Dublin And Copenhagen 2

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Slotsholmen canal, as seen from Børsen (1890–1900). In the background from left to right: Church of the Holy Ghost, Rundetårn, Trinity Church, St. Nicholas Church (before the spire was rebuilt) and Holmen Church.

The British landed 30,000 men and surrounded Copenhagen. The attack continued for the next three days, killing some 2,000 civilians and destroying most of the citySony VAIO PCG-8141L battery. The devastation was so great because Copenhagen relied on an old defence-line whose limited range could not reach the British ships and their longer-range artillery.[28] Not until the 1850s were the ramparts of the city opened to allow new housing to be built around The Lakes (Danish: Søerne) that bordered the old defences to the west. This dramatic increase of space was long overdue, because the old ramparts were out of date as a defence system, and because of bad sanitation in the old city. Before the openingSony VAIO PCG-8131L battery, central Copenhagen was inhabited by approximately 125,000 people, peaking in the census of 1870 (140,000); today the figure is around 25,000. In 1901, Copenhagen expanded further, incorporating communities with 40,000 people, and in the process making Frederiksberg an enclave within CopenhagenSony VAIO PCG-81312L battery.

During World War II, Copenhagen was occupied by German troops along with the rest of the country from 9 April 1940 until 4 May 1945. The occupation was not a part of the Nazi German expansion, and in the first years German authorities wanted a kind of understanding with the Danish government. Even a general parliamentary election was granted in 1943Sony VAIO PCG-81214L battery, with only the Communist Party excluded. But in August 1943, when the government's collaboration with the occupation forces collapsed, several ships were scuttled in Copenhagen Harbour by the Royal Danish Navy to prevent their use by the Germans. Around that time the Nazis started to arrest Jews, although many managed to escape to Sweden.

After the Normandy invasion the Germans feared that the Danish police could become a problem, and in early September 1944 the entire Danish police force was meant to be arrestedSony VAIO PCG-81115L battery. But a majority of the Danish police managed to either hide or escape to Sweden. Out of 2,000 policemen captured and deported to Germany fewer than half returned after the war. During the last eight months of occupation Copenhagen suffered a high rate of common criminality.

Ole Lippman, the leader of the Danish resistance movement (SOE), asked for RAF assistance in attacking Nazi headquarters in Copenhagen. Accordingly, vice Air Marshall Sir Basil Embry drew the plans for a spectacular precision attack on the SD and Gestapo buildingSony VAIO PCG-81114L battery, the former office of the Shell Oil Company. Political prisoners were kept in the attic to prevent an air raid, so the RAF had to bomb the lower levels of the building. The attack came on 22 March 1945, coming in three small waves. All six planes (carrying one bomb each) in the first wave hit their target, but unfortunately one of the aircraft crashed near Frederiksberg girls school. Due to this crash four of the planes in the two following waves assumed the school was the targetSony VAIO PCG-81113L battery, and aimed their bombs at the school. 123 civilians (of which 87 were young girls) were killed.[29] However from the Shell-building, 18 of a total of 26 political prisoners managed to escape, the Gestapo archives were completely destroyed,[29] and Hitler became so insecure of the situation that he withdrew only half of the roughly 200,000 soldiers in Denmark to reinforce German forces on the RhineSony VAIO PCG-7142L battery.

Since the summer of 2000, Copenhagen and the Swedish city of Malmö have been connected by a toll bridge/tunnel (Øresund Bridge), which carries railroad and automobile traffic. As a result, Copenhagen has become the centre of a larger metropolitan area which spans both nations. The construction of the bridge has led to many changes to the public transport system and extensive redevelopment of Amager, south of CopenhagenSony VAIO PCG-7141L battery.

In December 2009 Copenhagen hosted the worldwide climate meeting COP15. When US President Barack Obama participated in the end of this meeting it was the fourth time an American President had visited Copenhagen during his term (Obama also visited Copenhagen in October 2009, George W. Bush in 2005 and Bill Clinton in the 1990s).

Satellite image showing Copenhagen located on Zealand and AmagerSony VAIO PCG-71111L battery.

Amager Square seen from St. Nicholas Church

Copenhagen is located on the eastern shore of the island of Zealand, partly on the island of Amager and on a number of natural and artificial islets between the two. Copenhagen faces the Øresund to the east, the strait of water that separates Denmark from Sweden, and which connects the North Sea with the Baltic Sea. The Swedish towns of Malmö and Landskrona lie on the Swedish side of the sound directly across from CopenhagenSony VAIO PCG-61411L battery.

Copenhagen is part of the Øresund region, which consists of Zealand, Lolland-Falster and Bornholm in Denmark and Scania in Sweden.

Copenhagen Municipality

Copenhagen Municipality is an administrative unit which covers the central part of the actual city of Copenhagen. It is a fairly small part of the actual city which falls within the municipality both because it covers a confined area and because the enclave of Frederiksberg is an independent municipality. Since a reform in 2006–08Sony VAIO PCG-61112L battery, Copenhagen is divided into 10 official districts (Danish: bydele).

The suffix -bro in the names Østerbro, Nørrebro, Vesterbro and Amagerbro should not be confused with the Danish word for bridge, which is also 'bro'. The term is thought[citation needed] to be an abbreviation or short form of the Danish word brolagt meaning paved referring to the roads paved with cobblestones leading to the city's former gates. Today the Frederiksberg enclave, whilst not part of the Copenhagen municipalitySony VAIO PCG-61111L battery (and so administratively independent), is considered to be part of the city of Copenhagen. Frederiksberg became an enclave in 1901 when the former districts of Vanløse and Valby were incorporated to Copenhagen municipality. Since 1902 no further incorporations has been made to the municipalitySony VAIO PCG-5T4L battery.

The highest population density is no longer found in the city centre ("Indre by", which means Inner town) due to office buildings, department stores and council buildings, etc. The highest population density is instead found in the districts immediately surrounding the city centre, where there is a density of 15,000 inhabitants per km2. For example, the entirety of the Nørrebro district,[34] central Østerbro district,. Sony VAIO PCG-5T3L battery

The lowest population density in the municipality exists in a part of the Amager Vest district. At the western coast of the island of Amager a large area was embanked from the shallow strait of Kalveboderne in the 1930s. The main reason was to provide an occupation for unemployed workers during the Great Depression. As the area was later used as a military training area, the ground contains much unexploded ammunition which has hampered urban developmentSony VAIO PCG-5T2L battery. In the 1980s most of the embankment was declared a nature reserve and thus remains uninhabited, although a part now makes up the Ørestad quarter. Also, a golf course has been established a few kilometres from the city centre.

The area of Copenhagen has also grown in other places as a result of land reclamation. Thus, all of the present and former harbour areas were gained from the sea, and on eastern Amager, a new beach park with an artificial island was opened in 2008Sony VAIO PCG-5S3L battery.

Greater Copenhagen

Further information: Urban area of Copenhagen

Greater Copenhagen in Denmark

The conurbation of Copenhagen consists of several municipalities. After Copenhagen Municipality, the second largest is Frederiksberg Municipality, an enclave inside Copenhagen Municipality. Both are contained in the larger Capital Region of Denmark, containing most of the urban area of Copenhagen. However Danish road authority (Vejdirektoratet) still uses the name Greater Copenhagen (Storkøbenhavn) Sony VAIO PCG-5S2L battery. This area had around 1.45 million inhabitants in the mid 1990s.

Previously, the areas of Frederiksberg, Gentofte and Copenhagen municipalities have been used to define the city of Copenhagen. This definition is now obsolete. To meet statistical needs upon the latest municipal reform, which took place in early 2007, a definitory concept of Danish lands (Danish: landsdele) was introduced. A land is basically a geographical and statistical definitionSony VAIO PCG-5S1L battery, and the area is not considered to be an administrative unit. The land of Copenhagen City includes the municipalities of Copenhagen, Dragør, Frederiksberg and Tårnby, with a total population of 704,108 at the start of 2012.

Copenhagen and Frederiksberg were two of the three last Danish municipalities not belonging to a county. On 1 January 2007, the municipalities lost their county privileges and became part of the Copenhagen Capital RegionSony VAIO PCG-5R2L battery.

Suburban Copenhagen (or the Copenhagen metropolitan area) is planned according to the Finger Plan (Danish: Fingerplanen), initiated in 1947, dividing the suburbs into five fingers.[38] The S-train lines are built according to the Finger Plan, while green wedges and highways are built between the fingersSony VAIO PCG-5R1L battery.

Snowy Copenhagen scene

Copenhagen is in the oceanic climate zone. As the city is in the path of Atlantic low-pressure systems, Copenhagen experiences unstable and changing weather patterns in all four seasons, as well as temperatures about 5 degrees higher than average for its latitude (55 degrees North) worldwide. The main reason for this warmth is the Atlantic Gulf Stream, which moves warm water from around the Gulf Coast area toward Europe, and the low-pressure systems follow with the oceanic streamSony VAIO PCG-5P4L battery.

Precipitation is moderate throughout the year, with a small peak during June to August. Snowfall occurs mainly from late December until early March, but snow cover seldom lasts long. Rain during January and February is as common as snow, and the average temperatures for these two winter months is near the freezing pointSony VAIO PCG-5P2L battery.

During winter, the weather is dependent on which latitude the Atlantic low pressure centre takes. With a stable high-pressure system around the Alps, the low pressure from the southwest moves toward southern Scandinavia and northern Germany, producing above-freezing temperatures day and night. When a stable high-pressure system sits over Denmark or the lands to the northeast (such as Finland or Russia), the mild Atlantic winds from the southwest are blockedSony VAIO PCG-5N4L battery, allowing polar winds to cover the area, and the temperature dips to below freezing (rarely below −5 °C (23 °F) during the day and −12 °C (10 °F) during the night). If the European continent experiences cold due to the eastern Russian winds, which rarely occurs, it can "freeze from the south".[citation needed] This was a phenomenon that took several centuries to understandSony VAIO PCG-5N2L battery.

Spring is comparable to continental Europe, but delayed about a week because of the cold surrounding water. On the other hand, in late autumn Copenhagen is kept milder due to the same factor, but reversed. In late November and December the surrounding ocean water is generally warmer than the air. From mid-October to February, one or two storms occur. Storms in the summertime are rareSony VAIO PCG-51513L battery.

Summer is a mixture of southwestern mild, windy and rainy low-pressure systems, and periods of stable high pressures. In summer, high-pressure systems usually bring sunny and fairly warm weather. But these warm periods, which can occur any time from late April until mid September, usually last no longer than ten daysSony VAIO PCG-51511L battery.

Nyhavn, the seventeenth century waterfront, with its colourful buildings

The city's appearance today is shaped by the key role it has played as a regional centre for centuries. Copenhagen has a multitude of districts, each representing its time and with its own distinctive character, making up a dense urban fabric. Other distinctive features of Copenhagen include the abundance of water, the many parks, and the bicycle paths that line most streets.

See also: Architecture in Copenhagen and List of buildings in and around CopenhagenSony VAIO PCG-51412L battery

Amalienborg Palace and the Marble Church seen with the Amalie Garden in the foreground.

The oldest section of Copenhagen's inner city is often referred to as "Middelalderbyen" (The Medieval City). However, the most distinctive district of Copenhagen is Frederiksstaden developed during the reign of Frederick V. It has Amalienborg Palace at its centre and is dominated by the dome of Frederik's Church (The Marble Church) and several elegant 18th century mansionsSony VAIO PCG-51411L battery. The old inner city of Copenhagen includes the small island of Slotsholmen with Christiansborg Palace and Christianshavn. Around the historical city centre lies a band of congenial residential bouroughs (Vesterbro, Inner Nørrebro, Inner Østerbro) dating mainly from late 19th century. They were built outside the old ramparts of the city when the city was finally allowed to expand beyond this barrierSony VAIO PCG-51312L battery.

Sometimes referred to as "the City of Spires", Copenhagen is known for its horizontal skyline, only broken by spires at churches and castles. Most characteristic is the baroque spire of Church of Our Saviour with its spiralling and narrowing external stairs that visitors can climb to the very top of the spire. Other important spires are those of Christiansborg Palace, the City Hall and the former Church of St. Nikolaj that now houses a modern art venueSony VAIO PCG-51311L battery. A bit lower are the renaissance spires of Rosenborg Castle and the "dragon spire" of Christian IV's former stock exchange, so named because it resembles the tails of four dragons twined together.

Developing skyline of the district Ørestad, located in the outskirts of Copenhagen. 12 towers expected to form the final skyline.

Recent years have seen a boom in modern architecture in Copenhagen[39] both when it comes to Danish architecture and works by international architects. For a few hundred years, virtually no foreign architects had worked in Copenhagen Sony VAIO PCG-51211L batterybut since the turn of the millennium the city and its immediate sourroundings have seen buildings and projects from international star architects. In the same time, a number of Danish architects have achieved success in Copenhagen and abroad. Buildings in Copenhagen have won RIBA European Awards four years in a row ("Sampension" in 2005,[40] "Kilen" in 2006,[41] "Tietgenkollegiet" in 2007[42] and the Royal Playhouse in 2008.) Sony VAIO PCG-41112L battery The last three mentioned projects are all by Lundgaard & Tranberg Architects. At the 2008 World Architecture Festival in Barcelona, Bjarke Ingels Group won an award for the World's Best Residential Building 2008 for a house in Ørestad.[45] The Forum AID Award for Best building in Scandinavia went to Copenhagen buildings both in 2006[46] and 2008. In 2008 British design magazine Monocle named Copenhagen the World's best design city 2008Sony VAIO PCG-3A4L battery.

The boom in urban development and modern architecture has brought some changes to the city's skyline. A political majority has decided to keep the historical centre free of high-rise buildings, but several areas will see or have already seen massive urban development. Ørestad now has seen most of the recent development. Located near Copenhagen Airport, Sony VAIO PCG-3A3L battery it currently boasts one of the largest malls in Scandinavia and a variety of office and residential buildings as well as IT University and a high school. The two largest hotels in Scandinavia are currently under construction (ultimo 2008).

The 2004 Copenhagen Opera House by Henning Larsen

An ambitious regeneration project will create a new Carlsberg District at the historical premises of the Carlsberg Breweries that has terminated the production of beer in Copenhagen and moved it to FredericiaSony VAIO PCG-3A2L battery. The district will have a total of nine high-rise buildings and seeks to mix the old industrial buildings with modern architecture to create a dense, maze-like quarter with a focus on sustainability and an active urban life. A third major area of urban development also with a focus on sustainability is Nordhavn. The Copenhagen tradition with urban development on artificial islands that was initiated with Christian IV's construction of Christianshavn has recently been continued with the creation Sony VAIO PCG-3A1L batteryof Havneholmen as well as a canal district at Sluseholmen in the South Harbour. A district in Copenhagen with a different take on modern architecture is that of Christiania whose many creative and idiosyncratic buildings are exponents of an "architecture without architects".

Main article: Parks and open spaces in Copenhagen

Copenhagen is a green city with many big and small parks. King's Garden, the garden of Rosenborg Castle, is the oldest and most visited park in Copenhagen.[49] Its landscaping was commenced by Christian IV in 1606. Every year it sees more than 2.5 million visitorsSony VAIO PCG-394L battery and in the summer months it is packed with sunbathers, picnickers and ballplayers. It serves as a sculpture garden with a permanent display of sculptures as well as temporary exhibits during summer.[49] Also located in the city centre are the Botanical Gardens particularly noted for their large complex of 19th century greenhouses donated by Carlsberg founder J. C. Jacobsen.[51] Fælledparken is at 58 hectares the largest park in Copenhagen.[52] It is popular for sports Sony VAIO PCG-393L batteryand hosts several annual events such as a free opera concert at the opening of the opera season, other open-air concerts, carnival, Labour Day celebrations and Copenhagen Historic Grand Prix, which is a race for antique cars. A historical green space in the northeastern part of the city is Kastellet, a well-preserved renaissance citadel that now serves mainly as a park. Another popular park is the Frederiksberg Garden, a 32-hectare romantic landscape parkSony VAIO PCG-391L battery. It houses a colony of tame grey herons and other waterfowl. The park offers views of the elephants and the elephant house designed by world-famous British architect Norman Foster of the adjacent Copenhagen Zoo, the largest zoo in Denmark. Langelinie, a park and promenade along the inner Øresund coast, is home to one of Copenhagen's most-visited tourist attractions, the Little Mermaid statueSony VAIO PCG-384L battery.

In Copenhagen, many cemeteries double as parks, though only for the more quiet activities such as sunbathing, reading and meditation.[53] Assistens Cemetery, the burial place of Hans Christian Andersen, is an important green space for the district of Inner Nørrebro and a Copenhagen institution. The lesser known Vestre Kirkegaard is the largest (54 hectares) cemetery in Denmark[54] and offers a maze of dense groves, open lawns, winding pathsSony VAIO PCG-383L battery, hedges, overgrown tombs, monuments, tree-lined avenues, lakes and other garden features.

It is official municipal policy in Copenhagen that all citizens by 2015 must be able to reach a park or beach on foot in less than 15 minutes.[55] In line with this policy, several new parks, including the innovative Superkilen, have been completed or are under development in areas lacking green spacesSony VAIO PCG-382L battery.

Copenhagen and the surrounding areas have 3 beaches with a total of approx. 8 km of sandy beaches within 30 minutes cycling from the city centre. This includes Amager Strandpark, which opened in 2005 and includes a 2 km long artificial island and a total of 4.6 km of beaches,[58] located just 15 minutes by bicycle or a few minutes by metro from the city centreSony VAIO PCG-381L battery.

The beaches are supplemented by a system of Harbour Baths along the Copenhagen waterfront. The first and most popular of these is located at Islands Brygge[59] and has won international acclaim for its design.[60]

As of 2012, 77.8% of Copenhagen's population is Danish, 7.5% are immigrants from Western countries and 14.6% of a non-Western background. Sony VAIO PCG-7185L battery

The Sluseholmen Canal District

Depending on the boundaries used, the population of Copenhagen differs. Statistics Denmark uses a measure of the contiguously built-up urban area of Copenhagen, this means the number of communities included in this statistical abstract has changed several times, in the abstracts latest edition with about 1.21 million (1,213,822 (2012)) inhabitantsSony VAIO PCG-7184L battery. This number is not a strict result of the commonly used measuring methods of 200 meters of continuously build-up area, as there are exceptions to the general rule: The suburbs of Birkerød[citation needed] and Hørsholm[citation needed] are excluded, while all of Brøndby and parts of Ishøj and Greve are included.[citation needed] Statistics Denmark has never stated the geographical area of urban Copenhagen. However, we know it consists of Copenhagen MunicipalitySony VAIO PCG-7183L battery, Frederiksberg and 16 of the 20 municipalities in the old counties Copenhagen and Roskilde, though 5 of them only partially.[62]

Statistics Denmark has worked out definitions of so-called lands (landsdele), a definition used to meet statistical needs on a lower level than regions. From this, the land of Copenhagen city (København by) is defined by the municipalities of Copenhagen, Dragør, Frederiksberg and Tårnby, with a total population of 707,591 as of 1 July 2012Sony VAIO PCG-7182L battery. The surroundings of Copenhagen is defined by another land, Copenhagen suburban (Københavns omegn), which includes the municipalities of Albertslund, Ballerup, Brøndby, Gentofte, Gladsaxe, Glostrup, Herlev, Hvidovre, Høje-Taastrup, Ishøj, Lyngby-Taarbæk, Rødovre and Vallensbæk, and with a total population of 522,768 (1 July 2012). This gives a total population of 1,230,359 for these two lands togetherSony VAIO PCG-7181L battery. The lands of Copenhagen city and Copenhagen suburban can together be used as a definition of the metropolitan area, although an extremely narrow one not even containing all of the urban area.

Based on a 10%-isoline (data from 2002) in which at least 10% commutes into central parts of the Copenhagen area, most of Zealand would be covered and this area has a population of about 2.3 million inhabitants. Sony VAIO PCG-7174L battery

Since the opening of the Øresund Bridge in 2000 commuting between and integration of Greater Malmö and Copenhagen have increased rapidly, and a combined statistical metropolitan area has formed. This Copenhagen-Malmö metropolitan area has a population of 2,603,174 inhabitants (1 July 2012Sony VAIO PCG-7173L battery.

A high-ranking civil servant of the Interior Ministry, Henning Strøm, who was involved in (i.e. known as "the Father of") a past municipal reform, which took effect on 1 April 1970, said on television, broadcast in connection with the recent Kommunalreformen ("The Municipal Reform" of 2007), that Copenhagen municipality would encompass an area with 1.5 million inhabitants, if the principles of the 1970 municipal reform were also applied on Copenhagen municipality. Sony VAIO PCG-7172L battery In other words: in the rest of Denmark the city occupies only part of the municipality, but in Copenhagen the municipality of Copenhagen occupies only part of the city of Copenhagen.

Culture and recreation

The statue of the Little Mermaid, an icon of the city and a popular tourist attraction.

Apart from being the national capital, Copenhagen also serves as the cultural hub of Denmark and wider Scandinavia. Since the late 1990s, Copenhagen has undergone a transformation from a small Scandinavian capital to a metropolitan city of international scope in the league of cities like Barcelona and Amsterdam. Sony VAIO PCG-7171L battery This is due to massive investments in infrastructure as well as culture and a wave of new successful Danish architects, designers and chefs.[10][39] As with the rest of Denmark the inhabitants of Copenhagen tend to be happy.[66]

Copenhagen has one of the highest number of restaurants and bars per capita in the world. The nightclubs stay open until 5 or 6 in the morning, some even longer. There are plenty of different places in Copenhagen which offer a good night outSony VAIO PCG-7162L battery. Especially the inner city, Istedgade and Enghave Plads in Vesterbro, Sankt Hans Torv in Nørrebro and certain places in Frederiksberg are very vibrant and full of life even during the late hours. Denmark has a very liberal alcohol culture and a strong tradition for beer breweries.

See also: List of museums in and around Copenhagen

Copenhagen has a wide array of museums of International standard. The National Museum, Nationalmuseet, is Denmark's largest museum of Archaeology and cultural history, comprising the histories of Danish and foreign cultures alikeSony VAIO PCG-7161L battery. The National Gallery – "Statens Museum for Kunst" – is Denmark's national art museum and contains collections dating from 12th century and all the way up to present day artists. Among artists represented in the collections are Rubens, Rembrandt, Picasso, Braque, Léger, Matisse, Emil Nolde, Olafur Eliasson, Elmgreen and Dragset, Superflex and Jens HaaningSony VAIO PCG-7154L battery.

Another important Copenhagen art museum is the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek founded by second generation Carlsberg tycoon-philanthropist Carl Jacobsen and is built around his personal collections. Its main focus is classical Egyptian, Roman and Greek sculptures and other antiquities and a collection of Rodin sculptures that is the largest outside France[67] (Glypto-, from the Greek root glyphein, to carve and theke, a storing-place) Sony VAIO PCG-7153L battery. Besides its sculpture collections, the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek also holds a comprehensive collection of paintings of impressionist and post-impressionist painters such as Monet, Renoir, Cézanne, van Gogh and Toulouse-Lautrec as well as Danish Golden Age painters.

Louisiana is a museum of modern art situated on the coast just north of Copenhagen. It is located in the middle of a sculpture garden on a cliff overlooking Øresund. The museum is included in the Patricia Schultz book 1,000 Places to See Before You DieSony VAIO PCG-7152L battery. The Danish Museum of Art & Design is housed in the 18th century former Frederiks Hospital and displays Danish design as well as international design and crafts.

Other museums include:

Thorvaldsens Museum is a single-artist museum dedicated to the oeuvre of romantic Danish sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen who lived and worked in Rome.

Cisternerne is a small but different museum dedicated to modern glass art. It is located in some grotto-like former cisterns that come complete with Stalactites formed by the changing water levelsSony VAIO PCG-7151L battery.

The Ordrupgaard Museum is an art museum located just north of Copenhagen in an old mansion with an extension by Iraqi-British architect Zaha Hadid. It features 19th century French and Danish art and is particularly noted for its works by Paul Gaugin.

Royal Playhouse (left) and Copenhagen Opera House (background, right).

The new Copenhagen Concert Hall opened in January 2009. It is designed by Jean Nouvel and has four halls with the main auditorium seating 1800 peopleSony VAIO PCG-7148L battery. It serves as the home of the Danish National Symphony Orchestra and along with the Walt Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles is the most expensive concert hall ever built.[68] Another important venue for classical music is the Tivoli Concert Hall located in the historical Tivoli Gardens. The Copenhagen Opera House (in Danish usually called Operaen) that opened in 2005 and is designed by Henning Larsen, is the national opera house of Denmark and among the most modern opera houses in the worldSony VPCW21M2E/WI battery. The old Royal Danish Theatre dating from 1748 still works as a supplementary opera scene. The Royal Danish Theatre is also home to the Royal Danish Ballet. Founded in 1748 along with the theatre, it is one of the oldest ballet troupes in Europe. It is home to the Bournonville style of ballet.

Tycho Brahe Planetarium & IMAX

The Royal Danish Theatre

Copenhagen has a significant jazz scene that has existed for many years. It developed when a number of American jazz musicians such as Ben Webster, Thad Jones, Richard Boone, Ernie Wilkins, Kenny Drew, Ed Thigpen, Bob RockwellSony VPCW21C7E battery, Dexter Gordon, and others such as rock guitarist Link Wray came to live in Copenhagen during the 1960s. Every year in early July Copenhagen's streets, squares and parks fill up with big and small jazz concerts during the Copenhagen Jazz Festival (see yearly events).

The biggest venue for popular music in Copenhagen is Vega in Vesterbro district which has been chosen as "best concert venue in Europe" by international music magazine Live[69] This venue has three concert halls. The great hall, Store VEGA, has a capacity for 1.550 guestsSony VPCW12S1E/WZ battery, the middle hall, Lille VEGA, has space for 500 people and Ideal Bar Live has a capacity for 250 guests. Yearly in September the Festival of Endless Gratitude (FOEG) takes place in Copenhagen since 2006. This festival focuses on indie counterculture, experimental pop music en left field music combined with visual arts exhibitions.

For free entertainment one can stroll along Strøget, especially between Nytorv and Højbro Plads, which in the late afternoon and evening is a bit like an impromptu three-ring circus with musicians, magicians, jugglers and other street performersSony VPCW12S1E/W battery.

Copenhagen has a wide variety of sport teams. The major football teams are F.C. Copenhagen and Brøndby. FC København plays at Parken in Østerbro, Copenhagen, but FCK is actually a merger of two suburban teams, B 1903 (from the suburb Gentofte) and KB (from Frederiksberg). BK Frem are based in the southern part of urban Copenhagen (Sydhavnen, Valby). Other teams are Fremad Amager, B93, AB, Frem, Lyngby and Hvidovre IFSony VPCW12S1E/T battery.

Copenhagen also has multiple ice hockey teams, of which three are playing in the top league, AL-Bank Ligaen, namely Rødovre Mighty Bulls, Herlev Eagles and Hvidovre Ligahockey.

World ranked no.2, Peter Gade, is one of the world's best international badminton players.

There are a lot of handball teams in Copenhagen. FC København owns both a women's and a men's team, which have the same name and logo. They were formerly known as FIF. Of other clubs playing in the "highest" leagues there are; Ajax Heroes, Ydun, and HIK (Hellerup) Sony VPCW12S1E/P battery.

Rugby union is also played in the Danish capital with teams such as CSR-Nanok, Copenhagen Business School Sport Rugby and Rugbyklubben Speed. Rugby League is now played in Copenhagen, with the national team playing out of Gentofte Stadion. The Danish Australian Football League, based in Copenhagen is the largest Australian rules football competition outside of the English speaking worldSony VPCW11S1E/W battery.

In 2011 Copenhagen hosted the UCI Road World Championships.

Amusement parks

Built in 1874 the Pantomime Theatre is the oldest building in the Tivoli Gardens

Copenhagen has the two oldest amusement parks in the World.

The Tivoli Gardens is an amusement park and pleasure garden located in central Copenhagen between the City Hall Square and Copenhagen Central Station. Among its rides are the oldest still operating roller coaster and the oldest ferris wheel in the World.[73] It also functions as an open-air concert venue. It opened on 15 August 1843 making it the second oldest amusement park in the worldSony VPCW11S1E/T battery.

Dyrehavsbakken (in English "the Deer Garden Hill") is located in Klampenborg a little north of Copenhagen in a forested area known as dyrehaven. Having been made into an amusement park complete with rides, games and restaurants by Christian IV, it is the oldest surviving amusement park in the World. At "Bakken" (unlike Tivoli) entrance is freeSony VPCW11S1E/P battery.

For a broader look at this topic, see Danish cuisine.

As of 2012, Copenhagen has 13 Michelin star restaurants, the most of any Scandinavian city.[74] The city is increasingly recognized internationally as a gourmet destination.[75] Apart from the selection of upmarket restaurants, Copenhagen offers a great variety of Danish, international and ethnic restaurants. It is possible to find modest eateries serving open sandwiches ("smørrebrød") – the traditional and best known Danish lunch dishSony VPCYA1S1E/B battery; however, most restaurants serve international dishes. Another local specialty, Danish pastry, can be sampled from any of numerous bakeries found in all parts of the city. The restaurant Noma (short for Danish: nordisk mad, English: Nordic food) was ranked as the Best Restaurant in the World by Restaurant in 2010, 2011 and 2012Sony VPCYA1V9E/B battery.

Copenhagen has long been associated with beer. Carlsberg beer has been brewed at the brewery's premises at the border between Vesterbro and Valby districts since 1847 and has long been almost synonymous with Danish beer production. However, recent years have seen an explosive growth in the number of microbreweries so that Denmark today has more than 100 breweries,[77] many of which are located in Copenhagen. Some like Nørrebro Bryghus also act as brewpubs where it is also possible to eat at the premisesSony VPCY21S1E/SI battery.

Many Danish media corporations are located in Copenhagen. DR, the major Danish public service broadcasting corporation collected their activities in a new headquarters, DR byen, in 2006 and 2007. Similarly has Odense based TV2 collected its Copenhagen activities in a modern media house in the Teglholmen.[78] The two national daily newspapers Politiken and Berlingske Tidende and the two tabloids Ekstra Bladet and B.T. are based in CopenhagenSony VPCY21S1E/L battery. Other important media corporations include Aller Media which is the largest publisher of weekly and monthly magazines in Scandinavia, the Egmont media group and Gyldendal, the largest Danish publisher of books.

Copenhagen also has a sizable movie and television industry. Filmbyen, The Movie City, which is located in a former military camp in the suburb of Hvidovre and houses several movie companies and studio studios. Among the movie companies are Zentropa co-owned by Danish movie director Lars von Trier who is behind several international movie productions as well as a founding force behind the Dogma MovementSony VPCY21S1E/G battery.

Roskilde Festival is a music festival held every year in Roskilde west of Copenhagen. Gathering around 130,000 people every year, it is one of the six largest music festivals in Europe.

Copenhagen Marathon, Copenhagen's annual marathon event.[79]

Copenhagen Pride, an annual gay pride festival taking place every year in August

Copenhagen Fashion Week takes place every year in February and August. It is the largest fashion event in Northern EuropeSony VPCY11S1E/S battery.

Copenhagen Carnival takes place every year since 1982 during the Whitsun Holiday in Fælledparken and around the city. 120 bands, 2000 dancers and 100,000 spectators participate.

Copenhagen Distortion is a youth culture festival capturing the zeitgeist of the city, gathering every year (5 days up to the first weekend of June) up to 100,000 people in the streets, in shops, galleries, clubs, bars, in boats and buses, with a cultural focus on street culture, art and upfront dance music. Sony VPCY11S1E battery

Copenhagen Jazz Festival, which begins on the first Friday in July, is a popular annual event that is the result of Copenhagen's significant jazz scene. The festival takes place throughout the city in streets, squares and parks as well as in cafés and concert halls.[84] It embraces around 900 concerts, 100 venues and over 200,000 guests from Denmark and around the world. It is recognized as one of the leading jazz festivals in the WorldSony VPCZ11X9E/B battery.

Copenhagen Pride is a gay pride festival taking place every year in August. Among the events is "Tivoli goes pink" and it ends with a parade.[87]

Round Christiansborg Open Water Swim Race is a 2 km open water swimming competition taking place each year in late August. This amateur event is combined with a 10 km Danish championship.[88] In 2009 the event included a 10 km FINA World Cup competition in the morningSony VPCZ11Z9E/B battery.

CPH:PIX is Copenhagen's international feature film festival, established in 2009 as a fusion of the 20-year-old Natfilm festival and the 4-year-old CIFF. The CPH:PIX festival takes place in mid-April.

CPH:DOX is Copenhagen's international documentary film festival, every year in November. On top of its documentary film programme of over 100 films, CPH:DOX includes a wide event programme with dozens of events, concerts, exhibitions and parties all over town. Sony VPCZ12M9E/B battery

Copenhagen is the economic and financial centre of Denmark[90] and also a strong business and economic centre in the Scandinavian-Baltic region. Around 3.5 million inhabitants live within a 50 km (31 mi) radius of Copenhagen, making the city centre of the most dense and populated area in Northern Europe.[91] The region generates approximately 25 per cent of both Sweden's and Denmark's GDP. Sony VPCZ12X9E/X battery In 2008, Copenhagen was ranked 4th by Financial Times-owned FDi magazine on their list of Top 50 European Cities of the Future after London, Paris and Berlin.[93] In 2006/07 FDi Magazine named Copenhagen Scandinavian City of the Future[94] and in 2004/05 Copenhagen was named Northern European City of the Future ahead of other cities from Scandinavia, UK, Ireland and Benelux.[95] In the 2008 Worldwide Centers of Commerce Index, published by MasterCard, Copenhagen was ranked 14th in the world and 1st in Scandinavia. Sony VPCZ12Z9E/X battery Copenhagen is one of the cities in Western Europe attracting most regional headquarters and distribution centres.[97] Among the international companies that have chosen to locate their regional headquarters in Copenhagen is Microsoft. There are 2,100 foreign companies located in the Copenhagen area, of which approx. 500 are Scandinavian head offices, representing a wide range of industriesSony VPCZ138GA battery.

Scandinavian headquarters for the Swiss pharmaceutical company Ferring Pharmaceuticals with the metro in front

Copenhagen has a service oriented economy. An important sector is life science and research & development plays a major role in the economy of the city. The entire Oresund Region is in cooperation with Sweden being promoted as Medicon Valley. Major Danish biotech companies like Novo Nordisk and LundbeckSony VPCZ13M9E/B battery, both of which are among 50 largest pharmaceutical and biotech companies in the World, are located in the greater Copenhagen area.[98] The region also boasts the largest IT-cluster in Scandinavia with nearly 100,000 employees.[99] Shipping is also an import business with Maersk, the World's largest shipping company, having their world headquarters in CopenhagenSony VPCZ13M9E/X battery.

Several international companies have established their regional headquarters in Copenhagen, for example, Microsoft. Maersk, the world's largest container shipping company, has their world headquarters in Copenhagen. A substantial number of Danish pharmaceuticals such as Novo Nordisk, Ferring Pharmaceuticals and Bavarian Nordic also operate in the area, having placed their headquarters in or close to Copenhagen. Sony VPCZ13V9E battery

Copenhagen has some of the highest gross wages in the world.[100] High taxes mean that wages are reduced after mandatory deduction. A beneficial researcher scheme with low taxation of foreign specialists[101] has made Denmark an attractive location for foreign labour to settle. Copenhagen is however also among the most expensive cities in EuropeSony VPCZ13X5003B battery.

Education, science, research

Copenhagen has 89-thousand students enrolled in its largest universities and institutions: University of Copenhagen (40,000 students), Copenhagen Business School (17,000 students), Metropolitan University College and University College Copenhagen (10,000 students each), Technical University of Denmark (7,000 students), KEA (3,000 students), IT University of Copenhagen (2,000 students.) and Aalborg University – Copenhagen (840 students) Sony VPCZ13V9E/X battery.

Copenhagen's higher-education system relies on public universities. Most prominent among these is the University of Copenhagen. Founded in 1479, it is the oldest university in Denmark. It is a world-renowned research and teaching institution with campuses around the city and forms part of the International Alliance of Research Universities (IARU), which is a collaboration between international top universities including OxfordSony VPCZ13Z9E/X battery, Cambridge, Yale, Berkeley and The Australian National University. The University attracts app. 1500 international and exchange students every year. It is repeatedly ranked as one of the best universities in Europe. At the Times Higher Education-QS World University Rankings 2008 list, it was ranked as fourth best in continental Europe.[105] The Academic Ranking of World Universities 2008 placed it as number 43 worldwide and 8th in Europe. Sony VPCZ21M9E battery

The Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, is located in Lyngby at the northern outskirts of Copenhagen. In 2008 it was ranked third highest in Europe on Times Higher Education's list of the most influential technical universities in the World. The Max Planck Institute in Germany was ranked 15, ETH Zurich in Switzerland was ranked 15 and DTU in Denmark was ranked 20. Sony VPCZ21Q9E battery The IT University of Copenhagen is Denmark's youngest university, a mono-faculty institution focusing on technical, societal and business aspects of information technology.

The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts (Det Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi) has provided a practice-oriented complement to the scholarly investigation of the arts carried out at Danish universities for more than 250 years. It includes the historical School of Visual Arts, and has in later years come to include a School of Architecture, a School of Design and a School of ConservationSony VPCZ21V9E battery.

Copenhagen Business School (CBS) is an EQUIS-accredited business school located in Frederiksberg.

Roskilde University was founded in 1972 after student protests and until recently it had student representatives throughout its governing boards. There are also branches of both University College Capital and Metropolitan University College inside and outside CopenhagenSony VPCEH3T9E battery.

Main article: Medicon Valley

Copenhagen is rich in companies and institutions with a focus on research and development within the biotechnology[108] and life science sectors. Two of the 50 largest pharmaceutical and biotech companies in the World are located in the greater Copenhagen area. The biotech and life science cluster in Copenhagen and the rest of the Oresund Region is one of the strongest in EuropeSony VPCEH3N6E battery. Since 1995 this has been branded as the Medicon Valley in a Danish-Swedish cooperation. The aim is to strengthen the region's position and to promote cooperation between companies and academia. The German biotech giant Sartorius Stedim Biotech is currently creating a Nordic head office in Tåstrup on the outskirts of Copenhagen. The Øresund region is responsible for 60 percent of life science production in Scandinavia and is home to 111 biotech companies. Sony VPCEH3N1E battery

Copenhagen was mentioned by Clean Edge as one of the key cleantech clusters to watch in their 2008 book The Cleantech Revolution. The city is the focal point for more than 300 cleantech companies drawing on 46 research institutions. The cluster employs more than 60,000 people and is characterized by a close collaboration between universities, business and governing institutions. The regions most important cleantech research institutions are the University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen Business School, Sony VPCEH3D0E battery Risø DTU National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy and the Technical University of Denmark which Risø is now part of.

The greater Copenhagen area has a very well established transportation infrastructure making it a hub in Northern Europe.

Copenhagen has a large network of toll-free motorways and public roads connecting different municipalities of the city together and to Northern Europe.[111] As in many other cities in Europe traffic is increasing in Copenhagen. The radial arterial roads leading to Copenhagen city centre are critically congested during peak hours. Sony VPCEH3B1E battery

Main article: Cycling in Copenhagen

The Quay Bridge is a pedestrian and bicyclist bridge

Copenhagen is known as one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world.[113] Every day 1.1 million km are bicycled in Copenhagen.[114] 36% of all citizens commute to work, school or university by bicycle and it is municipal policy that this number should go up to 40% by 2012 and 50% in 2015. The city's bicycle paths are extensive and well used. Bicycle paths are often separated from the main traffic lanes and sometimes have their own signal systemsSony VPCEH2Z1E battery.

The municipality is also developing a system of interconnected green bicycle routes, greenways, the aim being to facilitate fast, safe, and pleasant bicycle transport from one end of the city to the other. The network will cover more than 100 km (62 mi) and will have 22 routes when finished.[116] The city provides public bicycles which can be found throughout the downtown area and used with a returnable deposit of 20 kronerSony VPCEH2S9E battery.

Copenhagen's well-developed bicycle culture is reflected in the use of copenhagenize to describe the practice of other cities adopting Copenhagen-style bike lanes and bicycle infrastructure.[117] In 2007, Copenhagen-based Danish urban design consultant Jan Gehl was hired by the New York City Department of Transportation to re-imagine New York City streets by introducing designs to improve life for pedestrians and cyclists. Sony VPCEH2Q1E battery In recognition of Copenhagen's emphasis on bicycling, the city was chosen by the Union Cycliste Internationale as their first official Bike City. Bike City Copenhagen took place from 2008 to 2011 and consisted of large cycling events for professionals as well as amateurs, culminating in the 2011 UCI Road World Championships. Sony VPCEH2P0E battery

The harbour of Copenhagen has largely lost its industrial importance. In 2001, Copenhagen Harbour merged with the harbour in Malmö to create Copenhagen-Malmö Port. It has several functions, the most important being as a major cruise destination. In 2007 a record 286 cruise ships with 420,000 cruise passengers visited Copenhagen. 120 of these ships either started or ended the cruise in Copenhagen.[119] In 2008 these numbers grew further to 310 cruise ships and 560,000 passengers. Sony VPCEH2N1E battery As a result of the growth in the cruise industry facilities are being expanded and improved.[121] At the World Travel Awards in 2008, Copenhagen Port was named the number one cruise destination in Europe for the fifth year in a row.[122]

Copenhagen is serviced by ferry lines to Oslo in Norway (called "Oslobåden") with a daily connection[123] and to Świnoujście in Poland (called "Polensfærgerne") with five weekly connections (Passengers are taken by bus to Ystad (Sweden) and ferry starts there). Sony VPCEH2M9E battery

Copenhagen has four lines of waterbuses, known as the Copenhagen Harbour Buses, serving ten water bus stops; four on the Amager-side and six on the Zealand-side of the harbour, from Sluseholmen in the South to Holmen in the North.

Copenhagen Airport is the principal airport serving Copenhagen. It is the largest in Scandinavia and the 17th largest in Europe.[7] Located in Kastrup on the island of Amager, it has efficient connections to downtown CopenhagenSony VPCEH2M1E battery, with trip times of 15 minutes to Kongens Nytorv via metro (with 4–6 minutes between departures) and 12 minutes to Central Station via regional train (10 minutes between departures). Its location also makes it the most important international airport for large parts of southern Sweden. Over the Øresund Bridge trains go to Malmö South in 14 minutes or Malmö Central Station in 22 minutes.[125] The Roskilde airport, 30 km west of city center, has two (crossing) Sony VPCEH2L9E battery runways with ILS equipment. It is primarily used for general aviation traffic, flight schools, business jets and occasional charter flights, but can be used by medium jets - although not always at full take-off weight. Plans for expanding Roskilde Airport have been approved, making it more suitable for regular flights of medium jets, such as those operated by most low-cost airlines and charter operatorsSony VPCEH2J1E battery. However, a lack of firm commitment from airlines has postponed the expansion indefinitely.

The Øresund Bridge, the longest road and

rail bridge in Europe, connecting Copenhagen with Malmö, the third largest city of Sweden.

Underground Metro station in Frederiksberg

Christiansborg Palace – home of the Danish Parliament Folketinget, the Supreme Court, Office of the Prime Minister and official reception area of Queen Margrethe II and the former stock exchange BørsenSony VPCEH2H1E battery

Part of the modern waterfront

Rosenborg Castle in central Copenhagen

Transition from Terminal 2 to Terminal 1 at the largest airport in Scandinavia, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup

Local transport

The local transportation system of Copenhagen consists of a number of different, but combined, train systems and several types of buses. The four different rail systems are

Re-tog regional trains (stops at major stations only, continues as interregional trains outside Copenhagen local traffic area) Sony VPCEH2F1E battery

S-train (a combined urban and suburban rail system with a length of 170 km (105.63 mi)., the distance between stations is approximately 2 km (1.24 mi) within the central parts)

Copenhagen Metro (under further development, the City Circle Line (M3+M4) is scheduled to be complete in 2018 with plans for three additional lines M5+M6+M7[126])

Local trains in the periphery of the metropolitan area. (modern but usually driven by diesel or natural gas) Sony VPCEH2E0E battery

There are 193 rail stations. Most of them have connecting bus services. This link shows all lines, stations and fare zones. The Copenhagen local traffic area is divided in 95 zones. Zones 1,2 and 3 make up the city core of Copenhagen.

The same ticket is valid for travel on bus, train, and metro networks. Ticket machines are installed at all stations, and tickets can also be bought on buses and at ticket counters located at major stationsSony VPCEH2D0E battery. A ticket price inside the Copenhagen local traffic area is distance-dependent and always between two and nine zones (a nine zone ticket goes for all zones). Price is currently (2011) 12 DKK for each zone. There are a number of tickets that can be bought at different discounts, for instance the 10-trip klippekort (variable price) or 24 hour travel card (130 DKK). The fine for not having a valid ticket is 750DKKSony VPCEH2C0E battery.

The main junction stations for interchange between system or lines are the stations of Nørreport, Valby, Danshøj, Kastrup Airport, Ny Ellebjerg, Hellerup, Østerport, Ryparken, Ørestaden, Flintholm, and København H (Copenhagen Central Station). The latter is also a hub for trains with destinations outside the Copenhagen local traffic areaSony VPCEH29FJ/W battery.

Danish and international trains

Copenhagen Central Station provides Copenhagen with Intercity and Express trains across Denmark, as well as services to several international destinations. The train traffic to Hamburg is especially heavy, and other distant destinations can also be reached by daily international trains. Trains to southern and western Sweden depart every 20 minutesSony VPCEH29FJ/P battery. (A special ticket fare system exists between the Copenhagen local traffic area and the most southern part of Sweden, Skåne county.)

Copenhagen is recognized as one of the most environmentally friendly cities in the world.[127] Much of the city's success can be attributed to a strong municipal policy combined with a sound national policy, in 1971 Denmark established a Ministry of Environment and the first country in the world to implement an environmental law in 1973Sony VPCEH29FJ/B battery. In 2006 Copenhagen Municipality received the European Environmental Management Award.[128] The award was given for long-term holistic environmental planning. It is municipal policy to reduce CO2 emissions by 20% before the end of 2015.[129] In 2001 a large offshore wind farm was built just off the coast of Copenhagen at Middelgrunden. It produces about 4% of the city's energy. Sony VPCEH28FN/L battery

Many years of major investments in sewage treatment has improved water quality in the harbour to an extent that the inner harbour can be used for swimming and facilities for this are provided at a number of locations.

Another municipal policy is that 40% of all citizens should bicycle to and from work by 2012 and a number of initiatives are being taken to implement this policy (see "cycling" above).[132]

Copenhagen is the capital in the world where organic food has the largest market share. One in every ten purchases is organic in Copenhagen. Sony VPCEH28FJ/W battery Within the municipal sector in Copenhagen, 45% of all food consumption is organic but the target is considerably higher. With the environmental strategy "Environment Metropolis: Our Vision 2015" the politicians wish that solely organic food is to be served in 90 per cent of the Copenhagen old-age homes and residential homes for children and young persons in 2015Sony VPCEH28FJ/P battery.

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