The Edmonton Composting Facility, the largest of its type in the world, is also the largest stainless steel building in North America. By 2013, the city anticipates that it will divert more than 90% of the city's household waste from the landfills. Among the innovative uses for the city's waste includes a Christmas tree recycling program. The trees are collected each January and put through a woodchipper; this material is used as an addition to the composting processSony VGP-BPS13A/Q battery. In addition, the wood chips absorb much of the odour produced by the compost by providing a biofilter element to trap odour causing gaseous results of the process.
EPCOR's Rossdale Power Plant viewed from the High Level Bridge.
Together, the Waste Management Centre and Wastewater Treatment plant are known as the Edmonton Waste Management Centre of Excellence. Research partners include the University of Alberta, the Alberta Research Council, the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology (NAIT), and Olds CollegeSony VGP-BPS13B battery.
There are four main hospitals serving Edmonton: University of Alberta Hospital, Royal Alexandra Hospital, Misericordia Community Hospital, and Grey Nuns Community Hospital. Other area hospitals include Sturgeon Community Hospital in St. Albert, Leduc Community Hospital in Leduc, Westview Health Centre in Stony Plain, and Fort Saskatchewan Health Centre in Fort Saskatchewan. Dedicated psychiatric care is provided at the Alberta HospitalSony VGP-BPS13B/B battery. The Northeast Community Health Centre offers a 24-hour emergency room with no inpatient ward services. The University of Alberta Hospital is the centre of a larger complex of hospitals and clinics located adjacent to the university campus which comprises the Stollery Children's Hospital, Mazankowski Alberta Heart Institute, Cross Cancer Institute, Zeidler Gastrointestinal Health CentreSony VGP-BPL21 battery, Ledcor Clinical Training Centre, and Edmonton Clinic, which is currently under construction. Several health research institutes, including the Heritage Medical Research Centre, Medical Sciences Building, Katz Group Centre for Pharmacy and Health Research, and Li Ka Shing Centre for Health Research Innovation, are also located at this site. A similar set-up is also evident at the Royal Alexandra HospitalSony VGP-BPS21 battery, which is connected to the Lois Hole Hospital for Women and Orthopaedic Surgery Centre. All hospitals are under the administration of Alberta Health Services, although Misericordia and Grey Nuns are run separately by the Covenant Health.
Entryway to MacEwan University's downtown campus.
Edmonton has three publicly funded school boards (districts) that provide kindergarten and grades 1–12Sony VGP-BPS21A battery. The vast majority of students attend schools in the two large English language boards: Edmonton Public Schools, and the separate Edmonton Catholic School District. Also, since 1994, the Francophone minority community has had their own school board based in Edmonton, the Greater North Central Francophone Education Region No. 2, which includes surrounding communitiesSony VGP-BPS21B battery. Most recently, the city has seen a small number of public charter schools open, independent of any board. All three school boards and public charter schools are funded through provincial grants and property taxes.
Some private schools exist as well, including Edmonton Academy and Tempo School. The Edmonton Society for Christian Education and Millwoods Christian School (not part of the former) used to be private schoolsSony VGP-BPS26 Battery; however, both have become part of Edmonton Public Schools as alternative programs.
Both the Edmonton Public Schools and the Edmonton Catholic School District provide support and resources for those wishing to homeschool their children.
Edmonton has become one of Canada's major educational centres, with more than 60,000 full time postsecondary students spread over several institutions and campuses (total enrollment among the schools is over 170,000, which includes students enrolled in multiple institutions) Sony VGP-BPS26A Battery.
The University of Alberta (known colloquially as the U of A), whose main campus is situated on the south side of Edmonton's river valley, is a board-governed public institution with annual revenue of one billion dollars. Over 38,000 students are served in more than 200 undergraduate programs and 170 graduate programsSony VGP-BPS13 battery(without CD). The main campus consists of more than ninety buildings on 890,000 square metres (220 acres) of land, with buildings dating back to the university's establishment in 1908. It is also home to Canada's second-largest research library, which ranks first in volumes per student, with over 10.6 million and access to more than 530,000 electronic books and 1,400 electronic databases. Grant MacEwan University enrolls43,064 students in programs offering career diplomas, university transfers, and bachelor's degreesSony VGP-BPS13B/Q battery(without CD).
Other universities within the borders of Edmonton include Athabasca University, Concordia University College of Alberta, The King's University College, Taylor University College and Seminary, and the Edmonton campus of the University of Lethbridge.
Other Edmonton post-secondary institutions include the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology (NAIT) with 76,400 students enrolled in more than 200 programsSony VGP-BPS13/Q battery(without CD); NorQuest College with 9,000 students in college and employment preparation programs; and Yellowhead Tribal College, a First Nations college.
Main article: Media in Edmonton
Edmonton has eight local broadcast television stations shown on basic cable TV or over-the-air. Most of Edmonton's conventional television stations have made the switch to over-the-air digital broadcasting. The cable television providers in Edmonton are Telus (for IPTV) and Shaw CableSony VGP-BPS13A/B battery(without CD). Previously, network programming from the United States was received on cable via affiliates from Spokane, Washington, but local viewers now have more choice, given the advances with cable or satellite television that are now being offered as digital or HD (high definition) service. Broadcasts from both eastern and western locations in the United States can be viewedSony VGP-BPS13/S battery(without CD).
Twenty-one FM and eight AM radio stations are based in Edmonton.
Edmonton has two large-circulation daily newspapers, the Edmonton Journal and the Edmonton Sun. Other city-wide weekday publications include Metro and 24 Hours. The magazine Vue Weekly is also published on a weekly basis and focuses on alt-news and the arts. The Edmonton Examiner is a city-wide community based paper also published weekly. There are also a number of smaller weekly and community newspapersSony VGP-BPS13/B battery(without CD).
Edmonton has four sister cities, with one American city listed by Sister Cities International.
Edmonton is home to 1 Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group (1 CMBG), the Regular Force army brigade group of Land Force Western Area of the Canadian Army. Units in 1 CMBG include Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians), 1 Combat Engineer Regiment, two of the three regular force battalions of Princess Patricia's Canadian Light InfantrySony VGP-BPS13B/S battery(without CD), and various headquarters, service, and support elements. Although not part of 1 CMBG, 408 Tactical Helicopter Squadron and 1 Field Ambulance are located with the brigade group. All of these units are located at Lancaster Park, immediately north of the city. From 1943, as CFB Namao (now CFB Edmonton/Edmonton Garrison), it was a major air force base. In 1996, all fixed-wing aviation units were transferred to CFB Cold LakeSony VGP-BPS13A battery(without CD).
The Canadian Airborne Training Centre had been located in the city in the 1980s. The move of 1 CMBG and component units from Calgary occurred in 1996 in what was described as a cost-saving measure. The brigade had existed in Calgary since the 1950s, and Lord Strathcona's Horse had traditionally been a Calgary garrison unit dating back to before the First World WarSony VGP-BPS13A/S battery(without CD).
Edmonton also has a large army reserve element from 41 Canadian Brigade Group (41 CBG), including The Loyal Edmonton Regiment (4th Battalion, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry); 41 Combat Engineer Regiment; HQ Battery, 20th Field Artillery Regiment; and B Squadron of The South Alberta Light Horse, one of Alberta's oldest army reserve units. Despite being far from Canada's coasts, Edmonton is also the home of HMCS Nonsuch, Sony VGP-BPS13AS battery(without CD) a naval reserve division. There are numerous cadet corps of the different elements (naval, army and air force) within Edmonton as well.
Winnipeg i/ˈwɪnɪpɛɡ/ is the capital and largest city of Manitoba, Canada, and is the primary municipality of the Winnipeg Capital Region, with more than half of Manitoba's population. It is located near the longitudinal centre of North America, at the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine Rivers (a point commonly known as The Forks) Sony VGP-BPS13S battery(without CD).
The name "Winnipeg" comes from the Cree for "muddy waters." The Winnipeg area was a trading centre for Aboriginal peoples prior to the arrival of Europeans. The first fort was built there in 1738 by French traders. A settlement was later founded by the Selkirk settlers in 1812, the nucleus of which was incorporated as the City of Winnipeg in 1873 with a population of 1,869. Sony VGP-BPS13A/Q battery(without CD) Winnipeg is the seventh-largest municipality in Canada, with a population of 663,617 in the Canada 2011 Census.
Winnipeg has a diversified economy, with sectors in finance, manufacturing, food and beverage production, culture, retail and tourism. Winnipeg is a major transportation hub, served by Richardson International Airport. The city has railway connections to the United States and Eastern and Western Canada through three Class I rail carriersSony VGP-BPS13B battery(without CD).
Winnipeg's cultural organizations include Manitoba Theatre Centre, Manitoba Opera, the Royal Winnipeg Ballet, Winnipeg Symphony Orchestra, Manitoba Museum, Winnipeg Art Gallery and Le Cercle Molière. Some of the city's popular festivals are the Festival du Voyageur, the Winnipeg Folk Festival, the Winnipeg Jazz Festival, the Winnipeg Fringe Theatre Festival, and FolkloramaSony VGP-BPS13B/B battery(without CD).
Winnipeg is the proud owner of three professional sports organizations including the Winnipeg Jets, the Winnipeg Goldeyes, and the Winnipeg Blue Bombers. Winnipeg's universities include the University of Manitoba, the University of Winnipeg, Canadian Mennonite University and University of St. Boniface (formerly known as St. Boniface College)Sony VGP-BPL21 battery(without CD).
Further information: History of Winnipeg and Timeline of Winnipeg history
Tipis on the prairie near the Red River Colony, 1858
Winnipeg lies at the confluence of the Assiniboine and the Red River of the North, a location currently known as "The Forks." This point was at the crossroads of canoe routes travelled by Aboriginal peoples prior to European contact. The name Winnipeg is a transcription of the western Cree word wi-nipe-k meaning "muddy waters"Sony VGP-BPS21 battery(without CD); the general area was populated for thousands of years by First Nations. Through archaeology, petroglyphs, rock art and oral history, scholars have learned that native peoples used the area in prehistoric times for camping, hunting, tool making, fishing, trading and, further north, for agriculture. Sony VGP-BPS21A battery(without CD)
Before the first European encounter, First Nations peoples appear to have been engaged in farming activity along the Red River, near present-day Lockport, where corn and other seed crops were planted. The rivers provided an extensive transportation network linking many indigenous peoples, including the Anishinaabe, Assiniboine, Ojibway, Sioux, and Cree. The Red River linked ancient northern peoples with those to the south along the Missouri and Mississippi riversSony VGP-BPS21B battery(without CD). The Ojibway made some of the first maps on birch bark, which helped fur traders navigate the waterways of the area.
Steamship port at the Forks, with Upper Fort Garry in the background, early 1870s
The first French officer arrived in the area in 1738. Sieur de La Vérendrye built the first fur trading post on the site, called Fort Rouge. Francophone trading continued at this site for several decades before the arrival of the British Hudson's Bay Company. Many French and later British men who were trappers married First Nations women; their mixed-race children, the Métis, hunted, traded, and lived in the areaSony VGP-BPS14/B Battery.
Lord Selkirk was involved with the first permanent settlement (known as the Red River Colony), the purchase of land from the Hudson's Bay Company, and a survey of river lots in the early 19th century. The North West Company built Fort Gibraltar in 1809, and the Hudson's Bay Company built Fort Douglas in 1812. The two companies competed fiercely over trade in the areaSony VGP-BPS14B Battery. The Métis and Lord Selkirk's settlers fought at the Battle of Seven Oaks in 1816. In 1821, the Hudson's Bay and North West Companies merged, ending their long-standing rivalry. Fort Gibraltar, at the site of present-day Winnipeg, was renamed Fort Garry in 1822 and became the leading post in the region for the Hudson’s Bay Company. The fort was destroyed by a flood in 1826 and was not rebuilt until 1835Sony VGP-BPS14/S Battery. The fort was the residence of the Governor of the company for many years. A rebuilt section of the fort, consisting of the front gate and a section of the wall, can be found near the modern-day corner of Main Street and Broadway Avenue in downtown Winnipeg.
Main Street in 1887 (at Pioneer Avenue looking north)
In 1869–70, Winnipeg was the site of the Red River Rebellion, a conflict between the local provisional government of Métis, led by Louis Riel, and newcomers from eastern Canada. General Garnet Wolseley was sent to put down the Métis rebellionSony VGP-BPL14/B Battery. As a consequence of this rebellion, the Manitoba Act of 1870 paved the way for Manitoba's entry into the Canadian Confederation as Canada's fifth province. On 8 November 1873, Winnipeg was incorporated as a city. Manitoba and Northwest Territories legislator James McKay named the settlementSony VGP-BPL14 Battery.
Winnipeg developed rapidly after the coming of the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1881; Canada was eager to settle the west before American interests and railways interfered. The Manitoba Legislative Building, constructed mainly of Tyndall Stone, opened in 1920; its dome supports a bronze statue finished in gold leaf, titled "Eternal Youth and the Spirit of Enterprise"Sony VGP-BPL14B Battery (commonly known as the "Golden Boy"). Many new lots of land were sold and prices increased quickly due to high demand. Winnipeg faced financial difficulty when the Panama Canal opened in 1914. The canal reduced reliance on Canada's rail system for international trade; the real estate market slowed down, and the increase in shipping traffic helped Vancouver in British Columbia eventually to surpass Winnipeg and become Canada's third-largest city in 1920Sony VGP-BPL14/S Battery.
Strike to present
The Winnipeg General Strike, 21 June 1919
Following World War I, more than 30,000 workers walked off their jobs in May 1919 in what came to be known as the Winnipeg General Strike of 1919. The strike was a product of postwar recession, labour conditions, the activity of union organizers and a large influx of returning discharged soldiers seeking work. After many arrests, deportationsSony VGP-BPS14 Battery, and incidents of violence, the strike ended on 21 June 1919, when the Riot Act was read and a group of Royal Canadian Mounted Police officers charged a group of strikers. Two strikers were killed and at least thirty others were injured, resulting in the day being known as Bloody Saturday; the event polarized the population. One of the leaders of the strike, J. S. WoodsworthSony VGP-BPL15/B Battery, went on to found Canada's first major socialist party, the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF), which later became the New Democratic Party.
The stock market crash of 1929 and the Great Depression resulted in widespread unemployment, which was worsened by drought and low agricultural prices. The Depression ended after the start of World War II in 1939Sony VGP-BPS15/B Battery, when war requirements stimulated the economies of Western nations. In the Battle of Hong Kong, The Winnipeg Grenadiers were among the first Canadians to engage in combat against Japan. Battalion members who survived combat were taken prisoner and endured brutal treatment in prisoner of war camps. In 1942, the Government of Canada's Victory Loan Campaign staged a mock Nazi invasion of Winnipeg to promote awareness of the stakes of the war in EuropeSony VGP-BPL15/S Battery.
When the war ended, pent-up demand generated a boom in housing development, although building activity was checked by the 1950 Red River Flood, the largest flood to hit Winnipeg since 1861. On 8 May 1950, eight dikes collapsed, four of the city's eleven bridges were destroyed, and nearly 100,000 people had to be evacuated. This evacuation was Canada's largest everSony VGP-BPS15/S Battery. The federal government estimated damages at over $26 million, although the province insisted that it was at least double that. In 1953, Manitoba was hit with the worst outbreak of polio in Canada. There were 2,357 cases and 80 deaths.
Prior to 1972, Winnipeg was the largest of thirteen cities and towns in a metropolitan area around the Red and Assiniboine rivers. A consolidated metropolitan "Unicity" government was established on 27 July 1971Sony VGP-BPS15 Battery, taking effect in 1972. The City of Winnipeg Act incorporated the current city of Winnipeg: the cities of Transcona, St. Boniface, St. Vital, West Kildonan, East Kildonan, Tuxedo, Old Kildonan, North Kildonan, Fort Garry, Charleswood, and St. James were amalgamated with the Old City of Winnipeg.
Immediately following the 1979 energy crisis, Winnipeg experienced a severe economic downturn in advance of the early 1980s recessionSony VGP-BPS18 battery. Throughout the recession, the city incurred closures of prominent businesses, including the Winnipeg Tribune, as well as the Swift's and Canada Packers meat packing plants. In 1981, Winnipeg was one of the first cities in Canada to sign a tripartite agreement with the province and federal government to redevelop its downtown area. The three levels of government—federal, provincial and municipal—contributed over $271 million to the development needs of downtown Winnipeg. Sony VGP-BPS22 BatteryIn 1989, the reclamation and redevelopment of the CNR rail yards turned The Forks into Winnipeg's most popular tourist attraction.
As of 2012, there are 26 National Historic Sites of Canada in Winnipeg.
Main article: Geography and climate of Winnipeg
River walkway near The Forks
Winnipeg lies at the bottom of the Red River Valley, a low-lying flood plain with an extremely flat topography. This valley was formed by the ancient glacial Lake Agassiz which has rich deposits of black soil. Winnipeg is on the eastern edge of the Canadian Prairies in Western Canada; it is known as the 'Gateway to the West'SONY VGN-FZ11E battery. It is relatively close to many large Canadian Shield lakes and parks, as well as Lake Winnipeg (the Earth's 11th largest freshwater lake). According to the Census geographic units of Canada, the city has a total area of 464.01 km2 (179.16 sq mi) and an elevation of 240 m (786 ft). Winnipeg has four major rivers: the Red River, the Assiniboine River, the La Salle River, and the Seine River. The Red River is a Canadian heritage river. SONY VGN-FZ11L battery
Because of Winnipeg's extremely flat topography and substantial snowfall, Winnipeg is subject to severe flooding. The Red River reached its greatest flood height in 1826. Another large flood occurred in 1950, which caused millions of dollars in damages and thousands of evacuations. This flood prompted Duff Roblin's government to build the Red River Floodway to protect the city from flooding. In the 1997 flood, flood control dikes were reinforced and raised using sandbagsSONY VGN-FZ11M battery; Winnipeg suffered very limited damage compared to cities without flood control structures, such as Grand Forks, North Dakota. Recent major floods include the 2009 Red River Flood and the 2011 Red River Flood. The generally flat terrain and the poor drainage of the Red River Valley's clay-based soil also results in a seasonal explosion of insects, especially mosquitoesSONY VGN-FZ11S battery.
Looking north at The Forks in the winter.
Winnipeg experiences a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb, USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 2b) with warm sunny summers and cold windy winters. According to Environment Canada, Winnipeg is the coldest city in the world with a population of over 600,000 based on the average night-time temperature from December to February, inclusive. Winnipeg's winters are similar to other cities like Ulan Bator or Harbin, ChinaSONY VGN-FZ11Z battery.
Winnipeg is sunnier in the summer, spring, and winter than any Canadian city east of it. Winnipeg has 317.5 hours of bright sunshine in its sunniest month (July, 1971-2000 data) compared to 303.8 hours of sunshine in San Diego, California's sunniest month (July, 1961-1990 data). Winnipeg is ranked second for Canada's clearest skies year-round, sixth sunniest city year-round, and second for sunniest city in Canada in spring and winterSONY VGN-FZ130E/B battery.
Winnipeg has a reputation for being a windy city with the intersection of Portage and Main being called the windiest intersection in Canada; however, Winnipeg is only the 12th windest city in Canada, just below Hamilton, Ontario. Tornadoes are not uncommon in the area, particularly in the spring and summer months. A Fujita scale F5 tornado struck Elie (just 40 km (25 mi) west of Winnipeg) in 2007; this was the strongest tornado ever recorded in CanadaSONY VGN-FZ130E battery.
Winnipeg's growing season lasts from May 25th to September 22nd. In Winnipeg with the humidex, it exceeds 30, 35 days; compared with 30 days exceeding 30 in Quebec City. For July 29 the average high is 26.3C (79.3F) and the average low is 13.5C (56.3F). Nearby Carman reached 53 with the humidex, breaking Canada's old humidex record, in 2007. SONY VGN-FZ140E/B batteryThe highest temperature ever recorded in Winnipeg was 42.2 °C (108 °F) on 11 July 1936. In July Winnipeg gets 70.6mm of rainfall compared to 95.2mm of rainfall in July at Edmonton Int'l Airport or 114.3mm of rainfall in July at Prince Rupert, BC.
Winters in Winnipeg are usually dry. Snow cover usually lasts from November till March or early April, although in general the winter weather begins to moderate in late FebruarySONY VGN-FZ15 battery. On January 13 the average high is -13.2C (8.2F) and the average low is -23.2C (-9.8F). The coldest temperature recorded in Winnipeg was −47.8 °C (−54.0 °F) on 24 December 1879. The coldest temperature during the last 28 years was −41.7 °C (−43 °F) on February 5, 2007. Winters in Winnipeg are getting warmer on average due to Global WarmingSONY VGN-FZ150E battery. From December till February 2011/2012 Winnipeg saw temperatures at or above 0.0C (32.0F) 25 times at the Forks Weather station, making it one of the warmest winter in Winnipeg's history. Fall is also getting warmer on average with September of 2009 having 14/30 days or almost half the days being 27.0C (80.6F) or greater (at the Forks weather station). SONY VGN-FZ15G battery
Further information: List of Winnipeg neighbourhoods and List of tallest buildings in Winnipeg
Downtown Winnipeg Portage Avenue
According to the 2001 Census, there are 230 neighbourhoods in Winnipeg. Downtown Winnipeg, the city's economic core, is centred on the intersection of Portage Avenue and Main Street (reputed to be one of the windiest in Canada). Downtown Winnipeg covers an area of about one square mile (2.5 km2) and is the fastest growing high-income neighbourhood in the citySONY VGN-FZ15L battery. More than 72,000 people work downtown, and over 40,000 students attend classes at its universities and colleges. The past few decades have seen downtown undergo major revitalization efforts; since 1999, over C$1.2 billion has been invested.
Albert Street, in the Exchange District
Downtown Winnipeg's Exchange District is named after the area's original grain exchange from 1880 to 1913. SONY VGN-FZ15M battery The 30-block district received National Historic Site of Canada status in 1997; it includes North America's most extensive collection of early 20th-century terracotta and cut stone architecture, 62 of downtown Winnipeg's 86 heritage structures, Stephen Juba Park, and Old Market Square, home to Winnipeg Jazz and Fringe Festivals. Other major downtown areas include The ForksSONY VGN-FZ15S battery, Central Park, Broadway-Assiniboine and Chinatown. Many of Downtown Winnipeg's major buildings are linked with the Winnipeg Walkway skywalk.
Various residential neighbourhoods surround downtown in all directions, but expansion is greatest to the south and west, and has tended to follow the course of the two major rivers. The urbanized area in Winnipeg is about 25 km (16 mi) from east to west and 20 km (12 mi) from north to south, although several areas remain underdeveloped. SONY VGN-FZ15T battery The largest park in the city, Assiniboine Park next to the affluent neighbourhood of Tuxedo, houses the Assiniboine Park Zoo and the Leo Mol Sculpture Garden, Other large city parks include Kildonan Park, St. Vital Park, and Fort Whyte Centre. The major commercial areas in the city are Polo Park (West End and St. James), Kildonan Crossing (Transcona and East Kildonan) SONY VGN-FZ17 battery, South St. Vital, Garden City (West Kildonan) and the Corydon strip. Osborne Village is Winnipeg's most densely populated neighbourhood.
As of the 2006 Census, there were 633,451 inhabitants in Winnipeg itself, 694,668 inhabitants in the Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area (CMA), and 711,455 in the Winnipeg Capital Region. Thus, Winnipeg is Manitoba’s largest city and Canada's eighth largest CMA. Apart from Winnipeg, the Winnipeg CMA includes the Rural municipalities of SpringfieldSONY VGN-FZ17G battery, St. Clements, Taché, East St. Paul, Macdonald, Ritchot, West St. Paul, Headingley, Rosser and St. François Xavier and the First Nations reserve of Brokenhead 4.
Of the city population, 48.3 percent were male and 51.7 percent were female. 24.3 percent were 19 years old or younger, 27.4 percent were between 20 and 30 years old, and 34.0 percent were between 40 and 64 years old. The average age of a Winnipegger in May 2006 was 38.7SONY VGN-FZ17L battery, compared to an average of 39.5 for Canada as a whole. Between the censuses of 2001 and 2006, Winnipeg's population increased by 2.2 percent, compared to the average of 2.6 percent for Manitoba and 5.4 percent for Canada. The population density of the city of Winnipeg averaged 1,365.2 people per km2, compared with an average of 3.5 for Manitoba. As of July 2009SONY VGN-FZ18 battery, the population of the city of Winnipeg was estimated at 675,100, and that of the census metropolitan area at 742,400.
Most Winnipeggers are of European descent, and/or classify themselves as Canadian. 10.2 percent of Winnipeg's population is Aboriginal; it is the city's second fastest-growing ethnic group. Visible minorities make up 16.3 percent of Winnipeg's populationSONY VGN-FZ180E battery. Winnipeg is home to 36,820 people of Filipino descent, or roughly 5.9 percent of the total population, giving the city the highest Filipino population percentage of any municipality in Canada. This is the city's fastest-growing minority group, with Winnipeg having the second largest Filipino population in Canada after TorontoSONY VGN-FZ18E battery.
More than a hundred languages are spoken in Winnipeg, of which the most common is English. 99.0 percent of Winnipeggers are fluent English speakers. In terms of Canada's official languages, 88.0 percent of Winnipeggers speak only English, and 0.1 percent speak only French. 11 percent speak both English and French, while 0.9 percent speak neitherSONY VGN-FZ18G battery. Other languages spoken in Winnipeg include German (4.1%), Tagalog (3.4%), Ukrainian (3.1%), Spanish, Chinese and Polish (all three spoken by 1.7% of the population). Several Aboriginal languages are also spoken, including Ojibway (0.6%), Cree (0.5%), Inuktitut and Mi'kmaq (both less than 0.1%). Other languages include Dutch, Hungarian, Non-verbal languages, SONY VGN-FZ18M battery Portuguese, Vietnamese, Italian, Arabic, Hindi, Urdu, Bengali, Marathi, Icelandic, Russian, Punjabi, Croatian, Serbian, and Greek (all of which are spoken by roughly 1% or less of the population).
The 2001 census recorded that 72.9 percent of Winnipeggers belonged to a Christian denomination: 35 percent were Protestant, 33 percent were Roman Catholic, and 5 percent belonged to other Christian denominationsSONY VGN-FZ18S battery. 6 percent of the population followed a religion other than Christianity—followers of Judaism made up 2 percent of the population, those of Buddhism and Sikhism made up 0.9 percent of the population each, and Muslims made up 0.8 percent. Hindus accounted for 0.6 percent of the population, and members of other religions made up less than 0.5 percent. 22 percent of Winnipeggers did not follow a religionSONY VGN-FZ18T battery.
See also: List of corporations based in Winnipeg
Downtown Winnipeg and the Exchange District
Winnipeg is an economic base and regional centre. It has a diversified economy, covering finance, manufacturing, transportation, food and beverage production, industry, culture, government, retail, and tourism. According to the Conference Board of Canada, Winnipeg has the third-fastest growing economy among Canada's major cities in 2009 projectionsSONY VGN-FZ21E battery, with a real GDP growth of 2.5 percent.
As of July 2010, approximately 409,500 people are employed in Winnipeg and the surrounding area. Some of Winnipeg's largest employers are government and government-funded institutions, including: The Province of Manitoba, the City of Winnipeg, the University of Manitoba, the Health Sciences Centre, and Manitoba HydroSONY VGN-FZ21J battery. Approximately 54,000 people (14% of the work force) are employed in the public sector. Large private sector employers include: Shaw Cablesystems, Manitoba Telecom Services, Ipsos Reid, Palliser Furniture, Great-West Life Assurance, Motor Coach Industries, New Flyer Industries, Boeing Canada Technology, Bristol Aerospace, Nygård InternationalSONY VGN-FZ21M battery, Canad Inns and Investors Group.
The Royal Canadian Mint, established in 1976, is where all circulating coinage in Canada is produced. The plant, located in southeastern Winnipeg, also produces coins for many other countries.
In 2006, Winnipeg was ranked by KPMG as one of the least expensive locations to do business in Canada. As with much of Western Canada, in 2007, Winnipeg experienced both a building and real estate boomSONY VGN-FZ21S battery. In May 2007, the Canadian Real Estate Association reported a record-breaking month in Winnipeg in terms of sales and volume.
Arts, culture, and tourism
The Forks (a National Historic Site of Canada) attracts four million visitors a year. It is home to the Citytv television studio, Manitoba Theatre for Young People, the Winnipeg International Children's Festival, and the Manitoba Children's Museum. It also features a 30,000-square-foot (2,800 m2) skate plaza, a 8,500-square-foot (790 m2) bowl complexSONY VGN-FZ21Z battery, the Esplanade Riel bridge, a river walkway, Shaw Park (home to the Winnipeg Goldeyes), and the Canadian Museum for Human Rights (scheduled to open in 2013).
The Winnipeg Public Library is a public library network with 20 branches throughout the city, including the Millennium Library.
Winnipeg has a large independent film community. It has also hosted a number of Hollywood productions: Shall We Dance? (2004), the Oscar nominated film Capote (2005), SONY VGN-FZ29VN battery The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford (2007), Horsemen (2009) had parts filmed in the province,and Goon (2011) was filmed in Winnipeg, Brandon, and Portage la Prairie. The National Film Board of Canada and the Winnipeg Film Group have produced numerous award-winning films. There are several TV and film production companies in Winnipeg: the most prominent are Farpoint Films, SONY VGN-FZ31B battery Frantic Films, Buffalo Gal Pictures, Les Productions Rivard and Eagle Vision. Guy Maddin's My Winnipeg, an independent film released in 2008, is a comedic rumination on the city's history.
Winnipeg Bear, (also known as Winnie-the-Pooh) was purchased in Ontario, by Lieutenant Harry Colebourn of The Fort Garry Horse. He named the bear after the regiment's home town of Winnipeg. A.A. Milne later wrote a series of books featuring Winnie-the-PoohSONY VGN-FZ31E battery. An Ernest H. Shepard painting of "Winnie the Pooh", the only known oil painting of Winnipeg’s famous bear cub, is displayed in Assiniboine Park. It was purchased at an auction for $285,000 in London, England, in 2000.
See also: Category:Museums in Winnipeg
The Manitoba Museum is the largest museum in the city, and depicts the history of the city and province. The full-size replica of the ship Nonsuch is the museum's showcase piece. The Winnipeg Art Gallery is Western Canada's oldest public art gallery, founded in 1912. It is the sixth-largest in the country and includes the world's largest public collection of contemporary Inuit artSONY VGN-FZ31J battery.
The Canadian Museum for Human Rights under construction (2012)
The Western Canada Aviation Museum, located in a hangar at Winnipeg’s James Richardson International airport, features military jets, commercial aircraft, Canada’s first helicopter, the ‘flying saucer’ Avrocar, flight simulators, and a Black Brant (rocket) built in Manitoba by Bristol Aerospace. SONY VGN-FZ31M battery The Winnipeg Railway Museum is located at Via Rail Station and contains various locomotives, including the Countess of Dufferin, the first steam locomotive in Western Canada.
Winnipeg is also the future home of the Canadian Museum for Human Rights, which will be the first Canadian national museum outside of the National Capital Region. The museum, designed by American architect Antoine Predock, will be located at The Forks. The federal government has contributed $100 million towards the estimated $311-million projectSONY VGN-FZ31Z battery. Construction of the museum began on 1 April 2008, and is expected to be completed in late 2012.
Theatres and theatre companies
See also: Category:Theatre companies in Manitoba
Constructed for Manitoba’s centennial, this complex includes the Centennial Concert Hall, Manitoba Museum and Planetarium
Winnipeg’s three largest performing arts venues, the Centennial Concert Hall, Manitoba Theatre Centre (MTC) and the Pantages Playhouse, are located downtown. MTC is Canada's oldest English-language regional theatre, with over 250 performances yearlySONY VGN-FZ32B battery. The Pantages Playhouse Theatre opened as a vaudeville house in 1913. Le Cercle Molière, based in St Boniface, is the oldest theatre company in Canada. This French-language theatre, founded in 1925, moved to a new $2-million theatre in 2010. Rainbow Stage is a musical theatre production company based in Kildonan Park which produces professional, live Broadway musical shows and is Canada's longest-surviving outdoor theatreSony VAIO VGN-CR11H/B battery
Other city theatres include the Burton Cummings Theatre (a National Historic Site of Canada built in 1906 currently named after the lead singer of The Guess Who), and Prairie Theatre Exchange (PTE), Winnipeg’s second-largest live theatre. The Manitoba Theatre for Young People (MTYP) at The Forks is one of only two Theatres for Young Audiences in Canada with a permanent residenceSony VAIO VGN-CR11S/L battery, and is the only Theatre for Young Audiences that offers a full season of plays for teenagers. The Winnipeg Jewish Theatre (WJT) is the only professional theatre in Canada dedicated to Jewish themes. Shakespeare in the Ruins (SIR) presents adaptations of Shakespeare plays.
See also: Category:Festivals in Manitoba
Winnipeg Folk Festival
Festival du Voyageur, western Canada's largest winter festival, celebrates the early French explorers of the Red River ValleySony VAIO VGN-CR11S/P battery. Folklorama is the largest and longest-running cultural celebration festival in the world. The Jazz Winnipeg Festival and the Winnipeg Folk Festival both celebrate Winnipeg's music community. The Winnipeg Music Festival offers a competition venue to amateur musicians. The Winnipeg Fringe Theatre Festival is the second-largest alternative theatre festival in North America. Sony VAIO VGN-CR11S/W battery The Winnipeg International Writers Festival (THIN AIR) brings writers from all over the world to Winnipeg for workshops and readings.
Music and dance
Further information: List of Winnipeg musicians
The Winnipeg Symphony Orchestra (WSO) is the largest and oldest professional musical ensemble in Winnipeg. The Manitoba Chamber Orchestra (MCO) runs a series of chamber orchestral concerts each yearSony VAIO VGN-CR11Z/R battery. Manitoba Opera is Manitoba's only full-time professional opera company.
Winnipeg had a thriving music scene in the 1960s, a tradition that continues to this day, and boasts a long list of musical talents and groups that have originated in this city, in many genres of music, including folk, roots, rock 'n' roll, blues, jazz, pop, alternative rock and others. Among the most notable musical acts associated with Winnipeg are Neil YoungSony VAIO VGN-CR13/B battery, The Guess Who, Bachman–Turner Overdrive, Streetheart, Harlequin, Chantal Kreviazuk, Fresh IE, Bif Naked, Econoline Crush, Brent Fitz, Venetian Snares, Propagandhi, The Weakerthans, Crash Test Dummies, The Watchmen, Comeback Kid, Lenny Breau, The Wailin' Jennys, Remy Shand, Daniel Lavoie, Holly McNarland, Terry Jacks, Joey Gregorash, producer Bob Rock, and The DuhksSony VAIO VGN-CR13G battery.
The Royal Winnipeg Ballet (RWB) is Canada's oldest ballet company and the longest continuously operating ballet company in North America. It was the first organization to be granted a royal title under the reign of Queen Elizabeth II, and has included notable dancers such as Evelyn Hart and Mikhail Baryshnikov. The RWB also runs a full-time classical dance school, which is recognized internationally for excellence in dance trainingSony VAIO VGN-CR13G/B battery.
Main article: Sport in Winnipeg
Winnipeg has been home to several professional hockey teams. The Winnipeg Jets of the National Hockey League have called the city home since 2011. The original Winnipeg Jets, the city's former National Hockey League team, left for Phoenix, Arizona after the 1995–96 season due to mounting financial troubles, despite a campaign effort to "Save the Jets." Sony VAIO VGN-CR13G/L batteryThe Jets play at MTS Centre, which is currently ranked the world's 19th-busiest arena among non-sporting touring events, 13th-busiest among facilities in North America, and 3rd-busiest in Canada. Past professional hockey teams based in Winnipeg include the Winnipeg Maroons, Winnipeg Warriors, and the Manitoba Moose. Two notable sportspeople from Winnepeg are Lewis Hotchin and Darcy NigroSony VAIO VGN-CR13G/P battery, who won the WWE Tag Team Championships together on numerous occasions. In amateur hockey, the Winnipeg Blues of the Manitoba Junior Hockey League play out of the MTS Iceplex. On the international stage, Winnipeg has hosted national and world hockey championships on a number of occasions, most notably the 1999 World Junior Hockey Championship and 2007 Women's World Hockey ChampionshipSony VAIO VGN-CR13G/R battery.
Investors Group Field under construction (2012)
The Winnipeg Blue Bombers are a community-owned football team that plays in the Canadian Football League. The Blue Bombers are ten-time Grey Cup champions, their last championship coming in 1990. From 1953 to 2011, the Blue Bombers called Canad Inns Stadium home and are expecting to move to Investors Group Field, currently under construction at the University of Manitoba, in September 2012Sony VAIO VGN-CR13G/W battery. The $190-million facility will also be home to the CIS’ University of Manitoba Bisons and the Winnipeg Rifles of the Canadian Junior Football League. Construction began in May 2010 and is scheduled for completion in 2012.
The University of Manitoba Bisons and the University of Winnipeg Wesmen represent the city in interuniversity sport. In soccer it's represented by the Winnipeg Alliance FC in the Canadian Major Indoor Soccer League and the WSA Winnipeg in the USL Premier Development LeagueSony VAIO VGN-CR13/L battery.
Winnipeg has been home to a number of professional baseball teams, most recently the Winnipeg Goldeyes, since 1994. The Goldeyes play at Shaw Park, which was completed in 1999. The team led the Northern League for ten straight years in average attendance as of 2010, with 300,000+ annual fan visits, until they left to join the American AssociationSony VAIO VGN-CR13/P battery.
Winnipeg was the first Canadian city to ever host the Pan American Games, and the second city to host the event twice, in 1967 and again in 1999. The Pan Am Pool, built for the 1967 Pan American Games, hosts aquatic events, including diving, speed swimming, synchronized swimming and water poloSony VAIO VGN-CR13/R battery.
Winnipeg will return to the international stage when it co-hosts the FIFA Women's World Cup in 2015.
Winnipeg has three daily newspapers: the Winnipeg Free Press, the Winnipeg Sun and the Winnipeg Metro. There are five weekly newspapers delivered free to most Winnipeg households by region. There are several ethnic weekly newspapers, as well as regional and national magazines based in the citySony VAIO VGN-CR13T/L battery.
Television broadcasting in Winnipeg started in 1954, two years after it began in eastern Canada. The federal government refused to license any private broadcaster until the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation had created a national network. In May 1954, CBWT went on the air with four hours of broadcasting. The first local private station, CJAY, began broadcasting in 1960Sony VAIO VGN-CR13T/P battery. There are presently five English-language stations and one French-language station based in Winnipeg. Additionally, some American network affiliates are available over-the-air.
Winnipeg is home to 24 AM and FM radio stations, two of which are French-language stations. CBC Radio One and CBC Radio 2 broadcast local and national programming in the city. NCI is devoted to Aboriginal programming and CKJS is devoted to multilingual ethnic programmingSony VAIO VGN-CR13T/R battery.
Law and government
Main article: Law, government, and crime in Winnipeg
Winnipeg City Hall
Since 1992, the city of Winnipeg is represented by 15 city councillors and a mayor elected every four years. The present mayor, Sam Katz, was elected to office in 2004 and re-elected in 2006 and 2010. The city is a single-tier municipality, governed by a mayor-council system. The structure of the municipal government is set out by the province of Manitoba in the City of Winnipeg Charter Act, which replaced the old City of Winnipeg Act in 2003Sony VAIO VGN-CR13T/W battery. The mayor is elected by direct popular vote to serve as the chief executive of the city. At Council meetings, the mayor has one of 16 votes. The City Council is a unicameral legislative body, representing geographical wards throughout the city.
The Beaux-Arts architecture style Manitoba Legislature, constructed between 1913 and 1919.
In provincial politics after the 2011 electionSony VAIO VGN-CR13/W battery, Winnipeg is represented by 31 of the 57 provincial Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs). 26 Winnipeg districts are represented by members of the New Democratic Party (NDP), 4 are members of the Progressive Conservative Party, one is a member of the Liberal Party. All three leaders of the provincial parties represent Winnipeg districts in the legislatureSony VAIO VGN-CR23/B battery.
In federal politics, Winnipeg is represented by eight Members of Parliament: six Conservatives, one New Democrat and one Liberal. There are six Senators representing Manitoba in Ottawa. Only two list Winnipeg as the division they represent, although all of them were residents of Winnipeg when appointed to the Senate. The political affiliation in the Senate is three Liberals, two Conservatives, and one IndependentSony VAIO VGN-CR23/L battery.
Main article: Crime by Neighbourhood / District
A marked WPS cruiser.
In 2004, Winnipeg had the fourth-highest overall crime rate among Canadian Census Metropolitan Areas listed, with 12,167 Criminal Code of Canada offences per 100,000 inhabitants. Winnipeg had the highest rate among centres with populations greater than 500,000. Statistics Canada states that in 2005, Manitoba had the highest decline of overall crime in Canada at nearly 8%; however, in 2009 the province topped all others in violent crime ratesSony VAIO VGN-CR23/N battery. The statistics for the year 2010 were similar, with Winnipeg still topping the violent crime severity index, although for the overall total crime severity index, Winnipeg was in third place, behind Saskatoon and Regina, with an index of 122.3, down by 10 per cent from 2009. Law enforcement in Winnipeg is provided by the Winnipeg Police Service, which has 1418 membersSony VAIO VGN-CR23/P battery.
Manitoba has also had a continuing problem with auto thefts, most of which occur in Winnipeg. To combat auto theft, Manitoba Public Insurance (MPI) established financial incentives for motor vehicle owners to install ignition immobilisers in their vehicles. It now requires owners of high-risk vehicles to install immobilisersSony VAIO VGN-CR23/R battery.
See also: List of schools of Winnipeg
Red River College's downtown campus
Education is a responsibility of the provincial government in Canada. In Manitoba, public education is governed by the Public Schools Act, the Education Administration Act, and regulations made under both Acts. Rights and responsibilities of the Minister of Education, Citizenship and Youth, public school boards, principals, teachersSony VAIO VGN-CR23/W battery, parents and students are set out in the legislation. There are seven school divisions in Winnipeg: Winnipeg School Division, St. James-Assiniboia School Division, Pembina Trails School Division, Seven Oaks School Division, Division Scolaire Franco-Manitobaine, River East Transcona School Division, and Louis Riel School Division. Winnipeg is home to religious and secular private schoolsSony VAIO VGN-CR240 battery, which are not governed by school boards but must still adhere to regulations outlined by the province.
The University of Manitoba - Fort Garry Campus
The University of Manitoba is the largest university in Manitoba; it is the most comprehensive post-secondary educational institution. It was founded in 1877, making it Western Canada’s first university. In a typical year, the university has an enrolment of 22,500 undergraduate students and 3,500 graduate students. The University of St. BonifaceSony PCG-5G2L battery, the city's only French Canadian university, grew from a college associated with the University of Manitoba into a modern university.
The University of Winnipeg
The University of Winnipeg received its charter in 1967, but its founding colleges date back more than 140 years. The founding colleges were Manitoba College 1871, and Wesley College 1888, which merged to form United College in 1938. Until 2007, it was an undergraduate institution that offered some joint graduate studies programsSony PCG-5G3L battery. It now offers graduate programs exclusive to the university.
The Canadian Mennonite University (CMU) is a private Mennonite university established in 1999. It was formed through the amalgamation of three colleges: Canadian Mennonite Bible College (founded in 1947), Concord College (founded as Mennonite Brethren Bible College in 1944), and Menno Simons College (founded in 1988). It is an undergraduate institution, and offers some programs jointly with the University of WinnipegSony PCG-5J1L battery.
Winnipeg also has two independent colleges: Red River College and Booth College. Red River College offers diploma, certificate, and apprenticeship programs and, starting in 2009, began offering a limited number of degree programs. In May 2009, the federal government of Canada pledged $9.5-million of funding to the college to help reconstruct the 104-year-old Union Bank Building for a second urban campus in downtown Winnipeg. Sony PCG-5J2L battery Booth College, a Christian Salvation Army college, is a private university college established in 1982. It offers mostly arts and seminary training.
Main article: Transport in Winnipeg
Union Station serves as home to Via Rail Canada
Winnipeg has had public transit since 1882, starting with horse-drawn streetcars. They were replaced by electric trolley cars. The trolley cars ran from 1892 to 1955, supplemented by motor buses after 1918, and electric trolleybuses from 1938 to 1970. Winnipeg Transit now runs diesel busesttp://www.ulaptopbattery.co.uk/sony-vaio-pcg-5k1l-battery.html">Sony PCG-5K1L battery.
Osborne Station terminal bus overpass on Winnipeg's Rapid Transit system, opened in April 2012.
Winnipeg is a railway hub and is served by Via Rail, Canadian National Railway (CNR), Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR), Burlington Northern Santa Fe Manitoba, and the Central Manitoba Railway (CEMR). It is the only city between Vancouver and Thunder Bay with direct U.S. connections by railSony PCG-5K2L battery.
Winnipeg is the largest and best connected city within Manitoba, and has highways leading in all directions from the city. To the south, Winnipeg is connected to the United States via Provincial Trunk Highway 75 (PTH 75) (a continuation of I-29 and US 75). The highway runs 107 km (66 mi) to Emerson, Manitoba, and is the busiest Canada – United States border crossing between Vancouver and the Great LakesSony PCG-5L1L battery. Much of the commercial traffic through Emerson either originates from or is destined for Winnipeg. Inside the city, the highway is known as Pembina Highway (Route 42).
The four-lane highway Perimeter Highway, built in 1969, serves as a Ring Road, with at-grade intersections and a few interchanges. It allows travellers on the Trans-Canada Highway to by-pass the city. A recent study cited dangerous intersections and low efficiency as its primary shortfallsSony PCG-6S2L battery.
The Trans-Canada Highway runs east to west through the city (city route), or circles around the city on the Perimeter Highway (beltway). The eastern starting point of the Yellowhead Highway is in Winnipeg, at the junction of Portage Avenue & Main Street. Some of the city's major arterial roads include Route 80 (Waverley St.), Route 155 (McGillivray Blvd), Route 165 (Bishop Grandin Blvd.), Route 17 (Chief Peguis Trail) Sony PCG-6S3L battery, and Route 90 (Brookside Blvd., Oak Point Hwy., King Edward St., Century St., Kenaston Blvd.).
Winnipeg International Airport Arrivals Area
The Winnipeg James Armstrong Richardson International Airport completed a $585-million redevelopment in October 2011. The development includes a new terminal, a four-level parking facility, and other infrastructure improvements. The field was Canada's first international airport when it opened in 1928 as Stevenson Aerodrome. Sony PCG-6V1L battery Winnipeg Bus Terminal, located at Winnipeg International Airport, offers domestic and international service by Greyhound Canada, Grey Goose Bus Lines, Winnipeg Shuttle Service and Brandon Air Shuttle.
Approximately 20,000 acres (81 km2) of land to the north and west of the airport has been designated as an inland port, CentrePort Canada, and is Canada’s first Foreign Trade Zone (FTZ) Sony PCG-6W1L battery. It is a private sector initiative to develop the infrastructure for Manitoba’s trucking, air, rail and sea industries. Still in its preliminary stages, construction has begun on a $212-million four-lane freeway that will connect CentrePort with the Perimeter Highway.
Winnipeg is served by several taxi companies, the three largest in order of size being Unicity, Duffy's Taxi and Spring Taxi. Fifty percent of Winnipeg residents can be expected to use a taxi at least once during the yearSony PCG-6W2L battery.
Cycling is popular in Winnipeg, and there are many bicycle trails and lanes around the city. Winnipeg holds an annual Bike-to-Work Day and Cyclovia, and bicycle commuters may be seen year-round even in the city's forbidding winter climate. Active living infrastructure in Winnipeg encourages bicycling through the inclusion of bike lanes and sharrowsSony PCG-6W3L battery.
Medical centres and hospitals
See also: List of hospitals in Manitoba
St. Boniface General Hospital
Winnipeg's major hospitals include Health Sciences Centre, Concordia Hospital, Deer Lodge Centre, Grace Hospital, Misericordia Health Centre, Riverview Health Centre, Saint Boniface General Hospital, Seven Oaks General Hospital, Victoria General Hospital, and The Children's Hospital of Winnipeg. Sony PCG-7111L battery
The National Microbiology Laboratory is Canada's front line in its response to infectious diseases and one of only a handful of Biosafety level 4 microbiology laboratories in the world. The National Research Council also has the Institute for Biodiagnostics laboratory located in the downtown area.
See also: CFB Winnipeg
Canadian Forces Base Winnipeg, co-located at the airport, is home to many flight operations support divisions and several training schools. It is also the headquarters of 1 Canadian Air Division and the Canadian North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) Region. Sony PCG-7112L batteryThe base is supported by over 3,000 military personnel and civilian employees.
17 Wing of the Canadian Forces is based at CFB Winnipeg. The Wing comprises three squadrons and six schools; it also provides support to the Central Flying School. Excluding the three levels of government, 17 Wing is the fourth largest employer in the city. The Wing supports 113 units, stretching from Thunder Bay to the Saskatchewan/Alberta borderSony PCG-7113L battery, and from the 49th parallel to the high Arctic. 17 Wing also acts as a deployed operating base for CF-18 Hornet fighter-bombers assigned to the Canadian NORAD Region.
There are two squadrons based in the city. The 402 "City of Winnipeg" Squadron flies the Canadian-designed and -produced de Havilland CT-142 Dash 8 navigation trainer. The 435 "Chinthe" Transport and Rescue Squadron flies the Lockheed CC-130 Hercules tanker/transport in airlift search and rescue rolesSony PCG-7133L battery. In addition, 435 Squadron is the only Canadian Forces Air Command squadron equipped and trained to conduct tactical air-to-air refueling of fighter aircraft.
Winnipeg is home to a number of reserve units:
The Royal Winnipeg Rifles at Minto Armoury
The Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders of Canada infantry (along with The Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders of Canada Museum) at Minto Armoury
735 Communications Squadron at Minto Armoury
17 Service Battalion at Minto Armoury
17 (Winnipeg) Field Ambulance at Minto Armoury
13 Military Police Platoon at Minto Armouries
The Fort Garry Horse armoured reconnaissance regiment at McGregor Armoury
HMCS Chippawa Naval Reserve DivisionSony PCG-7Z1L battery
For many years, Winnipeg was the home of the Second Battalion of Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry (2 PPCLI). Initially, the battalion was based at the Fort Osborne Barracks near present-day Osborne Village. They eventually moved to the Kapyong Barracks located in River Heights/Tuxedo. Since 2004, the 550 men and women of the battalion have operated out of CFB Shilo near BrandonSony PCG-7Z2L battery.