Ethiopia and Addis Ababa 2

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The country also has large mineral resources and oil potential in some of the less inhabited regions. Political instability in those regions, however, has inhibited development. Ethiopian geologists were implicated in a major gold swindle in 2008. Four chemists and geologists from the Ethiopian Geological Survey were arrested in connection with a fake gold scandal(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31Z battery), following complaints from buyers in South Africa. Gold bars from the National Bank of Ethiopia were found to be gilded metal by police, costing the state around US$17 million, according to the Science and Development Network website.[96]

Transportation

Main article: Transport in Ethiopia

Ethiopia has 681 km of railway, which mainly consists of the Addis Ababa – Djibouti Railway, with a 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) narrow gauge. At present the railway is under joint control of Djibouti and Ethiopia, but negotiations are underway to privatize this transport utility(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31E battery).

As the first part of a 10-year Road Sector Development Program, between 1997 and 2002 the Ethiopian government began a sustained effort to improve its infrastructure of roads. As a result, as of 2002 Ethiopia has a total (Federal and Regional) 33,297 km of roads, both paved and gravel.

[edit]Demographics(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31J battery)

Ethiopia's population has grown from 33.5 million in 1983 to 84.32 million in 2012.[98] The population was only about 9 million in the 19th century.[99] The 2007 Population and Housing Census results show that the population of Ethiopia grew at an average annual rate of 2.6% between 1994 and 2007, down from 2.8% during the period 1983–1994. Currently(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31M battery), the population growth rate is among the top ten countries in the world. The population is forecast to grow to over 210 million by 2060, which would be an increase from 2011 estimates by a factor of about 2.5.

A Habesha baby in the northern Tigray Region.

The country's population is highly diverse, containing over 80 different ethnic groups. Most people in Ethiopia speak Afro-Asiatic languages, mainly of the Semitic or Cushitic branches. The former include Amharic, spoken by the Amhara people(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31B battery); and Tigrinya, spoken by the Tigray-Tigrinya people. The latter include Oromo, spoken by the Oromo people; and Somali, spoken by the Somali people. Those four peoples make up about three-quarters of the population in Ethiopia.

Ethiopians and Eritreans, especially Semitic-speaking ones, collectively refer to themselves as Habesha or Abesha, though others reject these names on the basis that they refer only to certain ethnicities. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ32 battery) The Arabic form of this term (Al-Habasha) is the etymological basis of "Abyssinia," the former name of Ethiopia in English and other European languages.[102]

Woman from the Mursi ethnic group, a Nilotic people inhabiting the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People's Region.

Nilo-Saharan-speaking Nilotic ethnic minorities also inhabit the southern regions of the country, particularly in areas bordering South Sudan. Among these are the Mursi and Anuak. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ410 battery)

According to the Ethiopian national census of 2007, the Oromo are the largest ethnic group in Ethiopia, at 34.49% of the nation's population. The Amhara represent 26.89% of the country's inhabitants, while the Somali and Tigray represent 6.20% and 6.07% of the population, respectively. Other prominent ethnic groups are as follows: Sidama 4.01%, Gurage 2.53%, Wolayta 2.31%, Afar 1.73%, Hadiya 1.74%, Gamo 1.50%, Kefficho 1.18% and others 11%(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21 battery).

In 2009, Ethiopia hosted a population of refugees and asylum seekers numbering approximately 135,200. The majority of this population came from Somalia (approximately 64,300 persons), Eritrea (41,700) and Sudan (25,900). The Ethiopian government required nearly all refugees to live in refugee camps(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21S battery).

Languages

Main article: Languages of Ethiopia

Sign in Amharic at the Ethiopian millennium celebration.

According to Ethnologue, there are 90 individual languages spoken in Ethiopia.[106] Most belong to the Afro-Asiatic language family, mainly of the Cushitic and Semitic branches. Languages from the Nilo-Saharan phylum are also spoken by the nation's Nilotic ethnic minorities(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21M battery).

English is the most widely spoken foreign language and is the medium of instruction in secondary schools. Amharic was the language of primary school instruction, but has been replaced in many areas by regional languages such as Somali, Oromifa and Tigrinya.

In terms of writing system, Ethiopia's principal orthography is Ge'ez or Ethiopic (ግዕዝ). Used as an abugida for several of the country's languages(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ38M battery), it first came into use in the 5th–6th centuries BC as an abjad to transcribe the Semitic Ge'ez language. Ge'ez now serves as the liturgical language of the Ethiopian and Eritrean Orthodox Churches. Other writing systems have also been used over the years by different Ethiopian communities. The latter include Sheikh Bakri Sapalo's script for Oromo(Sony VAIO VGN-SZ battery).

Ethiopia has close historical ties with all three of the world's major Abrahamic religions. It was one of the first areas of the world to have officially adopted Christianity as the state religion, in the 4th century. While Christianity remains the majority religion, there is also a substantial Muslim demographic, representing about a third of the population(Sony VGN-NR11S/S Battery). Ethiopia is the site of the first Hijra in Islamic history and the oldest Muslim settlement in Africa at Negash. Until the 1980s, a substantial population of Ethiopian Jews resided in Ethiopia.

According to the 2007 National Census, Christians make up 62.8% of the country's population (43.5% Ethiopian Orthodox, 19.3% other denominations), Muslims 33.9%, practitioners of traditional faiths 2.6%, and other religions 0.6%(Sony VGN-NR11M/S Battery) This is in agreement with the updated CIA World Factbook, which states that Christianity is the most widely practiced religion in Ethiopia. According to the latest CIA factbook figure Muslims constitute 33.9% of the population.[107]

The Kingdom of Aksum was one of the first nations to officially accept Christianity, when St. Frumentius of Tyre, called Fremnatos or Abba Selama ("Father of Peace") in Ethiopia, converted King Ezana during the 4th century AD(Sony VGN-NR260E/S Battery). Many believe that the Gospel had entered Ethiopia even earlier, with the royal official described as being baptized by Philip the Evangelist in chapter eight of the Acts of the Apostles. (Acts 8:26–39) Today, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, part of Oriental Orthodoxy, is by far the largest denomination, though a number of Protestant (Pentay) churches and the Ethiopian Orthodox Tehadeso Church have recently gained ground(Sony VGN-NR11Z/S Battery). Since the 18th century there has existed a relatively small (uniate) Ethiopian Catholic Church in full communion with Rome, with adherents making up less than 1% of the total population.[103]

A mosque in Bahir Dar.

Islam in Ethiopia dates back to the founding of the religion; in 615, when a group of Muslims were counseled by Muhammad to escape persecution in Mecca and travel to Ethiopia via modern day Eritrea, which was ruled by Ashama ibn Abjar, a pious Christian king(Sony VGN-NR11Z/T Battery). Moreover, Bilal ibn Ribah, the first Muezzin, the person chosen to call the faithful to prayer, and one of the foremost companions of Muhammad, was from Abyssinia (Eritrea, Ethiopia etc.). Also, the largest single ethnic group of non-Arab Companions of Muhammad was that of the Ethiopians.

A small ancient group of Jews, the Beta Israel, live in northwestern Ethiopia, though most emigrated to Israel in the last decades of the 20th century as part of the rescue missions undertaken by the Israeli government, Operation Moses and Operation Solomon. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21E battery) Some Israeli and Jewish scholars consider these Ethiopian Jews as a historical Lost Tribe of Israel.

There are numerous indigenous African religions in Ethiopia, mainly located in the far southwest and western borderlands. In general, most of the (largely members of the non-Chalcedonian Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church) Christians live in the highlands, while Muslims and adherents of traditional African religions tend to inhabit more lowland regions in the east and south of the country(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21Z battery).

Main article: Ethiopian calendar

Ethiopia has several local calendars. The most widely known is the Ethiopian calendar, also known as the Ge'ez calendar. It is based on the older Alexandrian or Coptic calendar, which in turn derives from the Egyptian calendar. However, like the Julian calendar, the Ethiopian calendar adds a leap day every four years without exception(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21J battery), and begins the year on 29 August or 30 August in the Julian calendar. A seven to eight-year gap between the Ethiopian and Gregorian calendars results from alternate calculations.

Another prominent calendar system was developed by the Oromo around 300 BC. A lunar-stellar calendar, it relies on astronomical observations of the moon in conjunction with seven particular stars or constellations. Oromo months (stars/lunar phases) (Sony VAIO VGN-FW11 battery) are Bittottessa (Iangulum), Camsa (Pleiades), Bufa (Aldebarran), Waxabajjii (Belletrix), Obora Gudda (Central Orion-Saiph), Obora Dikka (Sirius), Birra (full moon), Cikawa (gibbous moon), Sadasaa (quarter moon), Abrasa (large crescent), Ammaji (medium crescent), and Gurrandala (small crescent). (Sony VAIO VGN-FW11M battery)

Urbanization

View of the capital Addis Ababa from the Sheraton Hotel.

Population growth, migration, and urbanization are all straining both governments' and ecosystems' capacity to provide people with basic services.[110] Urbanization has steadily been increasing in Ethiopia, with two periods of significantly rapid growth. First, in 1936–1941 during the Italian occupation of Mussolini’s fascist regime, and from 1967 to 1975 when the populations of urban centers tripled(Sony VAIO VGN-FW11S battery). In 1936, Italy annexed Ethiopia, building infrastructure to connect major cities, and a dam providing power and water. This along with the influx of Italians and laborers was the major cause of rapid growth during this period. The second period of growth was from 1967 to 1975 when rural populations migrated to urban centers seeking work and better living conditions(Sony VAIO VGN-FW21E battery). This pattern slowed after to the 1975 Land Reform program instituted by the government provided incentives for people to stay in rural areas. As people moved from rural areas to the cities, there were fewer people to grow food for the population. The Land Reform Act was meant to increase agriculture since food production was not keeping up with population growth over the period of 1970–1983(Sony VAIO VGN-FW21J battery). This program proliferated the formation of peasant associations, large villages based on agriculture. The act did lead to an increase in food production, although there is debate over the cause; it may be related to weather conditions more than the reform act. Urban populations have continued to grow with an 8.1% increase from 1975 to 2000(Sony VAIO VGN-FW21L battery).

Rural and urban life

Migration to urban areas is usually motivated by the hope of better lives. In peasant associations daily life is a struggle to survive. About 16% of the population in Ethiopia are living on less than 1 dollar per day (2008). Only 65% of rural households in Ethiopia consume the World Health Organization's minimum standard of food per day (2,200 kilocalories) (Sony VAIO VGN-FW41M battery), with 42% of children under 5 years old being underweight. Most poor families (75%) share their sleeping quarters with livestock, and 40% of children sleep on the floor, where nighttime temperatures average 5 degrees Celsius in the cold season.[115] The average family size is six or seven, living in a 30-square-meter mud and thatch hut, with less than two hectares of land to cultivate. (Sony VAIO VGN-FW41M/H battery) These living conditions are deplorable, but are the daily lives of peasant associations.

Street scene on Bole Road in Addis Ababa

The peasant associations face a cycle of poverty. Since the landholdings are so small, farmers cannot allow the land to lie fallow, which reduces soil fertility. This land degradation reduces the production of fodder for livestock, which causes low milk yields. Since the community burns livestock manure as fuel(Sony VAIO VGN-FW21M battery), rather than plowing the nutrients back into the land, the crop production is reduced. The low productivity of agriculture leads to inadequate incomes for farmers, hunger, malnutrition and disease. These unhealthy farmers have a hard time working the land and the productivity drops further.[115]

Although conditions are drastically better in cities, all of Ethiopia suffers from poverty, and poor sanitation. In the capital city of Addis Ababa(Sony VAIO VGN-FW21Z battery), 55% of the population lives in slums.[112] Although there are some wealthy neighborhoods with mansions, most people make their houses using whatever materials are available, with walls made of mud or wood. Only 12% of homes have cement tiles or floors. Sanitation is the most pressing need in the city, with most of the population lacking access to waste treatment facilities. This contributes to the spread of illness through unhealthy water(Sony VAIO VGN-FW32J battery).

Despite the living conditions in the cities, the people of Addis Ababa are much better off than people living in the peasant associations owing to their educational opportunities. Unlike rural children, 69% of urban children are enrolled in primary school, and 35% of those eligible for secondary school attend. Addis Ababa has its own university as well as many other secondary schools. The literacy rate is 82%(Sony VAIO VGN-FW17W battery).

Many NGOs (Non-Governmental Organizations) are working to solve this problem; however, most are far apart, uncoordinated, and working in isolation. The Sub-Saharan Africa NGO Consortium is attempting to coordinate efforts.

Main article: Health in Ethiopia

According to the head of the World Bank's Global HIV/AIDS Program, Ethiopia has only 1 medical doctor per 100,000 people.[116] However, the World Health Organization's 2006 World Health Report gives a figure of 1936 physicians (for 2003), (Sony VAIO VGN-FW31E battery) which comes to about 2.6 per 100,000. Globalization is said to affect the country, with many educated professionals leaving Ethiopia for a better economic opportunity in the West.

The Addis Ababa Fistula Hospital in the capital Addis Ababa.

Ethiopia's main health problems are said to be communicable diseases caused by poor sanitation and malnutrition. These problems are exacerbated by the shortage of trained manpower and health facilities. (Sony VAIO VGN-FW139E battery)

Health is much greater in the cities. Birth rates, infant mortality rates, and death rates are lower in the city than in rural areas owing to better access to education and hospitals.[112] Life expectancy is higher at 53, compared to 48 in rural areas.[112] Despite sanitation being a problem, use of improved water sources is also greater; 81% in cities compared to 11% in rural areas. (Sony VAIO VGN-FW139E/H battery) This encourages more people to migrate to the cities in hopes of better living conditions.

There are 119 hospitals (12 in Addis Ababa alone) and 412 health centers in Ethiopia.[119] Ethiopia has a relatively low average life expectancy of 58 years.[120] Infant mortality rates are relatively very high, as over 8% of infants die during or shortly after childbirth,[120] (although this is a dramatic decrease from 16% in 1965) while birth-related complications such as obstetric fistula affect many of the nation's women(Sony VAIO VGN-FW31M battery).

The other major health problem in Ethiopia is spread of AIDS. AIDS has mainly affected poor communities and women, due to lack of health education, empowerment, awareness and lack of social well-being. The government of Ethiopia and many private organizations like World health Organization (WHO), and the United Nations(Sony VAIO VGN-FW31J battery), are launching campaigns and are working aggressively to improve Ethiopia’s health conditions and promote health awareness on AIDS and other communicable diseases (Dugassa, 2005). Many believe that sexually transmitted diseases like gonorrhea result from touching a stone after a female dog urinates on it and there is a general belief that these diseases are caused by bad spirits and supernatural causes(Sony VAIO VGN-FW31Z battery). Others believe that eating the reproductive organs of a black goat will help expel the diseases from those same organ in their body (Kater, 2000). Ethiopia has high infant and maternal mortality rate. Only a minority of Ethiopians are born in hospitals; most of them are born in rural households. Those who are expected to give birth at home have elderly women serve as midwives assist with the delivery (Kater, 2000) (Sony VGN-NR11Z Battery)The increase in infant and maternal mortality rate is believed to be due to lack of women’s involvement in household decision- making, immunization and social capital (Fantahun, Berhane, Wall, Byass, & Hogberg, 2007). On the other hand, the “WHO estimates that a majority of maternal fatalities and disabilities could be prevented if deliveries were to take place at well-equipped health centers, with adequately trained staff” (Dorman et al., 2009, p. 622) (Sony VGN-NR11S Battery).

A man being tested for HIV at an Ethiopian medical clinic.

The low availability of health care professionals with modern medical training, together with lack of funds for medical services, leads to the preponderancy of less reliable traditional healers that use home-based therapies to heal common ailments. One medical practice that is commonly practiced irrespective of religion or economic status is female genital cutting(Sony VGN-CR11Z Battery) (FGC) or female circumcision, a procedure by which some of a woman's external genital tissue, such as the clitoral hood, the clitoris or labia, are removed. According to a study performed by the Population Reference Bureau, Ethiopia has a prevalence rate of 81% among women ages 35 to 39 and 62% among women ages 15–19.[121] Ethiopia’s 2005 Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) (Sony VGN-CR11S Battery) noted that the national prevalence rate is 74% among women ages 15–49.[122] The practice is almost universal in the regions of Dire Dawa, Somali and Afar; in the Oromo and Harari regions, more than 80% of girls and women undergo the procedure. FGC is least prevalent in the regions of Tigray and Gambela, where 29% and 27% of girls and women, respectively, are affected. (Sony VGN-CR11M Battery) In 2004, the Ethiopian Government enacted a law against FGC. Female circumcision is a pre-marital custom mainly endemic to Northeast Africa and parts of the Near East that has its ultimate origins in Ancient Egypt. Encouraged by women in the community, it is primarily intended to deter promiscuity and to offer protection from assault.[126] About 76% of Ethiopia's male population is also reportedly circumcised(Sony VGN-CR11E Battery).

The Government of the Federal Republic of Ethiopia is signatory to various international conventions and treaties that protect the rights of women and children. Its constitution provides for the fundamental rights and freedoms for women. There is an attempt being made to raise the social and economic status of women through eliminating all legal and customary practices, which hinder women’s equal participation in society and undermine their social status(Sony VGN-CR21E Battery).

Main article: Education in Ethiopia

See also: List of universities and colleges in Ethiopia

Entrance to the Addis Ababa University.

Education in Ethiopia had been dominated by the Orthodox Church for many centuries until secular education was adopted in the early 1900s.The current system follows very similar school expansion schemes to the rural areas as the previous 1980s system with an addition of deeper regionalization giving rural education in their own languages starting at the elementary level and with more budget allocated to the education sector(Sony VGN-CR21S Battery). The sequence of general education in Ethiopia is six years of primary school, four years of lower secondary school and two years of higher secondary school.[128] In 2004 school enrollment was more than that of many other African countries. According to the 1994 census the literacy rate in Ethiopia is 23.4% [129], though a 2004 UNESCO education report may suggest that this rate is now higher. (Sony VGN-CR21Z Battery)

Main article: Culture of Ethiopia

Typical Ethiopian cuisine: Injera (pancake-like bread) and several kinds of wat (stew).

Main article: Ethiopian cuisine

The best-known Ethiopian cuisine consists of various vegetable or meat side dishes and entrées, usually a wat, or thick stew, served atop injera, a large sourdough flatbread made of teff flour. One does not eat with utensils, but instead uses injera to scoop up the entrées and side dishes. Chachabsa, Marka[disambiguation needed], Chukko and Dhanga are the most popular dishes among the Oromos(Sony VGN-CR31S Battery). Kitfo being originated from Gurage is one of the widely accepted and favorite foods in Ethiopia.

Tihlo prepared from roasted barley flour is very popular in Amhara, Agame, and Awlaelo (Tigrai). Traditional Ethiopian cuisine employs no pork or shellfish of any kind, as they are forbidden in the Islamic, Jewish, and Ethiopian Orthodox Christian faiths. It is also very common to eat from the same dish in the center of the table with a group of people(Sony VGN-CR31E Battery).

Main article: Music of Ethiopia

Mahmoud Ahmed, an Ethiopian singer of Gurage ancestry, in 2005

The music of Ethiopia is extremely diverse, with each of the country's 80 ethnic groups being associated with unique sounds. Ethiopian music uses a distinct modal system that is pentatonic, with characteristically long intervals between some notes. As with many other aspects of Ethiopian culture and tradition, tastes in music and lyrics are strongly linked with those in neighboring Eritrea, Somalia, Djibouti and Sudan. (Sony VGN-CR31Z Battery) Traditional singing in Ethiopia presents diverse styles of polyphony (heterophony, drone, imitation and counterpoint).

Main article: Sport in Ethiopia

The main sports in Ethiopia are athletics and football. Ethiopian athletes have won many Olympic gold medals in track and field, particularly distance running. Haile Gebrselassie is a world-renowned marathon runner, having set the world record several times. Another sportsman(Sony VGN-CR41Z Battery), Kenenisa Bekele, is also a dominant runner, particularly in the 5,000 and 10,000 meters in which he holds the world records. Other notable Ethiopian athletes are Abebe Bikila, Mamo Wolde, Miruts Yifter, Derartu Tulu, Tirunesh Dibaba, Meseret Defar, Birhane Adere, Firehiwot Dado, Tiki Gelana, and Gelete Burka(Sony VGN-CR41S Battery).

Addis Ababa—sometimes spelled Addis Abeba (the spelling used by the official Ethiopian Mapping Authority)—is the capital city of Ethiopia. It is the largest city in Ethiopia, with a population of 3,384,569 according to the 2007 population census. This datum has been increased from the originally published 2,738,248 figure and appears possibly largely underestimated still(Sony VGN-CR41E Battery).

As a chartered city (ras gez astedader), Addis Ababa has the status of both a city and a state. It is where the African Union and its predecessor the OAU are based. It also hosts the headquarters of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) and numerous other continental and international organizations(Sony VGN-CR42Z Battery). Addis Ababa is therefore often referred to as "the political capital of Africa", due to its historical, diplomatic and political significance for the continent.[6] The city is populated by people from different regions of Ethiopia – the country has as many as 80 nationalities speaking 80 languages and belonging to a wide variety of religious communities. It is home to Addis Ababa University. The Federation of African Societies of Chemistry (FASC) and Horn of Africa Press Institute (HAPI) are also headquartered in Addis Ababa(Sony VGN-CR42S Battery).

Main article: History of Addis Ababa

The site of Addis Ababa was chosen by Empress Taytu Betul and the city was founded in 1886 by her husband, Emperor Menelik II. The name of the city (ኣዲስ ኣበባ) was taken from parts of the city called hora Finfinnee ("hot springs") in Oromo. Another Oromo name of the city is Sheger. Menelik, as initially a King of the Shewa province, had found Mount Entoto a useful base for military operations in the south of his realm(Sony VGN-CR42E Battery), and in 1879 visited the reputed ruins of a medieval town, and an unfinished rock church that showed proof of an Ethiopian presence in the area prior to the campaigns of Ahmad Gragn. His interest in the area grew when his wife Taytu began work on a church on Entoto, and Menelik endowed a second church in the area(Sony Vaio VGN-CR11S/L Battery).

However the immediate area did not encourage the founding of a town due to the lack of firewood and water, so settlement actually began in the valley south of the mountain in 1886. Initially, Taytu built a house for herself near the "Filwoha" hot mineral springs, where she and members of the Showan Royal Court liked to take mineral baths(Sony Vaio VGN-CR11S/P Battery). Other nobility and their staffs and households settled the vicinity, and Menelik expanded his wife's house to become the Imperial Palace which remains the seat of government in Addis Ababa today. The name changed to Addis Ababa and became Ethiopia's capital when Menelik II became Emperor of Ethiopia. The town grew by leaps and bounds. One of Emperor Menelik's contributions that is still visible today is the planting of numerous eucalyptus trees along the city streets. (Sony Vaio VGN-CR11S/W Battery)

On 5 May 1936, Italian troops invaded Addis Ababa during the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, making it the capital of Italian East Africa from 1936 to 1941, and calling it by the Italian rendition of its name, Addis Abeba. After the Italian army in Ethiopia was defeated by the British forces during the East African Campaign, Emperor Haile Selassie returned to Addis Ababa on 5 May 1941(Sony Vaio VGN-CR11Z/R Battery)—five years to the very day after he had departed—and immediately began the work of re-establishing his capital.

Emperor Haile Selassie helped form the Organization of African Unity in 1963, and invited the new organization to keep its headquarters in the city. The OAU was dissolved in 2002 and replaced by the African Union (AU), also headquartered in Addis Ababa(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13/B Battery). The United Nations Economic Commission for Africa also has its headquarters in Addis Ababa. Addis Ababa was also the site of the Council of the Oriental Orthodox Churches in 1965.

Ethiopia has often been called the original home of mankind due to various humanoid fossil discoveries like the Australopithecine Lucy.[8] North eastern Africa, and the Afar region in particular was the central focus of these claims until recent DNA evidence suggested origins in south central Ethiopian regions like present-day Addis Ababa(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13/L Battery). After analysing the DNA of almost 1,000 people around the world, geneticists and other scientists claimed people spread from what is now Addis Ababa 100,000 years ago. The research indicated that genetic diversity declines steadily the farther one's ancestors traveled from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Addis-Ababa and vicinities (false colors satellite image): it is an urbanization strip connecting Addis Ababa and Debre Zeyit city (at image right bottom corner) (Sony Vaio VGN-CR13/P Battery)

Addis Ababa seen from SPOT satellite

Addis Ababa lies at an altitude of 7,546 feet (2,300 metres) and is a grassland biome, located at 9°1′48″N 38°44′24″ECoordinates: 9°1′48″N 38°44′24″E.[15] The city lies at the foot of Mount Entoto. From its lowest point, around Bole International Airport, at 2,326 metres (7,631 ft) above sea level in the southern periphery, the city rises to over 3,000 metres (9,800 ft) in the Entoto Mountains to the north(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13/R Battery).

Addis Ababa has a Subtropical highland climate (Köppen Cwb). The city has a complex mix of highland climate zones, with temperature differences of up to 10°C, depending on elevation and prevailing wind patterns. The high elevation moderates temperatures year-round, and the city's position near the equator means that temperatures are very constant from month to month(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13/W Battery).

Mid-November to January is the winter season. The Highland Climate regions are characterized by dry winters, and this is the dry season in Addis Ababa. During this season the daily maximum temperatures are usually not more that 23°C, and the night-time minimum temperatures can get to freezing. The short rainy season is from February to May(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G Battery). During this period, the difference between the daytime maximum temperatures and the night-time minimum temperatures are not as great as during other times of the year, with minimum temperatures in the range of 10–15°C. At this time of the year the city experiences warm temperature and a pleasant rainfall. The long wet season is from June to mid-September. (Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G/B Battery) This peroid is also the summer season, but the temperatures are much more lower that at other times of year because of the frequent rain and hail and the high amount of cloud cover and fewer hours of sunshine. This time of the year is characterized by dark, chilly and wet days and nights. After that comes the spring season, a transitional period between the wet season and the dry season(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G/L Battery).

Demographics

Based on the 2007 Census conducted by the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia (CSA), Addis Ababa has a total population of 2,739,551, of whom 1,305,387 are men and 1,434,164 women; all of the population are urban inhabitants. For the capital city 662,728 households were counted living in 628,984 housing units, which results in an average of 4.1 persons to a household(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G/W Battery). Although all Ethiopian ethnic groups are represented in Addis Ababa due to its position as capital of the country, the largest groups include the Amhara (47.04%), Oromo (19.51%), Gurage (16.34%), Tigray (6.18%), Silt'e (2.94%), and Gamo (1.68%). Languages spoken include Amharic (71.0%), Oromiffa (10.7%), Gurage (8.37%), Tigrinya (3.60%), Silt'e (1.82%) and Gamo (1.03%)(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G/P Battery). The religion with the most believers in Addis Ababa is Ethiopian Orthodox with 74.7% of the population, while 16.2% are Muslim, 7.77% Protestant, and 0.48% Catholic.[18]

In the previous census, conducted in 1994, the city's population was reported to be 2,112,737, of whom 1,023,452 were men and 1,089,285 were women. At that time not all of the population were urban inhabitants; only 2,084,588 or 98.7% were(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G/R Battery). For the entire administrative council there were 404,783 households in 376,568 housing units with an average of 5.2 persons per household. The major ethnic groups included the Amhara (48.3%), Oromo (19.2%), Gurage (13.5%; 2.3% Sebat Bet, and 0.8% Sodo), Tigray 7.64%, Silt'e 3.98%, and foreigners from Eritrea 1.33%. Languages spoken included Amharic (72.6%)(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13T/L Battery), Oromiffa (10.0%), Gurage (6.54%), Tigrinya (5.41%), and Silt'e 2.29%. In 1994 the predominant religion was also Ethiopian Orthodox with 82.0% of the population, while 12.7% were Muslim, 3.87% Protestant, and 0.78% Catholic.[19]

According to the 2007 national census, 98.64% of the housing units of Addis Ababa had access to safe drinking water, while 14.9% had flush toilets, 70.7% pit toilets (both ventilated and unventilated), and 14.3% had no toilet facilities. (Sony Vaio VGN-CR13T/P Battery)Values for other reported common indicators of the standard of living for Addis Ababa as of 2005 include the following: 0.1% of the inhabitants fall into the lowest wealth quintile; adult literacy for men is 93.6% and for women 79.95%, the highest in the nation for both sexes; and the civic infant mortality rate is 45 infant deaths per 1,000 live births, which is less than the nationwide average of 77; at least half of these deaths occurred in the infants’ first month of life. (Sony Vaio VGN-CR13T/R Battery)

The City is partially powered by water at the Koka Reservoir Koka Dam Power Plant.

Bole Dembel Shopping Center.

The economic activities in Addis Ababa are diverse. According to official statistics from the federal government, some 119,197 people in the city are engaged in trade and commerce; 113,977 in manufacturing and industry; 80,391 homemakers of different variety; 71,186 in civil administration; 50,538 in transport and communication; 42,514 in education(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13T/W Battery), health and social services; 32,685 in hotel and catering services; and 16,602 in agriculture. In addition to the residents of rural parts of Addis Ababa, the city dwellers also participate in animal husbandry and cultivation of gardens. 677 hectares (1,670 acres) of land is irrigated annually, on which 129,880 quintals of vegetables are cultivated.[citation needed] It is a relatively clean and safe city(Sony Vaio VGN-CR150E/B Battery), with the most common crimes being pickpocketing, scams and minor burglary.[22] The city has recently been in a construction boom with tall buildings rising in many places. Various luxury services have also become available and the construction of shopping malls has recently increased. According to Tia Goldenberg of IOL, area spa professionals said that some people have labelled the city, "the spa capital of Africa." (Sony Vaio VGN-CR21/B Battery)

Ethiopian Airlines has its headquarters on the grounds of Bole International Airport in Addis Ababa.[24]

Arkebe Oqubay was a Mayor of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. He held office from early 2003 to May 2005. On 31 March 2005, Arkebe Oqubay was named "African Mayor of 2005" by Broadcasting Network of Africa. Mayor Oqubay lost the mayorship of Addis Ababa in May 2005 to Berhanu Nega(Sony Vaio VGN-CR21E/L Battery), but after boycotting the parliament Berhanu Nega's C.U.D. or Kinijit party did not take control of the city government. The leaders of the CUD, his opposition party which swept the election in the capital, were later imprisoned and not permitted to assume control of the city. They were pardoned and released after two years in prison(Sony Vaio VGN-CR21E/P Battery).

Though most of the CUD refused to join the parliament, factions of CUD and all the rest of opposition parties joined parliament in 2005. The government has appointed a provisional city government with Berhanu Deresa the acting Mayor.

Addis Ababa is the headquarters of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa and the African Union. The fossilized skeleton, and a plaster replica of the early hominid Lucy (known in Ethiopia as Dinkinesh) is preserved at the Ethiopian National Museum in Addis Ababa(Sony Vaio VGN-CR21E/W Battery). Meskel Square is one of the noted squares in the city and is the site for the annual Meskel at the end of September annually when thousands gather in celebration.

The city is home to the Ethiopian National Library, the Ethiopian Ethnological Museum (and former Guenete Leul Palace), the Addis Ababa Museum, the Ethiopian Natural History Museum, the Ethiopian Railway Museum and the National Postal Museum(Sony Vaio VGN-CR21S/L Battery). Notable buildings include St George's Cathedral (founded in 1896 and also home to a museum), Holy Trinity Cathedral (once the largest Ethiopian Orthodox Cathedral and the location of Sylvia Pankhurst's tomb) as well as the burial place of Emperor Haile Selassie and the Imperial family, and those who fought the Italians during the war. There is also Menelik's old Imperial palace which remains the official seat of government(Sony Vaio VGN-CR21S/P Battery), and the National Palace formerly known as the Jubilee Palace (built to mark Emperor Haile Selassie's Silver Jubilee in 1955) which is the residence of the President of Ethiopia. Africa Hall is located across Menelik II avenue from this Palace and is where the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa is headquartered as well as most UN offices in Ethiopia. (Sony Vaio VGN-CR21S/W Battery) It is also the site of the founding of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) which eventually became the African Union. The African Union is now housed in a new headquarters built on the site of the demolished Akaki prison, on land donated by Ethiopia for this purpose in the south western part of the city. The Hager Fikir Theatre, the oldest theatre in Ethiopia, is located at the Piazza district(Sony Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N Battery). Near Holy Trinity Cathedral is the art deco Parliament building, built during the reign of Emperor Haile Selassie, with its clock tower. It continues to serve as the seat of Parliament today. Across from the Parliament is the Shengo Hall, built by the Derg regime of Mengistu Haile Mariam as its new parliament hall. The Shengo Hall was the world's largest pre-fabricated building, which was constructed in Finland before being assembled in Addis Ababa. It is used for large meetings and conventions(Sony Vaio VGN-CR220E/R Battery).

In the Mercato district, which happens to be the largest open market in Africa, is the impressive The Grand Anwar Mosque, the biggest mosque in Ethiopia built during the Italian occupation. A few meters to the southwest of the Anwar Mosque is the Raguel Church built after the liberation by Empress Menen(Sony Vaio VGN-CR23/B Battery). The proximity of the mosque and the church has symbolized the long peaceful relations between Christianity and Islam in Ethiopia. The Roman Catholic Cathedral of the Holy Family is also in the Mercato district. Near Bole International Airport is the new Medhane Alem (Savior of the World) Orthodox Cathedral, which is the second largest in Africa(Sony Vaio VGN-CR23/P Battery).

Other features of the city include the large Mercato market, the Jan Meda racecourse, Bihere Tsige Recreation Centre and a railway line to Djibouti. Sport facilities include Addis Ababa and Nyala Stadiums. The 2008 African Championships in Athletics were held in Addis Ababa. The Entoto Mountains start among the northern suburbs. Suburbs of the city include Shiro Meda and Entoto in the north, Urael and Bole (home to Bole International Airport) in the east(Sony Vaio VGN-CR23/R Battery), Nifas Silk in the south-east, Mekanisa in the south, and Keraniyo and Kolfe in the west.

The city hosts the We Are the Future center, a child care center that provides children with a higher standard of living. The center is managed under the direction of the mayor’s office, and the international NGO Glocal Forum serves as the fundraiser and program planner and coordinator for the WAF child center in each city(Sony Vaio VGN-CR23/L Battery). Each WAF city is linked to several peer cities and public and private partners to create a unique international coalition. Launched in 2004, the program is the result of a strategic partnership between the Glocal Forum, the Quincy Jones Listen Up Foundation and Mr. Hani Masri, with the support of the World Bank, UN agencies and major companies(Sony Vaio VGN-CR23/N Battery).

Addis Ababa University.

Addis Ababa University was founded in 1950 and was originally named "University College of Addis Ababa", then renamed in 1962 for the former Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie I who had donated his Genete Leul Palace to be the University main campus in the previous year. It received its current name in 1975 after the Emperor was deposed. Although the university has six of its seven campuses within Addis Ababa (Sony Vaio VGN-CR23/W Battery) (the seventh is located in Debre Zeit, about 45 km/28 mi away), it also maintains branches in many cities throughout Ethiopia. It is the home of the Institute of Ethiopian Studies and the Ethnological Museum. The city also has numerous private colleges including Admas College, Ethiopian Civil Service College and Unity University(Sony VAIO VGN-NW21EF/S battery).

The distinctive Addis Ababa blue taxis

Public transportation is through public buses from Anbessa City Bus Service Enterprise or blue and white share taxis. The taxis are usually minibuses that can seat at most twelve people. Two people are responsible for each taxi, the driver and a weyala who collects fares and calls out the taxi's destination(Sony VAIO VGN-NW21JF battery).

The construction of the Addis Ababa Ring Road was initiated in 1998 to implement the city master plan and enhance peripheral development. The Ring Road was divided into three major phases that connect all the five main gates in and out of Addis Ababa with all other Regions (Jimma, Debre Zeit, Asmara, Gojjam and Ambo). For this project, China Road and Bridge Corporation (CRBC) was the partner of Addis Ababa City Roads Authority (AACRA) (Sony VAIO VGN-NW21MF battery). The Ring Road has greatly helped to decongest and alleviate city car traffic.

Intercity bus service is provided by the Selam Bus Line Share Company.

The city is served by Bole International Airport, where a new terminal opened in 2003. The old Lideta Airport in the western "Old Airport" district is used mostly by small craft and military planes and helicopters.[dubious – discuss] Addis Ababa also has had a railway connection with Djibouti City, with a picturesque French style railway station, but the railway no longer operates pending the construction of a new modern rail line to be built in the near future(Sony VAIO VGN-NW21MF/W battery).

A light rail system is planned; in September 2010, Ethiopian Railway Corp reached a funding agreement with Export and Import Bank of China. Plans include a 30 km network with two lines; an east-west line from Ayat to the Torhailoch ringroad, and from Menelik Square to Mercato Bus Station, Meskel Square and Akaki(Sony VAIO VGN-NW31EF/W battery).

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