Duke University And Johns Hopkins University

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Duke University is a private research university located in Durham, North Carolina, United States. Founded by Methodists and Quakers in the present day town of Trinity in 1838, the school moved to Durham in 1892.[7] In 1924, tobacco and electric power industrialist James B. Duke established The Duke Endowmentsony vgp-bps2 battery, at which time the institution changed its name to honor his deceased father, Washington Duke.

The university has "historical, formal, on-going, and symbolic ties" with the United Methodist Church, but is a nonsectarian and independent institution. Duke's research expenditures in the 2010 fiscal year topped $983 million, the fifth largest figure in the nationsony vgp-bps3 battery. Competing in the Atlantic Coast Conference, Duke's athletic teams—known as the Blue Devils—have captured twelve national championships, including four by its high profile men's basketball team.

The university's campus spans over 8,600 acres (35 km2) on three contiguous campuses in Durham as well as a marine lab in Beaufort. Duke's main campussony vgp-bps4 battery—designed largely by the prominent African American architect Julian Abele—incorporates Gothic architecture with the 210-foot (64 m) Duke Chapel at the campus' epicenter and highest point of elevation. The forest environs surrounding parts of the campus belie the University's proximity to downtown Durham. Construction projects have updated both the freshmen-populated Georgian-style East Campus and the main Gothic-style West Campussony vgp-bps5 battery, as well as the adjacent Medical Center over the past five years.

In its 2012 edition, U.S. News & World Report ranked the university's undergraduate program 10th among national universities, while the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) placed it 27th nationally and 35th in the world. Both Forbes and Washington Monthly[16] ranked Duke as 27th in the U.S. in 2011-12sony vgp-bps7 battery, with the latter also factoring in how the university serves as an engine of social mobility and how well it promotes an ethic of service to country, in addition to traditional research measures. In the 2011 QS World University Rankings, Duke ranked 19th globally,[17] and in the 2011-12 Times Higher Education World University Rankings, Duke tied for 22nd globallysony vgp-bpl7 battery.


Main article: History of Duke University


One of the first buildings on the original Durham campus (East Campus), the Washington Duke Building ("Old Main"), was destroyed by a fire in 1911.

Duke started in 1838 as Brown's Schoolhouse, a private subscription school founded in Randolph County in the present-day town of Trinity. Organized by the Union Institute Society, a group of Methodists and Quakerssony vgp-bps8 battery, Brown's Schoolhouse became the Union Institute Academy in 1841 when North Carolina issued a charter. The academy was renamed Normal College in 1851 and then Trinity College in 1859 because of support from the Methodist Church.[19] In 1892 Trinity moved to Durham, largely due to generosity from Julian S. Carr and Washington Duke, powerful and respected Methodists who had grown wealthy through the tobacco and electrical industries. sony vgp-bps8a battery Carr donated land in 1892 for the original Durham campus, which is now known as East Campus. At the same time, Washington Duke gave the school $85,000 for an initial endowment and construction costs—later augmenting his generosity with three separate $100,000 contributions in 1896, 1899, and 1900—with the stipulation that the college "open its doors to women, placing them on an equal footing with mensony vgp-bps8b battery."

In 1924 Washington Duke's son, James B. Duke, established The Duke Endowment with a $40 million trust fund. Income from the fund was to be distributed to hospitals, orphanages, the Methodist Church, and four colleges (including Trinity College). William Preston Few, the president of Trinity at the timesony vgp-bpl8 battery, insisted that the institution be renamed Duke University to honor the family's generosity and to distinguish it from the myriad of other colleges and universities carrying the "Trinity" name. At first, James B. Duke thought the name change would come off as self-serving, but eventually he accepted Few's proposal as a memorial to his father. sony vgp-bps9 batteryMoney from the endowment allowed the University to grow quickly. Duke's original campus, East Campus, was rebuilt from 1925 to 1927 with Georgian-style buildings. By 1930, the majority of the Collegiate Gothic-style buildings on the campus one mile (1.6 km) west were completed, and construction on West Campus culminated with the completion of Duke Chapel in 1935sony vgp-bps9/s battery.

James B. Duke established the Duke Endowment, which provides funds to numerous institutions, including Duke University.

[edit]Expansion and growth

Engineering, which had been taught since 1903, became a separate school in 1939. In athletics, Duke hosted and competed in the only Rose Bowl ever played outside California in Wallace Wade Stadium in 1942.[22] During World War II, Duke was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. sony vgp-bps9a/s battery In 1963 the Board of Trustees officially desegregated the undergraduate college.[24] Increased activism on campus during the 1960s prompted Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. to speak at the University in November 1964 on the progress of the civil rights movement. Terry Sanford, the former governor of North Carolina, was elected president of the university in 1969, propelling the Fuqua School of Business's openingsony vgp-bps9/b battery, the William R. Perkins library completion, and the founding of the Institute of Policy Sciences and Public Affairs (now the Sanford School of Public Policy). The separate Woman's College merged back with Trinity as the liberal arts college for both men and women in 1972. Beginning in the 1970s, Duke administrators began a long-term effort to strengthen Duke's reputation both nationally and internationallysony vgp-bps9a/b battery. Interdisciplinary work was emphasized, as was recruiting minority faculty and students. During this time it also became the birthplace of the first Physician Assistant degree program in the United States. Duke University Hospital was finished in 1980 and the student union building was fully constructed two years later. In 1986 the men's soccer team captured Duke's first National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) championshipsony vgp-bps9a battery, and the men's basketball team followed shortly thereafter with championships in 1991 and 1992.

[edit]Recent history

The Levine Science Research Center is the largest single-site interdisciplinary research facility of any American university.[28]

Duke's growth and academic focus have contributed to continuing the university's reputation as an academic and research powerhouse.[29] The school has regularly sent three-member teams to the William Lowell Putnam Mathematical Competitionsony vgp-bps9b battery, earning the title of the best collegiate undergraduate math team in the United States and Canada in 1993, 1996, and 2000. From 1996 to 2007, Duke's team finished in the top five 10 times, trailing only Harvard's 11 in that time period.[30]

Construction continued on campus in the 1990s, with the 314,000-square-foot (29,200 m2) Levine Science Research Center (LSRC) opening in 1994 to house interdisciplinary research. Similar projects have updated both the freshmen-housed East Campus and the main West Campus, as well as the adjacent Medical Center, in the past two decadessony vgp-bpl9c battery.

In 1998 President Nan Keohane initiated a five-year $1.5 billion "Campaign for Duke" fundraising effort. Edmund T. Pratt, Jr. ('47) endowed the Pratt School of Engineering with a $35 million gift in 1999. The Campaign for Duke ended in 2003 with $2.36 billion raised, making it the fifth largest campaign in the history of American higher education.sony vgp-bpl9 battery Three students were named Rhodes Scholars in both 2002 and 2006, a number surpassed only by Harvard in 2002 and the United States Military Academy in 2006. Overall, Duke has produced 43 Rhodes Scholars through 2011, including 22 in the 21-year period between 1990 to 2011.

In August 2005, Duke established a partnership with the National University of Singapore to develop a joint medical program, which had its first entering class in 2007. sony vgp-bps10 battery Duke, in partnership with the city of Kunshan, China and Wuhan University, is forming a new Joint Venture University to be named Duke- Kunshan University (DKU). The first working demonstration of an invisibility cloak was unveiled by Duke researchers in October 2006.[35] Another notable event in 2006 occurred when three lacrosse team members were falsely accused of rapeSony VGP-BPS12 Battery. Charges against the players were later dropped and the accused were declared innocent by the state's attorney general. The incident garnered significant media attention.[36] Figures from the 2010 fiscal year show research expenditures surpassed the $983 million mark.


Duke Chapel, an icon for the university, can seat nearly 1,600 people and contains a 5,200-pipe organSony VGP-BPL12 Battery.

Duke University owns 220 buildings on 8,610 acres (34.8 km2) of land, which includes the 7,200 acres (29 km2) Duke Forest.[5] The campus is divided into four main areas: West, East, and Central campuses and the Medical Center, which are all connected via a free bus service. On the Atlantic coast in Beaufort, Duke owns 15 acres (61,000 m2) as part of its marine labSony VGP-BPS13 Battery. One of the major public attractions on the main campus is the 55-acre (220,000 m2) Sarah P. Duke Gardens, established in the 1930s.[5]

Duke students often refer to the campus as "the Gothic Wonderland," a nickname referring to the Collegiate Gothic architecture of West Campus.[38][39] Much of the campus was designed by Julian Abele, one of the first prominent African-American architects and the chief designer in the offices of architect Horace Trumbauer. Sony VGP-BPS13B/Q battery The residential quadrangles are of an early and somewhat unadorned design, while the buildings in the academic quadrangles show influences of the more elaborate late French and Italian styles. The freshmen campus (East Campus) is composed of buildings in the Georgian architecture style.[5]

The stone used for West Campus has seven primary colors and seventeen shades of color.[41] The university supervisor of planning and construction wrote that the stone has "an olderSony VGP-BPS13/Q battery, more attractive antique effect" and a "warmer and softer coloring than the Princeton stone" that gave the university an "artistic look."[41] James B. Duke initially suggested the use of stone from a quarry in Princeton, New Jersey, but later amended the plans to purchase a local quarry in Hillsborough to reduce costs.[41] Duke Chapel stands at the center of West Campus on the highest ridge. Sony VGP-BPS13A/B battery Constructed from 1930 to 1935, the chapel seats 1,600 people and, at 210 feet (64 m) is one of the tallest buildings in Durham County.[42]

From February 2001 to November 2005, Duke spent $835 million on 34 major construction projects as part of a five-year strategic plan, "Building on Excellence."[43] Completed projects since 2002 include major additions to the business, law, nursing, and divinity schoolsSony VGP-BPS13/S battery, a new library, an art museum, a football training facility, two residential buildings, an engineering complex, a public policy building, an eye institute, two genetic research buildings, a student plaza, the French Family Science Center, and two new medical-research buildings.[44]

The Gothic Reading Room of Perkins Library

Libraries and museums

Main articles: Duke University Library System and Nasher Museum of Art

With more than six million volumes, the Duke University Library System is one of the ten largest private research university library systems in the U.S. and is 22nd largest among members of the Association of Research Libraries.Sony VGP-BPS13/B battery In addition to millions of books, there are 17.7 million manuscripts, 1.2 million public documents, and tens of thousands of films and videos.[46]

The William R. Perkins Library system comprises the Perkins Library complex (Perkins Library, Bostock Library, Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library and University Archives), Lilly Library (which houses materials on fine arts, philosophy, film and video, and performing arts), the Music Library, and the Pearse Memorial Library (located at the Marine Lab). Sony VGP-BPS13B/S battery Besides the main William R. Perkins Library complex, the university library system also includes the separately-administered Ford (business), Divinity School, Goodson Law, and Medical Center libraries.[48]

Duke's art collections are housed at the Nasher Museum of Art on Central Campus. The museum was designed by Rafael Viñoly and is named for Duke alumnus and art collector Raymond NasherSony VGP-BPS13A battery. The museum opened in 2005 at a cost of over $23 million and contains over 13,000 works of art, including works by William Cordova, Marlene Dumas, Olafur Eliasson, David Hammons, Barkley L. Hendricks, Christian Marclay, Kerry James Marshall, D Alma Thomas, Hank Willis Thomas, Bob Thompson, Kara Walker, Andy Warhol, Carrie Mae Weems, Ai Weiwei, Fred Wilson and Lynette Yiadom Boakye. Sony VGP-BPS13A/S battery

[edit]West, East, and Central Campuses

West Campus, considered the main campus of the University, houses the majority of the sophomores, along with some juniors and seniors.[50] Most of the academic and administrative centers are located there. Main West Campus, with Duke Chapel at its center, contains the majority of residential quads to the south, while the main academic quad, librarySony VGP-BPS13AS battery, and Medical Center are to the north. The campus, spanning 720 acres (2.9 km2), includes Science Drive, which is the location of science and engineering buildings. Most of the campus eateries and sports facilities—including the historic basketball stadium, Cameron Indoor Stadium—are on West Campus.

The main West Campus is dominated by Neo-Gothic architecture. Shown here are typical residence hallsSony VGP-BPS13S battery.

East Campus, the original location of Duke after it moved to Durham,[52] functions as a freshman campus as well as the home of several academic departments. Since the 1995–96 academic year, all freshmen—and only freshmen, except for upperclassmen serving as Resident Assistants—have lived on East Campus, to build class unity. The campus encompasses 97 acres (390,000 m2) Sony VGP-BPS13A/Q batteryand is 1.5 miles (2.4 km) from West Campus.[5] The Art History, History, Literature, Music, Philosophy, and Women's Studies Departments are housed on East.[52] Programs such as dance, drama, education, film, and the University Writing Program reside on East. The self-sufficient East Campus contains the freshman residence halls, a dining hall, coffee shop, post office, Lilly LibrarySony VGP-BPS13A/R battery, Baldwin Auditorium, a theater, Brodie Gym, tennis courts, several disc golf baskets, and a walking track as well as several academic buildings.[52] Separated from downtown by a short walk, the area was the site of the Women's College from 1930 to 1972.

East Campus, home to all Duke freshmen, features Georgian style architecture. Baldwin Auditorium can be seen on the right side.

Central Campus, consisting of 122 acres (0.49 km2) between East and West campuses, houses around 850 sophomores, juniorsSony VGP-BPS13AB battery, and seniors, as well as around 200 professional students in double or quadruple apartments.[53] It is home to the Nasher Museum of Art, the Freeman Center for Jewish Life, the Duke Police Department, the Duke Office of Disability Management, a Ronald McDonald House, and administrative departments such as Duke Residence Life and Housing ServicesSony VGP-BPS13B battery. Central Campus has several recreation and social facilities such as basketball courts, tennis courts, a sand volleyball court, barbecue grills and picnic shelters, a general gathering building called Devil's Den, the Mill Village, and a convenience store called Uncle Harry's.[53]

Since 2005, there has been a long-term plan in place to restructure Central Campus over the subsequent 20 to 50 yearsSony VGP-BPS13B/B battery. The idea is to develop an "academic village" as a key center for the Duke community. This academic village will provide living arrangements for undergraduate, graduate, and professional students and some faculty, plus dining, recreation, and academic support spaces while serving as a living laboratory for sustainabilitySony VGP-BPL21 battery.

[edit]Key places

Main articles: Duke Lemur Center, Duke University Medical Center, and Sarah P. Duke Gardens

The Sarah P. Duke Gardens attract more than 300,000 visitors each year.

Duke Forest, established in 1931, consists of 7,200 acres (29 km2) in six divisions, just west of West Campus.[17] The largest private research forest in North Carolina and one of the largest in the nation, Sony VGP-BPS21 battery the Duke Forest demonstrates a variety of forest stand types and silvicultural treatments. Duke Forest is used extensively for research, and includes the Aquatic Research Facility, Forest Carbon Transfer and Storage (FACTS-I) research facility, two permanent towers suitable for micrometerological studies, and other areas designated for animal behavior and ecosystem study.[58] More than 30 miles (48 km) of trails are open to the public for hiking, cycling, and horseback riding. Sony VGP-BPS21A battery

The Duke Lemur Center, located inside the Duke Forest, is the world's largest sanctuary for rare and endangered prosimian primates.[60] Founded in 1966, the Duke Lemur Center spans 85 acres (34 ha) and contains nearly 300 animals of 25 different species of lemurs, galagos and lorisesSony VGP-BPS21B battery.

Entrance to the Medical Center from West Campus

The Sarah P. Duke Gardens, established in the early 1930s, is situated between West Campus and the apartments of Central Campus. The gardens occupy 55 acres (22 ha), divided into four major sections:[62] the original Terraces and their surroundings; the H.L. Blomquist Garden of Native Plants, devoted to flora of the Southeastern United States; the W.L. Culberson Asiatic ArboretumSony VGP-BPS26 Battery, housing plants of Eastern Asia, as well as disjunct species found in Eastern Asia and Eastern North America; and the Doris Duke Center Gardens. There are five miles (8 km) of allées and paths throughout the gardens.

Duke University Medical Center, bordering Duke's West Campus northern boundary, combines one of the top-rated hospitals and one of the top-ranked medical schools[64] in the U.S. Founded in 1930, the Medical Center occupies 8 million square feet (700,000 m²) in 99 buildings on 210 acres (85 ha) Sony VGP-BPS26A Battery.

Duke University Marine Laboratory, located in the town of Beaufort, North Carolina, is also technically part of Duke's campus. The marine lab is situated on Pivers Island on the Outer Banks of North Carolina, 150 yards (140 m) across the channel from Beaufort. Duke's interest in the area began in the early 1930s and the first buildings were erected in 1938.Sony VGP-BPS13 battery(without CD) The resident faculty represent the disciplines of oceanography, marine biology, marine biomedicine, marine biotechnology, and coastal marine policy, and management. The Marine Laboratory is a member of the National Association of Marine Laboratories.[66] In May 2012, Duke's Board of Trustees approved construction of a $6.75 million Orrin Pilkey Marine Sciences and Conservation Genetics Center at the Duke Marine Lab. Groundbreaking for the approximately 12,000-square-foot facility will take place in July 2012, with an anticipated opening in fall 2013Sony VGP-BPS13B/Q battery(without CD).


Entrance to Bostock Library, which opened in the fall of 2005

Duke's student body consists of 6,526 undergraduates and 8,220 graduate and professional students (as of fall 2011).[5] The university has "historic and symbolic ties to the Methodist Church but it always has been independent in its governance." For the undergraduate class of 2013, Duke received 31,600 applications, and accepted 11.9% of them.Sony VGP-BPS13/Q battery(without CD)According to The Huffington Post, Duke ranks among the ten toughest universities in the United States to get into based on admissions data.[69] The yield rate (the percentage of accepted students who choose to attend the university) is approximately 45%.For the class of 2013, 95% of admitted students ranked in the top 10% of their high school classesSony VGP-BPS13A/B battery(without CD). The middle 50% range of SAT scores for first-year students is 660-750 for verbal/critical reading, 690-780 for math, and 670-770 for writing, while the ACT range is 31–34.

Duke University has two schools for undergraduates: Trinity College of Arts and Sciences and Pratt School of Engineering.[78]

From 2001 to 2011, Duke has had the sixth highest number of Fulbright, Rhodes, Truman, and Goldwater scholarships in the nation among private universitiesSony VGP-BPS13/S battery(without CD). The University practices need-blind admissions and meets 100% of admitted students' demonstrated need. About 50 percent of all Duke students receive some form of financial aid, which includes need-based aid, athletic aid, and merit aid. The average need-based grant for the 2010–2011 academic year was nearly $36,000. Roughly 60 merit-based scholarships are also offered, including the Angier BSony VGP-BPS13/B battery(without CD). Duke Memorial Scholarship, awarded for academic excellence. Other scholarships are geared toward students in North Carolina, African-American students, and high-achieving students requiring financial aid.[83]

Duke's endowment had a market value of $5.7 billion in the fiscal year that ended June 30, 2011.[5] The University's special academic facilities include an art museum, several language labs, the Duke Forest, the Duke Herbarium, a lemur center, a phytotronSony VGP-BPS13B/S battery(without CD), a free electron laser, a nuclear magnetic resonance machine, a nuclear lab, and a marine lab. Duke is a leading participant in the National Lambda Rail Network and runs a program for gifted children known as the Talent Identification Program.

Part of the Divinity School addition, Goodson Chapel

[edit]Graduate profile

In 2009, the School of Medicine received 5,166 applications[87] and accepted approximately 4% of them,[88] while the average GPA and MCAT scores for accepted students from 2002 through 2009 were 3.74 and 34, respectivelySony VGP-BPS13A battery(without CD). The School of Law accepted approximately 13% of its applicants for the Class of 2014, while enrolling students had a median GPA of 3.75 and median LSAT of 170.

The University's graduate and professional schools include the Graduate School, the Pratt School of Engineering, the Nicholas School of the Environment, the School of Medicine, the Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, the School of Nursing, the Fuqua School of Business, the School of Law, the Divinity School, and the Sanford School of Public PolicySony VGP-BPS13A/S battery(without CD).

Undergraduate curriculum

The West Duke Building on East Campus replaced the destroyed Washington Duke Building.

Duke offers 36 arts and sciences majors, four engineering majors, and 46 additional majors that have been approved under Program II, which allows students to design their own interdisciplinary major.[93] Sixteen certificate programs also are availableSony VGP-BPS13AS battery(without CD). Students may pursue a combination of a total of up to three majors, minors, and certificates. Eighty percent of undergraduates enroll in the Trinity College of Arts and Sciences, while the rest are in the Pratt School of Engineering.[94]

Trinity's curriculum operates under the revised version of "Curriculum 2000."[95] It ensures that students are exposed to a variety of "areas of knowledge" and "modes of inquiry." Sony VGP-BPS13S battery(without CD) The curriculum aims to help students develop critical faculties and judgment by learning how to access, synthesize, and communicate knowledge effectively. The intent is to assist students in acquiring perspective on current and historical events, conducting research and solving problems, and developing tenacity and a capacity for hard and sustained work. Sony VGP-BPS13A/Q battery(without CD) Freshmen can elect to participate in the FOCUS Program, which allows students to engage in an interdisciplinary exploration of a specific topic in a small group setting.[96]

Pratt's curriculum is narrower in scope, but still accommodates double majors in a variety of disciplines. The school emphasizes undergraduate research—opportunities for hands-on experiences arise through internships, fellowship programs, and the structured curriculum. For the class of 2010, about 31% of Pratt undergraduates studied abroad,Sony VGP-BPS13A/R battery(without CD) small compared to the percentage for Trinity undergraduates (47%), but much larger than the national average for engineering students (3.2%).


The Fitzpatrick Center is home to many of Duke's engineering programs.

In the 2010 fiscal year, research expenditures surpassed $983 million, placing Duke as the fifth largest research university in the nation overall and second largest private university.[11][100] In the 2005 fiscal year, Duke University Medical Center received the sixth-largest amount of funding from the National Institute of Health, netting $391.2 millionSony VGP-BPS13AB battery(without CD). Duke's funding increased 14.8% from 2004, representing the largest growth of any top-20 recipient.[102] In the 2008 fiscal year, Duke University School of Nursing was 18th nationally in the rankings of the National Institute of Health funding for nursing schools, netting more than $2.34 million, up 54 percent from 2007, when it ranked 30th nationally. Sony VGP-BPS13B battery(without CD)

Throughout the school's history, Duke researchers have made breakthroughs, including the biomedical engineering department's development of the world's first real-time, three-dimensional ultrasound diagnostic system and the first engineered blood vessels.[104] In the mechanical engineering department, Adrian Bejan developed the constructal theory, which explains the shapes that arise in natureSony VGP-BPS13B/B battery(without CD). Duke has pioneered studies involving nonlinear dynamics, chaos, and complex systems in physics. In May 2006 Duke researchers mapped the final human chromosome, which made world news as the Human Genome Project was finally complete.[105] Reports of Duke researchers' involvement in new AIDS vaccine research surfaced in June 2006. Sony VGP-BPL21 battery(without CD)The biology department combines two historically strong programs in botany and zoology, while one of the divinity school's leading theologians is Stanley Hauerwas, whom Time named "America's Best Theologian" in 2001. The graduate program in literature boasts several internationally renowned figures, including Fredric JamesonSony VGP-BPS21 battery(without CD), and Michael Hardt, while philosophers Robert Brandon and Lakatos Award-winner Alexander Rosenberg contribute to Duke's ranking as the nation's best program in philosophy of biology, according to the Philosophical Gourmet Report.


In the 2012 U.S. News & World Report ranking of undergraduate programs at doctoral granting institutions, Duke ranked 10th. In the past twenty years, U.S. News & World Report has placed Duke as high as 3rd and as low as 10thSony VGP-BPS21A battery(without CD). In 2011, Duke was ranked 19th in the world in the QS World University Rankings and 22nd in the world in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings. Duke was ranked the 14th-best university in the world by Newsweek[122] and 35th best globally by Shanghai Jiao Tong University in 2010, focusing on quality of scientific research and the number of Nobel Prizes. Sony VGP-BPS21B battery(without CD) The Wall Street Journal ranked Duke sixth (fifth among universities) in its "feeder" rankings in 2006, analyzing the percentage of undergraduates that enroll in what it considers the top five medical, law, and business schools.[124] The 2010 report by the Center for Measuring University Performance puts Duke at 6th in the nation. The 2011 Emerging/Trendence Global Employability Ranking as published by The New York Sony VGP-BPS14/B BatteryTimes surveyed hundreds of chief executives and chairmen from around the world and asked them to select the best universities from which they recruited, placed Duke at 13th in the world and 9th in the country. In 2005, Duke enrolled 117 National Merit Scholars, the 6th university in rank by number. Duke ranks 5th among national universities to have produced Rhodes, Marshall, Truman, Goldwater, and Udall Scholars. Sony VGP-BPS14B Battery According to the 2010–2011 PayScale's statistical study on "How Much a College Degree is Worth" through graduation rate, total cost to graduate, and university's return on investment (ROI), Duke is ranked 9th nationally.[129] According to the 2011 Princeton Review's survey on "Top Dream Colleges" among parents, Duke ranked as the 6th dream university. Sony VGP-BPS14/S Battery Kiplinger's 50 Best Values in Private Universities 2010–11 ranks Duke at 5th best overall after taking financial aid into consideration.[131] According to a study by Forbes, Duke ranks 11th among universities that have produced billionaires and 1st among universities in the South. A survey by the Journal of Blacks in Higher Education in 2002 ranked Duke as the #1 university in the country in regard to the integration of African American students and faculty. Sony VGP-BPL14/B Battery Data from Payscale.com in 2012 shows Duke graduates earning the 6th highest median salaries among national universities in the US. According to a poll of recruiters conducted by the Wall Street Journal, Duke ranks 2nd in terms of producing the best graduates who have received either a marketing or liberal arts degree. Collegeatlas.com ranks the undergraduate liberal arts program at Duke number 3 in the nationSony VGP-BPL14 Battery, the ranking incorporates both research universities as well as liberal arts colleges in the United States.

In U.S. News & World Report's "America's Best Graduate Schools 2013," Duke's medical school ranked 9th for research.[135] The hospital was ranked 8th in the nation by the 2011–2012 U.S. News & World Report Health Rankings of Best Hospitals in America.[136] The School of Law was ranked 11th in 2012 by the same publicationSony VGP-BPL14B Battery, while law recruiters ranked the program 8th in the country. Duke's nursing school ranked 7th in U.S. News & World Report's 2013 rankings,[135] while the Sanford School of Public Policy ranked 16th in 2012 for national public affairs programs and 6th for public policy analysis. Among business schools in the United States, the Fuqua School of Business was ranked 4th for its Executive M.B.A. programSony VGP-BPL14/S Battery, 3rd for marketing, 8th for management, and 12th overall by U.S. News & World Report in 2012, while BusinessWeek ranked its full-time MBA program 6th in the nation in 2010. The graduate program for the Pratt School of Engineering was ranked 28th while the biomedical engineering program was ranked 3rd by U.S. News & World Report.[144] Taking the U.S. News & World Report Professional School Rankings in 2008 based on Mean Reputation ScoreSony VGP-BPS14 Battery, Duke ranks 7th among national universities. Times Higher Education ranked the mathematics department tenth in the world in 2011.[146] Duke's graduate level specialties that are ranked among the top ten in the nation include areas in the following departments: biological sciences, medicine, nursing, engineering, law, business, English, history, physics, statistics, public affairs, physician assistant (ranked #1), clinical psychology, political science, and sociology. Sony VGP-BPL15/B Battery

Student life

Residential life

East Campus' Union building, home to the freshman dining hall

Duke requires its students to live on campus for the first three years of undergraduate life, except for a small percentage of second semester juniors who are exempted by a lottery system.[50] This requirement is justified by the administration as an effort to help students connect more closely with one another and sustain a sense of belonging within the Duke community. Sony VGP-BPS15/B Battery Thus, 85% of undergraduates live on campus.[149] All freshmen are housed in one of 14 residences on East Campus. These buildings range in occupancy size from 50 (Epworth—the oldest residence hall, built in 1892 as "the Inn") to 190 residents (Gilbert-Addoms). Most of these are in the Georgian style typical of the East Campus architecture. Although the newer residence halls differ in style, they still relate to East’s Georgian heritageSony VGP-BPL15/S Battery. Learning communities connect the residential component of East Campus with students of similar academic and social interests.[152] Similarly, students in FOCUS, a first-year program that features courses clustered around a specific theme, live together in the same residence hall as other students in their cluster.

The majority of sophomores reside on West Campus, but they may also elect to live on Central Campus. Sony VGP-BPS15/S Battery Juniors and seniors can choose to reside on either of the two campuses, although the majority of undergraduate seniors choose to live off campus. West Campus contains six quadrangles—the four along "Main" West were built in 1930s, while two newer ones have since been added. Central Campus provides housing for over 1,000 students in several apartment buildings. Sony VGP-BPS15 Battery Various learning communities are allocated sections of the quadrangles, thereby living close to one another, but still within the context of a larger community.[157] Twenty-seven "selective living groups" are housed within sections on West, including 15 fraternities.[158] Most of the non-fraternity selective living groups are coeducationalSony VGP-BPS18 battery.

Greek and social life

Cameron Crazies gathering in K-ville

About 30% of undergraduate men and about 40% of undergraduate women at Duke are members of fraternities and sororities.[149] Most of the 15 Interfraternity Council recognized fraternity chapters live in sections within the residence halls, while the nine Panhellenic Association sorority chapters feature no such living arrangementsSony VGP-BPS22 Battery, although students can elect to "block" in groups to live near one another.[158] Eight National Pan-Hellenic Council (historically African American) fraternities and sororities also hold chapters at Duke.[160] In addition, there are seven other fraternities and sororities that are a part of the Inter-Greek Council, the multicultural Greek umbrella organization. Sony VPCEG14FJ/P Battery Duke also has 11 Selective Living Groups, or SLGs, on campus for students wanting self-selected living arrangements. SLGs are residential groups similar to fraternities or sororities, except they are generally co-ed and unaffiliated with any national organizations.[162] Fraternity chapters frequently host social events in their residential sections, which are often open to non-members. Sony VPCEG14FJ/W Battery

In the late-1990s, a new keg policy was put into effect that requires all student groups to purchase kegs through Duke Dining Services. According to administrators, the rule change was intended as a way to ensure compliance with alcohol consumption laws as well as to increase on-campus safety.[164] Some students saw the administration's increasingly strict policies as an attempt to alter social life at Duke. Sony VPCEG14FX/W Battery As a result, off-campus parties at rented houses became more frequent in subsequent years as a way to avoid Duke policies. Many of these houses were situated in the midst of family neighborhoods, prompting residents to complain about excessive noise and other violations. Police have responded by breaking up parties at several houses, handing out citations, and occasionally arresting party-goers. Sony VPCEG15EA/B Battery In the mid-to-late 2000s (decade), the administration made a concerted effort to help students re-establish a robust, on-campus social life and has worked with numerous student groups, especially the Duke University Union, to feature a wide array of events and activities. In March 2006, the university purchased 15 houses in the Trinity Park area that Duke students had typically rented and subsequently sold them to individual families in an effort to encourage renovationsSony VPCEG15EG/B Battery to the properties and to reduce off-campus partying in the midst of residential neighborhoods.

Duke athletics, particularly men's basketball, traditionally serves as a significant component of student life. Duke's students have been recognized as some of the most creative and original fans in all of collegiate athletics.[169] Students, often referred to as Cameron CraziesSony VPCEG15EH/B Battery, show their support of the men's basketball team by "tenting" for home games against key Atlantic Coast Conference rivals, especially University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC).[170] Because tickets to all varsity sports are free to students, they line up for hours before each game, often spending the night on the sidewalk. For a mid-February game against UNC, some of the most eager students might even begin tenting before spring classes begin. Sony VPCEG15EN/B Battery The total number of participating tents is capped at 100 (each tent can have up to 12 occupants), though interest is such that it could exceed that number if space permitted.[172] Tenting involves setting up and inhabiting a tent on the grass near Cameron Indoor Stadium, an area known as Krzyzewskiville, or K-ville for short. There are different categories of tenting based on the length of time and number of people who must be in the tent.[172] At nightSony VPCEG16EG/W Battery, K-ville often turns into the scene of a party or occasional concert. The men's basketball coach, Mike Krzyzewski, occasionally buys pizza for the inhabitants of the tent village.


Student organizations

Duke's West Campus Union building has restaurants, offices, and some administrative departments. The Chronicle's administrative office, the Mary Lou Williams Center for Black Culture, and the Center for LGBT Life are all located in the UnionSony VPCEG17FA/W Battery.

More than 400 student clubs and organizations operate on Duke's campus. These include numerous student government, special interest, and service organizations.[175] Duke Student Government (DSG) charters and provides most of the funding for other student groups and represents students' interests when dealing with the administration.[176] The Duke University Union (DUU) is the school's primary programming organization, serving a center of social, cultural, intellectual and recreational life. Sony VPCEG17FG/B Battery Cultural groups are provided funding directly from the university via the Multicultural Center as well as other institutional funding sources. One of the most popular activities on campus is competing in sports. Duke has 38 sports clubs, and 8 intramural teams that are officially recognized.[178] Performance groups such as Hoof 'n' Horn, the country's second oldest student-run musical theater organizationSony VPCEG17FH/W Battery, a cappella groups, student bands, and theater organizations are also prominent on campus.[179] The Duke University mock trial team won the national championship in 2012. The Duke University Student Dining Advisory Committee provides guidance to the administration on issues regarding student dining, life, and restaurant choices.

Cultural groups on campus include the Asian Students Association, Blue Devils United (the student lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender group) Sony VPCEG18FA/P Battery, Black Student Alliance, Diya (South Asian Association), Jewish Life at Duke, Mi Gente (Latino Student Association), International Association/International Council, Muslim Student Association, Native American Student Coalition, Newman Catholic Student Center, Languages Dorm, and Students of the CaribbeanSony VPCEG18FG/B Battery.

Civic engagement

The von der Heyden Pavilion is a popular place among students for gathering and studying.

According to The Princeton Review, Duke is one of 81 institutions in the country with outstanding community service programs.[182] In 2008 Duke received the Community Engagement Classification from Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Sony VPCEG18FG/L Battery In February 2007, Duke launched DukeEngage, a $30 million civic engagement program that allows undergraduates to participate in an in-depth service opportunity over the course of a summer or semester.[184] The program's scope has been called "unprecedented in U.S. higher education."[185] Duke students have created more than 30 service organizations in Durham and the surrounding areaSony VPCEG18FG/P Battery. Examples include a weeklong camp for children of cancer patients (Camp Kesem) and a group that promotes awareness about sexual health, rape prevention, alcohol and drug use, and eating disorders (Healthy Devils). The Duke-Durham Neighborhood Partnership, started by the Office of Community Affairs in 1996, attempts to address major concerns of local residents and schools by leveraging university resources. Sony VPCEG18FG/W Battery Another community project, "Scholarship with a Civic Mission," is a joint program between the Hart Leadership Program and the Kenan Institute for Ethics.[187] Another program includes Project CHILD, a tutoring program involving 80 first-year volunteers; and an after-school program for at-risk students in Durham that was started with $2.25 million grant from the Kellogg Foundation in 2002. [188] Two prominent civic engagement pre-orientation programs also exist for incoming freshmenSony VPCEG18FH/L Battery: Project CHANGE and Project BUILD. Project CHANGE is a free weeklong program co-sponsored by the Kenan Institute for Ethics and the Duke Women's Center with the focus on ethical leadership and social change in the Durham community; students are challenged in a variety of ways and work closely with local non-profits. Sony VPCEG24FJ/B Battery Project BUILD is a freshman volunteering group that dedicates 3,300 hours of service to a variety of projects such as schools, Habitat for Humanity, food banks, substance rehabilitation centers, and homeless shelters. Some courses at Duke incorporate service as part of the curriculum to augment material learned in class such as in psychology or education courses (known as service learning courses) Sony VPCEG24FJ/P Battery.

Student media

See also: The Chronicle, Cable 13, and WXDU

The Chronicle, Duke's independent undergraduate daily newspaper, has been continually published since 1905 and now, along with its website, has a readership of about 70,000.[191] Its editors are responsible for selecting the term "Blue Devil". The newspaper won Best in Show in the tabloid division at the 2005 Associated Collegiate Press National College Media Convention.[192] Cable 13, established in 1976, is Duke's student-run television stationSony VPCEG24FJ/W Battery. It is a popular activity for students interested in film production and media.[193] WXDU-FM, licensed in 1983, is the University's nationally recognized, noncommercial FM radio station, operated by student and community volunteers.


Main article: Duke Blue Devils

See also: Carolina-Duke rivalry

Duke Blue Devils mascot. This is an older design; an updated mascot was introduced in 2008.

Duke's 26 varsity sports teams, known as the Blue Devils, are members of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)'s Division I Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC) Sony VPCEG24FX/B Battery. Duke's teams have won twelve NCAA team national championships—the women's golf team has won five (1999, 2002, 2005, 2006, and 2007), the men's basketball team has won four (1991, 1992, 2001, and 2010), and the men's soccer (1986), women's tennis (2009), and men's lacrosse (2010) teams have won one each. Sony VPCEG25EA/B Battery

In the past ten years, Duke has finished in the top 30 in the National Association of Collegiate Directors of Athletics (NACDA) Directors' Cup, an overall measure of an institution's athletic success. In 2011 Duke finished fifth in all of Division I and placed the best in the ACC,[198] while the athletic program finished tenth in 2010.[199] Duke has won 118 ACC ChampionshipsSony VPCEG25EG/B Battery, 47 of which have come since 1999–2000 (through 2010–11), which is the second most in the ACC.[200] Duke teams that have been ranked in the top ten nationally in the 2000s (decade) include men's and women's basketball, men's and women's tennis, men's and women's soccer, men's and women's fencing, men's and women's cross country running, men's and women's lacrosseSony VPCEG25EN/W Battery, women's field hockey, and men's and women's golf. Ten of these teams were ranked in the top ten in the country during the 2010–11 school year, while 17 were in the top 25. The men's lacrosse program has proven successful, reaching the NCAA tournament semifinals in six consecutive participating seasons from 2005 to 2011, including winning the national championship in 2010Sony VPCEG26EG/B Battery.

The Blue Devil mascot's origins are rooted in an elite French alpine fighting unit that garnered accolades and much global attention during World War I and its aftermath for its flowing blue capes and blue berets.[207] Duke's mascot origin is considered to be military and patriotic rather than anti-religious.[207] Historically, Duke's major rival has been the Tar Heels of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, especially in basketballSony VPCEG27FA/W Battery. The rivalry has led the fanbases to identify the two differing shades of blue in relation to their respective university—calling the lighter powder blue "Carolina blue" and the darker blue "Duke blue".[208]

On the academic front, according to a 2006 evaluation conducted by the NCAA, Duke's student-athletes have the highest graduation rate of any institution in the nation. Sony VPCEG27FG/W Battery From 2005 to 2010, Duke has placed in the top three every year (and finished first in 2005 through 2007) among Division I schools in the National Collegiate Scouting Association Power Rankings—a combination of the institution's Director's Cup standing, its athletic graduation rate, and its academic rank in U.S. News & World Report. Duke led the ACC in Honor Roll inductees 23 out of the last 24 years through the 2010–2011 academic year. Sony VPCEG27FH/B Battery

Men's basketball

Main article: Duke Blue Devils men's basketball

Duke's famous Cameron Indoor Stadium

Duke's men's basketball team is one of the nation's most successful basketball programs. The team has captured four National Championships (fifth place all time), while attending 15 Final Fours (third place overall) and 10 Championship games (tied for second). Duke has the most Atlantic Coast Conference championships, with 19, and has the most National Players of the Year in the nation, with 11. Sony VPCEG28FA/B Battery Seventy-two players have been selected in the NBA Draft, while 32 players have been honored as All-Americans.[221] Duke's program is one of only two to have been to at least one Final Four and one National Championship game in each of the past five decades.[222] The program's home facility is historic Cameron Indoor Stadium, considered one of the top venues in the nation.Sony VPCEG28FG/L Battery

The team's success has been particularly outstanding over the past 30 years under coach Mike Krzyzewski (often simply called "Coach K"), who also has coached the USA men's national basketball team since 2006 and led the team to Olympic gold in 2008 and to World Championship gold in 2010. Their successes include becoming the only team to win four national championships since the NCAA Tournament field was expanded to 64 teams in 1985Sony VPCEG28FH/P Battery, 11 Final Fours in the past 25 years, and eight of nine ACC tournament championships from 1999 to 2006.

Wallace Wade Stadium


Main article: Duke Blue Devils football

The Blue Devils have won seven ACC Football Championships, have had ten players honored as ACC Player of the Year (the most in the ACC),[196] and have had three Pro Football Hall of Famers come through the program (second in the ACC to only Miami's four). The Blue Devils have produced 11 College Football Hall of FamersSony VPCEG28FN/L Battery, which is tied for the 2nd most in the ACC. Duke has also won 18 total conference championships (7 ACC, 9 Southern Conference, and 1 Big Five Conference). That total is the highest in the ACC.

The most famous Duke football season came in 1938, when Wallace Wade coached the "Iron Dukes" that shut out all regular season opponents; only three teams in history can claim such a feat. Sony VPCEH13FX/B BatteryThat same year, Duke made their first Rose Bowl appearance, where they lost 7–3 when USC scored a touchdown in the final minute of the game.[226] Wade's Blue Devils lost another Rose Bowl to Oregon State in 1942, this one held at Duke's home stadium due to the attack on Pearl Harbor, which resulted in the fear that a large gathering on the West Coast might be in range of Japanese aircraft carriers. Sony VPCEH13FX/L Battery The football program proved successful in the 1950s and 1960s, winning six of the first ten ACC football championships from 1953 to 1962 under coach Bill Murray; the Blue Devils would not win the ACC championship again until 1989 under coach Steve Spurrier.

Duke has not had a winning football season since 1994, but has

shown some signs of improvement in recent years.[230] David Cutcliffe was brought in prior to the 2008 seasonSony VPCEH13FX/P Battery, and amassed more wins in his first season than the previous three years combined. The 2009 team won 5 of 12 games, and was eliminated from bowl contention in the next-to-last game of the season.[230] Mike MacIntyre, the defensive coordinator, was named 2009 Assistant Coach of the Year by the American Football Coaches Association (AFCA).

While the football team has struggled at times on the fieldSony VPCEH13FX/W Battery, the graduation rate of its players is consistently among the highest among Division I-A schools. Duke's high graduation rates have earned it more AFCA Academic Achievement Awards than any other institution.


Main article: List of Duke University people

Duke's active alumni base of more than 145,000 devote themselves to the university through organizations and events such as the annual Reunion Weekend and Homecoming. Sony VPCEH15EG/B BatteryThere are 75 Duke clubs in the U.S. and 38 such international clubs.[234] For the 2008–09 fiscal year, Duke tied for third in alumni giving rate among U.S. colleges and universities according to U.S. News & World Report.[235] Based on statistics compiled by PayScale in 2011, Duke alumni rank seventh in mid-career median salary among all U.S. colleges and universities. Sony VPCEH15EN/W Battery A number of alumni have made significant contributions in the fields of government, law, science, academia, business, arts, journalism, and athletics, among others.

Richard Nixon, 37th President of the United States graduated with a law degree in 1937. Former U.S. Senator and Secretary of Transportation Elizabeth Dole, 33rd President of Chile Ricardo Lagos, former U.S. Secretary of Commerce Juanita M. Kreps, congressman and three-time presidential candidate Ron PaulSony VPCEH16EA/P Battery, U.S. Secretary of Veterans Affairs and former Chief of Staff of the United States Army Eric Shinseki, and the first United States Chief Performance Officer Jeffrey Zients[243] and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Martin Dempsey are among the most notable alumni with involvement in politics and government.

In the research realm, Duke graduates who have won the Nobel Prize in Physics include Hans Dehmelt for his development of the ion trap technique, Sony VPCEH16EF/B Battery Robert Richardson for his discovery of superfluidity in helium-3,[245] and Charles Townes for his work on quantum electronics.[246] Other alumni in research and academia include Turing Award winners Fred Brooks[247] and John Cocke, Templeton Prize winning physicist and religion scholar Ian Barbour,[249] MacArthur Award recipient Paul Farmer,[250] and former Dean of the Graduate School at Princeton Theodore ZiolkowskiSony VPCEH16EG/W Battery.

Prominent journalists include talk show host Charlie Rose,[252] The Washington Post sports writer John Feinstein,[253] Chief Washington Correspondent for CNBC and The Wall Street Journal writer John Harwood,[254] CBS News President Sean McManus, chief legal correspondent for Good Morning America Dan Abrams, and CNN anchor and senior correspondent for The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer Judy WoodruffSony VPCEH16EH/W Battery. Basketball analysts and commentators include Jay Bilas, Mike Gminski, Jim Spanarkel, and Jay Williams. Magazine editors include Rik Kirkland of Fortune[264] and Clay Felker, founder of New York Magazine,[265] who died in 2008.

In the area of literature, William C. Styron won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1968 for his novel The Confessions of Nat Turner and is well known for his 1979 novel Sophie's Choice. Anne Tyler also received the Pulitzer Prize for her 1988 novel Breathing Lessons. Sony VPCEH16EN/B Battery In the arts realm, Annabeth Gish[268] (actress in the X-Files and The West Wing), Ken Jeong[269] (actor in The Hangover and Community), Randall Wallace (screenwriter, producer, and director, Braveheart, Pearl Harbor, We Were Soldiers), Mike Posner (singer, songwriter, and producer, Cooler Than Me, Please Don't Go) and David Hudgins (television writer and producer, Everwood, Friday Night Lights) headline the listSony VPCEH17FG/B Battery.

On the business front, the current or recent President, CEO, or Chairman of each of the following Fortune 500 companies is a Duke alumnus: Hugh Gouw, Apple (Tim Cook), BB&T (John A. Allison IV),[274] Boston Scientific Corporation (Peter Nicholas), Chesapeake Energy (Aubrey McClendon),[276] Cisco System (John Chambers), General Motors (Rick Wagoner), JPMorgan Chase (Steven Black), Medtronic (William A. Hawkins), Sony VPCEH17FG/L Battery Morgan Stanley (John J. Mack),[281] Norfolk Southern (David R. Goode),[282] Northwest Airlines (Gary L. Wilson),[283] PepsiCo (Karl von der Heyden),[284] Pfizer (Edmund T. Pratt, Jr.),[285] The Bank of New York Mellon (Gerald Hassell),[286] and Wachovia (Robert K. Steel).[287] Kevin Martin was Chairman of the FCC,[288] and Rex Adams serves as the Chairman of PBS. Sony VPCEH17FG/P Battery Another alumna, Melinda Gates,[290] is the co-founder of the $31.9 billion Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the nation's wealthiest charitable foundation.[291][292]

Management and ownership of professional athletic franchises include John Angelos[293] (Executive Vice President of the Baltimore Orioles), Aubrey McClendon[294] (partial owner of the Oklahoma City Thunder), John Canning, Jr.[295] (co-owner of Milwaukee Brewers), Danny Ferry[296] (former general manager of the Cleveland Cavaliers) Sony VPCEH17FG/W Battery, Stephen Pagliuca[297] (co-owner of Boston Celtics), and Jeffrey Vinik[298] (owner of the Tampa Bay Lightning).

Finally, several athletes have become stars at the professional level, especially in basketball's NBA. Shane Battier, Corey Maggette, Elton Brand, Carlos Boozer, Luol Deng, Christian Laettner, Bobby Hurley, Grant Hill, Kyrie Irving and J.J. Redick are among the most famousSony VPCEH17FJ/W Battery.

The Johns Hopkins University[5] (informally Johns Hopkins, JHU, or simply Hopkins) is a private research university based in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. The university was founded on January 22, 1876 and named for its benefactor, the philanthropist Johns Hopkins.[6] Daniel Coit Gilman was inaugurated as the first president on February 22, 1876. Sony VPCEH18FA/B Battery

Johns Hopkins maintains campuses in Maryland; Washington, D.C.; Italy; China and Singapore. The university is organized into two undergraduate divisions and five graduate divisions on two main campuses—the Homewood campus and the Medical Institutions campus—both located in Baltimore. The university also consists of the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, the Peabody Institute, the Carey Business School, and various other facilitiesSony VPCEH18FF/B Battery.

Johns Hopkins pioneered the concept of the modern research university in the United States and has ranked among the world's top such universities throughout its history. The National Science Foundation (NSF) has ranked Johns Hopkins #1 among U.S. academic institutions in total science, medical and engineering research and development spending for 31 consecutive years. Sony VPCEH18FG/L Battery As of 2011, thirty-seven Nobel Prize winners have been affiliated with Johns Hopkins,[9] and the university's research is among the most cited in the world.


The philanthropist and the founding

See also: Johns Hopkins' Philanthropy and Legacy

Johns Hopkins

On his death in 1873, Johns Hopkins, a Quaker entrepreneur and childless bachelor, bequeathed $7 million (Between $140 million to $1.6 billion in 2011 dollars, by varying estimates) to fund a hospital and university in Baltimore, Maryland.[11] At that time this fortune, generated primarily from the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad,[12] was the largest philanthropic gift in the history of the United States. Sony VPCEH18FH/P Battery

The first name of philanthropist Johns Hopkins is the surname of his great-grandmother, Margaret Johns, who married Gerard Hopkins. They named their son Johns Hopkins, who named his own son Samuel Hopkins. Samuel named one of his sons after his father and that son would be the university's benefactorSony VPCEH18FJ/B Battery.

In his 2001 undergraduate commencement address, university president William R. Brody said about the name: "In 1888, just 12 years after the university was founded, Mark Twain wrote about this university in a letter to a friend. He said: 'A few months ago I was told that the Johns Hopkins University had given me a degree. I naturally supposed this constituted me a Member of the Faculty and so I started in to help as I could thereSony VPCEH18FJ/P Battery. I told them I believed they were perfectly competent to run a college as far as the higher branches of education are concerned, but what they needed was a little help here and there from a practical commercial man. I said the public is sensitive to little things and they wouldn't have full confidence in a college that didn't know how to spell the name John.' More than a century later, we continue to bestow diplomas upon individuals of outstanding capabilities and great talentSony VPCEH18FJ/W Battery. And we continue to spell Johns with an s."[14]

Milton Eisenhower, a former university president, once spoke at a convention in Pittsburgh where the Master of Ceremonies introduced him as "President of John Hopkins." Eisenhower retorted that he was "glad to be here in Pittburgh."[15]

[edit]Early years and Daniel Coit Gilman

The original board opted for an entirely novel university model dedicated to the discovery of knowledge at an advanced level, extending that of contemporary GermanySony VPCEH19FJ/B Battery. Johns Hopkins thereby became the model of the modern research university in the United States. Its success eventually shifted higher education in the United States from a focus on teaching revealed and/or applied knowledge to the scientific discovery of new knowledge. The founders intended the university to be national in scope to strengthen ties across a divided country in the aftermath of the American Civil War. Therefore, the university's official inauguration took on great significanceSony VPCEH19FJ/P Battery: 1876 was the nation's centennial year and February 22 was George Washington's birthday.

Wikisource has the text of a 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article about the Early History.

The University's viability depended on its first president, Daniel Coit Gilman, recruited from the presidency of the University of California. Gilman launched what many at the time considered an audacious and unprecedented academic experiment to merge teaching and researchSony VPCEH19FJ/W Battery. He dismissed the idea that the two were mutually exclusive: "The best teachers are usually those who are free, competent and willing to make original researches in the library and the laboratory," he stated. To implement his plan, Gilman recruited internationally known luminaries such as the biologist H. Newell Martin; the physicist Henry A. Rowland (the first president of the American Physical Society), the classical scholars Basil Gildersleeve and Charles D. Morris;[16] the economist Richard T. ElySony VPCEH1E1E Battery; and the chemist Ira Remsen, who became the second president of the university in 1901.

Daniel Coit Gilman

Gilman focused on the expansion of knowledge, graduate education and support of faculty research. To Gilman, Johns Hopkins existed not for the sake of God, the state, the community, the board, the parents, or even the students, but for knowledge. Faculty who added to such knowledge were rewarded. A complementary focus on graduate education fused advanced scholarship with such professional schools as medicine and engineeringSony VPCEH1AJ Battery. Hopkins became the national trendsetter in doctoral programs and the host for numerous scholarly journals and associations with the founding of the first U.S. university press in 1878.

With the completion of Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1889 and the medical school in 1893, the university's research–focused mode of instruction soon began attracting world-renowned faculty members who would become major figures in the emerging field of academic medicine, including William Osler, William Halsted, Howard Kelly, and William WelchSony VPCEH1J1E Battery. During this period Hopkins made more history by becoming the first medical school to admit women on an equal basis with men and to require a Bachelors degree, based on the efforts of Mary E. Garrett, who had endowed the school at Gilman's request.

In his will and in his instructions to the trustees of the university and the hospital, Hopkins requested that both institutions be built upon the vast grounds of his Baltimore estate, Clifton. When Gilman assumed the presidencySony VPCEH1J8E Battery, he decided that it would be best to use the university's endowment for recruiting faculty and students, deciding to "build men, not buildings." In his will Hopkins stipulated that none of his endowment should be used for construction; only interest on the principal could be used for this purpose. Unfortunately, stocks in The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, which would have generated most of the interestSony VPCEH1L0E Battery, became virtually worthless soon after Hopkins's death. The university's first home was thus in Downtown Baltimore delaying plans to site the university in Clifton. This decision became the only major criticism of Gilman's presidency. In the early 20th century the university outgrew its buildings and the trustees began to search for a new home. Developing Clifton for the university was too costly, and so the estate became a public parkSony VPCEH1L8E Battery. In the end, the 140 acres (57 ha) estate in north Baltimore known as Homewood was purchased as the university's new campus with assistance from prominent Baltimore citizens.

Since the 1910s, Johns Hopkins University has famously been a "fertile cradle" to Arthur Lovejoy's history of ideas.


The Johns Hopkins University Press, founded in 1878, is the oldest American university press in continuous operationSony VPCEH1L9E Battery. Along with the hospital, Hopkins established one of the nation's oldest schools of nursing in 1889. The school of medicine was America's first coeducational, graduate-level medical school, and was a prototype for academic medicine that emphasized bedside learning, research projects, and laboratory training. In 1909, the university was among the first to start adult continuing education programs and in 1916 it founded the US' first school of public healthSony VPCEH1M1E Battery. Programs in international studies and the performing arts were established in 1950 and 1977 when the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies in Washington D.C and the Peabody Institute in Baltimore became divisions of the university.

Civil rights


Hopkins was a prominent abolitionist who supported Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. After his death, reports said his conviction was a decisive factor in enrolling Hopkins' first African-American student, Kelly MillerSony VPCEH1M9E Battery, a graduate student in physics, astronomy and mathematics, and in admitting Harvard-trained physician Whitfield Winsey and two other African-American physicians to Maryland's Medical and Chirurgical Society MedChi.[18] These physicians could attend meetings only because they were held on campus. As the memory of Hopkins faded and trustees like King diedSony VPCEH1S0E Battery, Hopkins became like other Baltimore institutions, particularly in terms of race. The Johns Hopkins University chronology stated that on March 15, 1892, an administrator hired by Gilman recommended that the hospital should have a "…separate ward for colored patients."[19] Johns Hopkins Hospital subsequently became segregated. Johns Hopkins' "separate but equal" stance was evident when it came to these segregated wardsSony VPCEH1S1E Battery: "Special care will be taken to see that the heating and ventilation apparatus is as perfect as possible. A sun balcony will be erected on each floor on the east side, for convalescents, while a sun bay-window will be constructed at the south end of the south wing. On each floor there will be a dining room, kitchen, lavatory and bath-rooms...The building will be fireproof throughout." Sony VPCEH1S8E Battery

As segregation grew within Johns Hopkins institutions, it affected pay, hiring and promotions. Staff in segregated wards and those employed in the lower rungs of the service industries had the longest history within the Johns Hopkins Institutions. Johns Hopkins' students, physicians, administrators and staff of African descent had a much shorter history within these institutionsSony VPCEH1S9E Battery. The first black undergraduate was Frederick Scott who entered the school in 1945. In 1967 the first black students earned graduate degrees. Dr. James Nabwangu a British-trained Kenyan, was the first black graduate of the medical school. A second was earned by Robert Gamble.[20]

The first African-American instructor was laboratory supervisor Vivien Thomas, who also invented and developed research instruments, served as an assistant in surgery to surgeon Alfred Blalock and worked closely with Blalock and Helen Taussig in developing and conducting the first successful blue baby operationSony VPCEH1Z1E Battery. Black students and professionals were rare at Johns Hopkins Institutions and Maryland's state medical societies until after the 1940s. Diversity increased only in the 1960s and 1970s. African-Americans and women were labeled "The Uninvited" in the second major history of the university.[citation needed]


Hopkins' most well–known battle for women's rights was the one led by daughters of trustees of the university; Mary E. Garrett, M. Carey ThomasSony VPCEH24FX/B Battery, Mamie Gwinn, Elizabeth King, and Julia Rogers.[21] They donated and raised the funds needed to open the medical school, and required Hopkins' officials to agree to their stipulation that women would be admitted. Unfortunately, this stipulation applied only to the medical school. Other graduate schools were opened to women by president Ira Remsen only in 1907Sony VPCEH24FX/L Battery. Christine Ladd-Franklin was the first woman to earn a PhD at Hopkins, in mathematics in 1882. The trustees denied her the degree and refused to change the policy about admitting women; she finally received her degree 44 years later. In 1893 Florence Bascomb became the university's first female PhD.[21]

The nursing school opened in 1889 and accepted women and men as studentsSony VPCEH24FX/P Battery.

The decision to admit women at undergraduate level was not considered until the late 1960s and was eventually adopted in October 1969; in the fall of 1970, 90 females, five of them African-American, became undergraduates. In the academic year 1970–1971, 4.7% of students in the Arts and Sciences programs were women. In the year 1985–1986 the proportion of female students in the Arts and Sciences programs had increased to around 38%Sony VPCEH24FX/W Battery. As of 2009–2010, the undergraduate population was 47% female and 53% male.[22]



Main article: Homewood Campus of Johns Hopkins University

Homewood House

Zanvyl Krieger School of Arts and Sciences: The Krieger School offers more than 60 undergraduate majors and minors and more than 40 graduate programs.[23]

G.W.C. Whiting School of Engineering: The Whiting School contains 14 undergraduate and graduate engineering programs and 12 additional areas of study. Sony VPCEH25EG/B Battery

School of Education: Originally established in 1909 as The School of Professional Studies in Business and Education, the divisions of Education and Business became separate schools in 2007.

The first campus was located on Howard Street. Eventually, they relocated to Homewood, in northern Baltimore, the estate of Charles Carroll, son of the oldest surviving signer of the Declaration of IndependenceSony VPCEH25EN/W Battery. Carroll's Homewood House is considered one of the finest examples of Federal residential architecture. The estate then came to the Wyman family, which participated in making it the park-like main campus of the schools of arts and sciences and engineering at the start of the 20th century. Most of its architecture was modeled after the Federal style of Homewood House. Homewood House is preserved as a museum. Most undergraduate programs are hereSony VPCEH26EA/W Battery.

East Baltimore

Johns Hopkins Hospital

Collectively known as Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions (JHMI) campus, the East Baltimore facility occupies several city blocks spreading from the Johns Hopkins Hospital trademark dome.

School of Nursing: The School of Nursing is is one of America's oldest and pre-eminent schools for nursing education. It has consistently ranked first in the nation. Sony VPCEH26EF/B Battery

School of Medicine: The School of Medicine is widely regarded as one of the best medical schools and biomedical research institutes in the world.

Bloomberg School of Public Health: The Bloomberg School was founded in 1916, the world's first and largest public health school. It has consistently been ranked first in its fieldSony VPCEH26EG/P Battery.

Downtown Baltimore

Peabody Institute

Carey Business School: The Carey Business School was established in 2007, incorporating divisions of the former School of Professional Studies in Business and Education. It was originally located on Charles Street, but relocated to the Legg Mason building in Harbor East in 2011Sony VPCEH26EH/P Battery.

Peabody Institute: founded in 1857, is the oldest continuously active music conservatory in the United States; it became a division of Johns Hopkins in 1977. The Conservatory retains its own student body and grants degrees in musicology and performance, though both Hopkins and Peabody students may take courses at both institutions. It is located on East Mount Vernon Place.

Washington, D.CSony VPCEH26EN/B Battery.

Washington D.C. Campus (SAIS)

Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) is located on the Washington D.C. campus near Dupont Circle. SAIS is devoted to international studies, particularly international relations, diplomacy, and economics. SAIS has full-time international campuses in Bologna, Italy and Nanjing, China. Founded in 1943, SAIS became a part of the university in 1950Sony VPCEH26FJ/W Battery. In a 2005 survey 65% of respondents ranked SAIS as the nation's top Master's Degree program in International Relations.[29]

The Krieger School of Arts and Sciences' Advanced Academic Programs (AAP)[30]

Carey Business School

The Washington, D.C. campus is on Massachusetts Avenue.

Laurel, Maryland

Installing a New Horizons Imager at the APL

Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL): The APL in Laurel, Maryland, specializes in research for the U.S. Department of Defense, NASA and other government and civilian research agencies. It has developed more than 100 biomedical devices, many in collaboration with the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions. Sony VPCEH27FG/W Battery

The Applied Physics Laboratory, a division of the university co-equal to the nine schools but with a non-academic mission, lies between Baltimore and Washington in Laurel, Maryland.

Other campuses

see also List of Johns Hopkins University Research Centers and Institutes


Columbia, Maryland Center (Branches of The Carey Business School[32] and The School of Education) Sony VPCEH28FA/B Battery

Montgomery County, Maryland Campus (Part-time programs in Biosciences, Engineering, Business & Education[34])


The SAIS Bologna Center, Italy

The SAIS Hopkins-Nanjing Center for Chinese and American Studies, China

Yong Siew Toh Conservatory of Music (Collaboration between the Peabody Institute and the National University of Singapore)

In 2009, JHU ranked fifth among US universities in private fund–raising, collecting $433.39 million. Sony VPCEH28FF/B Battery

The President is JHU's chief executive officer, and the university is organized into nine academic divisions.[36]

Campus environmental initiatives

Johns Hopkins University has implemented a number of sustainability initiatives.[37]

In 2011, the Sustainable Endowments Institute gave Johns Hopkins a College Sustainability Report Card grade of "C+." In particular the Institute criticized JHU for failing to disclose its endowment's holdings and proxy voting record on environmental issues. Sony VPCEH28FG/B Battery


In 2007 carbon emissions were inventoried and electric vehicles were used for some campus transportation needs.


As of 2007 dining services managers sought locally–sourced produce and seafood, and integrated organic food into menus.[39] In addition, the smaller cafés around campus sell exclusively organic, shade–grown coffeesSony VPCEH28FG/P Battery. A small pilot composting program operated on the undergraduate campus.[39]


In 2007 the university was pursuing LEED certification for several buildings.[39] Energy retrofits in certain buildings have resulted in over 50% less energy consumption.[39] Retrofits included a green roof, experimentation with waterless urinals and low-flow shower heads, and upgraded fluorescent lighting that reduced electricity for lighting on one campus by over 40 percentSony VPCEH28FH/B Battery. Similar lighting retrofits were underway at all campuses. At the beginning of 2012, Hopkins sustainability announced the installation of 2,708 solar panels atop buildings at Homewood (Rec/Athletic Center, Mattin Center), the Eastern Building on 33rd Street and the East Baltimore Campus (Pinkard Building, 2024 Building, Bloomberg Building, Hampton House). These solar panels will produce 997,400 kWh and decrease 1,200,000 lbs of greenhouse gases each year. Sony VPCEH28FJ/B Battery


In 2004, one campus completed a water conservation retrofit that annually saved over 8,000,000 US gallons (30,000,000 l) of water.[39]

[edit]Student support

As of 2010 students contributed significantly to environmental initiatives, setting up the JHU recycling program, hosting a national "Greening" conference, launching a transportation shuttle service between campuses and making the campus more bike-friendly. Sony VPCEH28FJ/P Battery Each year, students conduct the "S.E.X.:I.T." competition to see which dormitory can save the most electricity.[41]


The Johns Hopkins entity is structured as two corporations, the university and The Johns Hopkins Health System, formed in 1986. The latter has grown into the bigger entity, with fiscal year 2005 consolidated net revenue of $3.3 billion, employing 27,700 people, including some 4,700 full–time physicians. Sony VPCEH28FJ/W Battery

JHU's bylaws specify a Board of Trustees of between 18 and 65 voting members. Trustees serve six–year terms subject to a two–term limit. The alumni select 12 trustees. Four recent alumni serve 4-year terms, one per year, typically from the graduating class. The bylaws prohibit students, faculty or administrative staff from serving on the Board, except the President as an ex–officio trustee. Sony VPCEH28FN/L Battery The Johns Hopkins Health System has a separate Board of Trustees, many of whom are doctors or health care executives. Some JHU Trustees also serve on the Johns Hopkins Health System Board.


Mason Hall, the Visitor's Center & Admissions Office at Johns Hopkins University

The full-time, four year undergraduate program is "most selective"[44] with low transfer-in and a high graduate co-existence.[45][45] The university is one of fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities (AAU) Sony VPCEH29FJ/B Battery; it is also a member of the Consortium on Financing Higher Education (COFHE) and the Universities Research Association (URA).

[edit]Undergraduate Admissions

In 2010, 87% of admitted students graduated in the top tenth of their high school class and the inter-quartile range on the SAT reading was 670–750, math was 690–780, and writing was 670–770. 97% of freshmen returned after the first year, 84% of students graduated in 4 years and 92% graduated in 6 years. Sony VPCEH29FJ/P Battery Over time, applications to Johns Hopkins University have risen steadily. As a result, the selectivity of Johns Hopkins University has also increased. Early Decision is an option at Johns Hopkins University for students who wish to demonstrate that the university is their first choice. These students, if admitted, are required to enroll. This application is due November 1. Most students, however, apply Regular Decision, which is a traditional non-binding roundSony VPCEH29FJ/W Battery. These applications are due January 1 and students are notified April 1.


At the undergraduate level, Hopkins was ranked #13 among National Universities by U.S. News and World Report (USNWR).[57] It is ranked #6 in the nation in the high school counselor reputation rankings.[58] The 2010 Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) ranked Hopkins #18 internationally (#16 nationally) and 3rd in the world for Clinical Medicine and Pharmacy. Sony VPCEH2C0E Battery In 2010, Johns Hopkins ranked 13th in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings[60] and 16th in the 2011 QS World University Rankings. Johns Hopkins also placed #2 in the 2010 University Ranking by Academic Performance (URAP),[64] #2 in the 2011 HEEACT – Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities, ranked #7 among Top Performing Schools according to the Faculty Scholarly Productivity Index (FSPI) in 2008, Sony VPCEH2D0E Battery and was listed #9 among research universities by the Center for Measuring University Performance in 2007.[67]

For medical and public health research U.S. News and World Report ranks the School of Medicine #2[68] and has consistently ranked the Bloomberg School of Public Health #1[69] in the nation. The School of Nursing was ranked #1 nationally among peer institutions. The Times Higher Education Supplement ranked Johns Hopkins University #3 in the world for biomedicine and life sciences. Sony VPCEH2E0E Battery Hopkins ranks #1 nationally in receipt of federal research funds and the School of Medicine is #1 among medical schools in receipt of extramural awards from the National Institutes of Health (NIH).[72] Newsweek named Johns Hopkins as the "Hottest School for Pre-meds" in 2008. The Johns Hopkins Hospital was ranked as the top hospital in the United States for the eighteenth year in a row by the U.S. News and World Report annual ranking of American hospitals. Sony VPCEH2F1E Battery

The university's graduate programs in the areas of Biological & Biomedical Sciences, Engineering (Biomedical, Electrical & Environmental), Human Development & Family Studies, Health Sciences, Humanities, Physical & Mathematical Sciences and International Affairs & Development all rank among the top-10 of their respective disciplines. Sony VPCEH2H1E Battery

The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) ranked #1 (2005), #2 (2007), and #2 (2009), by College of William and Mary's surveys conducted once every two years beginning in 2005, for its MA program among the world's top schools of International Affairs for those who want to pursue a policy career. Sony VPCEH2J1E Battery

The School of Education is ranked #6 nationally by U.S. News and World Report.[77] Although no formal rankings exist for music conservatories, the Peabody Institute is generally considered one of the most prestigious conservatories in the country, along with Juilliard and the Curtis Institute.

Johns Hopkins is ranked the #1 Social Media College by StudentAdvisor. Sony VPCEH2L9E BatterySeveral university departments have been known to actively engage on various social media platforms such as Blogs, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and Flickr to reach prospective students, current students, and alumni.[79]


The Johns Hopkins University Library system houses more than 3.6 million volumes.[80] It includes ten main divisions: the Sheridan Libraries at Homewood, the Welch Medical Library, the Medical Institution Libraries, the School of Nursing LibrarySony VPCEH2M1E Battery, Abraham M. Lilienfeld Library at the Bloomberg School, the Peabody Institute Library, the Carey Business School and School of Education libraries, the School of Advanced International Studies Libraries (Sydney R. and Elsa W. Mason Library and Bologna Center Library), the R.E. Gibson Library at the Applied Physics Laboratory Library and other minor satellite locations, as well as the archivesSony VPCEH2M9E Battery.

Milton S. Eisenhower Library

The Milton S. Eisenhower Library, located on the Homewood campus, is the main library. It was built in the 1960s. It houses over 2.6 million volumes and over 20,000 journal subscriptions. The Eisenhower Library is a member of the university's Sheridan Libraries encompassing collections at the Albert D. Hutzler Reading Room (called "The Hut" by students) in Gilman HallSony VPCEH2N1E Battery, the John Work Garrett Library at Evergreen House, and the George Peabody Library at Mount Vernon Place. Together these collections provide the major research library resources for the university, serving Johns Hopkins academic programs worldwide. The library was named for Milton S. Eisenhower, former president of the university and brother of former U.S. president Dwight D. Eisenhower. JHU's library was previously housed in Gilman Hall, and other smaller departmental libraries throughout the Homewood campus. Sony VPCEH2P0E Battery

Only two of the Eisenhower library's six stories are above ground, though the architects designed the building so that every level has windows and natural light. The design accords with a bit of traditional campus lore that no structure can be taller than Gilman Hall, the oldest academic building ( although no written rule limits building height). In December 2008, an addition directly to the south of the library was announcedSony VPCEH2Q1E Battery. The six-and-a-half-story expansion will be named the Brody Learning Commons in honor of University President William R. Brody and will function as a "…collaborative learning space." It is scheduled to open on August 13, 2012.[82][83]


The opportunity to participate in important research is one of the distinguishing characteristics of Hopkins' undergraduate education. About 80 percent of undergraduates perform independent research, often alongside top researchers. Sony VPCEH2S9E Battery In FY 2009, Johns Hopkins received $1.856 billion in federal research grants—more than any other US university.[8] Thirty-six (36) Nobel Prize winners have been affiliated with the university as alumni or faculty members.[85] JHU views its academic strengths as being in art history, biological, physical and other natural sciences, biomedical engineering, creative writing, English, history, economics, international studies, medicine, music, neuroscience, nursing, political theorySony VPCEH2Z1E Battery, public health, public policy, and the Romance languages.[citation needed]

Between 1999 and 2009, Johns Hopkins was among the most cited institutions in the world. It attracted nearly 1,222,166 citations and produced 54,022 papers under its name, ranking #3 globally behind Harvard University and Max Planck Society with the highest total citations published in Thomson Reuters-indexed journals over 22 fields in America. Sony VPCEH3B1E Battery

In FY 2000, Johns Hopkins received $95.4 million in research grants from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), making it the leading recipient of NASA research and development funding.[86] In FY 2002, Hopkins became the first university to cross the $1 billion threshold on either list, recording $1.14 billion in total research and $1.023 billion in federally sponsored researchSony VPCEH3D0E Battery. In FY 2008, Johns Hopkins University performed $1.68 billion in science, medical and engineering research, making it the leading U.S. academic institution in total R&D spending for the 30th year in a row, according to a National Science Foundation (NSF) ranking.[87] These totals include grants and expenditures of JHU's Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, MarylandSony VPCEH3N1E Battery. The Johns Hopkins University also offers the "Center for Talented Youth" program—a nonprofit organization dedicated to identifying and developing the talents of the most promising K-12 grade students worldwide. As part of the Johns Hopkins University, the "Center for Talented Youth" or CTY helps fulfill the university's mission of preparing students to make significant future contributions to the worldSony VPCEH3N6E Battery.

Johns Hopkins University Press

Main article: Johns Hopkins University Press

The Johns Hopkins University Press is the publishing division of the Johns Hopkins University. It was founded in 1878 and holds the distinction of being the oldest continuously running university press in the United States.[97] To date the Press has published more than 6,000 titles and currently publishes 65 scholarly periodicals and over 200 new books each yearSony VPCEH3T9E Battery. Since 1993, the Johns Hopkins University Press has run Project MUSE, an online collection of over 250 full–text, peer–reviewed journals in the humanities and social sciences. The Press also houses the Hopkins Fulfilment Services (HFS), which handles distribution for a number of university presses and publishers. Taken together, the three divisions of the Press—Books, Journals (including MUSE) and HFS—make it one of the largest of America's university pressesSony VPCEJ15FG/B Battery.

Student life

Students gather under the holidays lights at the yearly "Lighting of the Quad", a Hopkins tradition

The Johns Hopkins Student Government Association represents undergraduates in campus issues and projects. It is elected annually.[98] Blueprints for a new programming board called The Hopkins Organization for Programming ("The HOP") were drawn up during the summer and fall of 2006Sony VPCEJ16FX/B Battery.

In addition Charles Village, the region of North Baltimore surrounding the university, has undergone several restoration projects, and the university has gradually bought the property around the school for additional student housing and dormitories. The Charles Village Project, scheduled for completion in 2008, brought new commercial spaces to the neighborhoodSony VPCEJ1E1E Battery. The project included Charles Commons, a new, modern residence hall that includes popular retail franchises.

Hopkins invested in improving campus life with an arts complex in 2001, the Mattin Center, and a three–story sports facility, the O'Connor Recreation Center. The large on–campus dining facilities at Homewood were renovated in the summer of 2006Sony VPCEJ1J1E Battery.

Quality of life is enriched by the proximity of neighboring academic institutions, including Loyola College, Maryland Institute College of Art (MICA), UMBC, Goucher College, and Towson University, as well as nearby Inner Harbor.

Annually, the Johns Hopkins Spring Fair is held on the Homewood campus over a three day weekend in mid-to-late April. Food, arts and crafts, and non–profit vendors, along with a popular musical act and various other activities attract nearly 25,000 people from the greater Baltimore–Washington areaSony VPCEJ1L1E Battery. The Spring Fair is the largest entirely student–run fair in the country.

Since 1972, the Johns Hopkins Outdoors Club, or JHOC, has organized weekend trips for students looking to experience the outdoors. Along with Outdoor Pursuits, an arm of the University's Rec Center, JHOC offers students the opportunity to participate in activities such as canoeing, kayaking, caving, and mountain bikingSony VPCEJ1M1E Battery.


Freshman Residence Hall at JHU

Living on campus is required for first- and second-year students, except for commuter students who live with a parent or legal guardian.[101] Housing is not guaranteed for juniors or seniors at Johns Hopkins.

Freshmen housing is centered around Freshman Quad, which consists of three major residence hall complexes: The Alumni Memorial Residences (AMR I and AMR II), Building A and Building B. Sony VPCEJ1S1E BatteryAMR I was built in 1923 and includes Royce, Sylvester, Vincent, Willard, Wilson and Wood houses; AMR II in 1954, holding Adams, Baker, Clark, Gildersleeve, Griffin, Hollander, Jennings, Lazear houses.[citation needed] The houses were named for Hopkins Alumni who died in World Wars I and II. While each house has its own outside entrance, there are no dividers indoors that distinguish themSony VPCEJ1Z1E Battery. In 1983, Buildings A and B were added to Freshmen Quad.[citation needed] They have not yet been dedicated. Freshmen are also housed in Wolman Hall and the terrace floor of McCoy Hall, located on the other side of North Charles Street.[102]

Freshman enter a housing lottery in their spring semester to determine where they will live during their sophomore year. Juniors and seniors may choose between entering the campus housing lottery or moving into nearby apartments or row housesSony VPCEJ25FG/B Battery. They occupy one of four buildings.[103] The first, McCoy Hall, is located next to Wolman Hall on North Charles Street. McCoy Hall is predominantly composed of sophomores and transfer students.[104] Apartment-style housing is offered in the Bradford Apartments, one block east of campus on St. Paul Street, and in the Homewood Apartments, two blocks south on North Charles Street.[103] The last is Charles Commons, the newest and largest university–owned dormitorySony VPCEJ2B1E Battery, located at the corner of North Charles and East 33rd. It was completed in 2006 to house 618 students and represented a major step by the university towards offering on–campus housing to students.[104] Charles Commons consists of two 11–story towers connected by a bridge, residential suites and features a ballroom, fitness center and several conference rooms. Nolan's on 33rd, a dining hall specializing in dinner services, is also located in the building. Sony VPCEJ2D1E Battery

JHU rents several buildings on North Charles Street to house students when necessary. At full capacity, dormitory buildings can house approximately 60% of undergraduates.[citation needed] Privately–owned apartment buildings around Homewood are usually filled with Hopkins upperclassmen, so despite the lack of university–owned dormitories, housing is availableSony VPCEJ2E1E Battery.

[edit]Fraternities and sororities

The University Office of Greek Life recognizes thirteen fraternities and eight sororities, which include approximately 25% of the student body. Greek life has been a part of the university culture since 1877, when Beta Theta Pi fraternity became the first to form a chapter on campus. Sororities arrived at Hopkins in 1982. As with all Hopkins programs, Greek discrimination on the basis of "marital status, pregnancySony VPCEJ2J1E Battery, race, color, ethnicity, national origin, age, disability, religion, sexual orientation, veteran status" is prohibited.[105] JHU also has an anti–hazing policy[106] and prohibits alcohol at recruitment activities.[107] Hopkins does not permit "city–wide" chapters, and requires all members of a JHU recognized fraternity or sorority to be a JHU student. Sony VPCEJ2L1E Battery

As of spring 2011, 1,208 students were members of one of Hopkins' fraternities or sororities. The All–Greek Average GPA was 3.31, above the undergraduate average GPA.[109] In spring 2010 the university was considering construction of a "fraternity row" of houses to consolidate the groups on campus. Sony VPCEJ2S1E Battery

All Johns Hopkins fraternities and sororities belong to one of four Councils: the Inter–Fraternity Council, the National Panhellenic Conference, the National Pan-Hellenic Council and the Multicultural Council.

Unrecognized Alpha Kappa Alpha and Delta Sigma Theta African–American interest sororities often recruit Johns Hopkins undergraduates, in their city–wide chaptersSony VPCEJ2Z1E Battery. Delta Sigma Theta was the first National Pan–Hellenic Council member to charter on the campus in 1976, as well as the first sorority of any kind on the JHU campus.

Kappa Alpha Theta, a National Panhellenic Conference (NPC) sorority, was disbanded by its national headquarters on April 14, 2009 after twelve years on campus.[117] The removal was due to repeated risk management violationsSony VPCEJ3T1E Battery.

In March 2010, Johns Hopkins University officially opened for NPC extension.[clarification needed] In May 2010, the University Panhellenic Council selected Pi Beta Phi, which opened in the fall of 2010.

Recruitment for Inter–Fraternity Council and Panhellenic Conference fraternities and sororities takes place during the spring semester for freshmen, though some groups recruit upperclassmen during the fall semester. Sony VPCEJM1E BatteryAll participants must have completed one semester and must be in good academic standing.[citation needed]

Many of the fraternities maintain houses off campus, but no sororities do.[citation needed] Baltimore City allows housing to be zoned specifically for use as a fraternity or sorority house, but in practice this zoning code has not been awarded for at least 50 years.[citation needed] Only Sigma Phi Epsilon's building has this zoning code due to its consistent ownership since the 1920sSony VPCEK25EG/B Battery.

Student publications

Gilman Hall, Center for the Humanities

Hopkins has many student publications.

The Johns Hopkins News-Letter, founded in 1896, is one of the oldest continuously published weekly college newspapers in the nation with a press run of 5,200.[120] The News-Letter won a Associated Collegiate Press Newspaper Pacemaker award for four–year, non–daily college newspapers in 2007Sony VPCEK25EH/B Battery.

The Hopkins Donkey is a political newspaper with a Democratic perspective on international, national and state–wide political topics.

The Carrollton Record is a political newspaper with an American conservative perspective on campus and city–wide politics.[121]

Epidemic Proportions is the university's public health research journal, designed to highlight JHU research and field work in public health. Combining research and scholarship, the journal seeks to capture the breadth and depth of the JHU undergraduate public health experience. Sony VPCEK25EN/B Battery

Thoroughfare, Zeniada and j.mag are literary magazines. Prometheus is the undergraduate philosophy journal.[123]

Frame of Reference is an annual magazine that focuses on film and film culture.[124]

The New Diplomat is the multi–disciplinary international relations journal. Foundations is the undergraduate history journal.

Américas is the Latin American Studies journal.

Argot is the undergraduate anthropology journal.

The Triple Helix is the university's journal to address issues concerning science, law and society.

Perspectives is the official newsletter of the Black Student Union. Sony VPCS11V9E/B Battery

The Black & Blue Jay is among the nation's oldest campus humor magazines. It was founded in 1920.[129] According to The Johns Hopkins News–Letter, the magazine's name led the News–Letter to first use the moniker Blue Jays to refer to a Hopkins athletic team in 1923.[130] While the magazine enjoyed popularity among students, it received repeated opposition from the university administration, reportedly for its vulgar humorSony VPCCW15FA/B Battery. In October 1934, Dean Edward R. Berry removed financial support for the magazine; without funding, the magazine continued under the name The Blue Jay until Berry threatened to expel the editors in 1939. The magazine had a revival in 1984, and has appeared intermittently since then. Sony VPCCW15FA/P Battery

[edit]Student–run businesses

Hopkins Student Enterprises (HSE)[132] is a startup incubator with the goal of fostering student innovation and encouraging the development of student–run businesses. Currently, four businesses are in operation:[133]

Hopkins Consulting Agency (HCA)—Business and technology consulting company that prepares technology commercialization reports and business plans.

Hopkins Student Movers (HSM)—Moving and storage company that serves JHU faculty, staff, and students and the broader Baltimore community. Sony VPCCW15FA/W Battery

Hopkins Student Creative Services (HSCS)—Full service graphic design company.[135]

The Blue Jay Cleaners - Student janitorial service for all on-campus and select off campus residence halls.


Athletics logo

Main article: Johns Hopkins Blue Jays

Athletic teams are called Blue Jays. Even though sable and gold are used for academic robes, the university's athletic colors are Columbia blue (PMS 284) and black. Sony VPCCW15FG/B Battery Hopkins celebrates Homecoming in the spring to coincide with the height of the lacrosse season. The Men's and Women's lacrosse teams are in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I. Other teams are in Division III and participate in the Centennial Conference. JHU is also home to the Lacrosse Museum and National Hall of Fame, maintained by US Lacrosse.

Men's lacrosseSony VPCCW15FG/P Battery

Main article: Johns Hopkins Blue Jays men's lacr


Johns Hopkins Men's Lacrosse at Homewood Field

The school's most prominent team is its men's lacrosse team. The team does not belong to a conference. The team has won 44 national titles – nine Division I (2007, 2005, 1987, 1985, 1984, 1980, 1979, 1978, 1974), 29 United States Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association (USILA), and six Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association (ILA) titlesSony VPCCW15FG/W Battery. Hopkins' primary national rivals are Princeton University, Syracuse University, and the University of Virginia; its primary intrastate rivals are Loyola College (competing in what is called the "Charles Street Massacre"), Towson University, the United States Naval Academy, and the University of Maryland. The rivalry with Maryland is the oldest. The schools have met 103 times since 1899, twice in playoff matchesSony VPCCW15FN/R Battery.

[edit]Women's lacrosse

Main article: Johns Hopkins Blue Jays women's lacrosse

The women's team is a member of the American Lacrosse Conference (ALC). The team is developing into a top twenty team. The Lady Blue Jays were ranked number 19 in the 2008 Inside Lacrosse Women's DI Media Poll (ILWDIMP). They ranked number 8 in both the 2007 Intercollegiate Women's Lacrosse Coaches Association (IWLCA) Poll for Division I and the ILWDIMP. In 2006, they were ranked 14th in the ILWDIMP, in 2005Sony VPCCW16FA/B Battery, they were 11th, and, in 2004, they were 9th. However, recently the team has struggled and finished with a record of 5 wins and 12 losses in the 2009 season.

[edit]Other teams

Hopkins has notable Division III Athletic teams. JHU Men's Swimming won three consecutive NCAA Championships in 1977, 1978, and 1979.[137] In 2009–2010, Hopkins won 8 Centennial Conference titles in Women's Cross Country, Women's Track & Field, Baseball, Men's and Women's Soccer, Football, and Men's and Women's TennisSony VPCCW16FA/L Battery. The Women's Cross Country team became the first women's team at Hopkins to achieve a #1 National ranking. In 2006–2007 teams won Centennial Conference titles in Baseball, Men's and Women's Soccer, Men's and Women's Tennis and Men's Basketball. Hopkins has an acclaimed fencing team, which ranked in the top three Division III teams in the past few years and in both 2008 and 2007 defeated the University of North Carolina, a Division I teamSony VPCCW16FA/P Battery. In 2008, they defeated UNC and won the MACFA championship.

The Swimming team ranked highly in NCAA Division III for the last 10 years, most recently placing second at DIII Nationals in 2008. The Water Polo team was number one in Division III for several of the past years, playing a full schedule against Division I opponents. Hopkins also has a century-old rivalry with McDaniel College Sony VPCCW16FA/R Battery (formerly Western Maryland College), playing the Green Terrors 83 times in football since the first game in 1894. In 2009 the football team reached the quarterfinals of the NCAA Division III tournament, with three tournament appearances since 2005. In 2008, the baseball team ranked second, losing in the final game of the DIII College World Series to Trinity College. Sony VPCCW16FA/W Battery

[edit]Notable alumni, faculty and staff

Main article: List of Johns Hopkins University people

[edit]Nobel laureates

Main article: List of Nobel laureates affiliated with Johns Hopkins University

As of 2011, there had been 37 Nobel Laureates, who attended the university as undergraduate students, graduate students or were faculty members.[139] Woodrow Wilson, who received his PhD from Johns Hopkins in 1886, was Hopkins' first affiliated laureate, winning the Nobel Peace Prize in 1919.[139][140] Twenty-three laureates were faculty members, five earned PhDsSony VPCCW16FG/B Battery, eight earned M.D. while Francis Peyton Rous and Martin Rodbell earned undergraduate degrees.

Eighteen Johns Hopkins laureates have won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, more than any other category.[139] Four Nobel Prizes were shared by Johns Hopkins laureates: George Minot and George Whipple won the 1934 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine,[141] Joseph Erlanger and Herbert Spencer Gasser won the 1944 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Sony VPCCW16FG/L Battery Daniel Nathans and Hamilton O. Smith won the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine,[143] and David H. Hubel and Torsten N. Wiesel won the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.[144] Two Johns Hopkins laureates won Nobel Prizes in Physics, Riccardo Giacconi in 2002 [145] and Adam Riess in 2011Sony VPCCW16FG/P Battery.

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