Estonia i/ɨsˈtoʊniə/ (Estonian: Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariik), is a state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea, to the south by Latvia (343 km), and to the east by Lake Peipsi and the Russian Federation (Dell 1691P battery) (338.6 km). Across the Baltic Sea lies Sweden in the west and Finland in the north. The territory of Estonia covers 45,227 km2 (17,462 sq mi), and is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. The Estonians are a Finnic people, and the official language, Estonian, is closely related to Finnish(Dell 310-6321 battery).
Estonia is a democratic parliamentary republic divided into 15 counties. The capital and largest city is Tallinn. With a population of 1.34 million, it is one of the least-populous members of the European Union, Eurozone and NATO. Estonia has the highest GDP per person among former Soviet republics(SONY PCG-5G2L battery). Estonia is listed as a "High-Income Economy" by the World Bank and as an "advanced economy" by the International Monetary Fund; the country is an OECD member. The United Nations lists Estonia as a developed country with a Human Development Index of "Very High". The country is also ranked highly for press freedom, economic freedom, democracy and political freedom and education(SONY PCG-5G3L battery).
One theory is that the modern name of Estonia originated from the Aesti described by the Roman historian Tacitus in his Germania (ca. 98 AD).
On the other hand, ancient Scandinavian sagas refer to a land called Eistland, close to the Danish, German, Dutch, Swedish and Norwegian term Estland for the country. Early Latin and other ancient versions of the name are Estia and Hestia. (SONY PCG-F305 battery)
Esthonia was a common alternate English spelling prior to independence.
Main article: History of Estonia
Main article: Ancient Estonia
Human settlement in Estonia became possible 11,000 to 13,000 years ago, when the ice from the last glacial era melted. The oldest known settlement in Estonia is the Pulli settlement, which was on the banks of the river Pärnu, near the town of Sindi, in south-western Estonia. According to radiocarbon dating it was settled around 11,000 years ago at the beginning of the 9th millennium BC(SONY PCG-5J1L battery).
Tools made by Kunda culture, the Estonian History Museum
Iron Age artefacts of a hoard from Kumna.
Evidence has been found of hunting and fishing communities existing around 6500 BC near the town of Kunda in northern Estonia. Bone and stone artefacts similar to those found at Kunda have been discovered elsewhere in Estonia, as well as in Latvia, northern Lithuania and in southern Finland. The Kunda culture belongs to the middle stone age, or Mesolithic period(SONY PCG-5J2L battery).
The end of the Bronze Age and the early Iron Age were marked by great cultural changes. The most significant was the transition to farming, which has remained at the core of the economy and culture. Between the 1st to 5th centuries AD resident farming was widely established, the population grew, and settlement expanded. Cultural influences from the Roman Empire reached Estonia(SONY PCG-5K2L battery).
The first mention of the people inhabiting present-day Estonia is by the Roman historian Tacitus, who in his book Germania (ca. AD 98) describes the Aesti tribe. Tacitus mentions their term for amber in an apparently Latinised form, glesum (cf. Latvian glīsas). This is the only word of their language recorded from antiquity. In spite of this point(SONY PCG-5L1L battery), the Aestii are generally considered the ancestors of the later Baltic peoples.
A more troubled and war-ridden middle Iron Age followed with external dangers coming both from the Baltic tribes, who attacked across the southern land border, and from overseas. Several Scandinavian sagas refer to retaliatory campaigns against Estonia. Estonian pirates conducted similar raids against the Vikings(SONY PCG-6S2L battery). The "pagan raiders" who sacked the Swedish town of Sigtuna during the early Middle Ages, in 1187, were Estonians.
In the 1st centuries AD, political and administrative subdivisions began to emerge in Estonia. Two larger subdivisions appeared: the province (Estonian: kihelkond) and the land (Estonian: maakond). The province comprised several elderships or villages(SONY PCG-6S3L battery). Nearly all provinces had at least one fortress. The defense of the local area was directed by the highest official, the king or elder. By the 13th century the following major lands had developed in Estonia: Revala, Harjumaa, Saaremaa, Hiiumaa, Läänemaa, Alempois, Sakala, Ugandi, Jogentagana, Soopoolitse, Vaiga, Mõhu, Nurmekund, Järvamaa and Virumaa(SONY PCG-6V1L battery).
Estonia retained a pagan religion centred around a deity called Tharapita. The Chronicle of Henry of Livonia mentions Tharapita as the superior god of Oeselians (inhabitants of Saaremaa island), also well known to Vironian tribes in northern Estonia.
Main articles: Livonian Crusade, Northern Crusades, and Terra Mariana(SONY PCG-6W1L battery)
Kuressaare castle in Saaremaa
At the beginning of the 13th century, Lembitu of Lehola, a chieftain of Sakala sought to unify the Estonian people and thwart Danish and Germanic conquest during the Livonian Crusade. He managed to assemble an army of 6,000 Estonian men from different counties, but he was killed during the Battle of St. Matthew's Day in September 1217(SONY PCG-7111L battery).
In 1228, in the aftermath of the Livonian Crusade, to the 1560s, Estonia became part of Terra Mariana, established on 2 February 1207 as a principality of the Holy Roman Empire and proclaimed by pope Innocent III in 1215 as a subject to the Holy See. The southern parts of the country were conquered by Livonian Brothers of the Sword (SONY PCG-71511M battery)who joined the Teutonic Order in 1237 and became its branch known as Livonian Order. The Duchy of Estonia was formed in the northern parts of the country as a direct dominion of the King of Denmark from 1219 until 1346 when it was sold to the Teutonic order and became part of the Ordenstaat. In 1343(SONY PCG-6W3L battery), the people of northern Estonia and Saaremaa rebelled against the German rule in the St. George's Night Uprising, which was put down by 1345.
Reval (known as Tallinn since 1918) gained Lübeck Rights in 1248 and joined an alliance of trading guilds called the Hanseatic League at the end of the 13th century.
After the Teutonic Order fell into decline following its defeat in the Battle of Grunwald in 1410, and the defeat of the Livonian Order in the Battle of Swienta on 1 September 1435(SONY PCG-7113L battery), the Livonian Confederation agreement was signed on 4 December 1435. The Grand Duchy of Moscow and Tsardom of Russia attempted unsuccessful invasions in 1481 and 1558.
The Livonian Confederation ceased to exist during the Livonian War (1558–82). The wars had reduced the Estonian population from about 250–300,000 people before the Livonian War to 120–140,000 in the 1620s(SONY PCG-7133L battery).
Reformation and Swedish Estonia
Main articles: Swedish Estonia, Duchy of Livonia, Dorpat Voivodeship, and Parnawa Voivodeship
Estonian capital Tallinn in the first half of the 17th century.
The Swedish Empire following the Treaty of Roskilde of 1658. The dark green shows Sweden proper represented in the Riksdag of the Estates, while the other shades of green stand for different dominions and possessions(SONY PCG-7Z1L battery).
The Reformation in Europe officially began in 1517 with Martin Luther (1483–1546) and his 95 Theses. The Reformation resulted in great change in the Baltic region. Ideas entered the Livonian Confederation very quickly and by the 1520s they were well known. Language, education, religion, and politics were greatly transformed. The Church services were now given in the local vernacular, instead of Latin, as was previously used(SONY PCG-7Z2L battery). During the Livonian War in 1561, northern Estonia submitted to Swedish control. Southern Estonia in 1560s formed an autonomous Duchy of Livonia in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth under joint control of the Polish Crown and the Grand Duchy, containing two voivodeships of present-day Estonia: Dorpat Voivodeship (Tartu region) and Parnawa Voivodeship (Pärnu region) (SONY PCG-8Y1L battery). In 1629, mainland Estonia came entirely under Swedish rule. Estonia was administratively divided between the provinces of Estonia in the north and Livonia in southern Estonia and northern Latvia, a division which persisted until the early 20th century.
In 1631, the Swedish king Gustaf II Adolf forced the nobility to grant the peasantry greater rights, although serfdom was retained(SONY PCG-8Y2L battery). King Charles XI withdrew large noble estates to the Swedish Crown effectively turning serfs to taxpaying farmers. In 1632, a printing press and university were established in the city of Dorpat (known as Tartu since 1918). This period is known in Estonian history as "the Good Old Swedish Time. (SONY PCG-8Z2L battery)"
The steady growth of the population continued until the outbreak of the plague in 1657. The Great Famine of 1695–97 killed some 70,000 people – almost 20% of the population.
Main articles: Governorate of Estonia and Autonomous Governorate of Estonia
Following the Capitulation of Estonia and Livonia during the Great Northern War(1700–21), the Swedish empire lost Estonia to Russia by the Treaty of Nystad(SONY PCG-8Z1L battery). However, the upper classes and the higher middle class remained primarily Baltic German. The war devastated the population of Estonia, but it recovered quickly. Although the rights of peasants were initially weakened, serfdom was abolished in 1816 in the province of Estonia and in 1819 in Livonia. After the Russian revolution of 1917, Tallinn remained under Soviet control until 24 February 1918(SONY PCG-7112L battery), when Estonian independence was declared.
Declaration of independence
Main articles: Occupation of Estonia by the German Empire, United Baltic Duchy, Estonian War of Independence, and Vaps Movement
Estonian Declaration of Independence
As a result of the abolition of serfdom and the availability of education to the native Estonian-speaking population, an active Estonian nationalist movement developed in the 19th century(SONY PCG-6W2L battery). It began on a cultural level, resulting in the establishment of Estonian language literature, theatre and professional music and led on to the formation of the Estonian national identity and the Age of Awakening. Among the leaders of the movement were Johann Voldemar Jannsen, Jakob Hurt and Carl Robert Jakobson(SONY PCG-5K1L battery).
Declaration of independence in Pärnu on 23 February in 1918. One of the first images of the Republic.
Significant accomplishments were the publication of the national epic, Kalevipoeg, in 1862, and the organization of the first national song festival in 1869. In response to a period of Russification initiated by the Russian empire in the 1890s, Estonian nationalism took on more political tones(SONY PCGA-BP2E battery), with intellectuals first calling for greater autonomy, and later, complete independence from the Russian Empire.
Following the Bolshevik takeover of power in Russia after the October Revolution of 1917 and German victories against the Russian army, between the Russian Red Army's retreat and the arrival of advancing German troops, the Committee of Elders of the Maapäev issued the Estonian Declaration of Independence in Pärnu on 23 February and in Tallinn on 24 February 191(SONY VGP-BPL2 battery)8.
After winning the Estonian War of Independence against both Soviet Russia and the German Freikorps and Baltische Landeswehr volunteers, (the Tartu Peace Treaty was signed on 2 February 1920). The Republic of Estonia was recognised (de jure) by Finland on 7 July 1920, Poland on 31 December 1920, Argentina on 12 January 1921 and by the Western Allies on 26 January 1921(SONY VGP-BPL4 battery).
Estonia maintained its independence for twenty-two years. Initially a parliamentary democracy, the parliament (Riigikogu) was disbanded in 1934, following political unrest caused by the global economic crisis. Subsequently the country was ruled by decree by Konstantin Päts, who became President in 1938, the year parliamentary elections resumed(SONY VGP-BPL5A battery).
World War II
Main article: Estonia in World War II
The fate of Estonia in World War II was decided by the German–Soviet Nonaggression Pact and its Secret Additional Protocol of August 1939. World War II casualties of Estonia, estimated at around 25% of the population, were among the highest in Europe. War and occupation deaths have been estimated at 90,000(SONY VGP-BPS2 battery). These include the Soviet deportations in 1941, the German deportations and Holocaust victims. World War II began with the invasion and subsequent partition of an important regional ally of Estonia – Poland, by a joint operation of Nazi Germany and Soviet Union(SONY VGP-BPS3 battery).
Soviet invasion and occupation
Main article: Occupation of the Baltic states
1940 Soviet map of the Estonian SSR
The fate of the Republic of Estonia before World War II was decided by the German–Soviet Nonaggression Pact of August 1939 after Joseph Stalin gained Adolf Hitler's agreement to divide Eastern Europe into "spheres of special interest" according to the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and its Secret Additional Protocol(SONY VGP-BPS4 battery).
On 24 September 1939, warships of the Red Navy appeared off Estonian ports and Soviet bombers began a patrol over Tallinn and the nearby countryside. The Estonian government was forced to give their assent to an agreement which allowed the USSR to establish military bases and station 25,000 troops on Estonian soil for "mutual defence"(SONY VGP-BPS5 battery). On 12 June 1940, the order for a total military blockade on Estonia was given to the Soviet Baltic Fleet.
On 14 June 1940, while world's attention was focused on the fall of Paris to Nazi Germany a day earlier, the Soviet military blockade on Estonia went into effect, two Soviet bombers downed the Finnish passenger airplane "Kaleva" flying from Tallinn to Helsinki carrying three diplomatic pouches from the U.S. legations in Tallinn, Riga and Helsinki(SONY VGP-BPS5A battery). On 16 June 1940, the Soviet Union invaded Estonia. The Red Army exited from their military bases in Estonia on 17 June. The following day, some 90,000 additional troops entered the country. In the face of overwhelming Soviet force, the Estonian government capitulated on 17 June 1940 to avoid bloodshed.
The military occupation of Estonia was complete by 21 June 1940(SONY VGP-BPS8 battery).
Most of the Estonian Defence Forces surrendered according to the orders of the Estonian Government believing that resistance was useless and were disarmed by the Red Army. Only the Estonian Independent Signal Battalion stationed in Tallinn at Raua Street showed resistance to Red Army and Communist Militia called "People's Self-Defence" on 21 June 1940(SONY VGP-BPS8A battery). As the Red Army brought in additional reinforcements supported by six armoured fighting vehicles, the battle lasted several hours until sundown. Finally the military resistance was ended with negotiations and the Independent Signal Battalion surrendered and was disarmed(SONY VGP-BPL8 battery). There were 2 dead Estonian servicemen, Aleksei Männikus and Johannes Mandre, and several wounded on the Estonian side and about 10 killed and more wounded on the Soviet side. The Soviet militia that participated in the battle was led by Nikolai Stepulov(SONY VGP-BPS9 battery).
In 6 August 1940, Estonia was illegally annexed by the Soviet Union as the Estonian SSR. The provisions in the Estonian constitution requiring a popular referendum to decide on joining a supra-national body were ignored. Instead the vote to join the Soviet Union was taken by those elected in the sham elections held in the previous month(SONY VGP-BPS9/S battery). Additionally those who had failed to do their "political duty" of voting Estonia into the USSR, specifically those who had failed to have their passports stamped for voting, were condemned to death by Soviet tribunals. The repressions followed with the mass deportations carried out by the Soviets in Estonia on 14 June 1941. Many of the country's political and intellectual leaders were killed or deported to remote areas of the USSR by the Soviet authorities in 1940–1941(SONY VGP-BPS9A battery). Repressive actions were also taken against thousands of ordinary people.
When the German Operation Barbarossa started against the Soviet Union, about 34,000 young Estonian men were forcibly drafted into the Red Army. Fewer than 30% of them survived the war. Political prisoners who could not be evacuated were executed by the NKVD(SONY VGP-BPS9A/B battery).
Many countries, including the UK and US, did not recognise the annexation of Estonia by the USSR. Such countries recognised Estonian diplomats and consuls who still functioned in many countries in the name of their former governments. These diplomats persisted in this anomalous situation until the ultimate restoration of Baltic independence(SONY VGP-BPS9/B battery).
Contemporary Russian politicians deny that the Republic of Estonia was illegally annexed by the Soviet Union in 1940. They state that the Soviet troops had entered Estonia in 1940 following the agreements and with the consent of the government of the Republic of Estonia, regardless of how their actions can be interpreted today(SONY VGP-BPS9A/S battery). They maintain that the USSR was not in a state of war and was not waging any combat activities on the territory of Estonia; therefore there could be no occupation. The official Soviet and current Russian version claims that Estonians voluntarily gave up their statehood. Freedom fighters of 1944–1976 are labeled "bandits" or "nazis". The Russian position is not recognised internationally(SONY VGP-BPL9 battery).
Main articles: Occupation of Estonia by Nazi Germany, Germanisation, The Holocaust, Reichskommissariat Ostland, and Generalplan Ost
After Germany invaded the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941, the Wehrmacht was able to reach Estonia within days. The German Army crossed the Estonian southern border on 7 July. The Red Army retreated behind the Pärnu River – Emajõgi line on 12 July(SONY VGP-BPS10 battery). At the end of July the Germans resumed their advance in Estonia working in tandem with the Estonian Forest Brothers. Both German troops and Estonian partisans took Narva on 17 August and the Estonian capital Tallinn on 28 August. After the Soviets were driven out from Estonia German troops disarmed all the partisan groups(SONY VGP-BPL10 battery).
Although initially the Germans were perceived by most Estonians as liberators from the USSR and its repressions, and hopes were raised for the restoration of the country's independence, it was soon realised that they were but another occupying power. The Germans used Estonia's resources for the war effort; for the duration of the occupation Estonia and was incorporated into the German province of Ostland(SONY VGP-BPS11 battery).
This led many Estonians, unwilling to side with the Nazis, to join the Finnish Army to fight against the Soviet Union. The Finnish Infantry Regiment 200 (Estonian: soomepoisid) was formed out of Estonian volunteers in Finland. Although many Estonians were recruited into the German armed forces (including Estonian Waffen-SS) (SONY VGP-BPL11 battery), the majority did so only in 1944 when the threat of a new invasion of Estonia by the Red Army had become imminent and it was clear that Nazi Germany could not win the war.
By January 1944, the front was pushed back by the Red Army almost all the way to the former Estonian border. Narva was evacuated. Jüri Uluots, the last legitimate prime minister of the Republic of Estonia (SONY VGP-BPL12 battery) (according to the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia) prior to its fall to the Soviet Union in 1940, delivered a radio address that appealed to all able-bodied men born from 1904 through 1923 to report for military service (Before this, Jüri Uluots had opposed Estonian mobilization.) The call drew support from all across the country(SONY VGP-BPS12 battery): 38,000 volunteers jammed registration centres.
Several thousand Estonians who had joined the Finnish Army came back across the Gulf of Finland to join the newly formed Territorial Defense Force, assigned to defend Estonia against the Soviet advance. It was hoped that by engaging in such a war Estonia would be able to attract Western support for the cause of Estonia's independence from the USSR and thus ultimately succeed in achieving independence(SONY VGP-BPS13 battery).
Main articles: Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic, Occupation of the Baltic states, and Estonian Government in Exile
The Soviet forces reconquered Estonia in the autumn of 1944 after fierce battles in the northeast of the country on the Narva river, on the Tannenberg Line (Sinimäed), in Southeast Estonia, on the Emajõgi river, and in the West Estonian Archipelago(SONY VGP-BPS13Q battery).
In the face of the country being re-occupied by the Red Army, tens of thousands of Estonians (including a majority of the education, culture, science, political and social specialists) (estimates as many as 80,000) chose to either retreat with the Germans or flee to Finland or Sweden. On 12 January 1949(SONY VGP-BPS13A/Q battery), the Soviet Council of Ministers issued a decree "on the expulsion and deportation" from Baltic states of "all kulaks and their families, the families of bandits and nationalists", and others.
More than 200,000 people are estimated to have been deported from the Baltic in 1940–1953. In addition, at least 75,000 were sent to Gulag(SONY VGP-BPS13B/Q battery). More than 10% of the entire adult Baltic population was deported or sent to Soviet labor camps. In response to the continuing insurgency against Soviet rule, more than 20,000 Estonians were forcibly deported either to labor camps or Siberia (see Gulag). Within the few weeks that followed, almost all of the remaining rural households were collectivized(SONY VGP-BPS13/B battery).
After World War II, as part of the goal to more fully integrate Baltic countries into the Soviet Union, mass deportations were concluded in the Baltic countries and the policy of encouraging Soviet immigration to the Baltic states continued. In addition to the human and material losses suffered due to war, thousands of civilians were killed and tens of thousands of people deported from Estonia by the Soviet authorities until Joseph Stalin's death in 1953(SONY VGP-BPS13B/B battery).
Half of the deported perished, the other half were not allowed to return until the early 1960s (years after Stalin's death). The various repressive activities of Soviet forces in 1940–1941 and after reoccupation sparked a guerrilla war against the Soviet authorities in Estonia which was waged into the early 1950s by "forest brothers" (metsavennad) (SONY VGP-BPS13A/S battery) consisting mostly of Estonian veterans of both the German and Finnish armies as well as some civilians. Material damage caused by the world war and the following Soviet era significantly slowed Estonia's economic growth, resulting in a wide wealth gap in comparison with neighboring Finland and Sweden(SONY VGP-BPS21A/B battery).
Militarization was another aspect of the Soviet regime. Large parts of the country, especially the coastal areas were closed to all but the Soviet military. Most of the sea shore and all sea islands (including Saaremaa and Hiiumaa) were declared "border zones". People not actually resident there were restricted from traveling to them without a permit(SONY VGP-BPS21B battery). A notable closed military installation was the city of Paldiski which was entirely closed to all public access. The city had a support base for the Soviet Baltic Fleet's submarines and several large military bases, including a nuclear submarine training centre complete with a full-scale model of a nuclear submarine with working nuclear reactors(SONY VGP-BPS21 battery). The Paldiski reactors building passed into Estonian control in 1994 after the last Soviet troops left the country. Immigration was another effect of Soviet occupation. Hundreds of thousands of migrants were relocated to Estonia from other parts of Soviet Union to assist industrialization and militarization, contributing an increase of about half a million people within 45 years(SONY VGP-BPS21/S battery).
Main articles: Singing Revolution and Baltic Way
The US, UK, France, Italy and the majority of other Western democracies considered the annexation of Estonia by the USSR illegal. They retained diplomatic relations with the representatives of the independent Republic of Estonia, never de jure recognised the existence of the Estonian SSR(SONY VGP-BPS13AS battery), and never recognised Estonia as a legal constituent part of the Soviet Union. Estonia's return to independence became possible as the Soviet Union faced internal regime challenges, loosening its hold on the outer empire. As the 1980s progressed, a movement for Estonian autonomy started. In the initial period of 1987–1989(SONY VGP-BPS13S battery), this was partially for more economic independence, but as the Soviet Union weakened and it became increasingly obvious that nothing short of full independence would do, the country began a course towards self-determination.
Estonia joined the European Union in 2004 and signed the Lisbon Treaty in 2007.
In 1989, during the "Singing Revolution", in a landmark demonstration for more independence(SONY VGP-BPS13B/S battery), called the Baltic Way, a human chain of more than two million people was formed, stretching through Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. All three nations had similar experiences of occupation and similar aspirations for regaining independence. The Estonian Sovereignty Declaration was issued on 16 November 1988 and formal independence declared on 20 August 1991(SONY VGP-BPS13B/G battery), reconstituting the pre-1940 state, during the Soviet military coup attempt in Moscow. The Soviet Union recognised the independence of Estonia on 6 September 1991. The first country to diplomatically recognize Estonia's reclaimed independence was Iceland. The last Russian troops left on 31 August 1994(SONY VGP-BPS14 battery).
The 2004 enlargement of the European Union was the largest single expansion of the European Union (EU), both in terms of territory and population, however not in terms of gross domestic product (wealth). Estonia was amongst a group of ten countries which were incorporated into the EU on 1 May 2004. The Treaty of Accession 2003 was signed on 16 April 2003(SONY VGP-BPL14 battery).
Territorial history timeline
Main articles: Geography of Estonia, Protected areas of Estonia, Climate of Estonia, and Fauna of Estonia
Satellite image of Estonia
View from the highest point of Estonia at Suur Munamägi.
Estonia's land border with Latvia runs 267 kilometers; the Russian border runs 290 kilometers. From 1920 to 1945, Estonia's border with Russia, set by the 1920 Tartu Peace Treaty(SONY VGP-BPS14/B battery), extended beyond the Narva River in the northeast and beyond the town of Pechory (Petseri) in the southeast. This territory, amounting to some 2,300 square kilometers (888 sq mi), was incorporated into Russia by Stalin at the end of World War II. For this reason the borders between Estonia and Russia are not still defined today(SONY VGP-BPS14/S battery).
Estonia lies on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea immediately across the Gulf of Finland from Finland on the level northwestern part of the rising East European platform between 57.3° and 59.5° N and 21.5° and 28.1° E. Average elevation reaches only 50 meters (164 ft) and the country's highest point is the Suur Munamägi in the southeast at 318 meters (1,043 ft) (SONY VGP-BPS14B battery). There is 3,794 kilometers (2,357 mi) of coastline marked by numerous bays, straits, and inlets. The number of islands and islets is estimated at some 1,500. Two of them are large enough to constitute separate counties: Saaremaa and Hiiumaa. A small, recent cluster of meteorite craters, the largest of which is called Kaali is found on Saaremaa, Estonia(SONY VGP-BPS22 battery).
Estonia is situated in the northern part of the temperate climate zone and in the transition zone between maritime and continental climate. Estonia has four seasons of near-equal length. Average temperatures range from 16.3 °C (61.3 °F) on the Baltic islands to 18.1 °C (64.6 °F) inland in July, the warmest month, and from −3.5 °C (25.7 °F) (SONY VGP-BPS22 battery)on the Baltic islands to −7.6 °C (18.3 °F) inland in February, the coldest month. The average annual temperature in Estonia is 5.2 °C (41.4 °F). The average precipitation in 1961–1990 ranged from 535 to 727 mm (21.1 to 28.6 in) per year.
Snow cover, which is deepest in the south-eastern part of Estonia, usually lasts from mid-December to late March. Estonia has over 1,400 lakes(SONY VGP-BPS18 battery). Most are very small, with the largest, Lake Peipus, (Peipsi in Estonian) being 3,555 km2 (1,373 sq mi). There are many rivers in the country. The longest of them are Võhandu (162 km/101 mi), Pärnu (144 km/89 mi), and Põltsamaa (135 km/84 mi). Estonia has numerous fens and bogs(SONY VGP-BPS22/A battery).
Phytogeographically, Estonia is shared between the Central European and Eastern European provinces of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. According to the WWF, the territory of Estonia belongs to the ecoregion of Sarmatic mixed forests(SONY VGP-BPS22A battery).
Main articles: Counties of Estonia, Municipalities of Estonia, Boroughs of Estonia, Small boroughs of Estonia, and Populated places in Estonia
Old town in Haapsalu
Main street in Pärnu
Town Hall in Tartu
Kuressaare Castle in winter
The Republic of Estonia is divided into fifteen counties (Maakonnad) which are the administrative subdivisions of the country. The first documented mentioning of Estonian political and administrative subdivisions comes from the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia, written in the 13th century during the Northern Crusades(SONY Vaio VGC-LB15 battery).
A maakond (county) is the biggest administrative subdivision. The county government (Maavalitsus) of each county is led by a county governor (Maavanem), who represents the national government at the regional level. Governors are appointed by the Government of Estonia for a term of five years(SONY Vaio VGC-LJ50B/B battery). Several changes were made to the borders of counties after Estonia became independent, most notably the formation of Valga County (from parts of Võru, Tartu and Viljandi counties) and Petseri County (area acquired from Russia with the 1920 Tartu Peace Treaty).
During the Soviet rule, Petseri County was annexed and ceded to the Russian SFSR in 1945 where it became one the Pskovs districts(SONY Vaio VGC-LJ50B/P battery). Counties were again re-established on 1 January 1990 in the borders of the Soviet-era regions. Because of the numerous differences between the current and historical (pre-1940, and sometimes pre-1918) layouts, the historical borders are still used in ethnology, representing cultural and linguistic differences better(SONY Vaio VGC-LJ50B/W battery).
Estonia is divided into 15 counties (maakond). Each county is further divided into municipalities (omavalitsus), which is also the smallest administrative subdivision of Estonia. There are two types of municipalities: an urban municipality – linn (town), and a rural municipality – vald (parish). There is no other status distinction between them(SONY Vaio VGC-LJ50DB/W battery). Each municipality is a unit of self-government with its representative and executive bodies. The municipalities in Estonia cover the entire territory of the country.
A municipality may contain one or more populated places. Tallinn is divided into eight districts (linnaosa) with limited self-government (Haabersti, Kesklinn (centre), Kristiine, Lasnamäe, Mustamäe, Nõmme, Pirita and Põhja-Tallinn) (SONY Vaio VGC-LJ51B/P battery).
Municipalities range in size from Tallinn with 400,000 inhabitants to Ruhnu with as few as 60. As over two-thirds of the municipalities have a population of under 3,000, many of them have found it advantageous to co-operate in providing services and carrying out administrative functions(SONY Vaio VGC-LJ51B/R battery). There have also been calls for an administrative reform to merge smaller municipalities together.
As of March 2008, there are a total of 227 municipalities in Estonia, 33 of them being urban and 193 rural.
Main articles: Politics of Estonia, List of political parties in Estonia, and Elections in Estonia(SONY Vaio VGC-BJ51B/W battery)
Politics of Estonia takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic in which the Prime Minister of Estonia is the head of government and of a multi-party system. The political culture is very stable in Estonia, where the power is held between two to three parties, that have been in politics for a long time(SONY Vaio VGC-LJ51DB/B battery). This situation is similar to other countries in Northern Europe. The current prime minister of Estonia, Andrus Ansip, is the second longest-serving prime minister in Europe.
Main article: Riigikogu
The seat of the Parliament of Estonia in Toompea Castle.
The Parliament of Estonia (Estonian: Riigikogu) or the legislative branch is elected by people for a four year term by proportional representation. Estonia is a parliamentary representative democratic republic(SONY Vaio VGC-LJ52B/N battery). The Estonian political system operates under a framework laid out in the 1992 constitutional document. The Estonian parliament has 101 members and influences the governing of the state primarily by determining the income and the expenses of the state (establishing taxes and adopting the budget). At the same time the parliament has the right to present statements(SONY Vaio VGC-LJ52B/P battery), declarations and appeals to the people of Estonia, ratify and denounce international treaties with other states and international organisations and decide on the Government loans.
The Riigikogu elects and appoints several high officials of the state, including the President of the Republic. In addition to that, the Riigikogu appoints, on the proposal of the President of Estonia, the Chairman of the National Court, the Chairman of the Board of the Bank of Estonia, the Auditor General(SONY Vaio VGC-LJ52B/W battery), the Legal Chancellor and the Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Forces. A member of the Riigikogu has the right to demand explanations from the Government of the Republic and its members. This enables the members of the parliament to observe the activities of the executive power and the above mentioned high officials of the state(SONY Vaio VGC-LJ52DB/B battery).
Main articles: Government of Estonia, Prime Minister of Estonia, and President of Estonia
Stenbock House, the seat of the Government of Estonia on Toompea Hill
The Government of Estonia (Estonian: Vabariigi Valitsus) or the executive branch is formed by the Prime Minister of Estonia, nominated by the president and approved by the parliament(SONY Vaio VGC-LJ53B/W battery). The government exercises executive power pursuant to the Constitution of Estonia and the laws of the Republic of Estonia and consists of 12 ministers, including the prime minister. The prime minister also has the right to appoint other ministers, whom he or she will assign with a subject to deal with and who will not have a ministry to control, becoming a minister without portfolio who currently is the Minister of Regions(SONY Vaio VGC-LJ54B/W battery).
The prime minister has the right to appoint a maximum of 3 such ministers, as the limit of ministers in one government is 15. It is also known as the cabinet. The cabinet carries out the country's domestic and foreign policy, shaped by parliament; it directs and co-ordinates the work of government institutions and bears full responsibility for everything occurring within the authority of executive power(SONY Vaio VGC-LJ90HS battery). The government, headed by the Prime Minister, thus represents the political leadership of the country and makes decisions in the name of the whole executive power.
Estonia has pursued the development of the e-state and e-government. Internet voting is used in elections in Estonia(SONY Vaio VGC-LJ90S battery). The first Internet voting took place in the 2005 local elections and the first in a parliamentary election was made available for the 2007 elections, in which 30,275 individuals voted over the Internet. Voters have a chance to invalidate their electronic vote in traditional elections, if they wish to. In 2009 in its 8th Worldwide Press Freedom Index, Reporters Without Borders ranked Estonia 6th out of 175 countries(SONY Vaio VGC-LJ91HS battery). In the first ever State of World Liberty Index report, Estonia was ranked 1st out of 159 countries.
Main article: Law of Estonia
See also: Police and Border Guard Board
The Supreme Court building in Tartu
According to the Constitution of Estonia (Estonian: Põhiseadus) the supreme power of the state is vested in the people. The people exercise their supreme power of the state on the elections of the Riigikogu through citizens who have the right to vote. The supreme judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court or Riigikohus(SONY Vaio VGC-LJ91S battery), with 19 justices. The Chief Justice is appointed by the parliament for nine years on nomination by the president. The official Head of State is the President of Estonia, who gives assent to the laws passed by Riigikogu, also having the right of sending them back and proposing new laws.
The president, however, does not use these rights very often, having a largely ceremonial role(SONY Vaio VGC-LJ92HS battery). He or she is elected by Riigikogu, with two-thirds of the votes required. If the candidate does not gain the amount of votes required, the right to elect the president goes over to an electoral body, consisting of the 101 members of Riigikogu and representatives from local councils. As other spheres, Estonian law-making has been successfully integrated with the Information Age(SONY Vaio VGC-LJ92S battery).
Main articles: Foreign relations of Estonia, Diplomatic missions of Estonia, Estonia–Russia relations, and Estonia – United States relations
President Toomas Hendrik Ilves and President George W. Bush, in Estonia 2006.
Estonia was a member of the League of Nations from 22 September 1921, has been a member of the United Nations since 17 September 1991(SONY Vaio VGC-LJ94HS battery), and of NATO since 29 March 2004, as well as the European Union since 1 May 2004. Estonia has also signed the Kyoto protocol. Estonia is a member of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). As an OSCE participating State, Estonia’s international commitments are subject to monitoring under the mandate of the U.S. Helsinki Commission(SONY Vaio VGC-LJ94S battery).
Since regaining independence, Estonia has pursued a foreign policy of close cooperation with its Western European partners. The two most important policy objectives in this regard have been accession into NATO and the European Union, achieved in March and May 2004 respectively(SONY Vaio VGN-CR120E/W battery). Estonia's international realignment toward the West has been accompanied by a general deterioration in relations with Russia, most recently demonstrated by the controversy surrounding the relocation of the Bronze Soldier WWII memorial in Tallinn.
Estonia is a member of the European parliament since 2004.
An important element in Estonia's post-independence reorientation has been closer ties with the Nordic countries, especially Finland and Sweden(SONY Vaio VGN-CR120E/R battery). Indeed, Estonians consider themselves a Nordic people rather than Balts, based on their historical ties with Sweden, Denmark and particularly Finland. In December 1999, then Estonian foreign minister (and since 2006, president of Estonia) Toomas Hendrik Ilves delivered a speech entitled "Estonia as a Nordic Country" to the Swedish Institute for International Affairs(SONY Vaio VGN-CR120E/P battery). In 2003, the foreign ministry also hosted an exhibit called "Estonia: Nordic with a Twist".
In 2005, Estonia joined the European Union's Nordic Battle Group. It has also shown continued interest in joining the Nordic Council. Whereas in 1992 Russia accounted for 92% of Estonia's international trade(SONY Vaio VGN-CR120E/L battery), today there is extensive economic interdependence between Estonia and its Nordic neighbors: three quarters of foreign investment in Estonia originates in the Nordic countries (principally Finland and Sweden), to which Estonia sends 42% of its exports (as compared to 6.5% going to Russia, 8.8% to Latvia, and 4.7% to Lithuania) (SONY Vaio VGN-CR120E battery). On the other hand, the Estonian political system, its flat rate of income tax, and its non-welfare-state model distinguish it from the other Nordic states, and indeed from many other European countries.
Main article: Military of Estonia
Estonia is a part of the Nordic Battle Group.
An Estonian Patria Pasi XA-180 in Afghanistan.
Estonian military personnel in training during Erna Retk.
The military of Estonia is based upon the Estonian Defence Forces (Estonian: Kaitsevägi) which is the name of the unified armed forces of the republic with Maavägi (Army) (SONY Vaio VGN-CR120 battery), Merevägi (Navy), Õhuvägi (Air Force) and a paramilitary national guard organization Kaitseliit (Defence League). The Estonian National Defence Policy aim is to guarantee the preservation of the independence and sovereignty of the state, the integrity of its land, territorial waters, airspace and its constitutional order(SONY Vaio VGN-CR11H/B battery). At the moment the main strategic goals are to be able to defend the country's interests and development of the armed forces which would be ready to be interoperability with the other armed forces of NATO and European Union member states and also their capability to participate in NATO missions(SONY Vaio VGN-CR116E battery).
The current national military service (Estonian: ajateenistus) is compulsory for men between 18 and 28, and conscripts serve eight-month to eleven-month tours of duty depending on the army branch they serve in. Estonia has retained conscription unlike Latvia and Lithuania and has no plan to transition to a professional army(SONY Vaio VGN-CR116 battery). In 2008, annual military spending will reach 1.85% of GDP, or 5 billion kroons, and will continue to increase until 2010, when a 2.0% level is expected to be reached.
As of January 2008, the Estonian military had almost 300 troops stationed in foreign countries as part of various international peacekeeping forces, including 35 Defence League troops stationed in Kosovo(SONY Vaio VGN-CR115E battery); 120 Ground Forces soldiers in the NATO-led ISAF force in Afghanistan; 80 soldiers stationed as a part of MNF in Iraq; and 2 Estonian officers in Bosnia-Herzegovina and 2 Estonian military agents in Israel's Golan Heights.
The Estonian Defence Forces have also previously had military missions in Croatia from March until October 1995, in Lebanon from December 1996 until June 1997 and in Macedonia from May until December 2003(SONY Vaio VGN-CR115 battery). Estonia participates in the Nordic Battlegroup and has announced readiness to send soldiers also to Sudan to Darfur if necessary, creating the very first African peacekeeping mission for the armed forces of Estonia.
The Ministry of Defence and the Defence Forces have been working on a cyberwarfare and defence formation for some years now(SONY Vaio VGN-CR110EW battery). In 2007, a military doctrine of an e-military of Estonia was officially introduced as the country was under massive cyberattacks in 2007. The proposed aim of the e-military is to secure the vital infrastructure and e-infrastructure of Estonia. The main cyber warfare facility is the Computer Emergency Response Team of Estonia (CERT) which was founded in 2006(SONY Vaio VGN-CR110 battery). The organization operates with the security problems that occur in the local networks also with those which are started there.
On 25 June 2007, Estonian president Toomas Hendrik Ilves met with the President of the US, George W. Bush. Among the topics discussed were the attacks on Estonian e-infrastructure. The attacks triggered a number of military organisations around the world to reconsider the importance of network security to modern military doctrine(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ battery). On 14 June 2007, defence ministers of NATO members held a meeting in Brussels, issuing a joint communiqué promising immediate action. First public results were estimated to arrive by autumn 2007.
As to the placement of a NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence (CCDCOE), Bush announced his support of Estonia as this centre's location(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11S battery). In the aftermath of the 2007 cyberattacks, plans to combine network defence with Estonian military doctrine have been nicknamed as the Tiger's Defence, in reference to Tiigrihüpe. The CCDCOE started its operations in November 2008.
Main article: Economy of Estonia
Tornimäe business area in Tallinn
Business quarter in Tartu.
As a member of the European Union, Estonia's economy is rated as high income by the World Bank. Because of its rapid growth, the Estonian economy has often been described as the Baltic Tiger. Beginning 1 January 2011, Estonia adopted the euro and became the 17th eurozone member state(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ15T battery).
According to Eurostat newsrelease published at 21 October 2011, Estonia has the lowest ratio of government debt to GDP among EU countries as 6.7 percent at the end of 2010. The world media has lately started to describe Estonia as a Nordic country, emphasizing the economic, political and cultural differences between Estonia and its less successful Baltic neighbors(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ15G battery).
A balanced budget, almost non-existent public debt, flat-rate income tax, free trade regime, competitive commercial banking sector, innovative e-Services and even mobile-based services are all hallmarks of Estonia's market economy.
Estonia is producing ca 75% of its consumed electricity. Over 85% of it generated with locally mined oil shale. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ4000 battery). Alternative energy sources such as wood, peat, and biomass make up approximately 9% of primary energy production. Renewable wind energy part was ca 6% of total consumption in 2009. Estonia imports needed petroleum products from western Europe and Russia. Oil shale energy, telecommunications, textiles, chemical products, banking, services(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ460E battery), food and fishing, timber, shipbuilding, electronics, and transportation are key sectors of the economy. The ice-free port of Muuga, near Tallinn, is a modern facility featuring good transshipment capability, a high-capacity grain elevator, chill/frozen storage, and brand-new oil tanker off-loading capabilities. The railroad serves as a conduit between the West, Russia, and other points to the East(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ440N battery).
Estonia is part of the Schengen Area, the EU single market and Eurozone (dark blue).
Estonia today is mainly influenced by developments in Finland, Sweden and Germany – the three main trade partners. The government recently increased greatly its spending on innovation. The prime minister of Estonian Reform Party has stated its goal of bringing Estonian GDP per capita into the TOP 5 of EU by 2022(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ440E battery<
Because of the Global Economic Recession, the GDP of Estonia decreased by 1.4% in the 2nd quarter of 2008, over 3% in the 3rd quarter of 2008, and over 9% in the 4th quarter of 2008. The Estonian government made a supplementary negative budget, which was passed by Riigikogu(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ430E battery). The revenue of the budget was decreased for 2008 by EEK 6.1 billion and the expenditure by EEK 3.2 billion. In 2010, the economic situation stabilized and started a growth based on strong exports. In the fourth quarter of 2010, Estonian industrial output increased by 23% compared to the year before(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ280E battery).
According to Eurostat data, Estonian PPS GDP per capita stood at 67% of the EU average in 2008. In March 2011, the average monthly gross salary in Estonia was 843€
However, there are big differences in GDP between different areas in Estonia. Currently, over half of the Estonian GDP is created in the capital Tallinn(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ190 battery). In 2008, the GDP per capita of Tallinn stood at 172% of the Estonian average. This makes the GDP per capita of Tallinn number in at 115% of the European Union average, exceeding the average levels of other counties.
The registered unemployment rate was in April 2011 10.1%.
In 2011, the real GDP growth in Estonia was 8.0%(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ150E battery).
Real GDP growth in Estonia, 2000–2011.
Milton Friedman's economic theories have had a large influence on the development of the Estonian economic policies.
By 1929, a stable currency, the kroon, was established. It is issued by the Bank of Estonia, the country's central bank. Trade focused on the local market and the West, particularly Germany and the United Kingdom. Only 3% of all commerce was with the USSR(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ160 battery).
Before the Second World War Estonia was mainly an agricultural country whose products such as butter, milk and cheese were widely known on the western European markets. The USSR's forcible annexation of Estonia in 1940 and the ensuing Nazi and Soviet occupation during World War II crippled the Estonian economy(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ260E battery). Post-war Sovietization of life continued with the integration of Estonia's economy and industry into the USSR's centrally planned structure.
Since re-establishing independence, Estonia has styled itself as the gateway between East and West and aggressively pursued economic reform and integration with the West. Estonia's market reforms put it among the economic leaders in the former COMECON area(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ140E battery). In 1994, based on the economic theories of Milton Friedman, Estonia became one of the first countries to adopt a flat tax, with a uniform rate of 26% regardless of personal income. In January 2005, the personal income tax rate was reduced to 24%. Another reduction to 23% followed in January 2006. The income tax rate was decreased to 21% by January 2008(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11L battery). The Government of Estonia finalised the design of Estonian euro coins in late 2004, and adopted the euro as the country's currency on 1 January 2011, later than planned due to continued high inflation.
In 1999, Estonia experienced its worst year economically since it regained independence in 1991, largely because of the impact of the 1998 Russian financial crisis. Estonia joined the WTO in November 1999(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11Z battery). With assistance from the European Union, the World Bank and the Nordic Investment Bank, Estonia completed most of its preparations for European Union membership by the end of 2002 and now has one of the strongest economies of the new member states of the European Union. Estonia joined the OECD in 2010(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11M battery).
Although Estonia is in general resource-poor, the land still offers a large variety of smaller resources. The country has large oil shale and limestone deposits, along with forests which cover 50.6% of the land. In addition to oil shale and limestone, Estonia also has large reserves of phosphorite, pitchblende and granite which are not mined or mined extensively at the moment(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ18M battery).
Significant quantities of rare earth oxides are found in tailings accumulated from 50 years of uranium ore, shale and loparite mining at Sillamäe. Because of the rising prices of rare earths, extraction of these oxides has become economically viable. The country currently exports around 3000 tonnes per annum, representing around 2 percent of world production(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ18 battery).
In recent years[when?] a public debate has been raised in the terms of whether Estonia should build a nuclear power plant in order to secure the energy production after the closure of old units in the Narva Power Plants if they are not reconstructed by the year 2016(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ210CE battery).
Industry and environment
See also: Oil shale in Estonia, Narva Power Plants, and Wind power in Estonia
Wind farm in Pakri.
Skype was written and is mainly developed in Estonia.
Food, construction, and electronic industries are currently among the most important branches of Estonia's industry. In 2007, the construction industry employed more than 80,000 people which make around 12% of the entire country's workforce. Another important industrial sector is the machinery and chemical industry which is mainly located in Ida-Viru County and around Tallinn(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31S battery).
The oil shale based mining industry, which is also concentrated in East-Estonia, produces around 90% of the entire country's electricity. The extensive oil shale usage however has also caused severe damage to the environment. Although the amount of pollutants emitted to the air have been falling since the 1980s(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31Z battery), the air is still polluted with sulfur dioxide from the mining industry which was rapidly developed by the Soviet Union in early 1950s. In some areas the coastal seawater is polluted, mainly around the Sillamäe industrial complex.
Estonia is a dependent country in the terms of energy and energy production. In recent years many local and foreign companies have been investing in renewable energy sources(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31E battery). The importance of wind power has been increasing steadily in Estonia and currently the total amount of energy production from wind is nearly 60 MW while at the same time roughly 399 MW worth of projects are currently being developed and more than 2800 MW worth of projects are being proposed in the Lake Peipus area and the coastal areas of Hiiumaa(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31J battery).
Currently[when?], there are plans to renovate some older units of the Narva Power Plants, establish new power stations, and provide higher efficiency in oil shale based energy production. Estonia liberalised 35% of its electricity market in April 2010; the electricity market as whole will be liberalised by 2013(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31M battery). 
Together with Lithuania, Poland, and Latvia, the country is considering to participate in the Visaginas nuclear power plant in Lithuania to replace the Ignalina. However, due to the slow pace of the project, Estonia does not rule out building its own nuclear reactor(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31B battery). Another consideration is doing a joint project with Finland because the two electricity grids are connected. The country is considering to apply nuclear power for its oil shale production.
Estonia has a strong information technology sector, partly owing to the Tiigrihüpe project undertaken in mid-1990s, and has been mentioned as the most "wired" and advanced country in Europe in the terms of e-Government of Estonia(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ32 battery).
Skype was written by Estonia-based developers Ahti Heinla, Priit Kasesalu, and Jaan Tallinn, who had also originally developed Kazaa.
Estonia has had a market economy since the end of 1990s and one of the highest per capita income levels in Eastern Europe. Proximity to the Scandinavian markets, location between the East and West(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ410 battery), competitive cost structure and high-skill labour force have been the major Estonian comparative advantages in the beginning of the 2000s (decade). Tallinn as the largest city has emerged as a financial centre and the Tallinn Stock Exchange joined recently with the OMX system. The current government has pursued relatively sound fiscal policies(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21 battery), resulting in balanced budgets and low public debt.
In 2007, however, a large current account deficit and rising inflation put pressure on Estonia's currency, which was pegged to the euro, highlighting the need for growth in export-generating industries. Estonia exports mainly machinery and equipment, wood and paper, textiles, food products, furniture, and metals and chemical products(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21S battery). Estonia also exports 1.562 billion kilowatt hours of electricity annually. At the same time Estonia imports machinery and equipment, chemical products, textiles, food products and transportation equipment. Estonia imports 200 million kilowatt hours of electricity annually.
Between 2007 and 2013, Estonia receives 53.3 billion kroons (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21M battery) (3.4 billion euros) from various European Union Structural Funds as direct supports by creating the largest foreign investments into Estonia ever. Majority of the European Union financial aid will be invested into to the following fields: energy economies, entrepreneurship, administrative capability, education, information society, environment protection(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ38M battery), regional and local development, research and development activities, healthcare and welfare, transportation and labour market.
Main articles: Transport in Estonia and Rail transport in Estonia
Lennart Meri Tallinn Airport.
Estonia has been an important transit centre since the medieval period. The country's favorable geographical location, along with its developing infrastructure, offers good opportunities for all transport and logistics related activities(Sony VAIO VGN-S battery). Rail transport dominates the cargo sector, carrying 70% of all goods, both domestic and international. Since 2007, the importance of the transport sector to the economy as a whole has been reduced, mainly due to the confrontation between Estonia and Russia(Sony VAIO VGN-SZ battery).
The road transport sector dominates passenger transport; almost 90% of all passengers travel by road. The reconstruction of the Tallinn–Tartu motorway has gained national attention as it connects two of the largest cities in the country. The motorway reconstruction (2+2 route) is part of the current Government Coalition programme(Sony VGN-NR11S/S Battery). Also the proposed permanent connection to Saaremaa Island is in the national infrastructure building programme. The costs of the projects have been estimated in billions of Euros, which have also gained a lot of media attention and caused public debates over the feasibility(Sony VGN-NR11M/S Battery).
There are currently five major cargo ports which offer easy navigational access, deep waters, and good ice conditions. There are 12 airports and one heliport in Estonia of which the Lennart Meri Tallinn Airport is the largest airport, providing services to a number of international carriers flying to 23 destinations(Sony VGN-NR260E/S Battery).
Main article: Demographics of Estonia
Population of Estonia 1970–2010. Data of Statistics Estonia.
Prior to World War II, ethnic Estonians constituted 88% of the population, with national minorities constituting the remaining 12%. The largest minority groups in 1934 were Russians, Germans, Swedes, Latvians, Jews, Poles, Finns and Ingrians. The share of Baltic Germans had fallen from 5.3% (~46,700) in 1881 to 1.3% (16,346) in 1934. (Sony VGN-NR260E/T Battery)
Between 1945 and 1989, the share of ethnic Estonians in the population resident within currently defined boundaries of Estonia dropped to 61%, caused primarily by the Soviet programme promoting mass immigration of urban industrial workers from Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, as well as by wartime emigration and Joseph Stalin's mass deportations and executions(Sony VGN-NR260E/W Battery). By 1989, minorities constituted more than one-third of the population, as the number of non-Estonians had grown almost fivefold.
At the end of the 1980s, Estonians perceived their demographic change as a national catastrophe. This was a result of the migration policies essential to the Soviet Nationalisation Programme aiming to russify Estonia(Sony VGN-NR11Z/S Battery) – forceful administrative and military immigration of non-Estonians from the USSR coupled with the mass deportations of Estonians to the USSR. During the purges up to 110,000 Estonians were killed or deported. In the decade following the reconstitution of independence, large-scale emigration by ethnic Russians and the removal of the Russian military bases in 1994 caused the proportion of ethnic Estonians in Estonia to increase from 61% to 69% in 2006(Sony VGN-NR11Z/T Battery).
Modern Estonia is a fairly ethnically heterogeneous country, but this heterogeneity is not a feature of much of the country as the non-Estonian population is concentrated in two of Estonia's counties. Thirteen of Estonia's 15 counties are over 80 percent ethnic Estonian, the most homogeneous being Hiiumaa(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21E battery), where Estonians account for 98.4% of the population. In the counties of Harju (including the capital city, Tallinn) and Ida-Viru, however, ethnic Estonians make up 60% and 20% of the population, respectively. Russians make up 25.6% of the total population, but account for 36% of the population in Harju county, and 70% of the population in Ida-Viru county(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21Z battery).
The law on the Cultural Autonomy for National Minorities was passed in 1925, which was the first in Europe at the time. Cultural autonomies could be granted to minorities numbering more than 3,000 people with longstanding ties to the Republic of Estonia. Prior to the Soviet occupation(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21J battery), the Germans and Jewish minorities managed to elect a cultural council. The Law on Cultural Autonomy for National Minorities was reinstated in 1993. Historically, large parts of Estonia's north-western coast and islands have been populated by indigenous ethnically Rannarootslased (Coastal Swedes) (Sony VAIO VGN-FW11 battery).
The majority of Estonia's Swedish population of 3,800 fled to Sweden or were deported in 1944, escaping the advancing Red Army. In the recent years the numbers of Coastal Swedes has risen again, numbering in 2008 almost 500 people, owing to the property reforms in the beginning of 1990s. In 2005, the Ingrian Finnish minority in Estonia elected a cultural council and was granted cultural autonomy(Sony VAIO VGN-FW11M battery). The Estonian Swedish minority similarly received cultural autonomy in 2007.
Main article: List of cities and towns in Estonia
Tallinn is the capital and the largest city of Estonia. It lies on the northern coast of Estonia, along the Gulf of Finland. There are currently 33 cities and several town-parish towns in the country. In total there are 47 linna, with "linn" in English meaning both the "cities" and "towns"(Sony VAIO VGN-FW11S battery). More than 70% of the population lives in towns. The 20 largest cities are listed below:
Main article: Religion in Estonia
St. Olaf's church: The tallest building in the world between 1549 and 1625.
St. John's church, Tartu
Estonia's constitution guarantees freedom of religion, separation of church and state, and individual rights to privacy of belief and religion. According to the Dentsu Communication Institute Inc, Estonia is the second least religious country in the world, with 75.7% of the population claiming to be irreligious, after China with 93%(Sony VAIO VGN-FW21E battery). The Eurobarometer Poll 2005 found that only 16% of Estonians profess a belief in a god, the lowest belief of all countries studied (EU study).
The largest religious faith in the country is Evangelical Lutheranism, adhered to by 152,000 Estonians (or 14.8%) of the population, principally ethnic Estonians. 143,000 inhabitants follow the Eastern Orthodox Christianity, practised chiefly by the Russian minority. (Sony VAIO VGN-FW21J battery)
According to the census of 2000, there were about 152,000 Lutherans, 143,000 Orthodox Christians, 5,000 Roman Catholics, 4,268 Jehovah's Witnesses and 1,000 adherents of Taaraism or Maausk in Estonia (see Maavalla Koda). There is a Jewish community in Estonia, with an estimated population of about 1,900 (Sony VAIO VGN-FW21L battery) (see History of the Jews in Estonia). In addition there were around 68,000 people who declared themselves to be atheists.
The country was Christianised by the Teutonic Knights in the 13th century. During the Reformation, Protestantism spread, and the Lutheran church was officially established in Estonia in 1686. Still, many Estonians profess not to be particularly religious, because religion through the 19th century was associated with German feudal rule(Sony VAIO VGN-FW41M battery). Historically there has been also another minority religion, Russian Old-believers, near Lake Peipus area in Tartu County.
See also: Human rights in Estonia
The Jewish Synagogue in Tallinn
Citizenship of the Estonian population (2 July 2010). Data is from Estonia.eu.
Estonian society has undergone considerable changes over the last twenty years, one of the most notable being the increasing level of stratification, and the distribution of family income(Sony VAIO VGN-FW41M/H battery). The Gini coefficient has been steadily higher than the European Union average (31 in 2009), although it has clearly dropped. The unemployment rate in October 2011 was 7.2%.
Today's Estonia is a multinational country where, according to the 2000 census, altogether 109 languages are spoken. 67.3% of Estonian citizens speak Estonian as their native language, 29.7% – Russian and 3% speak other languages(Sony VAIO VGN-FW21M battery). As of 2 July 2010, 84.1% of Estonian residents are Estonian citizens, 8.6% are citizens of other countries and 7.3% are "citizens with undetermined citizenship". Since 1992 roughly 140,000 people have acquired Estonian citizenship through naturalization.
The ethnic distribution in Estonia is very homogenous, where in most counties, over 90% of the people are ethnic Estonians. There is a bigger difference in larger cities like Tallinn(Sony VAIO VGN-FW21Z battery), where Estonians account for 60% of the population. The rest is mainly comprised from Russian- and other slavic background habitat, who arrived in Estonia during the Soviet Occupation.
According to the surveys only 5% of the Russian community have thought of turning back to Russia in the near future. Estonian Russians have developed their own identity – more than half of the respondents recognised that Estonian Russians differ noticeably from the Russians in Russia(Sony VAIO VGN-FW32J battery). When comparing the result with a survey from 2000, then Russians’ attitude towards the future is much more positive.
Women are leading Estonia's scientific society. In 2006, over 60% of the scientists in Estonia were women.
Upon giving birth, the Estonian government grants one of the parents 100% of their former salary for 18 months. After 1.5 years, the parent has the right to resume her/his former position. In addition, the parent and child will also receive free healthcare(Sony VAIO VGN-FW17W battery). The parents who did not work before giving birth (unemployed, students etc.) currently receive 278 euros a month; the top salary is capped at 2157 euros a month. These measures, which have been in force from 2005, have not been proven to have had a major positive effect on the birth rate in Estonia, which has increased already since 2001(Sony VAIO VGN-FW31E battery).
Those policy measures concentrate on the period where the children are very young. After that age, the monthly state support to a child is 19 euros a month (for the first two children) and 58 euros (for three or more children). Despite considerable variation and fluctuations in the support to the family with children(Sony VAIO VGN-FW139E battery), the majority of Estonian families do not face great hardships and State of The World's Mothers 2011 report ranked Estonia as the 18th best country in the world to be a mother, ahead of countries like Canada and The United States.
Main article: Languages of Estonia
The official language, Estonian, belongs to the Finnic branch of the Uralic languages. Estonian is closely related to Finnish, spoken on the other side of the Gulf of Finland, and is one of the few languages of Europe that is not of an Indo-European origin(Sony VAIO VGN-FW139E/H battery). Despite some overlaps in the vocabulary due to borrowings, in terms of its origin, Estonian and Finnish are not related to their nearest geographical neighbours, Swedish, Latvian and Russian, which are all Indo-European languages.
Russian is still spoken as a secondary language by forty- to seventy-year-old ethnic Estonians, because Russian was the unofficial language of the Estonian SSR from 1944 to 1991 and taught as a compulsory second language during the Soviet era(Sony VAIO VGN-FW465J battery). In 1998, most first and second generation industrial immigrants from various parts of the former Soviet Union (mainly Russia (RSFSR)) did not speak Estonian. However by 2010, 64.1% of non-ethnic Estonians spoke Estonian.
The latter, mostly Russian-speaking ethnic minorities, reside predominantly in the capital city of Tallinn and the industrial urban areas in Ida-Virumaa(Sony VAIO VGN-FW31M battery). In the small Noarootsi Parish in Läänemaa (known as Nuckö kommun in Swedish and Noarootsi vald in Estonian), both Swedish and Estonian are co-official languages, and there are 22 villages with officially bilingual names. The most common foreign languages learned by Estonians are English, Russian, Finnish, German and Swedish(Sony VAIO VGN-FW31J battery).
Education and science
Main article: Education in Estonia
See also: List of universities in Estonia, Space science in Estonia, and Tiigrihüpe
The University of Tartu is one of the oldest universities in Northern Europe and the highest-ranked university in Estonia
Viimsi High School in Harju county
The building of the Tallinn University
Building of the Estonian Student's Society in Tartu(Sony VAIO VGN-FW31Z battery)
The history of formal education in Estonia dates back to the 13–14th centuries when the first monastic and cathedral schools were founded. The first primer in the Estonian language was published in 1575. The oldest university is the University of Tartu which was established by the Swedish king Gustav II Adolf in 1632(Sony VGN-NR11Z Battery). In 1919, university courses were first taught in Estonian language.
Today's education in Estonia is divided into general, vocational and hobby education. The education system is based on four levels which include the pre-school, basic, secondary and higher education. A wide network of schools and supporting educational institutions have been established. The Estonian educational system consists of state(Sony VGN-NR11S Battery), municipal, public and private educational institutions. There are currently 589 schools in Estonia.
According to the Programme for International Student Assessment, the performance levels of gymnasium-aged pupils in Estonia is among the highest in the world.
Academic higher education in Estonia is divided into three levels: bachelor's studies, master's studies, and doctoral studies. In some specialties (basic medical studies(Sony VGN-NR110E Battery), veterinary, pharmacy, dentistry, architect-engineer and a classroom teacher programme) the Bachelors and Master's levels are integrated into one unit. Estonian public universities have significantly more autonomy than applied higher education institutions.
In addition to organizing the academic life of the university, universities can create new curricula, establish admission terms and conditions, approve the budget(Sony VGN-NR110E/T Battery), approve the development plan, elect the rector and make restricted decisions in matters concerning assets. Estonia has a moderate number of public and private universities. The largest public universities are the University of Tartu, Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn University, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonian Academy of Arts(Sony VGN-NR110E/S Battery), and the largest private university is Estonian Business School.
The Estonian Academy of Sciences is Estonia's national academy of science. The first computer centres were established in late 1950s in Tartu and Tallinn. Estonian specialists contributed in the development of software engineering standards for different ministries of the Soviet Union during the 1980s. (Sony VGN-NR110E/W Battery)
Main articles: Culture of Estonia and List of Estonians
The culture of Estonia incorporates indigenous heritage, as represented by the Estonian language and the sauna, with mainstream Nordic and European cultural aspects. Because of its history and geography, Estonia's culture has been influenced by the traditions of the adjacent area's various Finnic(Sony VGN-CR11SR Battery), Baltic, Slavic and Germanic peoples as well as the cultural developments in the former dominant powers Sweden and Russia.
Traditionally, Estonia has been seen as an area of rivalry between western and eastern Europe on many levels. An example of this geopolitical legacy is an exceptional combination of nationally recognised Christian traditions: a western Protestant and an eastern Orthodox Church(Sony VGN-CR11Z Battery). Like the mainstream culture in the other Nordic countries, Estonian culture can be seen to build upon the ascetic environmental realities and traditional livelihoods, a heritage of comparatively widespread egalitarianism out of practical reasons (see: Everyman's right and universal suffrage), and the ideals of closeness to nature and self-sufficiency (Sony VGN-CR11S Battery) (see: summer cottage).
The Estonian Academy of Arts (Estonian: Eesti Kunstiakadeemia, EKA) is providing higher education in art, design, architecture, media, art history and conservation while Viljandi Culture Academy of University of Tartu has an approach to popularize native culture through such curricula as native construction, native blacksmithing, native textile design(Sony VGN-CR11M Battery), traditional handicraft and traditional music, but also jazz and church music. In 2010, there were 245 museums in Estonia whose combined collections contain more than 10 million objects.
Main article: Literature of Estonia
See also: Estophile
National Library of Estonia.
The Estonian literature refers to literature written in the Estonian language (ca. 1 million speakers). The domination of Estonia after the Northern Crusades, from the 13th century to 1918 by Germany(Sony VGN-CR11E Battery), Sweden, and Russia resulted in few early written literary works in the Estonian language. The oldest records of written Estonian date from the 13th century. Originates Livoniae in Chronicle of Henry of Livonia contains Estonian place names, words and fragments of sentences. The Liber Census Daniae (1241) contains Estonian place and family names(Sony VGN-CR21E Battery).
The cultural stratum of Estonian was originally characterized by a largely lyrical form of folk poetry based on syllabic quantity. Apart from a few albeit remarkable exceptions, this archaic form has not been much employed in later times. One of the most outstanding achievements in this field is the national epic Kalevipoeg. At a professional level(Sony VGN-CR21S Battery), traditional folk song reached its new heyday during the last quarter of the 20th century, primarily thanks to the work of composer Veljo Tormis.
Oskar Luts was the most prominent prose writer of the early Estonian literature, who is still widely read today, especially his lyrical school novel Kevade (Spring). Anton Hansen Tammsaare's social epic and psychological realist pentalogy Truth and Justice captured the evolution of Estonian society from a peasant community to an independent nation. (Sony VGN-CR21Z Battery) In modern times Jaan Kross and Jaan Kaplinski remain to be Estonia's best known and most translated writers. Among the most popular writers of the late 20th and early 21st centuries are Tõnu Õnnepalu and Andrus Kivirähk, who uses elements of Estonian folklore and mythology, deforming them into absurd and grotesque(Sony VGN-CR21SR Battery).
See also: List of Estonian films and List of Estonian war films
The cinema of Estonia started in 1908 with the production of a newsreel about Swedish King Gustav V's visit to Tallinn. The first public TV broadcast in Estonia was in July 1955. Regular, live radio-broadcasts began already in December 1926. Deregulation in the field of electronic media has brought radical changes compared to the beginning of 1990s(Sony VGN-CR31SR Battery). The first licenses for private TV broadcasters were issued in 1992. The first private radio station went on the air in 1990.
Today the media is a vibrant sector at the forefront of change in Estonian society. There is a plethora of weekly newspapers and magazines. Estonians have a choice of 9 domestic TV channels and a host of radio stations. The Constitution guarantees freedom of speech and the fact that Estonia does have a free press is recognised by various international press freedom bodies(Sony VGN-CR31S Battery), like the US-based Freedom House and Reporters Without Borders who ranks Estonia media as one of the most free in world in their Worldwide Press Freedom Index.
Estonia has two news agencies. The Baltic News Service (BNS), founded in 1990, is a private regional news agency covering Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The ETV24 is an agency owned by Eesti Rahvusringhääling who is a publicly funded radio and television organization created on 30 June 2007 to take over the functions of the formerly separate Eesti Raadio and Eesti Televisioon under the terms of the Estonian National Broadcasting Act. (Sony VGN-CR31E Battery)
Main article: Music of Estonia
See also: Estonian national awakening, Estonian Song Festival, and Estonia in the Eurovision Song Contest
A moment before the opening of the 25th Estonian Song Festival (2009) at the Tallinn Song Festival Grounds
Arvo Pärt, Estonia's most renowned composer.
Kerli Kõiv performing in London in 2008.
The earliest mentioning of Estonian singing dates back to Saxo Grammaticus Gesta Danorum (ca. 1179). Saxo speaks of Estonian warriors who sang at night while waiting for a battle(Sony VGN-CR31Z Battery). The older folksongs are also referred to as regilaulud, songs in the poetic metre regivärss the tradition shared by all Baltic Finns. Runic singing was widespread among Estonians until the 18th century, when it started to be replaced by rhythmic folksongs.
Traditional wind instruments derived from those used by shepherds were once widespread, but are now becoming again more commonly played. Other instruments(Sony VGN-CR41Z Battery), including the fiddle, zither, concertina and accordion are used to play polka or other dance music. The kannel is a native instrument that is now again becoming more popular in Estonia. A Native Music Preserving Centre was opened in 2008 in Viljandi.
The tradition of Estonian Song Festivals (Laulupidu) started at the height of the Estonian national awakening in 1869. Today, it is one of the largest amateur choral events in the world(Sony VGN-CR41S Battery). In 2004, about 100,000 people participated in the Song Festival. Since 1928, the Tallinn Song Festival Grounds (Lauluväljak) host the event every five years in July. The next festival will take place in 2014. In addition, Youth Song Festivals are also held in every four or five years, last of them in 2011.
Professional Estonian musicians and composers such as Rudolf Tobias, Mart Saar and Artur Kapp emerged in the late 19th century(Sony VGN-CR41E Battery). At the time of this writing, the most known Estonian composers are Arvo Pärt, Eduard Tubin and Veljo Tormis.
In the 1950s, Estonian baritone Georg Ots rose to worldwide prominence as an opera singer.
In popular music, Estonian artist Kerli Kõiv has become popular in Europe, as well as gaining moderate popularity in North America. She has provided music for the 2010 Disney film Alice in Wonderland and the television series Smallville in the United States of America(Sony VGN-CR41SR Battery).
Estonia won the Eurovision Song Contest in 2001 with the song "Everybody" performed by Tanel Padar and Dave Benton. In 2002, Estonia hosted the event. Maarja-Liis Ilus has competed for Estonia on two occasions (1996 and 1997), while Eda-Ines Etti, Koit Toome and Evelin Samuel owe their popularity partly to the Eurovision Song Contest(Sony VGN-CR42ZR Battery).
Main article: Public holidays in Estonia
The Estonian National Day is the Independence Day celebrated on 24 February, the day the Estonian Declaration of Independence was issued. As of 2010, there are 12 public holidays (which come with a day off) and 12 national holidays celebrated annually. (Sony VGN-CR42Z Battery)
[show]Public holidays in Estonia Date
Main article: Estonian cuisine
See also: Kama (food), Kalev (confectioner), Kohuke, and Verivorst
A. Le Coq
Two of the most popular beers in Estonia.
Estonian delegation in Vancouver, 2010.
Historically the cuisine of Estonia has been heavily dependent on seasons and simple peasant food, which today is influenced by many countries. Today it includes many typical international foods. The most typical foods in Estonia are black bread, pork(Sony VGN-CR42S Battery), potatoes and dairy products. Traditionally in summer and spring, Estonians like to eat everything fresh – berries, herbs, vegetables and everything else that comes straight from the garden. Hunting and fishing have also been very common, although currently hunting and fishing are enjoyed mostly as hobbies. Today it is also very popular to grill outside in summer(Sony VGN-CR42E Battery).
Traditionally in winter jams, preserves and pickles are brought to the table. Estonia has been through rough times in the past and thus gathering and conserving fruits, mushrooms and vegetables for winter has always been essential. Today gathering and conserving is not that common because everything can be bought from stores(Sony Vaio VGN-CR11S/L Battery), but preparing food for winter is still very popular in the countryside and still has somewhat ritual significance. Being a country with a large coastline, fish has also been very important.
Main article: Sport in Estonia
Sport plays an important role in Estonian culture. After declaring independence from Russia in 1918, Estonia first competed as a nation at the 1920 Summer Olympics, although the National Olympic Committee was established in 1923(Sony Vaio VGN-CR11S/P Battery). Estonian athletes took part of the Olympic Games until the country was annexed by the Soviet Union in 1940. The 1980 Summer Olympics Sailing regatta was held in the capital city Tallinn. After regaining independence in 1991, Estonia has participated in all Olympics. Estonia has won most of its medals in athletics, weightlifting, wrestling and cross-country skiing(Sony Vaio VGN-CR11S/W Battery).
The list of notable Estonian athletes include wrestlers Kristjan Palusalu, Voldemar Väli and Georg Lurich, skiers Andrus Veerpalu and Kristina Šmigun-Vähi, decathlonist Erki Nool, tennis player Kaia Kanepi, cyclists Jaan Kirsipuu and Erika Salumäe and discus throwers Gerd Kanter and Aleksander Tammert(Sony Vaio VGN-CR11Z/R Battery).
Kiiking, a relatively new sport, was invented in 1996 by Ado Kosk in Estonia. Kiiking involves a modified swing in which the rider of the swing tries to go around 360 degrees.
The following are links to international rankings of Estonia.