Dell And HP

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Dell, Inc. (NASDAQ: DELL) is an American multinational computer technology corporation based in 1 Dell Way, Round Rock, Texas, United States, that develops, sells and supports computers and related products and services. Bearing the name of its founder, Michael Dell, the company is one of the largest technological corporations in the worldSony VAIO PCG-9Z2L battery, employing more than 103,300 people worldwide. Dell is listed at number 41 in the Fortune 500 list. It is the third largest PC maker in the world after HP and Lenovo.

Dell has grown by both increasing its customer base and through acquisitions since its inception; notable mergers and acquisitions including Alienware (2006) and Perot Systems (2009). As of 2009, the company sold personal computers, servers, data storage devices, network switches, software, and computer peripherals. Dell also sells HDTVs, camerasSony VAIO PCG-9Z1L battery, printers, MP3 players and other electronics built by other manufacturers. The company is well known for its innovations in supply chain management and electronic commerce.

Fortune Magazine listed Dell as the sixth largest company in Texas by total revenue.[5] It is the second largest non-oil company in Texas – behind AT&T – and the largest company in the Austin, Texas areaSony VAIO PCG-9131L battery.

History

Main article: History of Dell

Dell traces its origins to 1984, when Michael Dell created PCs Limited while a student at the University of Texas at Austin. The dorm-room headquartered company sold IBM PC-compatible computers built from stock components.[7] Dell dropped out of school in order to focus full-time on his fledgling business, after getting about $300,000 in expansion-capital from his familySony VAIO PCG-8161L battery.

In 1985, the company produced the first computer of its own design, the "Turbo PC", which sold for US$795.[8] PCs Limited advertised its systems in national computer magazines for sale directly to consumers and custom assembled each ordered unit according to a selection of options. The company grossed more than $73 million in its first year of operationSony VAIO PCG-8152L battery.

The company changed its name to "Dell Computer Corporation" in 1988 and began expanding globally. In June 1988, Dell's market capitalization grew by $30 million to $80 million from its June 22 initial public offering of 3.5 million shares at $8.50 a share.[9] In 1992, Fortune magazine included Dell Computer Corporation in its list of the world's 500 largest companies, making Michael Dell the youngest CEO of a Fortune 500 company ever. Sony VAIO PCG-8141L battery

Growth in 1990s and early 2000s

From 1997 to 2004, Dell enjoyed steady growth and it gained market share from competitors even during industry slumps.[11]

In 1996, Dell began selling computers through its website, and in 2002, it expanded its product line to include televisions, handhelds, digital audio players, and printers. Dell's first acquisition occurred in 1999 with the purchase of ConvergeNet TechnologiesSony VAIO PCG-8131L battery.

Dell surpassed Compaq to become the largest PC manufacturer in 1999. In 2002, when Compaq merged with Hewlett Packard (the 4th place PC maker), the combined Hewlett Packard took the top spot but struggled and Dell soon regained its lead.

In 2003, the company was rebranded as simply "Dell Inc." to recognize the company's expansion beyond computersSony VAIO PCG-81312L battery.

In 2004, Michael Dell resigned as CEO while retaining the title of Chairman, handing the CEO title to Kevin Rollins who was the President and COO. Under Rollins, Dell began to loosen its ties to Microsoft and Intel, the two companies which were responsible for Dell's dominance in the PC business. During that time, Dell acquired Alienware, which introduced several new items to Dell productsSony VAIO PCG-81214L battery, including AMD microprocessors. To prevent cross-market products, Dell continues to run Alienware as a separate entity, but still a wholly owned subsidiary.[12]

Missed expectations and return of founder

However in 2005, while earnings and sales grew, sales growth slowed considerably, and the company stock lost 25% of its value that year.

The slowing sales growth has been attributed to the maturing PC market, which constituted 66% of Dell's sales, and analysts suggested that Dell needed to make inroads into non-PC businesses segments such as storage, services and serversSony VAIO PCG-81115L battery. Dell's price advantage was tied to its ultra-lean manufacturing for desktop PCs, however this became less important as the market shifted to laptops, and as rivals such as Hewlett-Packard and Acer made their PC operations more efficient. Throughout the entire PC industry, declines in prices along with commensurate increases in performance meant that Dell had fewer opportunities to upsell to their customers Sony VAIO PCG-81114L battery (a lucruative strategy of encouring buyers to upgrade processor or memory), and as a result the company was selling a greater proportion of inexpensive PCs than before which eroded profit margins.[11]

There has also been a decline in consumers purchasing PCs through the Web or on the phone, as increasing numbers were visiting consumer electronics retail stores. As well, many analysts were looking to innovating companies as the next source of growth in the technology sectorSony VAIO PCG-81113L battery. Dell's low spending on R&D relative to its revenue (compared to Apple Inc.) which worked well in the commoditized PC market prevented it from making inroads into more lucrative segments such as MP3 players.[13]

Dell's reputation for poor customer service, which was exacerbated as it moved call centres offshore and as its growth outstripped its technical support infrastructure, came under increasing scrutiny on the WebSony VAIO PCG-7142L battery. There was also criticism that it used faulty components for its PCs.[14] There was also a battery recall in August 2006, as a result of a Dell laptop catching fire which caused much negative attention for the company, although later Sony was found to be responsible for the faulty batteries.[11]

2006 marked the first year that Dell's growth was slower than the PC industry as a whole. By the fourth quarter of 2006, Dell lost its title of the largest PC manufacturer to rival Hewlett Packard which was invigorated thanks to a restructuring initiated by their CEO Mark HurdSony VAIO PCG-7141L battery.

After four out of five quarterly earnings reports were below expectations, Rollins resigned in January 2007 and founder Michael Dell assumed the role of CEO again. Dell announced a change campaign called "Dell 2.0," reducing headcount and diversifying the company's product offerings.

Recent plans and acquisitionsSony VAIO PCG-71111L battery

In 2006, Dell acquired Alienware, a manufacturer of high-end PCs popular with gamers.

The company acquired EqualLogic on January 28, 2008, to gain a foothold in the iSCSI storage market. Because Dell already had an efficient manufacturing process, integrating EqualLogic's products into the company drove manufacturing prices down.[19]

In 2009, Dell acquired Perot Systems, a technology services and outsourcing company, mainly active in the health-sector, founded by former presidential hopeful H. Ross PerotSony VAIO PCG-61411L battery

In 2009, Dell acquired Perot Systems, based in Plano, Texas, in a reported $3.9 billion deal.[20] Perot Systems provided Dell with applications development, systems integration, and strategic consulting services through its operations in the U.S. and 10 other countries. In addition, the acquisition of Perot brought a variety of business process outsourcing services, including claims processing and call center operations. Sony VAIO PCG-61112L battery

On February 10, 2010, the company acquired KACE Networks a leader in Systems Management Appliances. The terms of the deal were not disclosed.[22]

On August 16, 2010, Dell announced plans to acquire the data storage company 3PAR.[23] On September 2, Hewlett-Packard offered $33 a share for 3PAR, which Dell declined to match.[24]

On November 2, 2010, Dell acquired Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) integration leader Boomi. Terms of the deal were not disclosed. Sony VAIO PCG-61111L battery

In February 2011 the acquisition of Compellent by Dell was completed after the initial announcement of Dell's intention to buy the company was announced on 13 December, 2010

On Friday February 24, 2012 Dell acquired Backup and Disaster Recovery software solution AppAssure Software of Reston, VA. AppAssure delivered 194 percent revenue growth in 2011 and over 3500% growth in the prior 3 yearsSony VAIO PCG-5T4L battery. AppAssure supports physical servers and VMware, Hyper-V and XenServer. The deal represents the first acquisition since Dell formed its software division under former CA CEO John Swainson. Dell added that it will keep AppAssure’s 230 employees and invest in the company.

Dell is headquartered in Round Rock, Texas

In March 2012, USA Today said that Dell agreed to buy SonicWall, which acquisition was completed 9th May 2012[26], a company with 130 patents. SonicWall which develops security products, is a network and data security providerSony VAIO PCG-5T3L battery.

On 2 April, 2012, Dell announced that it wants to acquire Wyse, global market-leader for thin client systems[28]

On 3 April, 2012, Dell announced that it has acquired Clerity Solutions. Clerity, a company offering services for application (re)hosting, was formed in 1994 and has it headquarters in Chicago. At the time of the take-over aprox. 70 people were working for the companySony VAIO PCG-5T2L battery.

Dell facilities

Dell's headquarters is located in Round Rock, Texas.[30] As of 2010 the company employs about 16,000 people in the facility,[31] which has 2,100,000 square feet (200,000 m2) of space.[32] As of 1999 almost half of the general fund of the City of Round Rock originates from sales taxes generated from the Dell headquarters. Sony VAIO PCG-5S3L battery

Dell previously had its headquarters in the Arboretum complex in northern Austin, Texas.[34][35] In 1989 Dell occupied 127,000 square feet (11,800 m2) in the Arboretum complex.[36] In 1990 Dell had 1,200 employees in its headquarters.[34] In 1993 Dell submitted a document to Round Rock officials, titled "Dell Computer Corporate Headquarters, Round RockSony VAIO PCG-5S2L battery, Texas, May 1993 Schematic Design." Despite the filing, during that year the company said that it was not going to move its headquarters.[37] In 1994 Dell announced that it was moving most of its employees out of the Arboretum, but that it was going to continue to occupy the top floor of the Arboretum and that the company's official headquarters address would continue to be the ArboretumSony VAIO PCG-5S1L battery. The top floor continued to hold Dell's board room, demonstration center, and visitor meeting room. Less than one month prior to August 29, 1994, Dell moved 1,100 customer support and telephone sales employees to Round Rock.[38] Dell's lease in the Arboretum had been scheduled to expire in 1994.[39]

The company sponsors Dell Diamond, the home stadium of the Round Rock Express, the AAA minor league baseball affiliate of the Texas Rangers major league baseball teamSony VAIO PCG-5R2L battery

By 1996 Dell was moving its headquarters to Round Rock.[40] As of January 1996 3,500 people still worked at the current Dell headquarters. One building of the Round Rock headquarters, Round Rock 3, had space for 6,400 employees and was scheduled to be completed in November 1996.[41] In 1998 Dell announced that it was going to add two buildings to its Round Rock complexSony VAIO PCG-5R1L battery, adding 1,600,000 square feet (150,000 m2) of office space to the complex.[42]

In 2000 Dell announced that it would lease 80,000 square feet (7,400 m2) of space in the Las Cimas office complex in unincorporated Travis County, Texas, between Austin and West Lake Hills, to house the company's executive offices and corporate headquarters. 100 senior executives were scheduled to work in the building by the end of 2000. Sony VAIO PCG-5P4L batteryIn January 2001 the company leased the space in Las Cimas 2, located along Loop 360. Las Cimas 2 housed Dell's executives, the investment operations, and some corporate functions. Dell also had an option for 138,000 square feet (12,800 m2) of space in Las Cimas 3.[44] After a slowdown in business required reducing employees and production capacity, Dell decided to sublease its offices in two buildings in the Las Cimas office complex. Sony VAIO PCG-5P2L battery In 2002 Dell announced that it planned to sublease its space to another tenant; the company planned to move its headquarters back to Round Rock once a tenant was secured.[44] By 2003 Dell moved its headquarters back to Round Rock. It leased all of Las Cimas I and II, with a total of 312,000 square feet (29,000 m2), for about a seven year period after 2003. By that year roughly 100,000 square feet (9,300 m2) of that space was absorbed by new subtenants. Sony VAIO PCG-5N4L battery

In 2008 Dell switched the power sources of the Round Rock headquarters to more environmentally friendly ones, with 60% of the total power coming from TXU Energy wind farms and 40% coming from the Austin Community Landfill gas-to-energy plant operated by Waste Management, Inc. Sony VAIO PCG-5N2L battery

Dell facilities in the United States are located in Austin, Texas; Nashua, New Hampshire; Nashville, Tennessee; Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; Peoria, Illinois; Winston-Salem, North Carolina; Eden Prairie, Minnesota (Dell Compellent); and Miami, Florida. Facilities located abroad include Penang, Malaysia; Xiamen, China; Bracknell, UK; Manila, Philippines[47] Chennai, India; Sony VAIO PCG-51513L battery Hortolandia and Porto Alegre, Brazil; Bratislava, Slovakia; Łódź, Poland,[49] Panama City in Panama, Dublin and Limerick, Ireland.[50]

The US and India are the only countries which have all of Dell's business functions and provide support globally: Research and Development, manufacturing, finance, analysis, customer care.

Products

Scope and brands

Dell's tagline 'Yours is Here', as seen at their Mall of Asia branch in Pasay City, Philippines

The corporation markets specific brand names to different market segmentsSony VAIO PCG-51511L battery.

Its Business/Corporate class represent brands where the company advertising emphasizes long life-cycles, reliability, and serviceability. Such brands include:

OptiPlex (office desktop computer systems)

Vostro (office/small business desktop and notebook systems)

n Series (desktop and notebook computers shipped with Linux or FreeDOS installed)

Latitude (business-focused notebooks)

Precision (workstation systems and high-performance notebooks),[52]

PowerEdge (business servers) Sony VAIO PCG-51412L battery

PowerVault (direct-attach and network-attached storage)

PowerConnect (network switches)

Dell Compellent (storage area networks)

EqualLogic (enterprise class iSCSI SANs)

Dell's Home Office/Consumer class emphasizes value, performance, and expandability. These brands include:

Inspiron (budget desktop and notebook computers)

Studio (mainstream desktop and laptop computers)

XPS (high-end desktop and notebook computers)

Studio XPS (high-end design-focus of XPS systems and extreme multimedia capability)

Alienware (high-performance gaming systems) Sony VAIO PCG-51411L battery

Adamo (high-end luxury laptop)

Dell EMR (electronic medical records)

Dell's Peripherals class includes USB keydrives, LCD televisions, and printers; Dell monitors includes LCD TVs, plasma TVs and projectors for HDTV and monitors. Dell UltraSharp is further a high-end brand of monitors.

Dell service and support brands include the Dell Solution Station (extended domestic support services, previously "Dell on Call"), Dell Support Center (extended support services abroad), Dell Business Support Sony VAIO PCG-51312L battery (a commercial service-contract that provides an industry-certified technician with a lower call-volume than in normal queues), Dell Everdream Desktop Management ("Software as a Service" remote-desktop management),[53] and Your Tech Team (a support-queue available to home users who purchased their systems either through Dell's website or through Dell phone-centers) Sony VAIO PCG-51311L battery.

Discontinued products and brands include Axim (PDA; discontinued April 9, 2007),[54] Dimension (home and small office desktop computers; discontinued July 2007), Dell Digital Jukebox (MP3 player; discontinued August 2006), Dell PowerApp (application-based servers), and Dell Omniplex (desktop and tower computers previously supported to run server and desktop operating systems) Sony VAIO PCG-51211L battery.

Manufacturing

From its early beginnings, Dell operated as a pioneer in the "configure to order" approach to manufacturing—delivering individual PCs configured to customer specifications. In contrast, most PC manufacturers in those times delivered large orders to intermediaries on a quarterly basis.[55]

To minimize the delay between purchase and delivery, Dell has a general policy of manufacturing its products close to its customersSony VAIO PCG-41112L battery. This also allows for implementing a just-in-time (JIT) manufacturing approach, which minimizes inventory costs. Low inventory is another signature of the Dell business model—a critical consideration in an industry where components depreciate very rapidly.[56]

Dell's manufacturing process covers assembly, software installation, functional testing (including "burn-in"), and quality control. Throughout most of the company's historySony VAIO PCG-3A4L battery, Dell manufactured desktop machines in-house and contracted out manufacturing of base notebooks for configuration in-house.[57] However, the company's approach has changed. The 2006 Annual Report states "we are continuing to expand our use of original design manufacturing partnerships and manufacturing outsourcing relationships." The Wall Street Journal reported in September, 2008 that "Dell has approached contract computer manufacturers with offers to sell" their plants. Sony VAIO PCG-3A3L battery

Assembly of desktop computers for the North American market formerly took place at Dell plants in Austin, Texas (original location) and Lebanon, Tennessee (opened in 1999), which have been closed in 2008 and early 2009, respectively. The plant in Winston-Salem, North Carolina received $280 million USD in incentives from the state and opened in 2005, but ceased operations in November 2010, and Dell's contract with the state requires them to repay the incentives for failing to meet the conditions. Sony VAIO PCG-3A2L battery It is expected that most of the work that used to take place in Dell's U.S. plants will be transferred to contract manufacturers in Asia and Mexico, or some of Dell's own factories overseas.[61] The Miami, Florida facility of its Alienware subsidiary remains in operation. Dell servers continue to be produced in Austin, Texas.

Dell assembles computers for the EMEA market at Limerick in the Republic of IrelandSony VAIO PCG-3A1L battery, and employs about 4,500 people in that country. Dell began manufacturing in Limerick in 1991 and went on to become Ireland's largest exporter of goods and its second-largest company and foreign investor. On January 8, 2009, Dell announced that it would move all Dell manufacturing in Limerick to Dell's new plant in the Polish city of Łódź by January 2010. Sony VAIO PCG-394L batteryEuropean Union officials said they would investigate a €52.7million aid package the Polish government used to attract Dell away from Ireland.[63] European Manufacturing Facility 1 (EMF1, opened in 1990) and EMF3 form part of the Raheen Industrial Estate near Limerick. EMF2 (previously a Wang facility, later occupied by Flextronics, situated in Castletroy) closed in 2002,[citation needed] and Dell Inc. has consolidated production into EMF3 (EMF1 now[when?] contains only offices). Sony VAIO PCG-393L battery Subsidies from the Polish government did keep Dell for a long time.[65]

Dell's Alienware subsidiary also manufactures PCs in an Athlone, Ireland plant. Construction of EMF4 in Łódź, Poland has started: Dell started production there in autumn 2007.[66]

Dell opened plants in Penang, Malaysia in 1995, and in Xiamen, China in 1999. These facilities serve the Asian market and assemble 95% of Dell notebooks. Dell Inc. has invested[when?] an estimated $60 million in a new manufacturing unit in ChennaiSony VAIO PCG-391L battery, India, to support the sales of its products in the Indian subcontinent. Indian-made products will bear the "Made in India" mark. In 2007 the Chennai facility had the target of producing 400,000 desktop PCs, and plans envisaged it starting to produce notebook PCs and other products in the second half of 2007. Sony VAIO PCG-384L battery

Dell moved desktop and PowerEdge server manufacturing for the South American market from the Eldorado do Sul plant opened in 1999, to a new plant in Hortolandia, Brazil in 2007.[67]

Technical support

Dell routes technical support queries according to component-type and to the level of support purchased:[68]

Basic support provides business-hours telephone support and next business-day on-site support/ Return-to-Base, or Collect and Return Services (based on contracts purchased at point of sale) Sony VAIO PCG-383L battery

Dell ProSupport provides 24x7x365 telephone and online support, a selection of 4 or 6-hour onsite support after telephone-based troubleshooting, and a Mission Critical option with two-hour onsite support, for customers who choose the highest level of support for their most critical hardware assets. Sony VAIO PCG-382L battery

Dell's Consumer division offers 24x7 phone based and online troubleshooting in certain markets such as the United States and Canada. In 2008 Dell redesigned services-and-support for businesses with "Dell ProSupport", offering customers more options to adapt services to fit their needs. Rather than take a one-size-fits-all approach, Dell allows various options for its customersSony VAIO PCG-381L battery.

In addition, the company provides protection services, advisory services, multivendor hardware support, "how-to" support for software applications, collaborative support with many third-party vendors, and online parts and labor dispatching for customers who diagnose and troubleshoot their hardware. Dell also provides Dell ProSupport customers access to a crisis-center to handle major outages, or problems caused by natural disasters. Sony VAIO PCG-7185L battery

Commercial aspects

Organization

The board consists of nine directors. Michael Dell, the founder of the company, serves as chairman of the board and chief executive officer. Other board members include Don Carty, William Gray, Judy Lewent, Klaus Luft, Alex Mandl, Michael A. Miles, and Sam Nunn. Shareholders elect the nine board members at meetings, and those board members who do not get a majority of votes must submit a resignation to the boardSony VAIO PCG-7184L battery, which will subsequently choose whether or not to accept the resignation. The board of directors usually sets up five committees having oversight over specific matters. These committees include the Audit Committee, which handles accounting issues, including auditing and reporting; the Compensation Committee, which approves compensation for the CEO and other employees of the companySony VAIO PCG-7183L battery; the Finance Committee, which handles financial matters such as proposed mergers and acquisitions; the Governance and Nominating Committee, which handles various corporate matters (including nomination of the board); and the Antitrust Compliance Committee, which attempts to prevent company practices from violating antitrust lawsSony VAIO PCG-7182L battery.

Day to day operations of the company are run by the Global Executive Management Committee which sets strategic direction. Dell has regional senior vice-presidents for countries other than the United States, including David Marmonti for EMEA and Stephen J. Felice for Asia/Japan. As of 2007, other officers included Martin Garvin (senior vice president for worldwide procurement) and Susan E. Sheskey (vice president and Chief Information Officer) Sony VAIO PCG-7181L battery.

Marketing

Dell advertisements have appeared in several types of media including television, the Internet, magazines, catalogs and newspapers. Some of Dell Inc's marketing strategies include lowering prices at all times of the year, offering free bonus products (such as Dell printers), and offering free shipping in order to encourage more sales and to stave off competitorsSony VAIO PCG-7174L battery. In 2006, Dell cut its prices in an effort to maintain its 19.2% market share. However, this also cut profit-margins by more than half, from 8.7 to 4.3 percent. To maintain its low prices, Dell continues to accept most purchases of its products via the Internet and through the telephone network, and to move its customer-care division to India and El Salvador. Sony VAIO PCG-7173L battery

A popular United States television and print ad campaign in the early 2000s featured the actor Ben Curtis playing the part of "Steven", a lightly mischievous blond-haired youth who came to the assistance of bereft computer purchasers. Each television advertisement usually ended with Steven's catch-phrase: "Dude, you're gettin' a Dell!" Sony VAIO PCG-7172L battery

A subsequent advertising campaign featured interns at Dell headquarters (with Curtis' character appearing in a small cameo at the end of one of the first commercials in this particular campaign).

A Dell advertising campaign for the XPS line of gaming computers featured in print in the September 2006 issue of Wired. It used as a tagline the common term in Internet and gamer slang: "FTW", meaning "For The Win". However, Dell Inc. soon[when?] dropped the campaignSony VAIO PCG-7171L battery.

In the first-person shooter game F.E.A.R. Extraction Point, several computers visible on desks within the game have recognizable Dell XPS model characteristics, sometimes even including the Dell logo on the monitors.

In 2007, Dell switched advertising agencies in the US from BBDO to Working Mother Media. In July 2007, Dell released new advertising created by Working Mother to support the Inspiron and XPS linesSony VAIO PCG-7162L battery. The ads featured music from the Flaming Lips and Devo who re-formed especially to record the song in the ad "Work it Out". Also in 2007, Dell began using the slogan "Yours is here" to say that it customizes computers to fit customers' requirements.[72]

Dell partner program

In late 2007, Dell Inc. announced that it planned to expand its program to value-added resellers (VARs), giving it the official name of "Dell Partner Direct" and a new Website. Sony VAIO PCG-7161L battery

Criticisms of marketing of laptop security

In 2008, Dell received press coverage over its claim of having the world's most secure laptops, specifically, its Latitude D630 and Latitude D830.[74] At Lenovo's request, the (U.S.) National Advertising Division (NAD) evaluated the claim, and reported that Dell did not have enough evidence to support it. Sony VAIO PCG-7154L battery

Retail

Dell first opened their retail stores in India.[51]

United States

In the early 1990s, Dell sold its products through Best Buy, Costco and Sam's Club stores in the United States. Dell stopped this practice in 1994, citing low profit-margins on the business. In 2003, Dell briefly sold products in Sears stores in the U.S. In 2007, Dell started shipping its products to major retailers in the U.S. once again, starting with Sam's Club and Wal-Mart. Staples, the largest office-supply retailer in the U.S. Sony VAIO PCG-7153L battery, and Best Buy, the largest electronics retailer in the U.S., became Dell retail partners later that same year.

Kiosks

Starting in 2002, Dell opened kiosk locations in shopping malls across the United States in order to give personal service to customers who preferred this method of shopping to using the Internet or the telephone-system. Despite the added expense, prices at the kiosks match or beat prices available through other retail channels. Starting in 2005, Dell expanded kiosk locations to include shopping malls across Australia, Canada, Singapore and Hong KongSony VAIO PCG-7152L battery.

On January 30, 2008, Dell shut down all 140 kiosks in the U.S. due to expansion into retail stores.[76]

By June 3, 2010, Dell had also shut down all of its mall kiosks in Australia.[77]

Stores

In 2006, Dell Inc. opened one full store, 3,000-square-foot (280 m2) in area, at NorthPark Center in Dallas, Texas. It operates the retail outlet seven days a week to display about 36 models, including PCs and televisions. As at the kiosks, customers can only see demonstration-computers and place orders through agents. Dell then delivers purchased items just as if the customer had placed the order by phone or over the InternetSony VAIO PCG-7151L battery.

In addition to showcasing products, the stores also support on-site warranties and non-warranty service ("Dell Solution Station"). Services offered include repairing computer video-cards and removing spyware from hard drives.

On February 14, 2008, Dell closed the Service Center in its Dallas NorthPark store and laid off all the technical staff there. 
Sony VAIO PCG-7148L battery

Elsewhere

As of the end of February 2008, Dell products shipped to one of the largest office-supply retailers in Canada, Staples Business Depot. In April 2008, Future Shop and Best Buy began carrying a subset of Dell products, such as certain desktops, laptops, printers, and monitors.

Since some shoppers in certain markets show reluctance to purchase technological products through the phone or the InternetSony VPCW21M2E/WI battery, Dell has looked into opening retail operations in some countries in Central Europe and Russia. In April 2007, Dell opened a retail store in Budapest. In October of the same year, Dell opened a retail store in Moscow.

In the UK, HMV's flagship Trocadero store has sold Dell XPS PCs since December 2007. From January 2008 the UK stores of DSGi have sold Dell products (in particular, through Currys and PC World stores). As of 2008, the large supermarket-chain Tesco has sold Dell laptops and desktops in outlets throughout the UKSony VPCW21C7E battery.

In May 2008, Dell reached an agreement with office supply chain, Officeworks (part of Coles Group), to stock a few modified models in the Inspiron desktop and notebook range. These models have slightly different model numbers, but almost replicate the ones available from the Dell Store. Dell continued its retail push in the Australian market with its partnership with Harris Technology (another part of Coles Group) in November of the same yearSony VPCW12S1E/WZ battery. In addition, Dell expanded its retail distributions in Australia through an agreement with discount electrical retailer, The Good Guys, known for "Slashing Prices". Dell agreed to distribute a variety of makes of both desktops and notebooks, including Studio and XPS systems in late 2008. Dell and Dick Smith Electronics (owned by Woolworths Limited) reached an agreement to expand within Dick Smith's 400 stores throughout Australia and New Zealand in May 2009Sony VPCW12S1E/W battery (1 year since Officeworks — owned by Coles Group — reached a deal). The retailer has agreed to distribute a variety of Inspiron and Studio notebooks, with minimal Studio desktops from the Dell range. As of 2009, Dell continues to run and operate its various kiosks in 18 shopping centres throughout Australia. On March 31, 2010 Dell announced to Australian Kiosk employees that they were shutting down the Australian/New Zealand Dell kiosk programSony VPCW12S1E/T battery.

In Germany, Dell is selling selected smartphones and notebooks via Media Markt and Saturn, as well as some shopping websites.[78]

Competition

Dell's major competitors include Hewlett-Packard (HP), Acer, Toshiba, Gateway, Sony, Asus, Lenovo, IBM, MSI, Samsung, Apple and Sun Microsystems. Dell and its subsidiary, Alienware, compete in the enthusiast market against AVADirect, Falcon Northwest, VoodooPC (a subsidiary of HP), and other manufacturersSony VPCW12S1E/P battery. In the second quarter of 2006, Dell had between 18% and 19% share of the worldwide personal computer market, compared to HP with roughly 15%.

In late 2006, Dell lost its lead in the PC-business to Hewlett-Packard. Both Gartner and IDC estimated that in the third quarter of 2006, HP shipped more units[dead link] worldwide than Dell did. Dell's 3.6% growth paled in comparison to HP's 15% growth during the same period. The problem got worse in the fourth quarterSony VPCW11S1E/W battery, when Gartner estimated that Dell PC shipments declined 8.9% (versus HP's 23.9% growth). As a result, at the end of 2006 Dell's overall PC market-share stood at 13.9% (versus HP's 17.4%).

IDC reported that Dell lost more server market share than any of the top four competitors in that arena. IDC's Q4 2006 estimates show Dell's share of the server market at 8.1%, down from 9.5% in the previous year. This represents a 8.8% loss year-over-year, primarily to competitors EMC and IBM. Sony VPCW11S1E/T battery

In 2011, The Brand Trust Report, India study revealed that Dell is ranked as the 27th most trusted brand as compared to Samsung which stood at 5th and HP which ranked 23[80]

Partnership with EMC

The Dell/EMC brand applies solely to products that result from Dell's partnership with EMC Corporation.[citation needed] In some cases Dell and EMC jointly design such products; other cases involve EMC products for which Dell will provide supportSony VPCW11S1E/P battery— generally midrange storage systems, such as fibre channel and iSCSI storage area networks. The relationship also promotes and sells OEM versions of backup, recovery, replication and archiving software.[81]

On December 9, 2008, Dell and EMC announced the multi-year extension, through 2013, of their strategic partnership that began in 2001. In addition, Dell plans to expand its product line-up by adding the EMC Celerra NX4 storage system to the portfolio of Dell/EMC family of networked storage systemsSony VPCYA1S1E/B battery, as well as partnering on a new line of de-duplication products as part of its TierDisk family of data-storage devices.[82]

On October 17, 2011, Dell announced officially discontinued reselling all EMC storage products, this put end to 10 years of Partnership.[83]

Environmental record

Dell committed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from its global activities by 40% by 2015, with 2008 fiscal year as the baseline year.[84] It is listed in Greenpeace’s Guide to Greener Electronics that scores leading electronics manufacturers according to their policies on sustainability, climate and energy and how green their products areSony VPCYA1V9E/B battery. In November 2011, Dell ranked 2nd out of 15 listed electronics makers (increasing its score to 5.1 from 4.9, which it gained in the previous ranking from October 2010).[85]

Dell was the first company to publicly state a timeline for the elimination of toxic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs), which it planned to phase out by the end of 2009Sony VPCY22Z5008B battery. It revised this commitment and now aims to remove these toxics by the end of 2011 but only in its computing products.[86] In March 2010, Greenpeace activists protested at Dell offices in Bangalore, Amsterdam and Copenhagen calling for Dell’s founder and CEO Michael Dell to ‘drop the toxics’ and claiming that Dell’s aspiration to be ‘the greenest technology company on the planet’[87] was ‘hypocritical’. Sony VPCY21S1E/SI battery Dell has launched its first products completely free of PVC and BFRs with the G-Series monitors (G2210 and G2410) in 2009.[89]

Green initiatives

Dell became the first company in the information technology industry to establish a product-recycling goal (in 2004) and completed the implementation of its global consumer recycling-program in 2006.[90] On February 6, 2007, the National Recycling Coalition awarded Dell its "Recycling Works" award for efforts to promote producer responsibility. Sony VPCY21S1E/L battery On July 19, 2007, Dell announced that it had exceeded targets in working to achieve a multi-year goal of recovering 275 million pounds of computer equipment by 2009.[92] The company reported the recovery of 78 million pounds (nearly 40,000 tons) of IT equipment from customers in 2006, a 93-percent increase over 2005; and 12.4% of the equipment Dell sold seven years earlier. Sony VPCY21S1E/G battery

On June 5, 2007 Dell set a goal of becoming the greenest technology company on Earth for the long term. The company launched a zero-carbon initiative that includes:

reducing Dell's carbon intensity by 15 percent by 2012

requiring primary suppliers to report carbon emissions data during quarterly business reviews

partnering with customers to build the "greenest PC on the planet"

expanding the company's carbon-offsetting program, "Plant a Tree for Me".

The company introduced the term "The Re-Generation" during a round table in London commemorating 2007 World Environment DaySony VPCY11S1E/S battery. "The Re-Generation" refers to people of all ages throughout the world who want to "make a difference" in improving the world's environment. Dell also talked about plans to take the lead in setting an environmental standard for the "technology industry" and maintaining that leadership in the futureSony VPCY11S1E battery.

Dell reports its environmental performance in an annual Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Report that follows the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) protocol. Dell's 2008 CSR report ranked as "Application Level B" as "checked by GRI".[94]

The company aims to reduce its external environmental impact through energy-efficient evolution of products, and also reduce its direct operational impact through energy-efficiency programmesSony VPCZ11X9E/B battery. Internal energy-efficiency programmes reportedly save the company more than $3 million annually in energy-cost savings.[95] The largest component of the company's internal energy-efficiency savings comes through PC power management: the company expects to save $1.8 million in energy costs through using specialised energy-management software on a network of 50,000 PCsSony VPCZ11Z9E/B battery.

Criticism

See also: Lawsuits involving Dell Inc.

In the 1990s, Dell switched from using primarily ATX motherboards and PSU to using boards and power supplies with mechanically identical but differently wired connectors. This meant customers wishing to upgrade their hardware would have to replace parts with scarce Dell-compatible parts instead of commonly available parts. However, company practice in this respect changed in 2003Sony VPCZ12M9E/B battery.

In 2005, complaints about Dell more than doubled to 1,533, after earnings grew 52% that year.[100]

In 2006, Dell acknowledged that it had problems with customer service. Issues included call transfers[101] of more than 45% of calls and long wait times. Dell's blog detailed the response: "We're spending more than a $100 million — and a lot of bloodSony VPCZ12X9E/X battery, sweat and tears of talented people — to fix this."[102] Later in the year, the company increased its spending on customer service to $150 million.[103] Despite significant investment in this space, Dell continues to face public scrutiny with even the company's own website littered with complaints regarding the issue escalation process. Sony VPCZ12Z9E/X battery

On August 17, 2007, Dell Inc. announced that after an internal investigation into its accounting practices it would restate and reduce earnings from 2003 through to the first quarter of 2007 by a total amount of between $50 million and $150 million, or 2 cents to 7 cents per share.[105] The investigation, begun in November 2006, resulted from concerns raised by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission over some documents and information that Dell IncSony VPCZ138GA battery. had submitted.[106] It was alleged that Dell had not disclosed large exclusivity payments received from Intel for agreeing not to buy processors from a rival manufacturer. In 2010 Dell finally paid $100 million to settle the SEC's charges of fraud. Michael Dell and other executives also paid penalties and suffered other sanctions, without admitting or denying the charges. Sony VPCZ13M9E/B battery

In July 2009, Dell apologized after the firm offered its Latitude E4300 notebook at NT$18,558 (US$580), 70% lower than usual price of NT$60,900 (US$1900) in its Taiwan website. The firm withdrew orders and offered a voucher of up to NT$20,000 (US$625) a customer in compensation. The consumer rights authorities in Taiwan fined Dell NT$1 million (US$31250) for customer rights infringementsSony VPCZ13M9E/X battery. Many consumers sued the firm for the unfair compensation. A court in southern Taiwan ordered the firm to deliver 18 laptops and 76 flat-panel monitors to 31 consumers for NT$490,000 (US$15,120), less than a third of the normal price.[108] The court said the event could hardly be regarded as mistakes, as the prestigious firm said the company mispriced its products twice in Taiwanese website within 3 weeksSony VPCZ13V9E battery.

Horsepower (hp) is the name of several units of measurement of power. The most common definitions equal between 735.5 and 750 watts.[1] Horsepower was originally defined to compare the output of steam engines with the power of draft horses in continuous operation. The unit was widely adopted to measure the output of piston engines, turbinesSony VPCZ13X5003B battery, electric motors, and other machinery. The definition of the unit varied between geographical regions. Most countries now use the SI unit watt for measurement of power. With the implementation of the EU Directive 80/181/EEC on January 1, 2010, the use of horsepower in the EU is only permitted as supplementary unit.

Definitions of term

Units called "horsepower" have differing definitions:

The mechanical horsepower, also known as imperial horsepower, of exactly 550 foot-pounds per second is approximately equivalent to 745.7 wattsSony VPCZ13V9E/X battery.

The metric horsepower of 75 kgf-m per second is approximately equivalent to 735.499 watts.

The Pferdestärke PS (German translation of horsepower) is a name for a group of similar power measurements used in Germany around the end of the 19th century, all of about one metric horsepower in size.

The boiler horsepower is used for rating steam boilers and is equivalent to 34.5 pounds of water evaporated per hour at 212 degrees Fahrenheit, or 9,809.5 wattsSony VPCZ13Z9E/X battery.

One horsepower for rating electric motors is equal to 746 watts.

Continental European electric motors used to have dual ratings, using a conversion rate of 0.735 kW for 1 hp

British Royal Automobile Club (RAC) horsepower is one of the tax horsepower systems adopted around Europe which make an estimate based on several engine dimensions.

History of the unit

The development of the steam engine provided a reason to compare the output of horses with that of the engines that could replace them. In 1702, Thomas Savery wrote in The Miner's Friend[4]: Sony VPCZ21M9E battery"So that an engine which will raise as much water as two horses, working together at one time in such a work, can do, and for which there must be constantly kept ten or twelve horses for doing the same. Then I say, such an engine may be made large enough to do the work required in employing eight, ten, fifteen, or twenty horses to be constantly maintained and kept for doing such a work…"Sony VPCZ21Q9E battery The idea was later used by James Watt to help market his improved steam engine. He had previously agreed to take royalties of one third of the savings in coal from the older Newcomen steam engines.[5] This royalty scheme did not work with customers who did not have existing steam engines but used horses instead. Watt determined that a horse could turn a mill wheel 144 times in an hour (or 2.4 times a minute) Sony VPCZ21V9E battery. The wheel was 12 feet in radius; therefore, the horse travelled 2.4 × 2π × 12 feet in one minute. Watt judged that the horse could pull with a force of 180 pounds. So:

This was rounded to an even 33,000 ft·lbf/min.[6]

Others[who?] recount that Watt determined that a pony could lift an average 220 lbf (0.98 kN) 100 ft (30 m) per minute over a four-hour working shift. Watt then judged a horse was 50% more powerful than a pony and thus arrived at the 33,000 ft·lbf/min figure.

Engineering in History recounts that John Smeaton initially estimated that a horse could produce 22,916 foot-pounds per minuteSony VPCEH3T9E battery. John Desaguliers increased that to 27,500 foot-pounds per minute. "Watt found by experiment in 1782 that a 'brewery horse' was able to produce 32,400 foot-pounds per minute." James Watt and Matthew Boulton standardized that figure at 33,000 the next year.[7]

Most observers familiar with horses and their capabilities estimate that Watt was either a bit optimistic or intended to underpromise and overdeliver; few horses can maintain that effort for long. Regardless, comparison with a horse proved to be an enduring marketing toolSony VPCEH3N6E battery.

When considering human-powered equipment, a healthy human can produce about 1.2 hp briefly (see orders of magnitude) and sustain about 0.1 hp indefinitely; trained athletes can manage up to about 2.5 hp briefly[8] [9] and 0.3 hp for a period of several hours.

Horsepower from a horse

In 1993, R. D. Stevenson and R. J. Wassersug published an article calculating the upper limit to an animal's power output. Sony VPCEH3N1E battery The peak power over a few seconds has been measured to be as high as 14.9 hp. However, Stevenson and Wassersug observe that for sustained activity, a work rate of about 1 hp per horse is consistent with agricultural advice from both 19th and 20th century sources.

In certain situations it is necessary to distinguish between the various definitions of horsepower and thus a suffix is added: hp(I) for mechanical (or imperial) horsepower, hp(M) for metric horsepower, hp(S) for boiler (or steam) horsepower and hp(E) for electrical horsepowerSony VPCEH3D0E battery.

Hydraulic horsepower is equivalent to mechanical horsepower. The formula given above is for conversion to mechanical horsepower from the factors acting on a hydraulic system.

Metric horsepower

Metric horsepower began in Germany in the 19th century and became popular across Europe and Asia.[citation needed] The various units used to indicate this definition (PS, CV, hk, pk, ks and ch) all translate to horse power in EnglishSony VPCEH3B1E battery, so it is common to see these values referred to as horsepower or hp in the press releases or media coverage of the German, French, Italian, and Japanese automobile companies. British manufacturers often intermix metric horsepower and mechanical horsepower depending on the origin of the engine in question. Sometimes the metric horsepower rating of an engine is conservative enough so that the same figure can be used for both 80/1269/EEC with metric hp and SAE J1349 with imperial hpSony VPCEH2Z1E battery.

Metric horsepower, as a rule, is defined as 0.73549875 kW, or roughly 98.6% of mechanical horsepower. This was a minor issue in the days when measurement systems varied widely and engines produced less power, but has become a major sticking point today. Exotic cars from Europe like the McLaren F1 and Bugatti Veyron are often quoted using the wrong definitionSony VPCEH2S9E battery, and their power output is sometimes even converted twice because of confusion over whether the original horsepower number was metric or mechanical.[citation needed]

PS

This unit (German: Pferdestärke = horse strength) is no longer a statutory unit, but is still commonly used in Europe, South America, Japan and India especially by the automotive and motorcycle industry. It was adopted throughout continental Europe with designations equivalent to the English horsepower, but mathematically different from the British unitSony VPCEH2Q1E battery.

DIN 66036 defines one horsepower as the power to raise a mass of 75 kilograms against the earth's gravitational force over a distance of one metre in one second;[11] this is equivalent to 735.49875 W. Similar definitions were already common to the time of James Watt.

The PS was adopted by the Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN) and then by the automotive industry throughout most of EuropeSony VPCEH2P0E battery, under varying names. In 1992, the PS was rendered obsolete by EEC directives, when it was replaced by the kilowatt as the official power measuring unit. It is still in use for commercial and advertising purposes, in addition to the kW rating, as many customers are still not familiar with the use of kilowatts for enginesSony VPCEH2N1E battery.

pk, ch, hk, hv, LE, k/ks, КС, KS, KM, CP, PS

The Dutch paardenkracht (pk), the French chevaux (ch), the Swedish hästkraft (hk), the Finnish hevosvoima (hv), the Norwegian and Danish hestekraft (h

k), the Hungarian lóerő (LE), the Czech koňská síla and Slovak konská sila (k or ks), the Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian konjska snaga (KS),the Bulgarian "Конска сила", the Macedonian Којнска сила (KC), the Polish koń mechaniczny and Slovenian konjska moč (KM) and the Romanian cal-putere (CP) all equal the German Pferdestärke (PS), and are approximately equal to 735.5 WSony VPCEH2M9E battery.

CV and cv

In French (Cheval-vapeur), Italian (Cavalli Vapore), Spanish (Caballos de vapor), and Portuguese (Cavalo-vapor), CV is the equivalent to the German, PS. It is also used as the French term for the Pferdestärke, but in French, this should be written in lowercase letters as cv.

In addition, the capital form CV is used in Italy and France as a unit for tax horsepower, short for, respectively, cavalli vapore and chevaux vapeur (steam horses) Sony VPCEH2M1E battery. CV is a non-linear rating of a motor vehicle for tax purposes.[12] The CV rating, or fiscal power, is , where P is the maximum power in kilowatts and U is the amount of CO2 emitted in grams per kilometre. The term for CO2 measurements has only been included in the definition since 1998, so older ratings in CV are not directly comparable. The fiscal power has found its way into naming of automobile models, such as the popular Citroën deux-chevauxSony VPCEH2L9E battery. The cheval-vapeur (ch) unit should not be confused with the French cheval fiscal (CV).

In the 19th century, the French had their own unit, which they used instead of the CV or horsepower. It was called the poncelet and was abbreviated p.

Boiler horsepower

One boiler horsepower unit, or BHP, is equal to a boiler thermal output of 33,475 Btu/h (9.811 kW), which is the energy rate needed to evaporate 34.5 lb (15.65 kg) of water at 212 °F (100 °C) in one hour. The unit is not current outside of North AmericaSony VPCEH2J1E battery.

The term was originally developed at the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition in 1876, where the best steam engines of that period were tested. The average steam consumption of those engines (per output horsepower) was determined to be the evaporation of 30 lb/h of water, based on feedwater at 100 °F (37.8 °C), and saturated steam generated at 70 psi (480 kPa) gauge pressureSony VPCEH2H1E battery. This original definition is equivalent to a boiler heat output of 33,485 BTU/h (9.813 kW). In 1884, the ASME redefined the boiler horsepower as the thermal output equal to the evaporation of 34.5 lb/h of water "from and at" 212 °F. This considerably simplified boiler testing, and provided more accurate comparisons of the boilers at that time. This revised definition is equivalent to a boiler heat output of 33,469 BTU/h (9.809 kW) Sony VPCEH2F1E battery. Present industrial practice is to define boiler horsepower as a boiler thermal output equal to 33,475 BTU/h (9.811 kW), which is very close to the original and revised definitions.

The amount of power that can be obtained by a steam engine or steam turbine based on boiler horsepower varies so widely that use of the term is entirely obsolete for these purposes. The term makes no distinction as to the steam pressure or temperature which is produced (both of which significantly influence engine/turbine output) Sony VPCEH2E0E battery; it merely defines a thermal output of a boiler. Smaller steam engines often require several boiler horsepower to make one horsepower, and modern steam turbines can make power with as little as about 0.15 hp (boiler) thermal output per actual horsepower developed.

Electrical horsepower

The horsepower used for electrical machines is defined as exactly 746 W. The nameplates on electrical motors show their power output, not their power input

This is equal to the displacement in cubic inches divided by 10π then divided again by the stroke in inchesSony VPCEH2D0E battery.

Since taxable horsepower was computed based on bore and number of cylinders, not based on actual displacement, it gave rise to engines with 'undersquare' dimensions (bore smaller than stroke) this tended to impose an artificially low limit on rotational speed (rpm), hampering the potential power output and efficiency of the engineSony VPCEH2C0E battery.

The situation persisted for several generations of four- and six-cylinder British engines: for example, Jaguar's 3.4-litre XK engine of the 1950s had six cylinders with a bore of 83 mm (3.27 in) and a stroke of 106 mm (4.17 in),[14] where most American automakers had long since moved to oversquare (large bore, short stroke) V-8s (see, for example, the early Chrysler Hemi) Sony VPCEH29FJ/W battery.

Measurement

The power of an engine may be measured or estimated at several points in the transmission of the power from its generation to its application. A number of names are used for the power developed at various stages in this process, but none is a clear indicator of either the measurement system or definition usedSony VPCEH29FJ/P battery.

In the case of an engine dynamometer, power is measured at the engine's flywheel. With a chassis dynamometer or rolling road, power output is measured at the driving wheels. This accounts for the significant power loss through the drive train.

In general:

Nominal is derived from the size of the engine and the piston speed and is only accurate at a pressure of 48 kPa (7 psi).

Indicated or gross horsepower (theoretical capability of the engine) [ PLAN/ 33000]

minus frictional losses within the engine (bearing drag, rod and crankshaft windage losses, oil film drag, etc.) Sony VPCEH29FJ/B battery, equals

Brake / net / crankshaft horsepower (power delivered directly to and measured at the engine's crankshaft)

minus frictional losses in the transmission (bearings, gears, oil drag, windage, etc.), equals

Shaft horsepower (power delivered to and measured at the output shaft of the transmission, when present in the system)

minus frictional losses in the universal joint/s, differential, wheel bearings, tire and chain, (if present) Sony VPCEH28FN/L battery, equals

Effective, True (thp) or commonly referred to as wheel horsepower (whp)

All the above assumes that no power inflation factors have been applied to any of the readings.

Engine designers use expressions other than horsepower to denote objective targets or performance, such as brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). This is a coefficient of theoretical brake horsepower and cylinder pressures during combustionSony VPCEH28FJ/W battery.

Nominal horsepower

Nominal horsepower (nhp) is an early 19th century rule of thumb used to estimate the power of steam engines.

nhp = 7 x area of piston x equivalent piston speed/33,000

For paddle ships the piston speed was estimated as 129.7 x (stroke)1/3.35

For the nominal horsepower to equal the actual power it would be necessary for the mean steam pressure in the cylinder during the stroke to be 48 kPa (7 psi) and for the piston speed to be of the order of 54–75 m/min. Sony VPCEH28FJ/P battery

Indicated horsepower

Indicated horsepower (ihp) is the theoretical power of a reciprocating engine if it is completely frictionless in converting the expanding gas energy (piston pressure × displacement) in the cylinders. It is calculated from the pressures developed in the cylinders, measured by a device called an engine indicator – hence indicated horsepowerSony VPCEH28FJ/B battery. As the piston advances throughout its stroke, the pressure against the piston generally decreases, and the indicator device usually generates a graph of pressure vs stroke within the working cylinder. From this graph the amount of work performed during the piston stroke may be calculated. It was the figure normally used for steam engines in the 19th century but is misleading because the actual power output may only be 70% to 90% of the indicated horsepowerSony VPCEH28FH/B battery.

Brake horsepower

Brake horsepower (bhp) is the measure of an engine's horsepower before the loss in power caused by the gearbox, alternator, differential, water pump, and other auxiliary components such as power steering pump, muffled exhaust system, etc. Brake refers to a device which was used to load an engine and hold it at a desired RPM. During testingSony VPCEH28FG/P battery, the output torque and rotational speed were measured to determine the brake horsepower. Horsepower was originally measured and calculated by use of the indicator (a James Watt invention of the late 18th century), and later by means of a De Prony brake connected to the engine's output shaft. More recently, an engine dynamometer is used instead of a De Prony brakeSony VPCEH28FG/B battery. Although the output delivered to the driving wheels is less than that obtainable at the engine's crankshaft, a chassis dynamometer gives an indication of an engine's 'real world' horsepower after losses in the drive train and gearbox. This gives a reasonably accurate indication of how a wheeled vehicle engine will perform once on the road.

Shaft horsepowerSony VPCEH28FF/B battery

Shaft horsepower (shp) is the power delivered to the propeller shafts of a steamship (or one powered by diesel engines or nuclear power), or an aircraft powered by a piston engine or a gas turbine engine. This shaft horsepower can be measured with instruments, or estimated from the indicated horsepower and a standard figure for the losses in the transmissionSony VPCEH28FA/B battery (typical figures are around 10%). This measure is not commonly used in the automobile industry, because there, drive train losses can become significant.

Engine power test codes

Engine power test codes determine how the power and torque of an automobile engine is measured and corrected. Correction factors are used to adjust power and torque measurements to standard atmospheric conditions to provide a more accurate comparison between engines as they are affected by the pressureSony VPCEH27FG/W battery, humidity, and temperature of ambient air.[16] There exist several standards for this purpose, some described below.

Society of Automotive Engineers

SAE gross power

Prior to the 1972 model year, American automakers rated and advertised their engines in brake horsepower (bhp), frequently referred to as SAE gross horsepower, because it was measured in accord with the protocols defined in SAE standards J245 and J1995. As with other brake horsepower test protocols, SAE gross hp was measured using a stock test engineSony VPCEH26FJ/W battery, generally running with few belt-driven accessories and sometimes fitted with long tube (test headers) in lieu of the OEM exhaust manifolds. The atmospheric correction standards for barometric pressure, humidity and temperature for testing were relatively idealistic.

SAE net power

In the United States, the term bhp fell into disuse in 1971-72, as automakers began to quote power in terms of SAE net horsepower in accord with SAE standard J1349. Like SAE gross and other brake horsepower protocolsSony VPCEH26EN/B battery, SAE Net hp is measured at the engine's crankshaft, and so does not account for transmission losses. However, the SAE net power testing protocol calls for standard production-type belt-driven accessories, air cleaner, emission controls, exhaust system, and other power-consuming accessories. This produces ratings in closer alignment with the power produced by the engine as it is actually configured and soldSony VPCEH26EH/P battery.

SAE certified power

In 2005, the SAE introduced "SAE Certified Power" with SAE J2723.[17] This test is voluntary and is in itself not a separate engine test code but a certification of either J1349 or J1995 after which the manufacturer is allowed to advertise "Certified to SAE J1349" or "Certified to SAE J1995" depending on which test standard have been followedSony VPCEH26EG/P battery. To attain certification the test must follow the SAE standard in question, take place in a ISO9000/9002 certified facility and be witnessed by an SAE approved third party.

A few manufacturers such as Honda and Toyota switched to the new ratings immediately, with multi-directional results; the rated output of Cadillac's supercharged Northstar V8 jumped from 440 to 469 hp (330 to 350 kW) under the new tests, while the rating for Toyota's Camry 3.0 L 1MZ-FE V6 fell from 210 to 190 hp (160 to 140 kW) Sony VPCEH26EF/B battery. The company's Lexus ES 330 and Camry SE V6 were previously rated at 225 hp (168 kW) but the ES330 dropped to 218 hp (163 kW) while the Camry declined to 210 hp (160 kW). The first engine certified under the new program was the 7.0 L LS7 used in the 2006 Chevrolet Corvette Z06. Certified power rose slightly from 500 to 505 hp (370 to 377 kW) Sony VPCEH26EA/W battery.

While Toyota and Honda are retesting their entire vehicle lineups, other automakers generally are retesting only those with updated powertrains. For example, the 2006 Ford Five Hundred is rated at 203 horsepower, the same as that of 2005 model. However, the 2006 rating does not reflect the new SAE testing procedure as Ford is not going to spend the extra expense of retesting its existing enginesSony VPCEH25EN/W battery. Over time, most automakers are expected to comply with the new guidelines.

SAE tightened its horsepower rules after some engineers noticed parts of the old test could be subjected to different interpretations. Under the old testing procedures, there were small factors that required a judgment call: how much oil was in the crankcase, how the engine controls were calibrated and whether a vehicle was tested with premium fuelSony VPCEH25EG/B battery. In some cases, such can add up to a change in horsepower ratings. A road test editor at Edmunds.com, John Di Pietro, said decreases in horsepower ratings for some '06 models are not that dramatic. For vehicles like a midsize family sedan, it is likely that the reputation of the manufacturer will be more important. Sony VPCEH24FX/W battery

Deutsches Institut für Normung 70020

DIN 70020 is a standard from German DIN regarding road vehicles. Because the German word for horsepower is Pferdestärke, in Germany it is commonly abbreviated to PS. DIN hp is measured at the engine's output shaft, and is usually expressed in metric (Pferdestärke) rather than mechanical horsepowerSony VPCEH24FX/P battery.

Economic Commission for Europe R24

ECE R24 is a UN standard for the approval of compression ignition engine emissions, installation and measurement of engine power.[19] It is similar to DIN 70020 standard, but with different requirements for connecting an engine's fan during testing causing it to absorb less power from the engine. Sony VPCEH24FX/L battery

Economic Commission for Europe R85

ECE R85 is a UN standard for the approval of internal combustion engines with regard to the measurement of the net power.[21]

80/1269/EEC

80/1269/EEC of 16 December 1980 is a European Union standard for road vehicle engine power.

International Organization for Standardization

ISO 14396 specifies the additional and method requirement for determinating the power of reciprocating internal combustion engines when presented for an ISO 8178 exhaust emission test. It applies to reciprocating internal combustion engines for land, rail and marine use excluding engines of motor vehicles primarily designed for road use. Sony VPCEH24FX/B battery

ISO 1585 is an engine net power test code intended for road vehicles.

ISO 2534 is an engine gross power test code intended for road vehicles

ISO 4164 is an engine net power test code intended for mopeds.

ISO 4106 is an engine net power test code intended for motorcycles.

ISO 9249 is an engine net power test code intended for earth moving machines.

Japanese Industrial Standard D 1001

JIS D 1001 is a Japanese net, and gross, engine power test code for automobiles or trucks having a spark ignition, diesel engine, or fuel injection engineSony VPCEH1Z1E battery.

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