Graphics (from Greek γραφικός graphikos) are visual presentations on some surface, such as a wall, canvas, screen, paper, or stone to brand, inform, illustrate, or entertain. Graphics word is derived from the word graph. A graph has x and y axis. Same way something which is created in digital word is seen on a digital screen, this screen also has x and y axisSony PCG-71313M battery. So the output on any digital device is termed as graphics. In other words an image that is generated by a computer called graphics. The pictorial representation and manipulation of data, as used in computer-aided design and manufacture, in typesetting and the graphic arts, and in educational and recreational programsSony PCG-71212M battery.
Examples are photographs, drawings, Line Art, graphs, diagrams, typography, numbers, symbols, geometric designs, maps, engineering drawings, or other images. Graphics often combine text, illustration, and color. Graphic design may consist of the deliberate selection, creation, or arrangement of typography alone, as in a brochure, flier, poster, web siteSony PCG-71311M battery, or book without any other element. Clarity or effective communication may be the objective, association with other cultural elements may be sought, or merely, the creation of a distinctive style.
Graphics can be functional or artistic. The latter can be a recorded version, such as a photograph, or an interpretation by a scientist to highlight essential features, or an artist, in which case the distinction with imaginary graphics may become blurredSony PCG-71213M battery.
Main article: History of graphic design
The earliest graphics known to anthropologists studying prehistoric periods are cave paintings and markings on boulders, bone, ivory, and antlers, which were created during the Upper Palaeolithic period from 40,000–10,000 B.C. or earlier. Many of these were found to record astronomical, seasonal, and chronological detailsSony PCG-61211M battery. Some of the earliest graphics and drawings known to the modern world, from almost 6,000 years ago, are that of engraved stone tablets and ceramic cylinder seals, marking the beginning of the historic periods and the keeping of records for accounting and inventory purposes. Records from Egypt predate these and papyrus was used by the Egyptians as a material on which to plan the building of pyramids; they also used slabs of limestone and woodSony VAIO VPCF24Q1E battery. From 600–250 BC, the Greeks played a major role in geometry. They used graphics to represent their mathematical theories such as the Circle Theorem and the Pythagorean theorem.
In art, "graphics" is often used to distinguish work in a monotone and made up of lines, as opposed to paintingSony VAIO VPCF13M1E/H battery.
Main articles: Drawing and Technical drawing
Drawing generally involves making marks on a surface by applying pressure from a tool, or moving a tool across a surface. Common tools are graphite pencils, pen and ink, inked brushes, wax color pencils, crayons, charcoals, pastels, and markers. Digital tools which simulate the effects of these are also used. The main techniques used in drawing are line drawing, hatching, crosshatching, random hatching, scribbling, stippling, blending, and shadingSony VAIO VPCF12Z1E/BI battery.
Drawing is generally considered distinct from painting, in which colored pigments are suspended in a liquid medium and are usually applied with a brush. Notable great drawers include Michelangelo, Rembrandt, Raphael and Leonardo da Vinci.
Many people choose drawing as a main art style, or they may use it to make sketches for paintings, sculptures and other types of artSony VAIO VPCF12S1E/B battery. The other term is Engineering Graphics, preferably the language of engineers that simulates Three Dimensional capability of engineer to plan and Implement his ideas. It comprises Projection, Development, Perspective, Section, Intersection, and Isometric ideations.
Main article: Printmaking
Woodblock printing, including images is first seen in China after paper was invented (about A.D. 105). In the West the main techniques have been woodcut, engraving and etching, but there are many othersSony VAIO VPCF13Z8E/BI battery.
Main article: Etching
Etching is an intaglio method of printmaking in which the image is incised into the surface of a metal plate using an acid. The acid eats the metal, leaving behind roughened areas, or, if the surface exposed to the acid is very thin, burning a line into the plate. The use of the process in printmaking is believed to have been invented by Daniel Hopfer (c. 1470–1536) of Augsburg, Germany, who decorated armour in this waySony VAIO VPCF13Z8E battery.
Etching is also used in the manufacturing of printed circuit boards and semiconductor devices.
Main article: Line art
Line art is a rather non-specific term sometimes used for any image that consists of distinct straight and curved lines placed against a (usually plain) background, without gradations in shade (darkness) or hue (color) to represent two-dimensional or three-dimensional objects. Line art is usually monochromatic, although lines may be of different colorsSony VAIO VPCF13M1E/B battery.
Main article: Illustration
An illustration of a character from a story; also, an illustration of illustrations
An illustration is a visual representation such as a drawing, painting, photograph or other work of art that stresses subject more than form. The aim of an illustration is to elucidate or decorate a story, poem or piece of textual information (such as a newspaper article), traditionally by providing a visual representation of something described in the textSony VAIO VPCF1318E/H battery. The editorial cartoon, also known as a political cartoon, is an illustration containing a political or social message.
Illustrations can be used to display a wide range of subject matter and serve a variety of functions, such as:
giving faces to characters in a story
displaying a number of examples of an item described in an academic textbook (e.g. A Typology)
visualising step-wise sets of instructions in a technical manualSony VAIO VPCF13J0E/H battery
communicating subtle thematic tone in a narrative
linking brands to the ideas of human expression, individuality and creativity
making a reader laugh or smile
for fun (to make laugh) funny
A graph or chart is a type of information graphic that represents tabular, numeric data. Charts are often used to make it easier to understand large quantities of data and the relationships between different parts of the dataSony VAIO VPCF13E8E battery.
Main article: Diagrams
A diagram is a simplified and structured visual representation of concepts, ideas, constructions, relations, statistical data, etc., used to visualize and clarify the topic.
Main article: Symbols
A symbol, in its basic sense, is a representation of a concept or quantity; i.e., an idea, object, concept, quality, etc. In more psychological and philosophical terms, all concepts are symbolic in natureSony VAIO VPCF13E4E battery, and representations for these concepts are simply token artifacts that are allegorical to (but do not directly codify) a symbolic meaning, or symbolism.
Such things as working with Photoshop or some other computer based program to produce designs such as Album Cover, Web Page layouts, or just wallpaper you want to use for your computer. This area of Computer making Graphic Designing is becoming really popular and jobs are looking for people that are good in this areaSony VAIO VPCF12M1E/H battery.
Main article: Maps
A map is a simplified depiction of a space, a navigational aid which highlights relations between objects within that space. Usually, a map is a two-dimensional, geometrically accurate representation of a three-dimensional space.
One of the first 'modern' maps was made by Waldseemüller.
Main article: Photography
One difference between photography and other forms of graphics is that a photographer, in principle, just records a single moment in realitySony VAIO VPCF12F4E/H battery, with seemingly no interpretation. However, a photographer can choose the field of view and angle, and may also use other techniques, such as various lenses to distort the view or filters to change the colors. In recent times, digital photography has opened the way to an infinite number of fast, but strong, manipulations. Even in the early days of photographySony VAIO VPCF12E1E/H battery, there was controversy over photographs of enacted scenes that were presented as 'real life' (especially in war photography, where it can be very difficult to record the original events). Shifting the viewer's eyes ever so slightly with simple pinpricks in the negative could have a dramatic effect.
The choice of the field of view can have a strong effect, effectively 'censoring out' other parts of the sceneSony VAIO VPCF11Z1E/BI battery, accomplished by cropping them out or simply not including them in the photograph. This even touches on the philosophical question of what reality is. The human brain processes information based on previous experience, making us see what we want to see or what we were taught to see. Photography does the same, although the photographer interprets the scene for their viewerSony VAIO VPCF24M1E battery.
Image of a part represented in First Angle Projection
Main article: Engineering drawings
An engineering drawing is a type of drawing and is technical in nature, used to fully and clearly define requirements for engineered items. It is usually created in accordance with standardized conventions for layout, nomenclature, interpretation, appearance (such as typefaces and line styles), size, etcSony VAIO VPCF23S1E battery.
Main article: Computer graphics
There are two types of computer graphics: raster graphics, where each pixel is separately defined (as in a digital photograph), and vector graphics, where mathematical formulas are used to draw lines and shapes, which are then interpreted at the viewer's end to produce the graphic. Using vectors results in infinitely sharp graphics and often smaller filesSony VAIO VPCF231S1E battery, but, when complex,like vectors take time to render and may have larger file sizes than a raster equivalent.
In 1950, the first computer-driven display was attached to MIT's Whirlwind I computer to generate simple pictures. This was followed by MIT's TX-0 and TX-2, interactive computing which increased interest in computer graphics during the late 1950sSony VAIO VPCF23Q1E battery. In 1962, Ivan Sutherland invented Sketchpad, an innovative program that influenced alternative forms of interaction with computers.
In the mid-1960s, large computer graphics research projects were begun at MIT, General Motors, Bell Labs, and Lockheed Corporation. Douglas T. Ross of MIT developed an advanced compiler language for graphics programming. S.A.Coons, also at MIT, and J. C. Ferguson at BoeingSony VAIO VPCF23M1E battery, began work in sculptured surfaces. GM developed their DAC-1 system, and other companies, such as Douglas, Lockheed, and McDonnell, also made significant developments. In 1968, ray tracing was first described by Arthur Appel of the IBM Research Center, Yorktown Heights, N.Y.
During the late 1970s, personal computers became more powerful, capable of drawing both basic and complex shapes and designsSony VAIO VPCF22S8E battery. In the 1980s, artists and graphic designers began to see the personal computer, particularly the Commodore Amiga and Macintosh, as a serious design tool, one that could save time and draw more accurately than other methods. 3D computer graphics became possible in the late 1980s with the powerful SGI computers, which were later used to create some of the first fully computer-generated short films at PixarSony VAIO VPCF22S1E battery. The Macintosh remains one of the most popular tools for computer graphics in graphic design studios and businesses.
Modern computer systems, dating from the 1980s and onwards, often use a graphical user interface (GUI) to present data and information with symbols, icons and pictures, rather than text. Graphics are one of the five key elements of multimedia technologySony VAIO VPCF22M1E battery.
3D graphics became more popular in the 1990s in gaming, multimedia and animation. In 1996, Quake, one of the first fully 3D games, was released. In 1995, Toy Story, the first full-length computer-generated animation film, was released in cinemas. Since then, computer graphics have become more accurate and detailedSony VAIO VPCF22L1E battery, due to more advanced computers and better 3D modeling software applications, such as Maya, 3D Studio Max, and Cinema 4D.
Another use of computer graphics is screensavers, originally intended to preventing the layout of much-used GUIs from 'burning into' the computer screen. They have since evolved into true pieces of art, their practical purpose obsolete; modern screens are not susceptible to such burn in artifactsSony VAIO VPCF22J1E battery.
Signature art used on web forums
In the 1990s, Internet speeds increased, and Internet browsers capable of viewing images were released, the first being Mosaic. Websites began to use the GIF format to display small graphics, such as banners, advertisements and navigation buttons, on web pages. Modern web browsers can now display JPEG, PNG and increasingly, SVG images in addition to GIFs on web pagesSony VAIO VPCF11S1E/B battery. SVG, and to some extent VML, support in some modern web browsers have made it possible to display vector graphics that are clear at any size. Plugins expand the web browser functions to display animated, interactive and 3-D graphics contained within file formats such as SWF and X3DSony VAIO VPCF11M1E/H battery.
Modern web graphics can be made with software such as Adobe Photoshop, the GIMP, or Corel Paint Shop Pro. Users of Microsoft Windows have MS Paint, which many find to be lacking in features. This is because MS Paint is a drawing package and not a graphics package.
Numerous platforms and websites have been created to cater to web graphics artists and to host their communitiesSony VAIO VPCF11D4E battery. A growing number of people use create internet forum signatures—generally appearing after a user's post—and other digital artwork, such as photo manipulations and large graphics. With computer games' developers creating their own communities around their products, many more websites are being developed to offer graphics for the fans and to enable them to show their appreciation of such games in their own gaming profilesSony VAIO VPCF11C5E battery.
Graphics are visual elements often used to point readers and viewers to particular information. They are also used to supplement text in an effort to aid readers in their understanding of a particular concept or make the concept more clear or interesting. Popular magazines, such as TIME, Wired and Newsweek, usually contain graphic material in abundance to attract readersSony VAIO VPCF11C4E/B battery, unlike the majority of scholarly journals. In computing, they are used to create a graphical interface for the user; and graphics are one of the five key elements of multimedia technology. Graphics are among the primary ways of advertising the sale of goods or services.
Graphics are commonly used in business and economics to create financial charts and tables. The term Business Graphics came into use in the late 1970s, when personal computers became capable of drawing graphs and charts instead of using a tabular formatSony VAIO PCG-31114M battery. Business Graphics can be used to highlight changes over a period of time.
Advertising is one of the most profitable uses of graphics; artists often do advertising work or take advertising potential into account when creating art, to increase the chances of selling the artwork.
The use of graphics for overtly political purposes—cartoons, graffiti, poster art, flag design, etc.—is a centuries old practice which thrives today in every part of the world. The Northern Irish murals are one such exampleSony VAIO PCG-31113M battery.
Graphics are heavily used in textbooks, especially those concerning subjects such as geography, science, and mathematics, in order to illustrate theories and concepts, such as the human anatomy. Diagrams are also used to label photographs and pictures.
Educational animation is an important emerging field of graphics. Animated graphics have obvious advantages over static graphics when explaining subject matter that changes over timeSony VAIO PCG-31112M battery.
The Oxford Illustrated Dictionary uses graphics and technical illustrations to make reading material more interesting and easier to understand. In an encyclopedia, graphics are used to illustrate concepts and show examples of the particular topic being discussed.
In order for a graphic to function effectively as an educational aid, the learner must be able to interpret it successfully. This interpretative capacity is one aspect of graphicacySony VAIO PCG-31111M battery.
Film and animation
Computer graphics are often used in the majority of new feature films, especially those with a large budget. Films that heavily use computer graphics include The Lord of the Rings film trilogy, the Harry Potter films, Spider-Man and War of the Worlds.
The majority of schools, colleges and universities around the world educate students on the subject of graphics and artSony VAIO PCG-41112M battery.
The subject is taught in a broad variety of ways, each course teaching its own distinctive balance of craft skills and intellectual response to the client's needs.
Some graphics courses prioritize traditional craft skills—drawing, printmaking and typography—over modern craft skills. Other courses may place an emphasis on teaching digital craft skills. Still other courses may downplay the crafts entirelySony VAIO PCG-41111M battery, concentrating on training students to generate novel intellectual responses that engage with the brief. Despite these apparent differences in training and curriculum, the staff and students on any of these courses will generally consider themselves to be graphic designers.
The typical pedagogy of a graphic design (or graphic communication, visual communication, graphic arts or any number of synonymous course titles) SONY VAIO PCG-21212M battery will be broadly based on the teaching models developed in the Bauhaus school in Germany or Vkhutemas in Russia. The teaching model will tend to expose students to a variety of craft skills (currently everything from drawing to motion capture), combined with an effort to engage the student with the world of visual cultureSONY VAIO PCG-21211M battery.
Famous graphic designers
Aldus Manutius designed the first Italic type style which is often used in desktop publishing and graphic design. April Greiman is known for her influential poster design. Paul Rand is well known as a design pioneer for designing many popular corporate logos, including the logo for IBM, NeXT and UPS. William Caslon, during the mid-18th centurySONY VAIO PCG-51212M battery, designed many typefaces, including ITC Founder's Caslon, ITC Founder's Caslon Ornaments, Caslon Graphique, ITC Caslon No. 224, Caslon Old Face and Big Caslon. J.P.Singh from Government college of Arts Chandigarh experimented with glass etching Graphic prints,successfully printed from the glass etched surface, created his own etching cream to take special effects from the glass surfaceSONY VAIO PCG-51211M battery.He has demonstrated his graphic skill at London Art Center.He had ingeniously created a non dripping cream for glass etching.
In psychology, memory is the processes by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved. Encoding allows information that is from the outside world to reach our senses in the forms of chemical and physical stimuliSONY VAIO PCG-51112M battery. In this first stage we must change the information so that we may put the memory into the encoding process. Storage is the second memory stage or process. This entails that we maintain information over periods of time. Finally the third process is retrieval. This is the retrieval of information that we have stored. We must locate it and return it to our consciousness. Some retrieval attempts may be effortless due to the type of informationSONY VAIO PCG-51111M battery.
From an information processing perspective there are three main stages in the formation and retrieval of memory:
Encoding or registration (receiving, processing and combining of received information)
Storage (creation of a permanent record of the encoded information)
Retrieval, recall or recollection (calling back the stored information in response to some cue for use in a process or activity) SONY VAIO PCG-81212M battery
Main article: Sensory memory
Sensory memory corresponds approximately to the initial 200–500 milliseconds after an item is perceived. The ability to look at an item, and remember what it looked like with just a second of observation, or memorisation, is an example of sensory memory. With very short presentations, participants often report that they seem to "see" more than they can actually reportSony VAIO PCG-81112M battery. The first experiments exploring this form of sensory memory were conducted by George Sperling (1963) using the "partial report paradigm". Subjects were presented with a grid of 12 letters, arranged into three rows of four. After a brief presentation, subjects were then played either a high, medium or low tone, cuing them which of the rows to report. Based on these partial report experimentsSONY VAIO PCG-71111M battery, Sperling was able to show that the capacity of sensory memory was approximately 12 items, but that it degraded very quickly (within a few hundred milliseconds). Because this form of memory degrades so quickly, participants would see the display, but be unable to report all of the items (12 in the "whole report" procedure) before they decayedSONY VAIO PCG-7196M battery. This type of memory cannot be prolonged via rehearsal.
There are many types of sensory memories. Iconic memory is a type of sensory memory that briefly stores an image which has been perceived for a small duration. Echoic memory is another type of sensory memory that briefly stores sounds which has been perceived for a small duration.
Short-term memorySONY VAIO PCG-7195M battery
Main article: Short-term memory
Short-term memory allows recall for a period of several seconds to a minute without rehearsal. Its capacity is also very limited: George A. Miller (1956), when working at Bell Laboratories, conducted experiments showing that the store of short-term memory was 7±2 items (the title of his famous paper, "The magical number 7±2")SONY VAIO PCG-7194M battery. Modern estimates of the capacity of short-term memory are lower, typically of the order of 4–5 items, however, memory capacity can be increased through a process called chunking. For example, in recalling a ten-digit telephone number, a person could chunk the digits into three groups: first, the area code (such as 123), then a three-digit chunk (456) and lastly a four-digit chunk (7890) SONY VAIO PCG-7192M battery. This method of remembering telephone numbers is far more effective than attempting to remember a string of 10 digits; this is because we are able to chunk the information into meaningful groups of numbers. This may be reflected in some countries in the tendency to display telephone numbers as several chunks of three numbers, with the final four-number group generally broken down into two groups of twoSONY PCG-8113M battery.
Short-term memory is believed to rely mostly on an acoustic code for storing information, and to a lesser extent a visual code. Conrad (1964) found that test subjects had more difficulty recalling collections of letters that were acoustically similar (e.g. E, P, D). Confusion with recalling acoustically similar letters rather than visually similar letters implies that the letters were encoded acousticallySONY PCG-8112M battery. Conrad's (1964) study however, deals with the encoding of written text, thus while memory of written language may rely on acoustic components, generalisations to all forms of memory cannot be made.
Olin Levi Warner, Memory (1896). Library of Congress Thomas Jefferson Building, Washington, D.C. SONY PCG-7134M battery
Main article: Long-term memory
The storage in sensory memory and short-term memory generally have a strictly limited capacity and duration, which means that information is not retained indefinitely. By contrast, long-term memory can store much larger quantities of information for potentially unlimited duration (sometimes a whole life span). Its capacity is immeasurably largeSONY PCG-7131M battery. For example, given a random seven-digit number we may remember it for only a few seconds before forgetting, suggesting it was stored in our short-term memory. On the other hand, we can remember telephone numbers for many years through repetition; this information is said to be stored in long-term memorySONY PCG-7122M battery.
While short-term memory encodes information acoustically, long-term memory encodes it semantically: Adderley (1966) discovered that after 20 minutes, test subjects had the most difficulty recalling a collection of words that had similar meanings (e.g. big, large, great, huge) long-term. Another part of long-term memory is episodic memory "which attempts to capture information such as “what”, “when” and “where” SONY PCG-7121M battery . With episodic memory individuals are able to recall specific events such as birthday parties and weddings.
Short-term memory is supported by transient patterns of neuronal communication, dependent on regions of the frontal lobe (especially collateral frontal cortex) and the parietal lobe. Long-term memories, on the other hand, are maintained by more stable and permanent changes in neural connections widely spread throughout the brainSONY PCG-7113M battery. The hippo-campus is essential (for learning new information) to the consolidation of information from short-term to long-term memory, although it does not seem to store information itself. Without the hippo campus, new memories are unable to be stored into long-term memory, as learned from HM after removal of his hippo-campus SONY PCG-7112M battery , and there will be a very short attention span. Furthermore, it may be involved in changing neural connections for a period of three months or more after the initial learning. One of the primary functions of sleep is thought to be improving consolidation of information, as several studies have demonstrated that memory depends on getting sufficient sleep between training and test. SONY PCG-8Z3M battery Additionally, data obtained from neuroimaging studies have shown activation patterns in the sleeping brain which mirror those recorded during the learning of tasks from the previous day, suggesting that new memories may be solidified through such rehearsal.
Research has suggested that long-term memory storage in humans may be maintained by DNA methylation, or prionsSONY PCG-8Z2M battery
Models of memory provide abstract representations of how memory is believed to work. Below are several models proposed over the years by various psychologists. Note that there is some controversy as to whether there are several memory structures, for example, Tarnow (2005) finds that it is likely that there is only one memory structure between 6 and 600 secondsSONY PCG-8Z1M battery.
See also: Memory consolidation
The multi-store model (also known as Atkinson-Shiffrin memory model) was first recognised in 1968 by Atkinson and Shiffrin.
The multi-store model has been criticised for being too simplistic. For instance, long-term memory is believed to be actually made up of multiple subcomponents, such as episodic and procedural memorySONY PCG-8Y3M battery. It also proposes that rehearsal is the only mechanism by which information eventually reaches long-term storage, but evidence shows us capable of remembering things without rehearsal.
The model also shows all the memory stores as being a single unit whereas research into this shows differently. For example, short-term memory can be broken up into different units such as visual information and acoustic information. Patient KF proves thisSONY PCG-8Y2M battery. Patient KF was brain damaged and had problems with his short term memory. He had problems with things such as spoken numbers, letters and words and with significant sounds (such as doorbells and cats meowing). Other parts of short term memory were unaffected, such as visual (pictures) SONY PCG-7Z1M battery.
It also shows the sensory store as a single unit whilst we know that the sensory store is split up into several different parts such as taste, vision, and hearing.
In 1974 Baddeley and Hitch proposed a working memory model which replaced the concept of general short term memory with specific, active components. In this model, working memory consists of three basic stores: the central executiveSONY PCG-6W2M battery, the phonological loop and the visuo-spatial sketchpad. In 2000 this model was expanded with the multimodal episodic buffer.
The central executive essentially acts as attention. It channels information to the three component processes: the phonological loop, the visuo-spatial sketchpad, and the episodic bufferSONY PCG-5J5M battery.
The phonological loop stores auditory information by silently rehearsing sounds or words in a continuous loop: the articulatory process (for example the repetition of a telephone number over and over again). A short list of data is easier to remember.
The visuospatial sketchpad stores visual and spatial information. It is engaged when performing spatial tasks (such as judging distances) or visual ones (such as counting the windows on a house or imagining images) SONY PCG-5K2M battery .
The episodic buffer is dedicated to linking information across domains to form integrated units of visual, spatial, and verbal information and chronological ordering (e.g., the memory of a story or a movie scene). The episodic buffer is also assumed to have links to long-term memory and semantical meaningSONY PCG-5K1M battery.
The working memory model explains many practical observations, such as why it is easier to do two different tasks (one verbal and one visual) than two similar tasks (e.g., two visual), and the aforementioned word-length effect. However, the concept of a central executive as noted here has been criticised as inadequate and vague. SONY PCG-5J4M battery Working memory is also the premise for what allows us to do everyday activities involving thought. It is the section of memory where we carry out thought processes and use them to learn and reason about topics.
Types of memory
Researchers distinguish between recognition and recall memory. Recognition memory tasks require individuals to indicate whether they have encountered a stimulus (such as a picture or a word) beforeSONY PCG-5J1M battery. Recall memory tasks require participants to retrieve previously learned information. For example, individuals might be asked to produce a series of actions they have seen before or to say a list of words they have heard before.
Classification by information type
Topographic memory involves the ability to orient oneself in space, to recognize and follow an itinerary, or to recognize familiar placesSONY PCG-5G2M battery. Getting lost when traveling alone is an example of the failure of topographic memory. This is often reported among elderly patients who are evaluated for dementia. The disorder could be caused by multiple impairments, including difficulties with perception, orientation, and memory.
Flashbulb memories are clear episodic memories of unique and highly emotional events. Remembering where you were or what you were doing when you first heard the news of President Kennedy’s assassination or about 9/11 are examples of flashbulb memoriesSony VAIO PCG-8131M battery.
Anderson (1976) divides long-term memory into declarative (explicit) and procedural (implicit) memories.
Declarative memory requires conscious recall, in that some conscious process must call back the information. It is sometimes called explicit memory, since it consists of information that is explicitly stored and retrievedSony VAIO PCG-8152M battery.
Declarative memory can be further sub-divided into semantic memory, which concerns facts taken independent of context; and episodic memory, which concerns information specific to a particular context, such as a time and place. Semantic memory allows the encoding of abstract knowledge about the worldSony VAIO PCG-31311M battery, such as "Paris is the capital of France". Episodic memory, on the other hand, is used for more personal memories, such as the sensations, emotions, and personal associations of a particular place or time. Autobiographical memory - memory for particular events within one's own life - is generally viewed as either equivalent to, or a subset of, episodic memorySony VAIO PCG-31111M battery. Visual memory is part of memory preserving some characteristics of our senses pertaining to visual experience. One is able to place in memory information that resembles objects, places, animals or people in sort of a mental image. Visual memory can result in priming and it is assumed some kind of perceptual representational system underlies this phenomenonSony VAIO PCG-8112M battery.
In contrast, procedural memory (or implicit memory) is not based on the conscious recall of information, but on implicit learning. Procedural memory is primarily employed in learning motor skills and should be considered a subset of implicit memory. It is revealed when one does better in a given task due only to repetition - no new explicit memories have been formedSony VAIO PCG-7186M battery, but one is unconsciously accessing aspects of those previous experiences. Procedural memory involved in motor learning depends on the cerebellum and basal ganglia.
Classification by temporal direction
A further major way to distinguish different memory functions is whether the content to be remembered is in the past, retrospective memory, or whether the content is to be remembered in the future, prospective memorySony VAIO PCG-7171M battery. Thus, retrospective memory as a category includes semantic, episodic and autobiographical memory. In contrast, prospective memory is memory for future intentions, or remembering to remember (Winograd, 1988). Prospective memory can be further broken down into event- and time-based prospective remembering. Time-based prospective memories are triggered by a time-cueSony VAIO PCG-9Z1M battery, such as going to the doctor (action) at 4pm (cue). Event-based prospective memories are intentions triggered by cues, such as remembering to post a letter (action) after seeing a mailbox (cue). Cues do not need to be related to the action (as the mailbox/letter example), and lists, sticky-notes, knotted handkerchiefs, or string around the finger all exemplify cues that people use as strategies to enhance prospective memorySony VAIO PCG-5S1M battery.
Techniques used to study memory
Techniques used to assess infants’ memory
Infants do not have the language ability to report on their memories, and so, verbal reports cannot be used to assess very young children’s memory. Throughout the years, however, researchers have adapted and developed a number of measures for assessing both infants’ recognition memory and their recall memorySony VAIO PCG-5P1M battery. Habituation and operant conditioning techniques have been used to assess infants’ recognition memory and the deferred and elicited imitation techniques have been used to assess infants’ recall memory.
Techniques used to assess infants’ recognition memory
Visual paired comparison procedure (relies on habituation): infants are first presented with pairs of visual stimuli, such as two black-and-white photos of human faces, for a fixed amount of time; then, after being familiarized with the two photosSony VAIO PCG-5N2M battery, they are presented with the “familiar” photo and a new photo. The time spent looking at each photo is recorded. Looking longer at the new photo indicates that they remember the “familiar” one. Studies using this procedure have found that 5- to 6-month-olds can retain information for as long as fourteen days. Sony VAIO PCG-3C2M battery
Operant conditioning technique: infants are placed in a crib and a ribbon that is connected to a mobile overhead is tied to one of their feet. Infants notice that when they kick their foot the mobile moves – the rate of kicking increases dramatically within minutes. Studies using this technique have revealed that infants’ memory substantially improves over the first 18-monthsSony VAIO PCG-8161M battery. Whereas 2- to 3-month-olds can retain an operant response (such as activating the mobile by kicking their foot) for a week, 6-month-olds can retain it for two weeks, and 18-month-olds can retain a similar operant response for as long as 13 weeks.
Techniques used to assess infants’ recall memory
Deferred imitation technique: an experimenter shows infants a unique sequence of actions (such as using a stick to push a button on a box) and thenSony VAIO PCG-8141M battery, after a delay, asks the infants to imitate the actions. Studies using deferred imitation have shown that 14-month-olds’ memories for the sequence of actions can last for as long as four months.
Elicited imitation technique: is very similar to the deferred imitation technique; the difference is that infants are allowed to imitate the actions before the delaySony VAIO PCG-3J1M battery. Studies using the elicited imitation technique have shown that 20-month-olds can recall the action sequences twelve months later.
Techniques used to assess older children and adults' memory
Researchers use a variety of tasks to assess older children and adults' memory. Some examples are:
Paired associate learning - when one learns to associate one specific word with another. For example when given a word such as "safe" one must learn to say another specific word, such as "green". This is stimulus and responseSony VAIO PCG-3H1M battery.
Free recall - during this task a subject would be asked to study a list of words and then sometime later they will be asked to recall or write down as many words that they can remember. Earlier items are affected by retroactive interference, or RI, which means the longer the list, the greater the interference, and the less likelihood that they are recalled. On the other handSony VAIO PCG-3F1M battery, items that have been presented lastly suffer little RI, but suffers a great deal from proactive interference, or PI, which means the longer the delay in recall, the more likely that the items will be lost.
Recognition - subjects are asked to remember a list of words or pictures, after which point they are asked to identify the previously presented words or pictures from among a list of alternatives that were not presented in the original listSony VAIO PCG-3C1M battery.
Detection Paradigm- Individuals are shown a number of objects and colors samples, during a certain period of time. They are then tested on their visual ability to remember as much as they can by looking at testers and pointing out whether the testers are similar to the sample, or if any change is presentSony VAIO PCG-9Z2L battery.
Brain areas involved in the neuroanatomy of memory such as the hippocampus, the amygdala, the striatum, or the mammillary bodies are thought to be involved in specific types of memory. For example, the hippocampus is believed to be involved in spatial learning and declarative learningSony VAIO PCG-9Z1L battery, while the amygdala is thought to be involved in emotional memory. Damage to certain areas in patients and animal models and subsequent memory deficits is a primary source of information. However, rather than implicating a specific area, it could be that damage to adjacent areas, or to a pathway traveling through the area is actually responsible for the observed deficitSony VAIO PCG-9131L battery. Further, it is not sufficient to describe memory, and its counterpart, learning, as solely dependent on specific brain regions. Learning and memory are attributed to changes in neuronal synapses, thought to be mediated by long-term potentiation and long-term depression.
In general, the more emotionally charged an event or experience is, the better it is remembered; this phenomenon is known as the memory enhancement effectSony VAIO PCG-8161L battery. Patients with amygdala damage, however, do not show a memory enhancement effect.
Hebb distinguished between short-term and long-term memory. He postulated that any memory that stayed in short-term storage for a long enough time would be consolidated into a long-term memory. Later research showed this to be false. Research has shown that direct injections of cortisol or epinephrine help the storage of recent experiencesSony VAIO PCG-8152L battery. This is also true for stimulation of the amygdala. This proves that excitement enhances memory by the stimulation of hormones that affect the amygdala. Excessive or prolonged stress (with prolonged cortisol) may hurt memory storage. Patients with amygdalar damage are no more likely to remember emotionally charged words than nonemotionally charged onesSony VAIO PCG-8141L battery. The hippocampus is important for explicit memory. The hippocampus is also important for memory consolidation. The hippocampus receives input from different parts of the cortex and sends its output out to different parts of the brain also. The input comes from secondary and tertiary sensory areas that have processed the information a lot already. Hippocampal damage may also cause memory loss and problems with memory storageSony VAIO PCG-8131L battery.
Cognitive neuroscience of memory
Cognitive neuroscientists consider memory as the retention, reactivation, and reconstruction of the experience-independent internal representation. The term of internal representation implies that such definition of memory contains two components: the expression of memory at the behavioral or conscious level, and the underpinning physical neural changes (Dudai 2007) Sony VAIO PCG-81312L battery. The latter component is also called engram or memory traces (Semon 1904). Some neuroscientists and psychologists mistakenly equate the concept of engram and memory, broadly conceiving all persisting after-effects of experiences as memory; others argue against this notion that memory does not exist until it is revealed in behavior or thought (Moscovitch 2007) Sony VAIO PCG-81214L battery.
One question that is crucial in cognitive neuroscience is how information and mental experiences are coded and represented in the brain. Scientists have gained much knowledge about the neuronal codes from the studies of plasticity, but most of such research has been focused on simple learning in simple neuronal circuitsSony VAIO PCG-81115L battery; it is considerably less clear about the neuronal changes involved in more complex examples of memory, particularly declarative memory that requires the storage of facts and events (Byrne 2007).
Encoding. Encoding of working memory involves the spiking of individual neurons induced by sensory input, which persists even after the sensory input disappears (Jensen and Lisman 2005; Fransen et al. 2002) Sony VAIO PCG-81114L battery. Encoding of episodic memory involves persistent changes in molecular structures that alter synaptic transmission between neurons. Examples of such structural changes include long-term potentiation (LTP) or spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). The persistent spiking in working memory can enhance the synaptic and cellular changes in the encoding of episodic memory (Jensen and Lisman 2005) Sony VAIO PCG-81113L battery.
Working memory. Recent functional imaging studies detected working memory signals in both medial temporal lobe (MTL), a brain area strongly associated with long-term memory, and prefrontal cortex (Ranganath et al. 2005), suggesting a strong relationship between working memory and long-term memorySony VAIO PCG-7142L battery. However, the substantially more working memory signals seen in the prefrontal lobe suggest that this area play a more important role in working memory than MTL (Suzuki 2007).
Consolidation and reconsolidation. Short-term memory (STM) is temporary and subject to disruption, while long-term memory (LTM), once consolidated, is persistent and stable. Consolidation of STM into LTM at the molecular level presumably involves two processesSony VAIO PCG-7141L battery: synaptic consolidation and system consolidation. The former involves a protein synthesis process in the medial temporal lobe (MTL), whereas the latter transforms the MTL-dependent memory into an MTL-independent memory over months to years (Ledoux 2007). In recent years, such traditional consolidation dogma has been re-evaluated as a result of the studies on reconsolidationSony VAIO PCG-71111L battery. These studies showed that prevention after retrieval affects subsequent retrieval of the memory (Sara 2000). New studies have shown that post-retrieval treatment with protein synthesis inhibitors and many other compounds can lead to an amnestic state (Nadel et al. 2000b; Alberini 2005; Dudai 2006) Sony VAIO PCG-61411L battery. These findings on reconsolidation fit with the behavioral evidence that retrieved memory is not a carbon copy of the initial experiences, and memories are updated during retrieval.
Study of the genetics of human memory is in its infancy. A notable initial success was the association of APOE with memory dysfunction in Alzheimer's Disease. The search for genes associated with normally varying memory continuesSony VAIO PCG-61112L battery. One of the first candidates for normal variation in memory is the gene KIBRA, which appears to be associated with the rate at which material is forgotten over a delay period.
Memory in infancy
Up until the middle of the 1980s it was assumed that infants could not encode, retain, and retrieve information. A growing body of research now indicates that infants as young as 6-months can recall information after a 24-hour delay. FurthermoreSony VAIO PCG-61111L battery, research has revealed that as infants grow older they can store information for longer periods of time; 6-month-olds can recall information after a 24-hour period, 9-month-olds after up to five weeks, and 20-month-olds after as long as twelve months. In addition, studies have shown that with age, infants can store information faster. Whereas 14-month-olds can recall a three-step sequence after being exposed to it onceSony VAIO PCG-5T4L battery, 6-month-olds need approximately six exposures in order to be able to remember it.
It should be noted that although 6-month-olds can recall information over the short-term, they have difficulty recalling the temporal order of information. It is only by 9 months of age that infants can recall the actions of a two-step sequence in the correct temporal order - that is, recalling step 1 and then step 2Sony VAIO PCG-5T3L battery. In other words, when asked to imitate a two-step action sequence (such as putting a toy car in the base and pushing in the plunger to make the toy roll to the other end), 9-month-olds tend to imitate the actions of the sequence in the correct order (step 1 and then step 2). Younger infants (6-month-olds) can only recall one step of a two-step sequenceSony VAIO PCG-5T2L battery. Researchers have suggested that these age differences are probably due to the fact that the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the frontal components of the neural network are not fully developed at the age of 6-months.
Memory and aging
Main article: Memory and aging
One of the key concerns of older adults is the experience of memory loss, especially as it is one of the hallmark symptoms of Alzheimer's diseaseSony VAIO PCG-5S3L battery. However, memory loss is qualitatively different in normal aging from the kind of memory loss associated with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's (Budson & Price, 2005). Research has revealed that individuals’ performance on memory tasks that rely on frontal regions declines with age. Older adults tend to exhibit deficits on tasks that involve knowing the temporal order in which they learned informationtery-shop.co.uk/sony-vaio-pcg-5s2l-battery.html">Sony VAIO PCG-5S2L battery; source memory tasks that require them to remember the specific circumstances or context in which they learned information; and prospective memory tasks that involve remembering to perform an act at a future time. Older adults can manage their problems with prospective memory by using appointment books, for exampleSony VAIO PCG-5S1L battery.
Much of the current knowledge of memory has come from studying memory disorders, particularly amnesia. Loss of memory is known as amnesia. Amnesia can result from extensive damage to: (a) the regions of the medial temporal lobe, such as the hippocampus, dentate gyrus, subiculum, amygdala, the parahippocampal, entorhinal, and perirhinal corticesSony VAIO PCG-5R2L battery or the (b) midline diencephalic region, specifically the dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus and the mammillary bodies of the hypothalamus. There are many sorts of amnesia, and by studying their different forms, it has become possible to observe apparent defects in individual sub-systems of the brain's memory systems, and thus hypothesize their function in the normally working brainSony VAIO PCG-5R1L battery. Other neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease can also affect memory and cognition. Hyperthymesia, or hyperthymesic syndrome, is a disorder which affects an individual's autobiographical memory, essentially meaning that they cannot forget small details that otherwise would not be stored. Korsakoff's syndrome, also known as Korsakoff's psychosisSony VAIO PCG-5P4L battery, amnesic-confabulatory syndrome, is an organic brain disease that adversely affects memory.
While not a disorder, a common temporary failure of word retrieval from memory is the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon. Sufferers of Anomic aphasia (also called Nominal aphasia or Anomia), however, do experience the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon on an ongoing basis due to damage to the frontal and parietal lobes of the brainSony VAIO PCG-5P2L battery.
Factors that influence memory
Influence of odors and emotions
In March 2007 German researchers found they could use odors to re-activate new memories in the brains of people while they slept and the volunteers remembered better later. Emotion can have a powerful impact on memory. Numerous studies have shown that the most vivid autobiographical memories tend to be of emotional events, which are likely to be recalled more often and with more clarity and detail than neutral events. Sony VAIO PCG-5N4L battery
The part of the brain that is critical in creating the feeling of emotion is the amygdala, which allows for stress hormones to strengthen neuron communication. The most common way to get high activity from the amygdala is the feeling of excitement present both in good and bad situations. The chemicals cortisone and adrenaline are released in the brainSony VAIO PCG-5N2L battery. The most effective way to activate the amygdala is fear, because fear is an instinctive, protective mechanism which comes on strong making it memorable. Sometimes the feeling can be overwhelming. This is when a memory can be hazy yet vivid, or haunting with perfect clarity. This discovery lead to a drug to help a disorder called PTSD (post traumatic stress disorder) Sony VAIO PCG-51513L battery. When someone is in a heightened emotional state, the events causing it become strong and ground in the memory, sometimes disrupting daily life for years.
An experiment done with rats helped create the drug for this issue. Dr. Kerry Ressler at Emory University, used tones and shocks to test an existing drug called dicyclomine used commonly for tuberculosis. Rats would hear a tone and receive a mild shock training them to fear the toneSony VAIO PCG-51511L battery. Then the drug was given to one set of rats then the test were done again. The rats that did not receive the drug froze in fear. When the tone was heard the rats given the drug ignored the tone and continued on. The drug can effectively allow for new receptor connections between neurons and relax the amygdala when it comes to fear. Allowing for patients to have a chance of recovery from PTSDSony VAIO PCG-51412L battery.
Barbara Rothbaum, PhD, works out of Emory University conducting experimental treatment for PTSD. Having the knowledge that exactly the same neurons are active when remembering and event as when it was created. Gives the drug dicyclomine the ability to make new connections between neurons this gives people a window to lesson the connection between neuronsSony VAIO PCG-51411L battery. Rothbaum decided to use the drug in a therapy session that utilities virtual reality to give PTSD suffers a second chance. When the events that have caused the PTSD are identified the process can begin. The surroundings of the events are recreated in a virtual reality helmet for instance in a combat vehicle in the desert. This would remind or recall the target memories in a safe environment and activate the neurons without activating the fear response from the amygdalaSony VAIO PCG-51312L battery. So when the dicyclomine is in the system and the same neurons are active that were active during the event can now have a chance to reform with less chemicals from the amygdala. This does not erase the memory but rather lessens the strength of it giving some relief so people with PTSD can try to move on and live their lifeSony VAIO PCG-51311L battery.
It is astounding the way memory is formed and how it can be manipulated just by emotion. If pain, joy, excitement, or any other strong emotion is present during an event the neurons active during the event make a stronger connection with each other. This means when remembered or recalled in the future the neurons will make the connections faster and easierSony VAIO PCG-51211L battery. The strength and longevity of memories is directly related to the amount of emotion felt during the event of their creation. Knowing this helps the future of this since as well as offering healthy and better solutions to memory problems like PTSD.
Interference from previous knowledge
At the Center for Cognitive Science at Ohio State University, researchers have found that memory accuracy of adults is hurt by the fact that they know more than children and tend to apply this knowledge when learning new information. The findings appeared in the August 2004 edition of the journal Psychological ScienceSony VAIO PCG-41112L battery.
Interference can hamper memorization and retrieval. There is retroactive interference, when learning new information makes it harder to recall old information and proactive interference, where prior learning disrupts recall of new information. Although interference can lead to forgetting, it is important to keep in mind that there are situations when old information can facilitate learning of new informationSony VAIO PCG-3A4L battery. Knowing Latin, for instance, can help an individual learn a related language such as French – this phenomenon is known as positive transfer.
Memory and Stress
Stress has a significant effect on memory formation and learning. In response to stressful situations, the brain releases hormones and neurotransmitters (ex. glucocorticoids and catecholamines) which affect memory encoding processes in the hippocampusSony VAIO PCG-3A3L battery. Behavioural research on animals shows that chronic stress produces adrenal hormones which impact the hippocampal structure in the brains of rats.  An experimental study by German cognitive psychologists L. Schwabe and O. Wolf demonstrates how learning under stress also decreases memory recall in humans. In this study, 48 healthy female and male university students participated in either a stress test or a control groupSony VAIO PCG-3A2L battery. Those randomly assigned to the stress test group had a hand immersed in ice cold water (the reputable SECPT or ‘Socially Evaluated Cold Pressor Test’) for up to three minutes, while being monitored and videotaped. Both the stress and control groups were then presented with 32 words to memorize. Twenty-four hours later, both groups were tested to see how many words they could remember (free recall) Sony VAIO PCG-3A1L battery as well as how many they could recognize from a larger list of words (recognition performance). The results showed a clear impairment of memory performance in the stress test group, who recalled 30% fewer words than the control group. The researchers suggest that stress experienced during learning distracts people by diverting their attention during the memory encoding processSony VAIO PCG-394L battery.
However, memory performance can be enhanced when material is linked to the learning context, even when learning occurs under stress. A separate study by cognitive psychologists Schwabe and Wolf shows that when retention testing is done in a context similar to or congruent with the original learning task (i.e., in the same room), memory impairment and the detrimental effects of stress on learning can be attenuated. Sony VAIO PCG-393L battery Seventy-two healthy female and male university students, randomly assigned to the SECPT stress test or to a control group, were asked to remember the locations of 15 pairs of picture cards – a computerized version of the card game “Concentration” or “Memory.” The room in which the experiment took place was infused with the scent of vanilla, as odour is a strong cue for memorySony VAIO PCG-391L battery. Retention testing took place the following day, either in the same room with the vanilla scent again present, or in a different room without the fragrance. The memory performance of subjects who experienced stress during the object-location task decreased significantly when they were tested in an unfamiliar room without the vanilla scent Sony VAIO PCG-384L battery (an incongruent context); however, the memory performance of stressed subjects showed no impairment when they were tested in the original room with the vanilla scent (a congruent context). All participants in the experiment, both stressed and unstressed, performed faster when the learning and retrieval contexts were similar.
This research on the effects of stress on memory may have practical implications for educationSony VAIO PCG-383L battery, for eyewitness testimony and for psychotherapy: students may perform better when tested in their regular classroom rather than an exam room, eyewitnesses may recall details better at the scene of an event than in a courtroom, and persons suffering from post-traumatic stress may improve when helped to situate their memories of a traumatic event in an appropriate contextSony VAIO PCG-382L battery.
Although we like to think that our memory operates like recording equipment, that is not actually the case. The molecular mechanisms underlying the induction and maintenance of memory are very dynamic and comprise distinct phases covering a time window from seconds to even a lifetime. In fact research has revealed that our memories are constructedSony VAIO PCG-381L battery. People can construct their memories when they encode them and/or when they recall them. To illustrate consider a classic study conducted by Elizabeth Loftus and John Palmer (1974)  in which people were instructed to watch a film of a traffic accident and then asked about what they saw. The researchers found that, those people who were asked, “How fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other?” Sony VAIO PCG-7185L batterygave higher estimates than those who were asked, “How fast were the cars going when they hit each other?” Furthermore, when asked a week later whether they have seen broken glass in the film, those who had been asked the question with smashed were twice more likely to report that they have seen broken glass than those who had been asked the question with hitSony VAIO PCG-7184L battery. There was no broken glass depicted in the film. Thus, the wording of the questions distorted viewers’ memories of the event. Importantly, the wording of the question led people to construct different memories of the event – those who were asked the question with smashed recalled a more serious car accident than they had actually seen. The findings of this experiment were replicated around the world and researchers consistently demonstrated that Sony VAIO PCG-7183L batterywhen people were provided with misleading information they tended to misremember, a phenomenon known as the misinformation effect.
Interestingly, research has revealed that asking individuals to repeatedly imagine actions that they have never performed or events that they have never experienced could result in false memories. For instance, Goff and Roediger (1998) Sony VAIO PCG-7182L battery asked participants to imagine that they performed an act (e.g., break a toothpick) and then later asked them whether they had done such a thing. Findings revealed that those participants who repeatedly imagined performing such an act were more likely to think that they had actually performed that act during the first session of the experiment. SimilarlySony VAIO PCG-7181L battery, Garry and her colleagues (1996) asked college students to report how certain they were that they experienced a number of events as children (e.g., broke a window with their hand) and then two weeks later asked them to imagine four of those events. The researchers found that one-fourth of the students asked to imagine the four events reported that they had actually experienced such events as childrenSony VAIO PCG-7174L battery. That is, when asked to imagine the events they were more confident that they experienced the events.
Main article: Improving memory
A UCLA research study published in the June 2006 issue of the American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry found that people can improve cognitive function and brain efficiency through simple lifestyle changes such as incorporating memory exercises, healthy eating, physical fitness and stress reduction into their daily livesSony VAIO PCG-7173L battery. This study examined 17 subjects, (average age 53) with normal memory performance. Eight subjects were asked to follow a "brain healthy" diet, relaxation, physical, and mental exercise (brain teasers and verbal memory training techniques). After 14 days, they showed greater word fluency (not memory) compared to their baseline performance. No long term follow up was conducted, it is therefore unclear if this intervention has lasting effects on memorySony VAIO PCG-7172L battery.
There are a loosely associated group of mnemonic principles and techniques that can be used to vastly improve memory known as the Art of memory.
The International Longevity Center released in 2001 a report which includes in pages 14–16 recommendations for keeping the mind in good functionality until advanced age. Some of the recommendations are to stay intellectually active through learningSony VAIO PCG-7171L battery, training or reading, to keep physically active so to promote blood circulation to the brain, to socialize, to reduce stress, to keep sleep time regular, to avoid depression or emotional instability and to observe good nutrition.
Levels of processing
Main article: Levels-of-processing effect
Craik and Lockhart (1972) proposed that it is the method and depth of processing that affects how an experience is stored in memory, rather than rehearsalSony VAIO PCG-7162L battery.
Organization - Mandler (1967) gave participants a pack of word cards and asked them to sort them into any number of piles using any system of categorisation they liked. When they were later asked to recall as many of the words as they could, those who used more categories remembered more words. This study suggested that the organization of memory is one of its central aspects (Mandler, 2011) Sony VAIO PCG-7161L battery.
Distinctiveness - Eysenck and Eysenck (1980) asked participants to say words in a distinctive way, e.g. spell the words out loud. Such participants recalled the words better than those who simply read them off a list.
Effort - Tyler et al. (1979) had participants solve a series of anagrams, some easy (FAHTER) and some difficult (HREFAT). The participants recalled the difficult anagrams better, presumably because they put more effort into themSony VAIO PCG-7154L battery.
Elaboration - Palmere et al. (1983) gave participants descriptive paragraphs of a fictitious African nation. There were some short paragraphs and some with extra sentences elaborating the main idea. Recall was higher for the ideas in the elaborated paragraphs.
Methods to optimize memorization
Memorization is a method of learning that allows an individual to recall information verbatim. Rote learning is the method most often usedSony VAIO PCG-7153L battery. Methods of memorizing things have been the subject of much discussion over the years with some writers, such as Cosmos Rossellius using visual alphabets. The spacing effect shows that an individual is more likely to remember a list of items when rehearsal is spaced over an extended period of time. In contrast to this is cramming which is intensive memorization in a short period of timeSony VAIO PCG-7152L battery. Also relevant is the Zeigarnik effect which states that people remember uncompleted or interrupted tasks better than completed ones. The so-called Method of loci uses spatial memory to memorize non-spatial information.