the paramilitary National Gendarmerie and the Republican Guard(Dell Latitude 131L battery) – whose chiefs report to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, who is subordinate to the Minister of Defense. In addition, regime security forces include the National Police Force (Sûreté National). The Gendarmerie, responsible for internal security, has a strength of several thousand.

The army, with about 15,000 personnel, is by far the largest branch of the armed forces(Dell Latitude C400 battery). It is mainly responsible for protecting the state borders, the security of administered territories, and defending Guinea's national interests. Air force personnel total about 700. The force's equipment includes several Russian-supplied fighter planes and transports. The navy has about 900 personnel and operates several small patrol craft and barges(Dell Latitude C500 battery).

 

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