Edmonton is the capital of the Canadian province of Alberta, Canada. Edmonton is on the North Saskatchewan River and is the centre of the Edmonton Capital Region, which is surrounded by the central region of the province.
The city and its census metropolitan area had respective populations of 812,201 and 1,159,869 as of the 2011 CensusDell Latitude E5420 Battery, making it Alberta's second-largest city, Canada's fifth-largest municipality and Canada's sixth-largest metropolitan area by population. Edmonton is the northernmost North American city with a metropolitan population over one million. A resident of Edmonton is known as an Edmontonian.
The majority of Edmonton's metropolitan population lives within the City of Edmonton rather than in the surrounding suburban municipalitiesDell Latitude E5520 Battery. Historically, Edmonton was surrounded by few other urban municipalities (Strathcona, Beverly and Jasper Place being the largest) but these were absorbed through amalgamation or annexation. Edmonton annexed a significant amount of land up until the early 1980s, and as a result it has sustained much of the region's suburban growth within its own boundariesDell Latitude E6120 Battery.
Edmonton serves as the northern anchor of the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor and is a staging point for large-scale oil sands projects occurring in northern Alberta and large-scale diamond mining operations in the Northwest Territories.
Edmonton is a cultural, governmental and educational centre. It hosts a year-round slate of festivals, reflected in the nickname "The Festival City." Dell Latitude E6220 BatteryIt is home to North America's largest mall, West Edmonton Mall (the world's largest mall from 1981 until 2004), and Fort Edmonton Park, Canada's largest living history museum. In 2004, Edmonton celebrated the centennial of its incorporation as a city.
Further information: History of Edmonton and Timeline of Edmonton history
The first inhabitants settled in the area that is now Edmonton around 3,000 BC and perhaps as early as 12,000 BC, when an ice-free corridor opened up as the last ice age ended and timber, water, and wildlife became available in the region. Dell Latitude E6320 Battery
In 1754, Anthony Henday, an explorer working for the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC), may have been the first European to enter the Edmonton area. His expeditions across the Canadian Prairies were mainly to seek contact with the aboriginal population for the purpose of establishing the fur trade, as competition was fierce between the Hudson's Bay Company and the North West CompanyDell Latitude E6420 Battery. By 1795, Fort Edmonton was established on the north bank of the river, as a major trading post for the Hudson's Bay Company. The name of the new fort was suggested by John Peter Pruden after Edmonton, London, the home town of both the HBC deputy governor Sir James Winter Lake, and Pruden.
The coming of the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) to southern Alberta in 1885 helped the Edmonton economyDell Latitude E6520 Battery, and the 1891 building of the Calgary and Edmonton Railway resulted in the emergence of a railway townsite (South Edmonton/Strathcona) on the south side of the river, across from Edmonton. The arrival of the CPR and the Calgary & Edmonton Railway facilitated the arrival of settlers and entrepreneurs from eastern Canada, Britain and continental Europe, U.S. and other parts of the worldDell Latitude D420 Battery. The fertile soil and cheap land in the Edmonton area helped attract settlers, further establishing Edmonton as a major regional commercial and agricultural centre. Some people participating in the Klondike Gold Rush passed through South Edmonton/Strathcona in 1897. Strathcona was the northernmost railway point in North America, but travel to the Klondike was still very difficult for the "Klondikers," and a majority of them took a steamship north to the Yukon from VancouverDell Latitude D430 Battery.
Incorporated as a town in 1892 with a population of 700 and then as a city in 1904 with a population of 8,350, Edmonton became the capital of Alberta when the province was formed a year later, on September 1, 1905. In November 1905, the Canadian Northern Railway (CNR) arrived in Edmonton, accelerating growthDell Studio 1450 Battery.
During the early 1900s, Edmonton grew very rapidly, causing speculation in real estate. In 1912, Edmonton amalgamated with the City of Strathcona, south of the North Saskatchewan River; as a result, the city extended south of the North Saskatchewan River for the first time.
Just prior to World War I, the boom ended, and the city's population declined sharply from more than 72,000 in 1914 to less than 54,000 only two years later. Dell Studio 1457 Battery Many impoverished families moved to subsistence farms outside the city and others fled to greener pastures in other provinces. Recruitment to the Canadian army during the war also contributed to the drop in population. Afterwards, the city slowly recovered in population and economy during the 1920s and 1930s and took off again during and after World War IIDell Studio 1458 Battery.
Many Canadian bi-plane pilots who survived the war became bush pilots. Edmonton, in its role as Gateway to the North established one of the earliest airfields in Canada. It became the first licensed airfield in Canada, Blatchford Field (now Edmonton City Centre (Blatchford Field) Airport), in 1929. Dell Latitude D410 BatteryPioneering aviators such as Wilfrid R. "Wop" May and Max Ward used Blatchford Field as a major base for the distribution of mail, food, and medicine to Northern Canada; hence Edmonton's role as the "Gateway to the North" was strengthened. World War II saw Edmonton becoming a major base for the construction of the Alaska Highway and the Northwest Staging RouteDell Inspiron 9100 Battery.
Edmonton is located on the North Saskatchewan River, and sits at an elevation of 668 metres (2,192 ft). Edmonton is the most northerly city in North America with a metropolitan population of over one million. It is at the same latitude as Hamburg, Germany, Manchester, England, and Magnitogorsk, Russia. North as it is, it is south of the geographic centre of AlbertaDell Inspiron 1320 Battery, which is located near the Hamlet of Fort Assiniboine. The terrain in and around Edmonton is generally flat to gently rolling, with ravines and deep river valleys, such as the North Saskatchewan River valley. The Canadian Rockies are located approximately 220 km (140 mi) to the southwest.
The North Saskatchewan River originates at the Columbia Icefield in Jasper National Park and bisects the city. It empties via the Saskatchewan RiverDell Inspiron 910 Battery, Lake Winnipeg, and the Nelson River into Hudson Bay. It runs from the southwest to the northeast and is fed by numerous creeks throughout the city, such as Mill Creek, Whitemud Creek and Blackmud Creek; this creates numerous ravines, some of which are used for urban parkland. Edmonton is situated at the boundary between prairie to the south and boreal forest to the north, in a transitional area known as aspen parklandDell Inspiron 1470 Battery. However, the aspen woods and forests in and around Edmonton have long since been reduced by farming and other human activities, such as oil and natural gas exploration.
Edmonton has a relatively dry humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb, USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 3a) with extreme seasonal temperatures—although the city has milder winters than either Regina or Winnipeg, both located at a latitude farther southDell Inspiron 1570 Battery, because it is farther west and is kept relatively warm by the prevailing winds coming off the Pacific Ocean (compare Europe versus Siberia, which are at similar latitudes in Eurasia). It has warm summers and cold winters, with the average daily temperatures ranging from −11.7 °C (10.9 °F) in January to 17.5 °C (63.5 °F) in July. Annually, temperatures exceed 30 °C (86 °F) on an average of four to five days dell inspiron 500M battery (but can occur often, anytime from late April to mid September) and fall below −20 °C (−4 °F) on an average of 28 days. The highest temperature recorded within the City of Edmonton was 38.3 °C (100.9 °F), on August 5, 1998. Some areas, however, such as the City of St. Albert and Sherwood Park, recorded temperatures of 37.7 °C (99.9 °F) on July 22, 2006. The lowest temperature ever recorded at City Centre Airport was −40.6 °C (−41.1 °F) on January 26dell inspiron 600M battery, 1972 - this was the only time since recordings began at the airport in 1953 that a temperature below −40 °C (−40 °F) has been recorded there. The lowest overall temperature ever recorded in Edmonton was −49.4 °C (−56.9 °F), on January 19 and 21, 1886.
The year 2006 was a particularly warm one for Edmonton, as temperatures reached 29 °C (84 °F) or higher more than twenty times during the year, from as early as Mid-May and again in early September. Typically, summer lasts from late June until early Septemberdell inspiron 640M battery, and the humidity is seldom uncomfortably high. Winter lasts from November to March, and varies greatly in length and severity. Spring and autumn are both short and highly variable. Edmonton's growing season is from May 7 to September 23; Edmonton averages 140 frost free days a year. At the summer solstice, Edmonton receives seventeen hours and six minutes of daylightdell inspiron 6000 battery, with twilight extending throughout the entire night during summer. Edmonton receives 2,299 hours of sunshine per year and is one of Canada's sunniest cities.
The Edmonton Tornado
Edmonton has a fairly dry climate. On average, Edmonton receives 476.9 millimetres (18.78 in) of precipitation, of which 365.7 millimetres (14.40 in) is rain and 111.2 millimetres (4.38 in) is the melt from 123.5 centimetres (48.6 in) of snowfall per annumdell inspiron 6400 battery. Precipitation is heaviest in the late spring, summer, and early autumn. The wettest month is July, while the driest months are February, March, October, and November. In July, the mean precipitation is 91.7 mm (3.61 in). Droughts are not uncommon and may occur at any time of the year. Extremes do occur, such as the 114 mm (4.49 in) of rainfall that fell on July 31, 1953dell inspiron 9200 battery. Summer thunderstorms can be frequent and occasionally severe enough to produce large hail, damaging winds, funnel clouds, and even tornadoes. However, tornadoes near Edmonton are far weaker and short-lived compared to their counterparts farther south. Dangerous weather events are rare in Edmonton, and the F4 tornado that struck Edmonton on July 31, 1987, killing 27, was unique in many respects, including severity, duration, damage, and casualtiesdell inspiron 9300 battery. It is commonly referred to as Black Friday due both to its aberrant characteristics and the emotional shock it generated.
A massive cluster of thunderstorms occurred on July 11, 2004, with large hail and over 100 mm (3.94 in) of rain reported within the space of an hour in many places. This "1-in-200 year event" flooded major intersections and underpasses and damaged both residential and commercial properties. The storm caused extensive damage to West Edmonton Malldell inspiron 9400 battery; a small glass section of the roof collapsed under the weight of the rainwater, causing water to drain onto the mall's indoor ice rink. As a result, the mall was forced to undergo an evacuation as a precautionary measure.
Parkland and environment
See also: North Saskatchewan River valley parks system
Streambed in Hawrelak Park
Edmonton's river valley constitutes the longest stretch of connected urban parkland in North America, and Edmonton has the highest per capita area of parkland of any Canadian city; the river valley is 22 times larger than New York City's Central Parkdell inspiron e1505 battery. The public river valley parks provide a unique urban escape area, with park styles ranging from fully serviced urban parks to campsitelike facilities with few amenities. This main "Ribbon of Green" is supplemented by numerous neighbourhood parks located throughout the city, to give a total of 111 km2 (27,400 acres) of parkland. Within the 7,400 ha (18,000 acres) dell inspiron e1705 battery, 25 km (16 mi)-long river valley park system, there are 11 lakes, 14 ravines, and 22 major parks, and most of the city has accessible bike and walking trail connections. These trails are also part of the 235 km (146 mi) Waskahegan walking trail. The City of Edmonton has named five parks in its River Valley Parks System in honour of each of "The Famous Five".
Edmonton's streets and parklands are also home to one of the largest remaining concentrations of healthy American elm trees in the worlddell latitude d820 battery, unaffected by Dutch elm disease, which has wiped out vast numbers of such trees in eastern North America. Jack pine, lodgepole pine, white spruce, white birch, aspen, mountain ash, Amur maple, Russian olive, green ash, basswood, various poplars and willows, flowering crabapple, Mayday tree and Manitoba maple are also abundant; bur oak, silver maple, hawthorn and Ohio buckeye are increasingly popular. Other introduced tree species include white ashdell latitude d830 battery, blue spruce, Norway maple, red oak, sugar maple, common horse-chestnut, McIntosh apple, and Evans cherry. Three walnut species—butternut, Manchurian walnut, and black walnut—have survived in Edmonton.
Several golf courses, both public and private, are also located in the river valley; the long summer daylight hours of this northern city provide for extended play from early morning well into the evening. Dell Latitude E5500 BatteryGolf courses and the park system become a winter recreation area during this season, and cross-country skiing and skating are popular during the long winter. Four downhill ski slopes are located in the river valley as well, two within the city and two immediately outside.
See also: List of neighbourhoods in Edmonton
Edmonton has numerous distinct neighbourhoods. Downtown Edmonton consists of the Commercial Core, the Arts District, Rice Howard Way, McKay Avenue, Jasper-West, the Warehouse District and the Government Precinct (also known as Grandin) Dell Latitude E5400 Battery. The Commercial Core and Rice Howard Way double as Edmonton's Central Business District and the Arts District is home to most of Edmonton's main cultural buildings like the Art Gallery of Alberta. The Warehouse District is home to some old brick warehouses (most have been converted to lofts and condominiums) from when the area was the City's main industrial area and at the same time is one of the most up and coming districts in the City with lots of new construction underway or plannedDELL Latitude E5410 Battery. McKay Avenue is home to many residential towers and some of the Downtown hotels and is fairly quiet, compared to the Government District which is home to the lively Alberta Legislature and many government offices.
Radiating from the core are many older urban neighbourhoods. Oliver, immediately west of Downtown Edmonton, is often mistakenly considered as part of the Downtown due to its high density condos and apartmentsdell latitude e6400 battery. Between the old character homes of Westmount and mid and high rises of Oliver is 124 Street which is home to many art galleries and restaurants. Further west of Westmount is Glenora, where the Royal Alberta Museum is located and lots of beautiful old Scottish-inspired mansions. To the east of Downtown is Boyle Street which is one of the lower income neighbourhoods of the city and has many walk up apartments and old brick buildingsdell latitude e6500 battery. Northeast of Downtown is McCauley, which is one of the most ethnically diverse areas of the city and home to Edmonton's Little Italy and part of Edmonton's Chinatown. Also northeast of Downtown is Alberta Avenue and Parkdale, which are formerly run-down neighbourhoods that are undergoing revitalization with young families and artists moving inDELL Latitude E6510 Battery. Immediately across the river from Downtown Edmonton is Strathcona, which is full of character and home to the vibrant Whyte Avenue. Straddled between the main campus of University of Alberta and Strathcona is Garneau, which has many independent cafes and French-Canadian inspired homes. To the southeast of Downtown are neighbourhoods such as Cloverdale and Bonnie DoonDELL Precision M2400 Battery, which are relatively quiet. Bonnie Doon Shopping Centre is located within Bonnie Doon and the Muttart Conservatory is located within Cloverdale.
Edmonton then gives way to matured suburbs that first began to appear in the 1940s through to around 1970. Neighbourhoods such as Strathearn, Rundle Heights, Jasper Park, and Empire Park have many 1950s and 1960s style walk up apartments and townhouse complexes alongside single family homes and mom and pop businessesdell xps m1210 battery. These neighbourhoods tend to not be thought of as much as suburbs as the post-1970 suburbs.
Post-1970 suburbs are much less matured and tend to not have back alleys for houses and instead opt for front-car garages so that cars are more convenient. One of the most well-known suburbs from the 1970s and 1980s is Mill Woods, a collection of neighbourhoods in southeast Edmonton. It is often incorrectly referred to as "Millwoods," DELL Precision M6400 Battery due to a typographical mistake on street signs dating back to the neighbourhood's inception. Other areas where new suburbs popped up in the 1970s and 1980s into the early 1990s are Belmont and Kirkness in the area generally considered "Clareview" in Northeast Edmonton; areas around Blue Quill and Lendrum Place in the southwest; and areas around Belmead and Callingwood in the westDELL Precision M6500 Battery.
Most of the newer suburban growth in the City of Edmonton has occurred in Southwest Edmonton around Terwillegar. More recently, many new suburban neighbourhoods have begun to pop up outside of Edmonton's ring road, Anthony Henday Drive, such as Summerside, Ellerslie, Windermere, The Hamptons, and Rutherford. Many of these are home to small recreational lakes and newer suburban strip mallsdell xps m1330 battery. Still, there are many new neighbourhoods going up within the ring road, such as The Meadows, east of Mill Woods and Carlton and Cumberland in Northwest Edmonton east of St. Albert Trail.
Several transit-oriented developments (TOD) have begun to appear along the LRT line at Clareview, with future developments planned at Belvedere (part of the Old Town Fort Road Redevelopment Project). Another TOD, called Century Parkdell xps m1530 battery, is being constructed at the site of what was once Heritage Mall, at the southern end of the LRT line. Century Park will eventually house up to 5,000 residents. The Edmonton City Centre airport is planned to be developed into a TOD.
Main article: Edmonton Capital Region
Edmonton is at the centre of Canada's sixth largest census metropolitan area (CMA) that includes Edmonton and 34 other municipalities in the surrounding area. Larger communities include the Urban Service Area of Sherwood Park (part of Strathcona County) dell xps m1710 battery, the cities of St. Albert, Leduc, Spruce Grove and Fort Saskatchewan, and the towns of Stony Plain, Beaumont, Morinville, and Devon. Major employment areas outside of Edmonton but within the CMA include the Nisku Industrial Business Park and the Edmonton International Airport (including a planned inland port logistics support facility in support of the Port Alberta initiative) in Leduc County, the Acheson Industrial Area in Parkland Countydell xps m1730 battery, Refinery Row in Strathcona County and Alberta's Industrial Heartland within portions of Fort Saskatchewan, Strathcona County and Sturgeon County. Alberta's Industrial Heartland also extends beyond the CMA's northeastern boundary into a portion of Lamont County.
The individual economic development interests and costs of service delivery in certain municipalities within the region has led to intermunicipal competition, strained intermunicipal relationships and overall fragmentation of the regionDell Vostro 1710 Battery. Although several attempts have been made by the City of Edmonton to absorb surrounding municipalities or annex portions of its neighbours, the city has not absorbed another municipality since the Town of Jasper Place joined Edmonton on August 17, 1964 and the city has not annexed land from any of its neighbours since January 1, 1982Dell Vostro 1720 Battery. After years of mounting pressure in the early 21st century, the Province of Alberta formed the Capital Region Board (CRB) on April 15, 2008. The CRB consists of 24 member municipalities – 22 of which are within the Edmonton CMA and two of which are outside the CMA.
Main article: Demographics of Edmonton
Sacred Heart Church, on "Church Street" (96 Street) in Edmonton's inner city area.
The population of the City of Edmonton according to its 2012 municipal census is 817,498, a 4.5% increase over its 2009 municipal census population of 782,439dell studio xps 1340 battery.
In the 2011 Census, the City of Edmonton had a population of 812,201 living in 324,756 of its 348,672 total dwellings, an 11.2% change from its 2006 population of 730,372. With a land area of 684.37 km2 (264.24 sq mi), it had a population density of 1,186.786/km2 (3,073.763/sq mi) in 2011dell studio xps 13 battery.
According to the 2006 census, there were 730,372 residents within the city of Edmonton proper, compared to 3,290,350 for all of Alberta. The total population of the Census Metropolitan Area (CMA) was 1,034,945.
In the five years between 2001 and 2006, the population of the city of Edmonton proper grew by 9.6%, compared with an increase of 10.4% for the Edmonton CMA and 10.6% for Alberta as a wholedell Studio XPS 16 battery. The population density of the city of Edmonton proper averaged 1,067.2 people per square kilometre (2,764/sq mi), compared with an average of 5.1 people per square kilometre (13.2/sq mi) for Alberta altogether.
In mid-2006, 11.9% of Edmonton's population were of retirement age (65 and over for males and females) compared with 13.7% in Canada. The median age was 35.3 years of age, compared to 37.6 years of age for all of Canadadell Studio XPS 1640 battery. Also, according to the 2006 census, 50.5% of the population within the city of Edmonton proper were female, while 49.5% were male. Children under five accounted for approximately 5.6% of the resident population of Edmonton. This compares with 6.2% in Alberta, and almost 5.3% for Canada overall.
In 2006, people of European ethnicities formed the largest cluster of ethnic groups in Edmonton, mostly of English, Scottish, German, Irish, Ukrainian, and French origindell Studio XPS 1645 battery.
According to the 2006 census, the city of Edmonton was 71.8% White and 5.3% Aboriginal, while visible minorities accounted for 22.9% of the population.
Main article: Religion in Edmonton
According to the 2001 census, 31.2% of Edmonton residents are Protestant and 29.4% are Catholic. 5.5% belong to other Christian denominations, 2.9% are Muslim, 0.6% are Jewish, 5.1% are adherents of other religions, and 24.4% profess no religiondell Studio XPS 1647 battery. One of Alberta's two Bahá'í Centres is located in Edmonton. The first mosque established in Canada-the Al-Rashid Mosque, founded by Abdullah Yusuf Ali—is situated in Edmonton. Edmonton also hosts a Maronite Catholic church, on 76 Avenue/98 Street, with services in English on Saturdays and Arabic on Sundays. The Lebanese community also has a Druze Community Centre on the north side of the citydell Studio 17 battery. The Edmonton Alberta Temple of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was dedicated on December 11, 1999. The Hindu Community in Edmonton is served by the Hindu Society of Alberta (North Indian Temple) and the Maha Ganapathy Society of Alberta (South Indian Temple). The Sikh community in Edmonton is served by four gurdwarasdell Studio 1749 battery. The Jewish Community in Edmonton is served by Jewish Federation of Edmonton. The region is served by five synagogues. Edmonton is also home to two of Alberta's four Unitarian Universalist congregations—the Unitarian Church of Edmonton and the Westwood Unitarian Congregation; the other two are located in Calgary and Lethbridgedell Studio 1745 battery.
See also: Economy of Alberta
Edmonton is the major economic centre for northern and central Alberta and a major centre for the oil and gas industry. In its autumn 2007 Metropolitan Outlook, the Conference Board of Canada forecast that Edmonton's GDP for 2007 will be $44.1-billion (2007 dollars), a 3.6% increase over 2006. The Edmonton Economic Development Corporation estimated that as of January 2005dell Studio 1747 battery, the total value of major projects under construction in northern Alberta was $81.5-billion, with $18.2-billion occurring within Greater Edmonton.
Jasper Avenue, a hub of major offices and the financial centers.
Edmonton traditionally has been a hub for Albertan petrochemical industries, earning it the nickname "Oil Capital of Canada" in the 1940s. Supply and service industries drive the energy extraction engineDell Inspiron 1440 Battery, while research develops new technologies and supports expanded value-added processing of Alberta's massive oil, gas, and oil sands reserves. These are reported to be the second-largest in the world, after Saudi Arabia.
Despite the apparent focus on oil and gas, Edmonton's economy is one of the most diverse in Canada. Major industrial sectors include a strong technology sector anchored by major employers such as IBM, Telus, Intuit CanadaDell Inspiron 1750 Battery, Canadian Western Bank, BioWare, Matrikon, General Electric, and Stantec Inc. The associated biotech sector, with companies such as Afexa Life Sciences Inc. (formerly CV Technologies).
The National Institute for Nanotechnology (NINT)
Much of the growth in technology sectors is due to Edmonton's reputation as one of Canada’s premier research and education centres. Research initiatives are anchored by educational institutions such as the University of Alberta as well as government initiatives underway at the Alberta Research Council and Edmonton Research ParkDell Inspiron 1464 Battery. Recently, the National Institute for Nanotechnology was constructed on the University of Alberta campus.
During the 1970s and 1980s, Edmonton started to become a major financial centre, with both regional offices of Canada's major banks and locally based institutions opening. However, the turmoil of the late-1980s economy radically changed the situation. Locally based operations such as Principal Trust and Canadian Commercial BankDell Inspiron 1564 Battery would fail, and some regional offices were moved to other cities. The 1990s saw a solidification of the economy, and Edmonton is now home to Canadian Western Bank, the only publicly traded Schedule I chartered bank headquarters west of Toronto. Other major financial centres include ATB Financial, Servus Credit Union (formerly Capital City Savings), TD Canada Trust and Manulife Financial. Dell Inspiron 1764 Battery
Edmonton has been the birthplace of several companies that have grown to international stature, such as PCL Construction, Stantec Inc. and more recently, Capital Power Corporation. The local retail market has also seen the creation of many successful store concepts, such as The Brick, Katz Group, AutoCanada, Boston Pizza, Pizza 73, Liquor Stores GP (which includes Liquor Depot, Liquor Barn, OK Liquor, and Grapes & Grains) Dell Studio 1440 Battery, Planet Organic, Empire Design, Running Room, Booster Juice, Earl's, Fountain Tire and XS Cargo.
Edmonton's geographical location has made it an ideal spot for distribution and logistics. CN Rail's North American operational facility is located in the city, as well as a major intermodal facility that handles all incoming freight from the port of Prince Rupert in British Columbia. Dell Studio 1535 Battery
Edmonton was judged to have the "best economic potential" of any North American city by the Financial Times publication, FDi magazine. In a 2007 study, FDI placed Edmonton immediately ahead of Mississauga, Ontario; Charlotte, North Carolina; Tijuana, Mexico and Calgary among cities with populations between 500,000 and two million. Edmonton's economic potential, expanding infrastructure, human resourcesDell Studio 1536 Battery, cost effectiveness, and high standard of living place it in the No. 4 spot on FDi’s list of top-ten North American large cities. The survey also named Edmonton in the top-five large North American cities for business development and investment promotion. Edmonton is known for its exceptional environmental stewardship, strong life-science sector, and burgeoning high-tech industry economyDell Studio 1537 Battery.
West Edmonton Mall.
Edmonton is home to several shopping malls, including Canada's first mall, Westmount Centre and West Edmonton Mall, one of the world's largest malls and presently the largest in North America. Other malls include Bonnie Doon Shopping Centre, Edmonton City Centre (a combination of the former Edmonton Centre and Eaton Centre malls) Dell Studio 1557 Battery, Southgate Centre, Kingsway Mall, Northgate Centre, Abbotsfield Mall, Londonderry Mall, Capilano Mall, and Mill Woods Town Centre.
Edmonton also has many big box shopping centres and power centres. Some of the major ones include South Edmonton Common (North America's largest open air retail development), Skyview Power Centre, Terra Losa Centre, Oliver Park, Southpark Centre, The Meadows, Christy's Corner, and Westpoint. In 2008, construction started on the Windermere power centreDell Studio 1735 Battery.
In contrast to suburban centres, Edmonton has many urban retail locations. The largest of them all, Old Strathcona, includes many independent stores between 99 Street and 109 Street on Whyte Avenue and area. In around the downtown of Edmonton, there are a small handful of shopping districts such as previously mentioned Edmonton City Centre mall, Jasper Avenue and 104 Street. Near Oliver, 124 Street is home to a significant amount of retail storesDell Studio 1737 Battery.
Edmonton is the Canadian testing-ground for many American retailers such as Bath & Body Works and Calvin Klein.
Arts and culture
See also: List of attractions and landmarks in Edmonton
Many events are anchored in the downtown Arts District, centred around the recently renovated Churchill Square (named in honour of Sir Winston Churchill). On the south side of the river, the University district and Whyte Avenue contain theatres, concert halls, and various live music venues. Edmonton's current poet laureate is Ann Marie SwellDell Inspiron Mini 12 Battery.
The Francis Winspear Centre for Music
The Francis Winspear Centre for Music was opened in 1997 after years of planning and fundraising. Described as one of the most acoustically perfect concert halls in Canada, it is home to the Edmonton Symphony Orchestra and hosts a wide variety of shows every year. It seats 1,932 patrons and houses the $3-million Davis Concert Organ, the largest concert organ in CanadaDell Latitude E4300 Battery. An interesting aspect of the hall's design is its separation into acoustically separate areas that are insulated from each other through acoustical barriers built into the structure. Patrons and artists can see these in the form of double-door "sound locks."
Across 102 Avenue is the Citadel Theatre, named after The Salvation Army Citadel in which Joe Shoctor first started the Citadel Theatre Company in 1965. It is now one of the largest theatre complexes in CanadaDell Latitude E4310 Battery, with five halls, each specializing in different kinds of productions. For instance, the Maclab Theatre features a thrust stage surrounded by a U-shaped seating arrangement, while the Shoctor Theatre is a traditional stage setup.
On the University of Alberta grounds is the 2,534-seat Northern Alberta Jubilee Auditorium, which recently went through a year of heavy renovations carried out as part of the province's centennial celebrationsDell Vostro 1310 Battery. Both it and its southern twin in Calgary were constructed in 1955 for the province's golden jubilee and have hosted many concerts, musicals, and ballets. The Edmonton Opera uses the Jubilee as its base of operations. On the front of the building is a quote from Suetonius' Life of Augustus: "He found a city built of brick—left it built of marbleDell Vostro 1320 Battery."
Old Strathcona is home to the Theatre District, which holds the Transalta Arts Barns (headquarters of the Edmonton International Fringe Festival), The Walterdale Playhouse, Catalyst Theatre, and the Varscona Theatre (base of operations for several theatre companies, including Teatro la Quindicina, Shadow Theatre, Rapid Fire Theatre, Die-Nasty, and Oh Susanna!). Edmonton was named cultural capital of Canada in 2007Dell Vostro 1510 Battery.
Ukrainian Dnipro Ensemble of Edmonton, organized in 1953, preserves the Ukrainian musical culture within the parameters of the Canadian multicultural identity.
Edmonton is home to world famous Ukrainian Dance ensembles such as the Cheremosh Ukrainian Dance Company and Shumka.
In 1917 the hadrosaur Edmontosaurus was named after the Edmonton Formation in Central Alberta, Edmontosaurus's name means "reptile from Edmonton"Dell Vostro 1520 Battery.
Main article: Festivals in Edmonton
The 2001 Sourdough Raft Race, passing beneath the High Level Bridge's Great Divide waterfall during Klondike Days.
Edmonton plays host to several large festivals each year, contributing to its local nickname, "The Festival City." Downtown Edmonton's Churchill Square host numerous festivals each summer. The Works Art & Design Festival, which takes place from late June to early JulyDell Vostro 2510 Battery, showcases Canadian and international art and design from well-known award-winning artists as well as emerging and student artists. The Edmonton International Street Performer's Festival takes place in mid-July and showcases street performance artists from around the world.
Edmonton's main summer festival is K-Days, formerly Klondike Days, Capital Ex and originally the Edmonton ExhibitionDell Vostro 1014 Battery. Founded in 1879, the Edmonton Exhibition was originally an annual fair and exhibition that eventually adopted a gold rush theme, becoming Klondike Days in the 1960s. Northlands, the operators, renamed the festival to "Edmonton's Capital Ex" or "Capital Ex" in 2006. In 2012, Edmonton Northlands conducted a poll to rename the festival that resulted in changing the name to "K-Days". Activities include carnival rides and fairways, music, trade shows, and daily fireworksDell XPS M2010 Battery.
Since 1960, the Sourdough Raft Races have also been a popular event. Later in November, Edmonton plays host to the Canadian Finals Rodeo and Farmfair; this is a significant event in Canada's rodeo circuit and second only to the National Finals Rodeo in Las Vegas in prestige.
The Edmonton International Fringe Festival, held in mid-August, is the largest fringe theatre festival in North America and second only to the Edinburgh Fringe Festival worldwideDell Inspiron 1520 Battery. In August, Edmonton is also host to the Edmonton Folk Music Festival, one of the most successful and popular folk music festivals in North America. Another major summer festival is the Edmonton Heritage Festival, which is an ethnocultural festival that takes place in Hawrelak Park on the Heritage Day long weekend. Many other festivals exist, such as the Free Will Shakespeare FestivalDell Inspiron 1521 Battery, the Dragon Boat Festival, the Whyte Avenue Art Walk, and the Edmonton International Film Festival.
Museums and galleries
Art Gallery of Alberta.
Buildings on the grounds of the Royal Alberta Museum.
The main building of the Telus World of Science.
There are many museums in Edmonton of various sizes. The largest is the Royal Alberta Museum (RAM), which was formerly known as the Provincial Museum of Alberta until it was renamed in honour of Queen Elizabeth II's 2005 Alberta centennial visit. The RAM houses over 10 million objects in its collection and showcasesDell Inspiron 1720 Battery the culture and practices of the diverse aboriginal tribes of the region. The main building, overlooking the river valley west of the city centre in the Glenora neighbourhood, was opened in 1967 and is now in the early stages of large-scale redevelopment.
The Telus World of Science is located in the Woodcroft neighbourhood northwest of the city centre. It opened in 1984 and has since been expanded several times. It contains five permanent galleriesDell Inspiron 1721 Battery, one additional gallery for temporary exhibits, an IMAX theatre, a planetarium, an observatory, and an amateur radio station.
The Alberta Aviation Museum, located in a hangar at the City Centre Airport, was built for the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan. Its collection includes both civilian and military aircraft, the largest of which are a Boeing 737 and two CF-101 Voodoos. It also has one of only 3 BOMARC missiles in CanadaDell Vostro 1500 Battery.
The Prince of Wales Armouries Heritage Centre is also home to the Loyal Edmonton Regiment Military Museum. The museum is dedicated to preserving the unique military heritage and the sacrifices made by the people of Edmonton and Alberta in general. The museum features two galleries and several smaller exhibits. The collection includes historic firearms, uniforms, souvenirs, memorabilia, military accoutrementsDell Vostro 1700 Battery, as well as a large photographic and archival collection spanning the pre-World War One period to the present. The museum recently opened an exhibit on the role of the 49th Battalion, CEF in Canada's Hundred Days Offensive.
The Alberta Railway Museum is located in the rural northeast portion of the city. It contains a variety of locomotives and railroad cars from different periods, and includes a working steam locomotiveDell Inspiron 1420 Battery. Since most of its exhibits are outdoors, it is only open between Victoria Day and Labour Day.
The Telephone Historical Centre is a telephone museum also located in the Prince of Wales Armouries Heritage Centre in central Edmonton. In addition to a collection of artifacts tracing the history of the telephone, the museum has its own theatre featuring a brief film led by the robot XeldonDell Vostro 1400 Battery.
The Edmonton Valley Zoo is in the river valley to the southwest of the city centre.
The Art Gallery of Alberta (AGA) is the city's largest single gallery. Formerly housed in an inconspicuous 1970s building downtown, the AGA collection had over 5,000 pieces of art. The former AGA building was demolished in July 2007 to make way for construction of a new facility designed by Randall StoutDell Latitude D620 Battery. It was estimated to cost over $88-million and the amount that Edmonton City Council donated towards its construction was met with some controversy. The AGA officially opened the weekend of January 30/31, 2010.
Independent galleries can be found throughout the city, especially along the 124 Street/Jasper Avenue corridor (known as the gallery walk).
Fort Edmonton Park, Canada's largest living history museum, is located in the river valley southwest of the city centresony vgp-bps2 battery. Edmonton's heritage is displayed through historical buildings (many of which are originals moved to the park), costumed historical interpreters, and authentic artifacts. In total, it covers the region's history from approximately 1795 to 1929 (represented by Fort Edmonton), followed chronologically by 1885, 1905, and 1920 streets, and a recreation of a 1920s midway. A steam train, streetcars, automobiles and horse drawn vehicles may be seen in operation sony vgp-bps3 battery (and utilized by the public) around the park. It is open from Victoria Day until the end of September, with other themed events throughout the year.
The University of Alberta operates its own internal Museums and Collections service.
The John Walter Museum and Historical Area (c. 1875 to 1901) is on the Canadian Register of Historic Places.
Further information: List of people from Edmonton#Musicians
Edmonton is home to a thriving music scene. Along with the Edmonton Symphony Orchestra, notable past and present local musicians include Fauntssony vgp-bps4 battery, Tommy Banks, Tim Feehan, Cadence Weapon, Captain Tractor, Five O'Clock Charlie, Kreesha Turner, Mad Bomber Society, The Mark Birtles Project, P.J. Perry, The Smalls, SNFU, Social Code, Stereos, Ten Second Epic, Tupelo Honey, Christian Hansen & The Autistics, Hot Panda, Shout Out Out Out Out, and numerous otherssony vgp-bps5 battery.
There are several key areas of nightlife in the city of Edmonton. The most popular is the Whyte Avenue (82 Avenue) strip, located between 109 Street and 99 Street; it has the highest number of heritage buildings in Edmonton, and the nightlife (bars, clubs, and restaurants) are located throughout, but mostly west of Gateway Boulevard (103 Street)sony vgp-bps7 battery. Once the heart of the town of Strathcona (annexed by Edmonton on February 1, 1912), it fell into disrepair during the middle of the 20th century. Beginning in the 1970s, a coordinated effort to revive the area through the establishment of a Business Revitalization Zone has produced an area rich with restored historical buildings and pleasant streetscapessony vgp-bpl7 battery. Its proximity to the University of Alberta has led to a high number of establishments ranging from restaurants and pubs to trendy clubs while hosting a wide variety of retail and specialty shops during the day. This area also contains two independent movie theatres: the Garneau and Princess theatres, as well as several live theatre, music, and comedy venuessony vgp-bps8 battery.
Downtown Edmonton has undergone a continual process of renewal and unprecedented growth since the mid-1990s. Many buildings were demolished during the oil boom, starting in the 1960s and continuing into the 1980s, to make way for office towers. As such, there have always been numerous pub-type establishments, as well as many hotel lounges and restaurantssony vgp-bps8a battery. The past decade has seen a strong resurgence in more mainstream venues. Edmonton also has a high demand for pub crawl tours in the city. Various clubs are also to be found along Edmonton's main street, Jasper Avenue. The Edmonton City Centre mall also houses an Empire Theatres movie theatre, featuring nine screens. The nonprofit Metro Cinema shows a variety of alternative or otherwise unreleased films every weeksony vgp-bps8b battery.
West Edmonton Mall holds several after-hour establishments in addition to its many stores and attractions. Bourbon Street has numerous eating establishments; clubs and casinos can also be found within the complex. Scotiabank Theatre (formerly known as Silver City), at the west end of the mall, is a theatre that features twelve screens and an IMAXsony vgp-bpl8 battery.
Sports and recreation
Main article: Sport in Edmonton
Edmonton Grand Prix.
Edmonton has numerous professional sports teams, including the Edmonton Eskimos of the Canadian Football League, Edmonton Oilers of the National Hockey League, Edmonton Rush of the National Lacrosse League, Edmonton Energy of the International Basketball League, and FC Edmonton of the North American Soccer Leaguesony vgp-bps9 battery. Junior sports clubs include the Edmonton Huskies and Edmonton Wildcats of the Canadian Junior Football League and the Edmonton Oil Kings of the Western Hockey League. Venues for Edmonton's professional and junior sports teams include Commonwealth Stadium (Eskimos), Rexall Place (Oilers, Rush and Oil Kings), Telus Field (Capitals), the Universiade Pavilion (Energy) sony vgp-bps9/s battery, and Clarke Stadium (FC Edmonton, Huskies and Wildcats). A new arena to accommodate the Oilers among other things is currently in planning stages.
Edmonton's teams have rivalries with Calgary's teams and games between Edmonton and Calgary teams are often referred to as the Battle of Alberta.
Past notable hockey teams in Edmonton include the original junior hockey incarnation of the Edmonton Oil Kings of the Western Hockey League and the Edmonton Roadrunners of the American Hockey Leaguesony vgp-bps9a/s battery. Other past notable sports teams include the Edmonton Grads, a women's basketball team, and the Edmonton Trappers, a former baseball team in the Pacific Coast League.
North face of Rexall Place.
Local university-level sports teams include the U of A Golden Bears, the U of A Pandas, the NAIT Ooks, and the Grant MacEwan Griffins. Local amateur teams, among others, include the Edmonton Gold of the Rugby Canada Super League and the two flat track roller derby leagues: Oil City Roller Derby -  and E-Ville Roller Derbysony vgp-bps9/b battery
Since 2005, Edmonton has hosted an annual circuit on the Indy Racing League known as the Edmonton Indy (formerly the Grand Prix of Edmonton). In addition, Castrol Raceway hosts regular sprint car and a national IHRA events at their facility next to Edmonton International Airport.
Past sporting events hosted by Edmonton include the 1978 Commonwealth Gamessony vgp-bps9a/b battery, the 1983 World University Games (Universiade), the 2001 World Championships in Athletics, the 2002 World Ringette Championships, the 2005 World Master Games, the 2006 Women's Rugby World Cup, the 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup, the CN Canadian Women's Open, and the 2010 Canadian National Debating Championship. Edmonton is sharing hosting duties with Calgary for the 2012 World Junior Ice Hockey Championshipssony vgp-bps9a battery.
Matthew McCauley, first mayor of Edmonton
Provincial Legislature of Alberta
In 1892 Edmonton was incorporated as a town. The first mayor was Matthew McCauley, who established the first school board in Edmonton and Board of Trade (later Chamber of Commerce) and a municipal police service. Due to mayor McCauley's good relationship with the federal Liberals this helped Edmonton to maintain political prominence over Strathconasony vgp-bps9b battery, a rival settlement on the south bank of the North Saskatchewan River. Edmonton was incorporated as a city in 1904 and became the capital of Alberta in 1905.
Unions and radical organizations such as the Industrial Workers of the World struggled for progressive social change through the early years, with the first reformer, James East, being elected in 1912sony vgp-bpl9c battery, followed by the first official Labour alderman, James Kinney, the following year. Many thousands of workers participated in the Edmonton general strike of 1919 and a strong block of Labour representatives were on council after the next election: James Kinney, James East, Sam McCoppen, Joe Clarke and Rice Sheppard.
Labour representation on city council would become a majority in 1929, and, during the Great Depression, from 1932 to 1934sony vgp-bpl9 battery. Jan Reimer became the city's first female mayor, when she was elected in 1989.
Edmonton is represented by a mayor and 12 councillors - one for each of the 12 wards. On July 22, 2009 City Council adopted an electoral system that divides Edmonton into 12 wards, instead of the previous two for each of six wards. This system came into effect with the most recent municipal election in October 2010sony vgp-bps10 battery.
Edmonton is the capital of the province of Alberta and holds all main provincial areas of government such as the Provincial Legislature of Alberta. The Edmonton region is represented by 20 MLAs one for each provincial electoral district. Many of these boundaries have been changed, adjusted and renamed while the city has grownSony VGP-BPS12 Battery.
Main article: Transportation in Edmonton
Edmonton International Airport's South Terminal.
See also: List of airports in the Edmonton area
Edmonton is a major air transportation gateway to northern Alberta and northern Canada. The Edmonton International Airport (EIA) and Edmonton City Centre Airport (ECCA) are the two airports serving the city.
The EIA, being the larger of the two airports, provides passenger service to destinations in the United States, Europe, Mexico, and the Caribbean. The EIA is located within Leduc County, adjacent to the City of Leduc and the Nisku Industrial Business ParkSony VGP-BPL12 Battery.
The ECCA is a general aviation facility (since air services consolidation in 1995) and the only airport located within the city limits. The ECCA is home to a variety of aviation companies with key markets in northern Alberta. The ECCA is currently in the process of being closed by the city.
With direct air distances from Edmonton to places such as London in Europe being shorter than to other main airports in western North AmericaSony VGP-BPS13 Battery, Edmonton Airports is working to establish a major container shipping hub called Port Alberta.
Edmonton serves as a major transportation hub for Canadian National Railway, whose North American operations management centre is located at their Edmonton offices. It is also tied into the Canadian Pacific Railway network, which provides service from Calgary to the south and extends northeast of Edmonton to serve Alberta's Industrial HeartlandSony VGP-BPS13B/Q battery.
Inter-city rail passenger rail service is provided by Via Rail's premier train, the Canadian, as it travels between Vancouv
Bay/Enterprise Square LRT station
The Edmonton Transit System is the city's main public transit agency, operating the Edmonton Light Rail Transit (LRT) line as well as a large fleet of buses. Approximately 34% of people in the Edmonton Capital Region (mostly from Edmonton proper) use ETS per day (354,440 out of 1,034,945). There are approximately 280,000 bus riders on average per day using Edmonton Transit SystemSony VGP-BPS13A/B battery.
From the 1990s to early 2009, Edmonton was one of two cities in Canada still operating trolleybuses, along with Vancouver. On June 18, 2008, City Council decided to abandon the Edmonton trolleybus system and the last trolleybus ran on May 2, 2009.
Scheduled LRT service began on April 23, 1978, with five extensions of the single line completed sinceSony VGP-BPS13/S battery. The original Edmonton line is considered to be the first "modern" light rail line in North America (i.e., built from scratch, rather than being an upgrade of an old system). It introduced the use of German-designed rolling stock that subsequently became the standard light rail vehicle of the United States. The Edmonton "proof-of-payment" fare collection system adopted in 1980—modelled after European ticket systems—became the North American transit industry's preferred approach for subsequent light rail projectsSony VGP-BPS13/B battery. The four-year South LRT extension was opened in full on April 24, 2010, which sees trains travelling to Century Park (located at 23 Avenue and 111 Street), making stops at South Campus and Southgate Centre along the way. Edmonton is also looking into plans to expand LRT to Mill Woods and the West side by 2016 using low floor technology, along with a line to NAIT in north-central Edmonton using the high floor style present in the current line by 2014Sony VGP-BPS13B/S battery.
Stony Plain Road looking towards downtown
A largely gridded system forms most of Edmonton's street and road network. The address system is mostly numbered, with streets running south to north and avenues running east to west. In built-up areas built since the 1950s, local streets and major roadways generally do not conform to the grid system. Major roadways include Yellowhead Trail (Highway 16) Sony VGP-BPS13A battery, Whitemud Drive and Anthony Henday Drive, and the city is connected to other communities elsewhere in Alberta, British Columbia, and Saskatchewan via the Yellowhead Highway to the west and east and the Queen Elizabeth II Highway (Alberta Highway 2) to the south.
There is an extensive multi-use trail system for bicycles and pedestrians throughout the city; however, most of this is within the river valley parkland systemSony VGP-BPS13A/S battery.
Electricity and water
Edmonton's first power company established itself in 1891 and installed streetlights along the city's main avenue, Jasper Avenue. The power company was bought by the Town of Edmonton in 1902 and remains under municipal ownership today as EPCOR. Also in charge of water treatment, in 2002 EPCOR installed the world's largest ultraviolet (UV) water treatment or ultraviolet disinfection system at its E.L. Smith Water Treatment PlantSony VGP-BPS13S battery.