Dublin And Copenhagen 1

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Dublin is the capital and most populous city of Ireland. The English name for the city is derived from the Irish name Dubhlinn, meaning "black pool". Dublin is situated near the midpoint of Ireland's east coast, at the mouth of the River Liffey and the centre of the Dublin RegionSony PCG-71313M battery.

Originally founded as a Viking settlement, it evolved into the Kingdom of Dublin and became the island's principal city following the Norman invasion. The city expanded rapidly from the 17th century; it was briefly the second largest city in the British Empire and the fifth largest in Europe. Dublin entered a period of stagnation following the Act of Union of 1800Sony PCG-71212M battery, but it remained the economic centre for most of the island. Following the partition of Ireland in 1922, the new parliament, the Oireachtas, was located in Leinster House. Dublin became the capital of the Irish Free State and later the Republic of Ireland.

Similar to the cities of Cork, Limerick, Galway, and Waterford—Dublin is administered separately from its respective County with its own City Council. The city is listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC) as a global citySony PCG-71311M battery, with a ranking of "Alpha-", placing Dublin among the top 30 cities in the world.[4][5] It is a historical and contemporary cultural centre for the country, as well as a modern centre of education, the arts, administration, economy, and industry.

Toponymy

Although the area of Dublin Bay has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times, the writings of Ptolemy (the Egyptian astronomer and cartographer) in about 140 AD provide possibly the earliest reference to a settlement there. He called the settlement Eblana CivitasSony PCG-71213M battery.

The name Dublin comes from the Irish name Dubhlinn or Duibhlinn, meaning "black pool". This is made up of the elements dubh (black) and linn (pool). In most Irish dialects, dubh is pronounced [ˈd̪ˠʊvˠ]. The original pronunciation is preserved in the names for the city in other languages such as Old English Difelin, Old Norse Dyflin, modern Icelandic Dyflinn and modern Manx DivlynSony PCG-61211M battery. Other localities in Ireland also bear the name Duibhlinn, variously anglicized as Devlin,[6] Divlin[7] and Difflin.[8] Historically, scribes using the Gaelic script wrote bh with a dot over the b, rendering Duḃlinn or Duiḃlinn. Those without knowledge of Irish omitted the dot, spelling the name as Dublin.

Baile Átha Cliath, meaning "town of the hurdled ford", is the common name for the city in modern IrishSony VAIO VPCF24Q1E battery. Áth Cliath is a place name referring to a fording point of the River Liffey near Father Mathew Bridge. Baile Átha Cliath was an early Christian monastery, believed to have been in the area of Aungier Street, currently occupied by Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church.

Father Mathew Bridge is understood to be near the ancient "Ford of the Hurdles" (Baile Átha Cliath), the original crossing point on the River Liffey.

The subsequent Scandinavian settlement centred on the River Poddle, a tributary of the Liffey in an area now known as Wood QuaySony VAIO VPCF13M1E/H battery. The Dubhlinn was a small lake used to moor ships; the Poddle connected the lake with the Liffey. This lake was covered during the early 18th century as the city grew. The Dubhlinn lay where the Castle Garden is now located, opposite the Chester Beatty Library in Dublin Castle. Táin Bó Cuailgne ("The Cattle Raid of Cooley") refers to Dublind rissa ratter Áth Cliath, meaning "Dublin, which is called Ath Cliath"Sony VAIO VPCF12Z1E/BI battery.

[edit]Middle Ages

Dublin was established as a Viking settlement in the 9th century and, despite a number of rebellions by the native Irish, it remained largely under Viking control until the Norman invasion of Ireland was launched from Wales in 1169.[9] The King of Leinster, Diarmait Mac Murchada, enlisted the help of Strongbow, the Earl of Pembroke, to conquer DublinSony VAIO VPCF12S1E/B battery. Following Mac Murrough’s death, Strongbow declared himself King of Leinster after gaining control of the city. In response to Strongbow's successful invasion, King Henry II of England reaffirmed his sovereignty by mounting a larger invasion in 1171 and pronouncing himself Lord of Ireland.[10] Around this time, the county of the City of Dublin was established along with certain liberties adjacent to the city properSony VAIO VPCF13Z8E/BI battery. This continued down to 1840 when the Barony of Dublin City was separated from the Barony of Dublin. Since 2001, both baronies have been redesignated the City of Dublin.

Dublin Castle was the fortified seat of British rule in Ireland until 1922.

Dublin Castle, which became the centre of Norman power in Ireland, was founded in 1204 as a major defensive work on the orders of King John of England.[11] Following the appointment of the first Lord Mayor of Dublin in 1229Sony VAIO VPCF13Z8E battery, the city expanded and had a population of 8,000 by the end of the 13th century. Dublin prospered as a trade centre, despite an attempt by King Robert I of Scotland to capture the city in 1317.[10] It remained a relatively small walled medieval town during the 14th century and was under constant threat from the surrounding native clans. In 1348, the Black Death, a lethal plague which had ravaged Europe, took hold in Dublin and killed thousands over the following decade. Sony VAIO VPCF13M1E/B battery

Dublin was incorporated into the English Crown as The Pale, which was a narrow strip of English settlement along the eastern seaboard. The Tudor conquest of Ireland in the 16th century spelt a new era for Dublin, with the city enjoying a renewed prominence as the centre of administrative rule in Ireland. Determined to make Dublin a Protestant city, Queen Elizabeth I of England established Trinity College in 1592 as a solely Protestant university and ordered that the Catholic St. Patrick's and Christ Church cathedrals be converted to Protestant. Sony VAIO VPCF1318E/H battery

The city had a population of 21,000 in 1640 before a plague in 1649–51 wiped out almost half of the city's inhabitants. However, the city prospered again soon after as a result of the wool and linen trade with England, reaching a population of over 50,000 in 1700.[15]

Henrietta Street, developed in the 1720s, is the earliest Georgian Street in Dublin.

As the city continued to prosper during the 18th century, Georgian Dublin became, for a short period, the second largest city of the British Empire and the fifth largest city in EuropeSony VAIO VPCF13J0E/H battery, with the population exceeding 130,000. The vast majority of Dublin's most notable architecture dates from this period, such as the Four Courts and the Custom House. Temple Bar and Grafton Street are two of the few remaining areas that were not affected by the wave of Georgian reconstruction and maintained their medieval character.[14]

Dublin grew even more dramatically during the 18th century, with the construction of many famous districts and buildingsSony VAIO VPCF13E8E battery, such as Merrion Square, Parliament House and the Royal Exchange.[14] The Wide Streets Commission was established in 1757 at the request of Dublin Corporation to govern architectural standards on the layout of streets, bridges and buildings. In 1759, the founding of the Guinness brewery resulted in a considerable economic gain for the city. For much of the time since its foundation, the brewery was Dublin's largest employerSony VAIO VPCF13E4E battery.

The GPO on O'Connell Street was at the centre of the 1916 Easter Rising.

Dublin suffered a period of political and economic decline during the 19th century following the Act of Union of 1800, under which the seat of government was transferred to the Westminster Parliament in London. The city played no major role in the Industrial Revolution, but remained the centre of administration and a transport hub for most of the island. Sony VAIO VPCF12M1E/H battery Ireland had no significant sources of coal, the fuel of the time, and Dublin was not a centre of ship manufacturing, the other main driver of industrial development in Britain and Ireland.[9] Belfast developed faster than Dublin during this period on a mixture of international trade, factory-based linen cloth production and shipbuilding.[16]

The Easter Rising of 1916, the Irish War of Independence, and the subsequent Irish Civil War resulted in a significant amount of physical destruction in central DublinSony VAIO VPCF12F4E/H battery. The Government of the Irish Free State rebuilt the city centre and located the new parliament, the Oireachtas, in Leinster House. Since the beginning of Norman rule in the 12th century, the city has functioned as the capital in varying geopolitical entities: Lordship of Ireland (1171–1541), Kingdom of Ireland (1541–1800), island as part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1922) Sony VAIO VPCF12E1E/H battery, and the Irish Republic (1919–1922).[17] Following the partition of Ireland in 1922, it became the capital of the Irish Free State (1922–1949) and now is the capital of the Republic of Ireland. One of the memorials to commemorate that time is the Garden of Remembrance.

Since 1997, the landscape of Dublin has changed immensely. The city was at the forefront of Ireland's rapid economic expansion during the Celtic Tiger period, with enormous private sector and state development of housing, transport and businessSony VAIO VPCF11Z1E/BI battery.

Civic Offices of Dublin City Council.

From 1842, the boundaries of the city were comprehended by the baronies of Dublin City and the Barony of Dublin. In 1930, the boundaries were extended by the Local Government (Dublin) Act.[18] Later in 1953, the boundaries were again extended by the Local Government Provisional Order Confirmation ActSony VAIO VPCF24M1E battery

Dublin City Council is a unicameral assembly of 52 members elected every five years from Local Election Areas. It is presided over by the Lord Mayor, who is elected for a yearly term and resides in Mansion House. Council meetings occur at Dublin City Hall, while most of its administrative activities are based in the Civic Offices on Wood Quay. The party or coalition of parties, Sony VAIO VPCF23S1E battery with the majority of seats adjudicates committee members, introduces policies, and appoints the Lord Mayor. The Council passes an annual budget for spending on areas such as housing, traffic management, refuse, drainage, and planning. The Dublin City Manager is responsible for implementing City Council decisions.

Leinster House on Kildare Street houses the Oireachtas.

As the capital city, Dublin seats the national parliament of Ireland, the Oireachtas. It is composed of the President of IrelandSony VAIO VPCF231S1E battery, Seanad Éireann as the upper house, and Dáil Éireann as the lower house. The President resides in Áras an Uachtaráin in the Phoenix Park, while both houses of the Oireachtas meet in Leinster House, a former ducal palace on Kildare Street. It has been the home of the Irish parliament since the creation of the Irish Free State in 1922. The old Irish Houses of Parliament of the Kingdom of Ireland were located in College GreenSony VAIO VPCF23Q1E battery.

Government Buildings house the Department of the Taoiseach, the Council Chamber, the Department of Finance and the Office of the Attorney General. It consists of a main building (completed 1911) with two wings (completed 1921). It was designed by Thomas Manley Dean and Sir Aston Webb as the Royal College of Science. The First Dáil originally met in the Mansion House in 1919Sony VAIO VPCF23M1E battery. The Irish Free State government took over the two wings of the building to serve as a temporary home for some ministries, while the central building became the College of Technology until 1989.[20] Although both it and Leinster House were intended to be temporary, they became the permanent homes of parliament from then on.

For elections to Dáil Éireann the city is divided into five constituencies: Sony VAIO VPCF22S8E battery Dublin Central (4 seats), Dublin North–Central (3 seats), Dublin North-East (3 seats), Dublin North–West (3 seats), Dublin South–Central (5 seats) and Dublin South–East (4 seats). 22 TD's are elected in total. Dublin North–East, Dublin North–West and Dublin South–Central also take in parts of Fingal and South DublinSony VAIO VPCF22S1E battery.

In the past Dublin city was regarded as a stronghold for Fianna Fáil,[citation needed] however following the Irish local elections, 2004 the party was eclipsed by the centre-left Labour Party.[21] Labour further increased its number of councillors at the 2009 local elections and currently has the largest number of TD's from the city (10 out of 22).

Satellite image showing the River Liffey entering the Irish Sea as it divides Dublin into the Northside and the SouthsideSony VAIO VPCF22M1E battery.

Dublin is situated at the mouth of the River Liffey and encompasses a land area of approximately 115 km2. It is bordered by a low mountain range to the south and surrounded by flat farmland to the north and west.[22] The Liffey divides the city in two between the Northside and the Southside. Each of these is further divided by two lesser rivers – the River Tolka running northwest from Dubin BaySony VAIO VPCF22L1E battery, and the River Dodder running southwest from the mouth of the Liffey. Two further water bodies – the Grand Canal on the southside and the Royal Canal on the northside – ring the inner city on their way to the west and the River Shannon.

The River Liffey bends at Leixlip from a predominantly east-west direction to a southwesterly route, and this point also marks the change from urban development to more agricultural land usage. Sony VAIO VPCF22J1E battery

A north-south division has traditionally existed, with the River Liffey as the divider. The Northside is generally seen as working class, while the Southside is seen as middle to upper-middle class. The divide is punctuated by examples of Dublin "sub-culture" stereotypes, with upper-middle class constituents seen as tending towards an accent and demeanour synonymous with the SouthsideSony VAIO VPCF11S1E/B battery, and working-class Dubliners seen as tending towards characteristics associated with Northside and inner-city areas. Dublin's economic divide is east-west as well as north-south. There are also social divisions evident between the coastal suburbs in the east of the city, including those on the northside, and the newer developments further to the west. Sony VAIO VPCF11M1E/H battery

Similar to much of northwest Europe, Dublin experiences a maritime climate with mild winters, cool summers, and a lack of temperature extremes. The average maximum January temperature is 8.8 °C (48 °F), while the average maximum July temperature is 20.2 °C (68 °F). On average, the sunniest months are May and June, while the wettest month is October with 76 mm (3 in) of rain, and the driest month is February with 46 mm (2 in). Rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the yearSony VAIO VPCF11D4E battery.

Dublin records the least amount of rainfall in Ireland, with the average annual precipitation in the city centre being 714 mm (28 in). The main precipitation in winter is rain; however snow showers do occur between November and March. Hail is more common than snow. The city experiences long summer days and short winter days. Strong Atlantic winds are most common in autumnSony VAIO VPCF11C5E battery. These winds can affect Dublin, but due to its easterly location it is least affected compared to other parts of the country. However conversely in winter, easterly winds render the city more prone to snow showers.

The Spire of Dublin rises behind the statue of Jim Larkin.

Dublin has many landmarks and monuments dating back hundreds of years. One of the oldest is Dublin Castle, which was first founded as a major defensive work on the orders of King John of England in 1204, shortly after the Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169Sony VAIO VPCF11C4E/B battery, when it was commanded that a castle be built with strong walls and good ditches for the defence of the city, the administration of justice, and the protection of the King’s treasure.[26] Largely complete by 1230, the castle was of typical Norman courtyard design, with a central square without a keep, bounded on all sides by tall defensive walls and protected at each corner by a circular towerSony VAIO PCG-31114V battery. Sited to the south-east of Norman Dublin, the castle formed one corner of the outer perimeter of the city, using the River Poddle as a natural means of defence.

The Molly Malone statue, Grafton Street.

One of Dublin's newest monuments is the Spire of Dublin, or officially titled "Monument of Light". It is a 121.2 metres (398 ft) conical spire made of stainless steel and is located on O'Connell Street. It replaces Nelson's Pillar and is intended to mark Dublin's place in the 21st century. The spire was designed by Ian Ritchie Architects, Sony VAIO PCG-31113V battery who sought an "Elegant and dynamic simplicity bridging art and technology". During the day it maintains its steel look, but at dusk the monument appears to merge into the sky. The base of the monument is lit and the top is illuminated to provide a beacon in the night sky across the city.

Many people visit Trinity College, Dublin to see the Book of Kells in the library there. The Book of Kells is an illustrated manuscript created by Irish monks circaSony VAIO PCG-31112V battery. 800 AD. The Ha'penny Bridge; an old iron footbridge over the River Liffey is one of the most photographed sights in Dublin and is considered to be one of Dublin's most iconic landmarks.[29]

Other popular landmarks and monuments include the Mansion House, the Anna Livia monument, the Molly Malone statue, Christ Church Cathedral, St Patrick's Cathedral, Saint Francis Xavier Church on Upper Gardiner Street near Mountjoy Square, The Custom HouseSony VAIO PCG-31111V battery, and Áras an Uachtaráin. The Poolbeg Towers are also iconic features of Dublin and are visible in many spots around the city.

Dublin has more green spaces per square kilometre than any other European capital city, with 97% of city residents living within 300 metres of a park area. The city council provides 2.96 hectares (7.3 acres) of public green space per 1,000 people and 255 playing fields. The council also plants approximately 5,000 trees annually and manages over 1,500 hectares (3,700 acres) of parks.[30]

Saint Stephen's GreenSony VAIO PCG-31114M battery

There are many park areas around the city, including the Phoenix Park, Herbert Park and St Stephen's Green. The Phoenix Park is 2–4 km west of the city centre, north of the River Liffey. Its 16 km perimeter wall encloses 707 hectares (1,750 acres) one of the largest walled city parks in Europe.[31][32] It includes large areas of grassland and tree-lined avenues, and since the 17th century has been home to a herd of wild Fallow deerSony VAIO PCG-31113M battery. The residence of the President of Ireland (Áras an Uachtaráin), which was built in 1754, is located in the park. The park is also home to Dublin Zoo, the official residence of the United States Ambassador, and Ashtown Castle. Music concerts have also been performed in the park by many singers and musiciansSony VAIO PCG-31112M battery.

St Stephen's Green is adjacent to one of Dublin's main shopping streets, Grafton Street, and to a shopping centre named for it, while on its surrounding streets are the offices of a number of public bodies and the city terminus of one of Dublin's Luas tram lines. Saint Anne's Park is a public park and recreational facility, shared between Raheny and Clontarf, both suburbs on the North Side of Dublin. The park, the second largest municipal park in DublinSony VAIO PCG-31111M battery, is part of a former 2 km² (500 acre) estate assembled by members of the Guinness family, beginning with Benjamin Lee Guinness in 1835 (the largest municipal park is nearby (North) Bull Island, also shared between Clontarf and Raheny).

Main article: Economy of Dublin

The Dublin region is the economic centre of Ireland, and was at the forefront of the country's rapid economic expansion during the Celtic Tiger period. In 2009, Dublin was listed as the fourth richest city in the world by purchasing power and 10th richest by personal income. Sony VAIO PCG-41111V battery According to Mercer's 2011 Worldwide Cost of Living Survey, Dublin is the 13th most expensive city in the European Union (down from 10th in 2010) and the 58th most expensive place to live in the world (down from 42nd in 2010).[35] As of 2005, approximately 800,000 people were employed in the Greater Dublin Area, of whom around 600,000 were employed in the services sector and 200,000 in the industrial sector.

Grafton Street is a principal shopping street in Dublin's city centreSony VAIO PCG-41112M battery.

Many of Dublin's traditional industries, such as food processing, textile manufacturing, brewing, and distilling have gradually declined, although Guinness has been brewed at the St. James's Gate Brewery since 1759. Economic improvements in the 1990s have attracted a large number of global pharmaceutical, information and communications technology companies to the city and Greater Dublin AreaSony VAIO PCG-41111M battery. Companies such as Microsoft, Google, Amazon, eBay, PayPal, Yahoo!, Facebook, Twitter and Pfizer now have European headquarters and/or operational bases in the city. Intel and Hewlett-Packard have large manufacturing plants in Leixlip, County Kildare, 15 km (9 mi) to the west.

Ulster Bank on George's Quay Plaza.

Financial services have also become important to the city since the establishment of Dublin's International Financial Services Centre in 1987, which is globally recognised as a leading location for a range of internationally traded financial servicesSONY VAIO PCG-21214V battery. More than 500 operations are approved to trade in under the IFSC programme. The centre is host to half of the world's top 50 banks and to half of the top 20 insurance companies.[37] Many international firms have established major headquarters in the city, such as Citibank and Commerzbank. The Irish Stock Exchange (ISEQ), Internet Neutral Exchange (INEX) and Irish Enterprise Exchange (IEX) are also located in DublinSONY VAIO PCG-21213V battery. The economic boom led to a sharp increase in construction, with large redevelopment projects in the Dublin Docklands and Spencer Dock. Completed projects include the Convention Centre, The O2, and the Grand Canal Theatre.

Main article: Transport in Dublin

The M50 motorway surrounding Dublin.

The road network in Ireland is primarily focused on Dublin. The M50 motorway, a semi-ring road which runs around the south, west and north of the city, connects important national primary routes to the rest of the countrySONY VAIO PCG-21212V battery. In 2008, the West-Link toll bridge was replaced by the eFlow barrier-free tolling system, with a three-tiered charge system based on electronic tags and car pre-registration. The toll is currently €2 for vehicles with a pre-paid tag, €2.50 for vehicles whose number plates have been registered with eFlow, and €3 for unregistered vehicles. SONY VAIO PCG-21212M battery

The first phase of a proposed eastern bypass for the city is the Dublin Port Tunnel, which officially opened in 2006 to mainly cater for heavy vehicles. The tunnel connects Dublin Port and the M1 motorway close to Dublin Airport. The city is also surrounded by an inner and outer orbital route. The inner orbital route runs approximately around the heart of the Georgian city and the outer orbital route runs primarily along the natural circle formed by Dublin's two canalsSONY VAIO PCG-21211M battery, the Grand Canal and the Royal Canal, as well as the North and South Circular Roads.

Dublin is served by an extensive network of nearly 200 bus routes which serve all areas of the city and suburbs. The majority of these are controlled by Dublin Bus, but a number of smaller companies also operate. Fares are generally calculated on a stage system based on distance travelled. There are several different levels of fares, which apply on most servicesSONY VAIO PCG-51212M battery. The Bus Arrival Information Service is being rolled out which provides bus stops with information on the distance of buses based on GPS positions of the buses.

Dublinbikes terminal in the Docklands.

Heuston and Connolly stations are the two main railway stations in Dublin. Operated by Iarnród Éireann, the Dublin Suburban Rail network consists of five railway lines serving the Greater Dublin Area and commuter towns such as Drogheda and Dundalk in County Louth. One of these lines is the electrified Dublin Area Rapid Transit (DART) lineSONY VAIO PCG-51211M battery, which runs primarily along the coast of Dublin, from Malahide and Howth southwards as far as Greystones in County Wicklow.[39] Commuter rail operates on the other four lines using Irish Rail diesel multiple units.

The Luas is a two-line light rail or tram network which has been operated in Dublin by Veolia Transport since 2004. The network consists of two routes, the Red Line and Green Line, with a total 54 stations and 38.2 kilometres (23.7 mi) of track. SONY VAIO PCG-51112M battery A decision on whether to expand the Luas system will be made in September 2011, when a new national development plan is to be published. Proposed multi-million euro projects such as the Dublin Metro and the DART Underground will also be considered in light of the current difficult economic climate. SONY VAIO PCG-51111M battery

Dublin Airport is operated by the Dublin Airport Authority and is located north of Dublin City in the administrative county of Fingal. It is the headquarters of Ireland's flag carrier Aer Lingus, low-cost carrier Ryanair and regional airlines Aer Arann and CityJet. The airport offers an extensive short and medium haul network, as well as domestic services to many regional airports in Ireland. There are also extensive Long Haul services to the United StatesSONY VAIO PCG-51111V battery, Canada and the Middle East. Dublin Airport is the busiest airport in Ireland, followed by Cork and Shannon. Construction of a second terminal began in 2007 and was officially opened on 19 November 2010.[42]

Dublin Airport currently ranks as the 25th busiest airport in Europe recording nearly 19 million passengers during 2011.

Dublin City Council began installing cycle lanes and tracks throughout the city in the 1990s, and as of 2012 the city has over 200 kilometres (120 mi) of specific on- and off-road tracks for cyclists. SONY VAIO PCG-81211V battery In 2011, the city was ranked 9th of major world cities on the Copenhagenize Index of Bicycle-Friendly Cities.

Dublinbikes is a self-service bicycle rental scheme which has been in operation in Dublin since 2009. Sponsored by JCDecaux, the scheme consists of 550 French-made unisex bicycles stationed at 44 terminals throughout the city centre. Users must make a subscription for either an annual Long Term Hire Card costing €10 or a 3 Day Ticket costing €2. The first 30 minutes of use is free, but after that a service charge depending on the extra length of use applies. SONY VAIO PCG-81111V batteryDublinbikes now has over 58,000 subscribers and there are plans to dramatically expand the service across the city and its suburbs to provide for up to 5,000 bicycles and approximately 300 terminals.[46]

Dublin is the primary centre of education in Ireland, with three universities and many other higher education institutions. There are 20 third-level institutes in the city. Dublin will be European Capital of Science in 2012. The University of Dublin is the oldest university in Ireland dating from the 16th centurySONY VAIO PCG-81212M battery, and is located in the city centre. Its sole constituent college, Trinity College, was established by Royal Charter in 1592 under Elizabeth I and was closed to Roman Catholics until Catholic Emancipation. The Catholic hierarchy then banned Roman Catholics from attending it until 1970. It is situated in the city centre, on College Green, and has 15,000 studentsSony VAIO PCG-81112M battery.

The National University of Ireland (NUI) has its seat in Dublin, which is also the location of the associated constituent university of University College Dublin (UCD), the largest university in Ireland with over 22,000 students. UCD's main campus at Belfield is located about 5 km south east of the city centre. The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) is a medical school which is a recognised college of the NUI, it is situated at St. Stephen's Green in the city centreSONY VAIO PCG-71111M battery. The National University of Ireland, Maynooth, another constituent university of the NUI, is in neighbouring Co. Kildare, about 25 km (16 mi) from the city centre. The Institute of European Affairs is also in Dublin.

Research administration building, Belfield campus, University College Dublin.

Dublin City University (DCU) specialises in business, engineering, and science courses. It has around 10,000 students, and is located about 7 km north of the city. Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT) is a modern technical college and is the country's largest non-university third-level institutionSONY VAIO PCG-7192V battery. It specialises in technical subjects but also offers many arts and humanities courses. DIT currently has campuses at multiple locations in Dublin, but has plans for a consolidation of colleges at a new site in Grangegorman. Two suburbs of Dublin, Tallaght and Blanchardstown have Institutes of Technology: Institute of Technology, Tallaght, and Institute of Technology, Blanchardstown. Portobello College has its degrees conferred through the University of Wales. SONY VAIO PCG-7191V battery Dublin Business School (DBS) is Ireland's largest private third level institution with over 9,000 students. The college is located on Aungier Street. The Dún Laoghaire Institute of Art, Design and Technology (IADT) support training and research in art, design, business, psychology and media technology. The National College of Art and Design (NCAD) supports training and research in art, design and media. The National College of Ireland (NCI) is also based in DublinSONY VAIO PCG-7196M battery. The Economic and Social Research Institute, a social science research institute, is based on Sir John Rogerson's Quay, Dublin 2.

The Irish public administration and management training centre has its base in Dublin, the Institute of Public Administration provides a range of undergraduate and post graduate awards via the National University of Ireland and in some instances, Queen's University Belfast. There are also smaller specialised colleges, including Griffith College Dublin, The Gaiety School of Acting and the New Media Technology CollegeSONY VAIO PCG-7195M battery.

The City of Dublin is the area administered by Dublin City Council, but the term "Dublin" normally refers to the contiguous urban area which includes parts of the adjacent local authority areas of Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown, Fingal and South Dublin. Together, the four areas form the traditional County Dublin. This area is sometimes known as the Dublin Region. The population of the administrative area controlled by the City Council was 525,383 in the 2011 censusSONY VAIO PCG-7194M battery, while the population of the urban area was 1,110,627. The County Dublin population was 1,273,069 and that of the Greater Dublin Area 1,804,156. The city's population is expanding rapidly, and it is estimated by the CSO that it will reach 2.1 million by 2020.[50]

Since the late 1990s, Dublin has experienced a significant level of net immigration, with the greatest numbers coming from the European Union, especially the United Kingdom, Poland and Lithuania. SONY VAIO PCG-7192M batteryThere is also a considerable number from outside Europe, particularly China and Nigeria. Dublin is home to a greater proportion of new arrivals than any other parts of the country. 60% of Ireland's Asian population lives in Dublin even though less than 40% of the overall population lives in the Greater Dublin Area.[52] By 2006, the percentage of foreign-born population had increased to just over 15% in DublinSONY PCG-8113M battery.

Panoramic view of Dublin.

Dublin has a world famous literary history, having produced many prominent literary figures, including Nobel laureates William Butler Yeats, George Bernard Shaw and Samuel Beckett. Other influential writers and playwrights include Oscar Wilde, Jonathan Swift and the creator of Dracula, Bram Stoker. It is arguably most famous as the location of the greatest works of James Joyce, including Ulysses, which is set in Dublin and full of topical detailSONY PCG-8112M battery . Dubliners is a collection of short stories by Joyce about incidents and typical characters of the city during the early 20th century. Other renowned writers include J. M. Synge, Seán O'Casey, Brendan Behan, Maeve Binchy, and Roddy Doyle. Ireland's biggest libraries and literary museums are found in Dublin, including the National Print Museum of Ireland and National Library of Ireland. In July 2010, Dublin was named as a UNESCO City of LiteratureSONY PCG-7134M battery , joining Edinburgh, Melbourne and Iowa City with the permanent title.[54]

There are several theatres within the city centre, and various world famous actors have emerged from the Dublin theatrical scene, including Noel Purcell, Sir Michael Gambon, Brendan Gleeson, Stephen Rea, Colin Farrell, Colm Meaney and Gabriel Byrne. The best known theatres include the Gaiety, Abbey, Olympia, Gate, and Grand Canal.SONY PCG-7131M battery The Gaiety specialises in musical and operatic productions, and is popular for opening its doors after the evening theatre production to host a variety of live music, dancing, and films. The Abbey was founded in 1904 by a group that included Yeats with the aim of promoting indigenous literary talent. It went on to provide a breakthrough for some of the city's most famous writers, such as Synge, Yeats himself and George Bernard ShawSONY PCG-7122M battery. The Gate was founded in 1928 to promote European and American Avant Garde works. The Grand Canal Theatre is a new 2,111 capacity theatre which opened in March 2010 in the Grand Canal Dock.

Apart from being the focus of the country's literature and theatre, Dublin is also the focal point for much of Irish Art and the Irish artistic scene. The Book of Kells, a world-famous manuscript produced by Celtic Monks in AD 800 and an example of Insular artSONY PCG-7121M battery, is on display in Trinity College. The Chester Beatty Library houses the famous collection of manuscripts, miniature paintings, prints, drawings, rare books and decorative arts assembled by American mining millionaire (and honorary Irish citizen) Sir Alfred Chester Beatty (1875–1968). The collections date from 2700 BC onwards and are drawn from Asia, the Middle EastSONY PCG-7113M battery , North Africa and Europe. Work by local artists is often put on public display around St. Stephen's Green, the main public park in the city centre. In addition large art galleries are found across the city, including the Irish Museum of Modern Art, the National Gallery, the Hugh Lane Municipal Gallery, The City Arts Centre, The Douglas Hyde Gallery, The Project Arts Centre and The Royal Hibernian Academy. Three branches of the National Museum of Ireland are located in DublinSONY PCG-7112M battery : Archaeology in Kildare Street, Decorative Arts and History in Collins Barracks and Natural History in Merrion Street.[55] The same area is also home to many smaller museums such as Number 29 on Fitzwilliam St. and The Little Museum of Dublin on St. Stephen's Green. Dublin is home to the National College of Art and Design, which dates from 1746, and Dublin Institute of Design, founded in 1991.

Dublin has long been a city with a strong underground arts sceneSONY PCG-8Z3M battery. Temple Bar was the home of many artists in the 1980s, and spaces such as the Project Arts Centre were hubs for collectives and new exhibitions. The Guardian noted that Dublin's independent and underground arts flourished during the economic recession of 2010.[56] Dublin also has many acclaimed dramatic, musical and operatic companies, including Festival Productions, Lyric Opera Productions, The Pioneers Musical & Dramatic Society, SONY PCG-8Z2M battery  The Glasnevin Musical Society, Second Age Theatre Company, Opera Theatre Company, and Opera Ireland. Ireland is well known for its love of baroque music, which is highly acclaimed at Trinity College.[57] Perhaps the most famous Dublin theatre company is the renowned Rathmines and Rathgar Musical Society, which has been in existence since 1913. It produced full scale productions of popular musicals and operettas including Oklahoma!, Carousel, The Mikado, Guys and DollsSONY PCG-8Z1M battery, The Pirates of Penzance, Me and My Girl, My Fair Lady, The Yeoman of the Guard, Gigi, Fiddler on the Roof, The Gondoliers, Anything Goes, The Merry Widow, Iolanthe, The Producers and HMS Pinafore. At present, the society is performing a tribute concert to the works of Rodgers and Hammerstein at the National Concert Hall. The society recreated their 1913 production of The Mikado in November 2010 at the National Concert HallSONY PCG-8Y3M battery .

Dublin is shortlisted to be World Design Capital 2014.[58] Taoiseach Enda Kenny was quoted to say that Dublin “would be an ideal candidate to host the World Design Capital in 2014”.[59]

Entertainment

Dublin has a vibrant nightlife and is reputedly one of Europe's most youthful cities, with an estimate of 50% of citizens being younger than 25. There are many pubs across the city centre, with the area around St. Stephen's Green and Grafton Street, especially Harcourt Street, Camden Street, Wexford Street and Leeson Street, having the most popular nightclubs and pubsSONY PCG-8Y2M battery .

The best known area for nightlife is Temple Bar, south of the River Liffey. The area has become popular among tourists, including stag and hen parties from Britain.[62] It was developed as Dublin's cultural quarter and does retain this spirit as a centre for small arts productions, photographic and artists' studios, and in the form of street performers and small music venues. However, it has been criticised as overpriced, false and dirty by Lonely Planet. SONY PCG-7Z1M battery  In general, it is regarded by locals as tourist orientated with false "ye olde Irish" pretensions. The areas around Leeson Street, Harcourt Street, South William Street and Camden/George's Street are popular nightlife spots for locals.

Live music is popularly played on streets and at venues throughout Dublin in general, and the city has produced several musicians and groups of international success, including U2, one member of Westlife, The DublinersSONY PCG-6W2M battery , The Thrills, Horslips, Jedward, The Boomtown Rats, Boyzone, Ronan Keating, Thin Lizzy, Paddy Casey, Sinéad O'Connor, The Script and My Bloody Valentine. The two best known cinemas in the city centre are the Savoy Cinema and the Cineworld Cinema, both north of the Liffey. Alternative and special-interest cinema can be found in the Irish Film Institute in Temple Bar, in the Screen Cinema on d'Olier Street and in the Lighthouse Cinema in SmithfieldSONY PCG-5J5M battery. Large modern multiscreen cinemas are located across suburban Dublin. The O2 venue in the Dublin Docklands has played host to many world renowned performers.

Clerys on O'Connell Street.

Dublin is a popular shopping destination for both locals and tourists. The city has numerous shopping districts, particularly around Grafton Street and Henry Street. The city centre is also the location of large department stores, most notably Arnotts, Brown Thomas and ClerysSONY PCG-5K2M battery.

Moore Street Market in Dublin.

The city retains a thriving market culture, despite new shopping developments and the loss of some traditional market sites. Several historic locations, including Moore Street, remain one of the city's oldest trading districts. There has also been a significant growth in local farmers' markets and other markets. In 2007, Dublin Food Co-op relocated to a larger warehouse in The Liberties area, where it is home to many market and community eventsSONY PCG-5K1M battery. Suburban Dublin has several modern retail centres, including Dundrum Town Centre, Blanchardstown Centre, The Square in Tallaght, Liffey Valley Shopping Centre in Clondalkin, Omni Shopping Centre in Santry, Nutgrove Shopping Centre in Rathfarnham, and Pavilions Shopping Centre in Swords.

Dublin is the centre of both media and communications in Ireland, with many newspapers, radio stations, television stations and telephone companies based there. RTÉ is Ireland's national state broadcaster, and is based in DonnybrookSONY PCG-5J4M battery. Fair City is RTÉ's soap opera, located in the fictional Dublin suburb of Carraigstown. TV3 and Setanta Sports are also based in the city. The headquarters of An Post and telecommunications companies such as Eircom, as well as mobile operators Meteor, Vodafone, O2 and 3 are all located there. Dublin is also the headquarters of important national newspapers such as The Irish Times and Irish Independent, as well as local newspapers such as The Evening HeraldSONY PCG-5J1M battery.

As well as being home to RTÉ Radio, Dublin also hosts the national radio networks Today FM and Newstalk, and numerous local stations. Commercial radio stations based in the city include 4fm (94.9 MHz), 98FM (98.1 MHz), Radio Nova 100FM (100.3 MHz), Q102 (102.2 MHz), Spin 1038 (103.8 MHz), FM104 (104.4 MHz), Phantom 105.2 (105.2 MHz) and Sunshine 106.8 (106.8 MHz) SONY PCG-5G2M battery. There are also numerous community and special interest stations, including Dublin City FM (103.2 MHz), Dublin South FM (93.9 MHz), Liffey Sound FM (96.4 MHz), Near FM (90.3 MHz), Phoenix FM (92.5 MHz), Raidió na Life (106.4 MHz) and West Dublin Access Radio (96.0 MHz).

Croke Park is the largest sports stadium in Ireland. The headquarters of the Gaelic Athletic Association, it has a capacity of 82,300. It is the fourth largest stadium in Europe after Nou Camp in Barcelona, Wembley Stadium in London and Santiago Bernabéu Stadium in Madrid. Sony VAIO PCG-8131M battery Traditionally, it hosted the premier Gaelic football and hurling games, and after major renovations in recent years, added international rules football, rock concerts, and other significant national events. The Dublin team plays most of their home league hurling and Gaelic Football games at Parnell Park. I.R.F.U. Stadium Lansdowne Road was laid out in 1874. This was the venue for home games of both the Irish Rugby Union Team and the Republic of Ireland national football teamSony VAIO PCG-8152M battery. A joint venture between the Irish Rugby Football Union, the FAI and the Government, saw it replaced by a new state-of-the-art 50,000 seat Aviva Stadium, which opened in May 2010.[70] Aviva Stadium hosted the 2011 UEFA Europa League Final. The game was played on 18 May 2011, when Portuguese club Porto beat fellow Portuguese side Braga 1-0.[71] Rugby union team Leinster Rugby play their home games in the RDS Arena & the Aviva StadiumSony VAIO PCG-31311M battery.

St Patrick's Athletic against Romanian club Steaua Bucharest.

County Dublin is home to five League of Ireland clubs, all playing in the Premier Division. Dalymount Park in Phibsboro, is home to Bohemians F.C. Current League Champions and the first Irish side to reach the group stages of a European competition: 2011–12 UEFA Europa League group stage Shamrock Rovers play at Tallaght Stadium in South Dublin, St Patrick's Athletic play at Richmond ParkSony VAIO PCG-31111M battery, and University College Dublin play their home games at the UCD Bowl in Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown, while Shelbourne is based at Tolka Park. Tolka Park, Dalymount Park, UCD Bowl and Tallaght Stadium, along with the Carlisle Grounds in Bray, hosted all Group 3 games in the intermediary round of the 2011 UEFA Regions' Cup.

The National Aquatic Centre in Blanchardstown is Ireland's largest indoor water leisure facility. The Dublin area has several race courses including Shelbourne Park and LeopardstownSony VAIO PCG-8112M battery. The Dublin Horse Show takes place at the RDS, which hosted the Show Jumping World Championships in 1982. The national boxing arena is located in The National Stadium on the South Circular Road. There are also basketball, handball, hockey and athletics stadia, most notably Morton Stadium in Santry, which held the athletics events of the 2003 Special OlympicsSony VAIO PCG-7186M battery.

Aviva Stadium

Australian Rules Football has had a presence in the city since 1999 and there are now three clubs in the Capital; the Dublin Demons, the South Dublin Swans and the West Dublin Saints. All three clubs play in the Aussieproperty.com Premiership and many of their players have represented Ireland's National Aussie Rules Team, the Irish Warriors. Ireland's domestic Rugby League competition has been running since 1997. Sony VAIO PCG-7171M battery The North Dublin Eagles play in Ireland's Carnegie League. Recent popularity has been increased with the Irish Wolfhound's success in the Rugby League World Cup which was held in Australia in 2008. The Dublin Marathon has been run since 1980 on the last Monday in October. The Women's Mini Marathon has been run since 1983 on the first Monday in June, which is also a bank holiday in Ireland. It is said to be the largest all female event of its kind in the world.[73] The Dublin Roller Girls were the first roller derby league to form in the countrySony VAIO PCG-9Z1M battery.

During the 1990s, the English football club Wimbledon, based in London, expressed interest in relocating to the city after being forced to leave their Plough Lane stadium and ground-share with Crystal Palace at Selhurst Park. However, this bizarre relocation plan never materialised and when the club finally did relocate in 2003, it was to the Buckinghamshire town of Milton Keynes. Sony VAIO PCG-5S1M battery

There are 10,469 students in the Dublin region attending the 31 gaelscoileanna (Irish-language primary schools) and 8 gaelcholáistí (Irish-language secondary schools).[76] Dublin has the highest number of Irish-medium schools in the country. There may be also up to another 10,000 Gaeltacht speakers living in Dublin. Two Irish language radio stations Raidió na Life and RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta both have studios in the citySony VAIO PCG-5P1M battery, and the online and DAB station Raidió Rí-Rá broadcasts from studios in the city. Many other radio stations in the city broadcast at least an hour of Irish language programming per week. Many Irish language agencies are also located in the capital. Conradh na Gaeilge offers language classes, has a book shop and is a regular meeting place for different groups. The closest Gaeltacht to Dublin is the Meath Gaeltacht of Ráth Cairn and Baile Ghib which is 55 km (34 mi) awaySony VAIO PCG-5N2M battery.

Copenhagen (IPA /ˈkoʊpənheɪɡən/ or /ˈkoʊpənhɑːɡən/; Danish: København [kʰøb̥m̩ˈhɑʊ̯ˀn] ( listen)) is the capital of Denmark and its most populous city, with an urban population of 1,213,822 (as of 1 January 2012) and a metropolitan population of 1,947,944 (as of 1 October 2012). With the completion of the transnational Øresund Bridge in 2000, Copenhagen has become the centre of the increasingly integrated Øresund RegionSony VAIO PCG-3C2M battery. Within this region, Copenhagen and the Swedish city of Malmö are growing into a combined metropolitan area. Copenhagen is situated on the islands of Zealand and Amager.

Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the beginning of the 15th century, while being documented as such since the 11th century. During the 17th century, under the reign of Christian IV, it became a significant regional centreSony VAIO PCG-8161M battery.

Copenhagen is a major regional center of culture, business, media, and science, as indicated by several international surveys and rankings (see International rankings below). Life science, information technology and shipping are important sectors, and research & development plays a major role in the city's economy. Its strategic location and excellent infrastructureSony VAIO PCG-8141M battery, with the largest airport in Scandinavia,[7] Kastrup, located 14 minutes by train from the city centre, have made it a regional hub and a popular location for regional headquarters[8] and conventions.

Copenhagen has repeatedly been recognized as one of the cities with the best quality of life. It is also considered one of the world's most environmentally friendly cities. The water in the inner harbour is clean and safe for swimming. 36% of all citizens commute to work by bicycle. Every day, they cycle a combined 1.2 million km. Sony VAIO PCG-3J1M battery

Since the turn of the millennium, Copenhagen has seen a strong urban and cultural development. This is partly due to massive investments in cultural facilities as well as infrastructure and a new wave of successful designers, chefs and architects.[10]

Main article: History of Copenhagen

Reconstruction of Copenhagen as of c. 1500

Copenhagen's founding has traditionally been dated to Bishop Absalon's construction of a castle on the small island of Slotsholmen in 1167 where Christiansborg Palace stands today. Recent archaeological finds indicate that by the 11th centurySony VAIO PCG-3H1M battery, Copenhagen had already grown into a small town with a large estate, a church, a market, at least two wells and many smaller habitations spread over a fairly wide area.[13] Many historians believe that the town dates to the late Viking age, and was possibly founded by Sweyn I Forkbeard. From the middle of the 12th century it grew in importance, after coming into Absalon's possession, who fortified it in 1167Sony VAIO PCG-3F1M battery

, the year traditionally marking the foundation of Copenhagen. The excellent harbour encouraged Copenhagen's growth until it became an important centre of commerce. However it did not become the nation's capital until the middle of the 15th century, and the archbishop still has residence in RoskildeSony VAIO PCG-3C1M battery.

The city's origin as a harbour and a place of commerce is reflected in its name. Its original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name is derived, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning "merchants' harbour" or "buyer's haven" (cf. German "Kaufmannshafen"). The English name for the city is derived from its Low German name, KopenhagenSony VAIO PCG-9Z2L battery. The element hafnium is also named for Copenhagen, whose Latin name is Hafnia,[14] derived from the city's original name, Hafnæ ("harbour"). The bacterium Hafnia is also named after Copenhagen, being coined in 1954 by Vagn Møller of the Statens Seruminstitut in Copenhagen. [15]

As the town rose in prominence, it was repeatedly attacked by the Hanseatic League. In 1254 it received its charter as a city under Bishop Jakob Erlandsen. During 1658–59 it withstood a siege by the Swedes under Charles X and successfully repelled a major assaultSony VAIO PCG-9Z1L battery. In 1711 the plague reduced Copenhagen's population of about 65,000 by one-third.[16]

On 2 April 1801 a British fleet under the command of Admiral Sir Hyde Parker defeated a Danish-Norwegian fleet anchored near Copenhagen. Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson led the main attack. He famously disobeyed Parker's order to withdraw, destroying many of the Dano-Norwegian ships before a truce was agreedSony VAIO PCG-9131L battery. Copenhagen is often considered to be Nelson's hardest-fought battle, surpassing even the heavy fighting at Trafalgar. It was during this battle that Lord Nelson famously "put the telescope to the blind eye" in order not to see Admiral Parker's signal to cease fire.

The Second Battle of Copenhagen (or the Bombardment of Copenhagen) (16 August – 5 September 1807) was from a British point of view a preemptive attack on Copenhagen, targeting the civilian population in order to seize the Dano-Norwegian fleetSony VAIO PCG-8161L battery. But from a Danish point of view the battle was a terror bombardment on their capital. Particularly notable was the use of incendiary Congreve rockets (containing phosphorus, which cannot be extinguished with water) that randomly hit the city. Few houses with straw roofs remained after the bombardment. The largest church, Vor frue kirke, was destroyed by the sea artillery. Several historians consider this battle was the first terror attack against a major European city in modern timesSony VAIO PCG-8152L battery. The confiscation of the navy, would later source the term to Copenhagenize.

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