Crocodile And Panda

Publié le par salebatterymart

A crocodile is any species belonging to the family Crocodylidae (sometimes classified instead as the subfamily Crocodylinae). The term can also be used more loosely to include all extant members of the order Crocodilia: i.e. the true crocodiles, the alligators and caimans (family Alligatoridae) and the gharials (family Gavialidae) (AKKU Sony VGP-BPS13), as well as the Crocodylomorpha, which include prehistoric crocodile relatives and ancestors.

Member species of the family Crocodylidae are large aquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia. Crocodiles tend to congregate in freshwater habitats such as rivers, lakes, wetlands and sometimes in brackish water. They feed mostly on vertebrates -(AKKU Sony VGP-BPS13A/B) fish, reptiles, and mammals, and sometimes on invertebrates - molluscs and crustaceans, depending on species. They first appeared during the Eocene epoch, about 55 million years ago.

Etymology

The word "crocodile" comes from the Ancient Greek κροκόδιλος (crocodilos), "lizard," used in the phrase ho krokódilos ho potamós, "the lizard of the (Nile) river".

There are several variant Greek forms of the word attested, including the later form κροκόδειλος (crocodeilos)[2] found cited in many English reference works(AKKU Sony VGP-BPS13B/B).[3] In the Koine Greek of Roman times, crocodilos and crocodeilos would have been pronounced identically, and either or both may be the source of the Latinized form crocodīlus used by the ancient Romans.

Crocodilos or crocodeilos is a compound of krokè ("pebbles"), and drilos/dreilos ("worm"). It is ascribed to Herodotus, supposedly to describe the basking habits of the Egyptian crocodile. (AKKU Sony VGP-BPS13/S) However the word drilos is only attested as a colloquial term for "penis".[5] The meaning of krokè is explained as describing the skin texture of lizards (or crocodiles) in most sources,[citation needed] but is alternately claimed to refer to a supposed habit of (lizards or crocodiles) basking on pebbly ground.

The form crocodrillus is attested in Medieval Latin(AKKU Sony VGP-BPS13B/S).[4] It is not clear whether this is a medieval corruption or derives from alternate Greco-Latin forms (late Greek corcodrillos and corcodrillion are attested).

A (further) corrupted form cocodrille is found in Old French and was borrowed into Middle English as cocodril(le). The Modern English form crocodile was adapted directly from the Classical Latin crocodīlus in the 16th century, replacing the earlier form.

The use of -y- in the scientific name Crocodylus (and forms derived from it) is a corruption introduced by Laurenti (1768) (AKKU Sony VGP-BPS13A/S).

Description

Crocodiles are similar to alligators and caimans; for their common biology and differences between them, see Crocodilia.

Crocodiles, like dinosaurs, have the abdominal ribs modified into gastralia.

Crocodiles are among the more biologically complex reptiles despite their prehistoric look. Unlike other reptiles, a crocodile has a cerebral cortex, a four-chambered heart,and the functional equivalent of a diaphragm, by incorporating muscles used for aquatic locomotion into respiration (e.g. m. diaphragmaticus); (AKKU Sony VGP-BPS13A/Q) Its external morphology, on the other hand, is a sign of its aquatic and predatory lifestyle.

A crocodile’s physical traits allow it to be a successful predator. Its streamlined body enables it to swim swiftly. It also tucks its feet to the side while swimming, which makes it faster by decreasing water resistance. Its webbed feet, though not used to propel the animal through the water, allow it to make fast turns and sudden moves in the water or initiate swimming(AKKU Sony VGP-BPS13B/Q). Webbed feet are an advantage in shallower water where the animal sometimes moves around by walking.

Crocodiles have a palatal flap, a rigid tissue at the back of the mouth that blocks the entry of water. The palate has a special path from the nostril to the glottis that bypasses the mouth. The nostrils are closed during submergence. Like other archosaurs, crocodilians are diapsid, although their post-temporal fenestrae are reduced(AKKU Sony VGP-BPS13Q). The walls of the braincase are bony, but lack supratemporal and postfrontal bones.[7] Their tongues are not free, but held in place by a membrane which limits movement; as a result, crocodiles are unable to stick out their tongues.[8]

Crocodilian scales have pores believed to be sensory in function, analogous to the lateral line in fishes. They are particularly seen on their upper and lower jaws. Another possibility is they are secretory, as they produce an oily substance that appears to flush mud off. (Sony VGP-BPL8 Battery)

Crocodiles are very fast over short distances, even out of water. Since they feed by grabbing and holding onto their prey, they have evolved sharp teeth for tearing and holding onto flesh, and powerful muscles to close the jaws and hold them shut. These jaws can bite down with immense force, by far the strongest bite of any animal(Sony VGP-BPL8A Battery). The pressure of the crocodile's bite is more than 5,000 pounds per square inch (30,000 kPa),[9] compared to just 335 pounds per square inch (2,300 kPa) for a Rottweiler, 400 pounds per square inch (2,800 kPa) for a large great white shark, 800 pounds per square inch (6,000 kPa) to 1,000 pounds per square inch (7,000 kPa) for a hyena, or 2,000 pounds per square inch (10,000 kPa) for a large alligator(Sony VGN-FZ130E/B Battery). The jaws are opened, however, by a very weak set of muscles. Crocodiles can thus be subdued for study or transport by taping their jaws or holding their jaws shut with large rubber bands cut from automobile inner tubes. They have limited lateral (side-to-side) neck movement.

Biology and behavior

Crocodiles are ambush hunters, waiting for fish or land animals to come close, then rushing out to attack. As cold-blooded predators, they have a very slow metabolism(Sony VGN-FZ130E/BA Battery), so they can survive long periods without food. Despite their appearance of being slow, crocodiles are top predators in their environment, and various species have been observed attacking and killing sharks.[10]

Herodotus claimed Nile crocodiles had a symbiotic relationship with certain birds, such as the Egyptian plover, which enter the crocodile's mouth and pick leeches feeding on the crocodile's blood; with no evidence of this interaction actually occurring in any crocodile species, it is most likely mythical or allegorical fiction(Sony VGN-FZ130E/BB Battery).[11]

Many large crocodilians swallow stones (called gastroliths or stomach stones) which may act as ballast to balance their bodies or assist in crushing food,[7] similar to grit in birds.

Salt glands are present in the tongues of most crocodylids and they have a pore opening on the surface of the tongue. They appear to be similar to those in marine turtles; they seem to be absent in Alligatoridae. (Sony VGP-BPL9 Akku)

Crocodilians can produce sounds during distress and in aggressive displays. They can also hear well, but their tympanic membranes are concealed by flat flaps that may be raised or lowered by muscles.[7]

A crocodile farm in Mexico

Crocodiles eat fish, birds, mammals and occasionally smaller crocodiles.

Crocodiles are protected in many parts of the world, but they also are farmed commercially. Their hides are tanned and used to make leather goods such as shoes and handbags; crocodile meat is also considered a delicacy(Sony VGP-BPL9/B Akku). The most commonly farmed species are the saltwater and Nile crocodiles, while a hybrid of the saltwater and the rare Siamese crocodile is also bred in Asian farms. Farming has resulted in an increase in the saltwater crocodile population in Australia, as eggs are usually harvested from the wild, so landowners have an incentive to conserve their habitat(Sony VGP-BPL9/S Akku).

Distribution of crocodiles

Crocodiles are more closely related to birds and dinosaurs than to most animals classified as reptiles, the three being included in the group Archosauria ('ruling reptiles'). See Crocodilia for more information.

Crocodile embryos do not have sex chromosomes, and unlike humans, sex is not determined genetically. Sex is determined by temperature, with males produced at around 31.6 °C (89 °F), and females produced at slightly lower and higher temperatures(Sony VGP-BPL9A/B Akku). The average incubation period is around 80 days, and also is dependent on temperature.[12]

Crocodiles may possess a form of homing instinct. Three rogue saltwater crocodiles were relocated 400 kilometres by helicopter in northern Australia, but had returned to their original locations within three weeks, based on data obtained from tracking devices attached to the reptiles. (Sony VGP-BPL9A Akku)

The land speed record for a crocodile is 17 km/h (11 mph) measured in a galloping Australian freshwater crocodile.[14] Maximum speed varies from species to species. Certain species can indeed gallop, including Cuban crocodiles, New Guinea crocodiles, African dwarf crocodiles, and even small Nile crocodiles(Sony VGP-BPL9 Akku). The fastest means by which most species can move is a kind of "belly run", where the body moves in a snake-like fashion, limbs splayed out to either side paddling away frantically while the tail whips to and fro. Crocodiles can reach speeds of 10 or 11 km/h (around 7 mph) when they "belly run", and often faster if slipping down muddy riverbanks. Another form of locomotion is the "high walk", where the body is raised clear of the ground(Sony VGP-BPS21 Akku).

Siamese crocodile sleeping with its mouth open to pant

Crocodiles do not have sweat glands and release heat through their mouths. They often sleep with their mouths open and may even pant like a dog.[15]

The BBC TV[16] reported thee Nile crocodile which has lurked a long time underwater to catch prey, has built up a large oxygen debt. When it has caught and eaten that prey, it closes its right aortic arch and uses its left aortic arch to flush blood loaded with carbon dioxide from its muscles directly to its stomach(Sony VGP-BPS21A Akku); the resulting excess acidity in its blood supply makes it much easier for the stomach lining to secrete more stomach acid to quickly dissolve bulks of swallowed prey flesh and bone.

Size

A large saltwater crocodile in captivity in Australia

Size greatly varies between species, from the dwarf crocodile to the saltwater crocodile. Species of Palaeosuchus and Osteolaemus grow to an adult size of just 1 metre (3.3 ft) to 1.5 metres (4.9 ft). Larger species can reach over 4.85 metres (15.9 ft) long and weigh well over 1,200 kilograms (2,600 lb). Crocodilians show pronounced sexual dimorphism(Sony VGP-BPS21B Akku), with males growing much larger and more rapidly than females.[7] Despite their large adult sizes, crocodiles start their lives at around 20 centimetres (7.9 in) long. The largest species of crocodile is the saltwater crocodile, found in eastern India, northern Australia, throughout South-east Asia, and in the surrounding waters(Sony VGP-BPS21A/B Akku).

Two larger certifiable records are both of 6.2 metres (20 ft) crocodiles. The first was shot in the Mary River in the Northern Territory of Australia in 1974 by poachers, and measured by wildlife rangers.[citation needed] The second crocodile was killed in 1983 in the Fly River, Papua New Guinea. In the case of the second crocodile it was actually the skin that was measured by zoologist Jerome Montague(Sony VGP-BPS21/S Akku), and as skins are known to underestimate the size of the actual animal, it is possible this crocodile was at least another 10 cm longer.[citation needed]

The largest crocodile ever held in captivity is an estuarine–Siamese hybrid named Yai (Thai: ใหญ่, meaning big) (born 10 June 1972) at the famous Samutprakarn Crocodile Farm and Zoo, Thailand. This animal measures 6 m (19.69 ft) (19 ft 8 in) in length and weighs 1114.27 kg(Akku Sony VGP-BPL14).[17]

Meanwhile, the longest crocodile captured alive is Lolong which was measured at 6.096 metres (20 ft 3 in) by a National Geographic team in Agusan del Sur Province, Philippines.[18]

Wildlife experts, however, argue the largest crocodile so far found in the Bhitarkanika was almost 23 feet (7.0 m) long, which could be traced from the skull preserved by the Kanika royal family( Akku Sony VGP-BPL14 ). The crocodile was shot near Dhamara in 1926 and later its skull was preserved by the then Kanika king. Crocodile experts estimated the animal was between 20 feet (6.1 m) and 23 feet (7.0 m) long, as the size of the skull was measured one-ninth of the total length of the body.[citation needed]

Age

Measuring crocodile age is unreliable, although several techniques are used to derive a reasonable guess(Akku Sony VGP-BPS14/S ). The most common method is to measure lamellar growth rings in bones and teeth—each ring corresponds to a change in growth rate which typically occurs once a year between dry and wet seasons.[19] Bearing these inaccuracies in mind, the oldest crocodilians appear to be the largest species. C. porosus is estimated to live around 70 years on average(Akku Sony VGP-BPL14/B), with limited evidence of some individuals exceeding 100 years. One of the oldest crocodiles recorded died in a zoo in Russia. A male freshwater crocodile at the Australia Zoo is estimated to be 130 years old. He was rescued from the wild by Bob Irwin and Steve Irwin after being shot twice by hunters. As a result of the shootings, this crocodile (known affectionately as "Mr. Freshy") has lost his right eye(Akku Sony VGP-BPS14/B ).

Skin

Crocodiles have smooth skin on their bellies and sides, while their dorsal surfaces are armoured with large osteoderms. The armoured skin has scales and is thick and rugged, providing some protection. They are still able to absorb heat through this armour, as a network of small capillaries allow blood through the scales to absorb heat(AKKU sony VAIO VGN-FW21E).

Taxonomy of the Crocodylidae

Phylogeny

The cladogram below follows the topology from a 2012 analysis of morphological traits by Christopher A. Brochu and Glenn W. Storrs. Many extinct species of Crocodylus might represent different genera. C. suchus was not included, because its morphological codings were identical to these of C. niloticus. However, the authors suggested that it could be explained by their specimen sampling, and considered the two species to be distinct(AKKU Sony VAIO VGN-FW21I).

Crocodiles and humans

Danger to humans

Main article: Crocodile attacks

Crocodile warning sign, Trinity Beach, Queensland, Australia

The larger species of crocodiles are very dangerous to humans, mainly not from their ability to run after a person, but their ability to strike before the person can react. The saltwater crocodile and Nile crocodile are the most dangerous, killing hundreds of people each year in parts of Southeast Asia and Africa. The mugger crocodile, American crocodile, American alligator and black caiman are also dangerous to humans(AKKU Sony VAIO VGN-FW21L).

Crocodile products

Main article: Crocodile farm

Crocodile leather wallets from a Bangkok crocodile farm

Chiang Mai crocodile leather belt

Crocodile leather can be made into goods such as wallets, briefcases, purses, handbags, belts, hats, and shoes.

Crocodile meat is consumed in some countries, such as Australia, Ethiopia, Thailand, South Africa and also Cuba (in pickled form); it can also be found in specialty restaurants in some parts of the United States(AKKU Sony VAIO VGN-FW21Z). The meat is white and its nutritional composition compares favourably with that of other meats.[citation needed] It tends to have a slightly higher cholesterol level than other meats.[citation needed] Crocodile meat has a delicate flavour; some describe it as a cross between chicken and crab.[citation needed] Cuts of meat include backstrap and tail fillet(AKKU Sony VAIO VGN-FW21M).

The panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca, lit. "black and white cat-foot"),[2] also known as the giant panda to distinguish it from the unrelated red panda, is a bear[3] native to central-western and south western China.[4] It is easily recognized by its large, distinctive black patches around the eyes, over the ears, and across its round body. Though it belongs to the order Carnivora(AKKU Sony VAIO VGN-FW31M), the panda's diet is 99% bamboo.[5] Pandas in the wild will occasionally eat other grasses, wild tubers, or even meat in the form of birds, rodents or carrion. In captivity they may receive honey, eggs, fish, yams, shrub leaves, oranges, or bananas along with specially prepared food.

The giant panda lives in a few mountain ranges in central China, mainly in Sichuan province, but also in the Shaanxi and Gansu provinces.[8] As a result of farming, deforestation and other development, the panda has been driven out of the lowland areas where it once lived(AKKU Sony VAIO VGN-FW31J).

The panda is a conservation reliant endangered species.[4] A 2007 report shows 239 pandas living in captivity inside China and another 27 outside the country. Wild population estimates vary; one estimate shows that there are about 1,590 individuals living in the wild,[9] while a 2006 study via DNA analysis estimated that this figure could be as high as 2,000 to 3,000. (AKKU Sony VAIO VGN-FW31E) Some reports also show that the number of pandas in the wild is on the rise. However, the IUCN does not believe there is enough certainty yet to reclassify the species from Endangered to Vulnerable.[1]

While the dragon has often served as China's national emblem, internationally the panda appears at least as commonly. As such, it is becoming widely used within China in international contexts, for example the five Fuwa mascots of the Beijing Olympics(AKKU Sony VAIO VGN-FW31Z).

Description

Skull, as illustrated in Pocock's The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma – Mammalia Vol 2

A giant panda cub. At birth, the giant panda typically weighs 100 to 200 grams (3 1⁄2 to 7 oz) and measures 15 to 17 centimeters (6 to 7 in) long.[13]

The giant panda has a black-and-white coat. Adults measure around 1.2 to 1.8 meters (4 to 6 ft) long, including a tail of about 13 cm (5.1 in), and 60 to 90 centimeters (1 ft 10 in to 2 ft 10 in) tall at the shoulder. (AKKU Sony VAIO VGN-FW31ZJ) Males can weigh up to 160 kilograms (350 lb).[15] Females (generally 10–20% smaller than males)[16] can weigh as little as 75 kg (170 lb) but can also weigh up to 125 kilograms (280 lb). Average adult weight is 100 to 115 kilograms (220 to 250 lb).

The giant panda has a body shape typical of bears. It has black fur on its ears, eye patches, muzzle, legs, arms and shoulders. The rest of the animal's coat is white. Although scientists do not know why these unusual bears are black and white, some speculate that the bold (AKKU Sony VAIO VGN-FW32Z)coloring provides effective camouflage in its shade-dappled snowy and rocky surroundings.[19] The giant panda's thick, wooly coat keeps it warm in the cool forests of its habitat.[19] The giant panda has large molar teeth and strong jaw muscles for crushing tough bamboo.[20]

The giant panda's paw has a "thumb" and five fingers; the "thumb" is actually a modified sesamoid bone, which helps the giant panda to hold bamboo while eating.[21] Stephen Jay Gould discusses this feature in his book of essays on evolution and biology, The Panda's Thumb(AKKU Sony VAIO PCG-5G2L).

The giant panda's tail, measuring 10 to 15 centimeters (4 to 6 in), is the second longest in the bear family. The longest belongs to the Sloth Bear.[16]

The giant panda typically lives around 20 years in the wild and up to 30 years in captivity.[22] The recorded age of the oldest captive giant panda, a female named Ming Ming, is 34.[23]

Behavior

In the wild, the giant panda is a terrestrial animal and primarily spends its life roaming and feeding in the bamboo forests of the Qinling Mountains and in the hilly Sichuan Province. (AKKU Sony VAIO PCG-5G3L ) Giant pandas are generally solitary,[25] and each adult has a defined territory and females are not tolerant of other females in their range. Pandas communicate through vocalization and scent marking such as clawing trees or spraying urine.[4] The giant panda is able to climb and take shelter in hollow trees or rock crevices but does not establish permanent dens. For this reason(Sony VAIO PCG-5J1L Akku), pandas do not hibernate, which is similar to other subtropical mammals, and will instead move to elevations with warmer temperatures.[26] Pandas rely primarily on spatial memory rather than visual memory.[27]

Social encounters occur primarily during the brief breeding season in which pandas in proximity to one another will gather.[28] After mating, the male leaves the female alone to raise the cub. (Sony VAIO PCG-5J2L Akku)

Though the panda is often assumed to be docile, it has been known to attack humans, presumably out of irritation rather than predation.

Feeding

Forefeet

Pandas eating bamboo at the National Zoo in Washington, D.C.

Panda eating, standing, playing

Despite its taxonomic classification as a carnivoran, the giant panda's diet is primarily herbivorous, consisting almost exclusively of bamboo.[22] However, the giant panda still has the digestive system of a carnivore, as well as carnivore-specific genes,[33] and thus derives little energy and little protein from consumption of bamboo(Sony VAIO PCG-5K2L Akku). Its ability to digest cellulose is ascribed to the microbes in its gut.[34][35] The giant panda is a "highly specialized" animal with "unique adaptations", and has lived in bamboo forests for millions of years.[25] The average giant panda eats as much as 9 to 14 kg (20 to 30 pounds) of bamboo shoots a day. Because the giant panda consumes a diet low in nutrition(Sony VAIO PCG-5K1L Akku), it is important for it to keep its digestive tract full.[22] The limited energy input imposed on it by its diet has affected the panda's behavior. The giant panda tends to limit its social interactions and avoids steeply sloping terrain in order to limit its energy expenditures.[36]

Two of the panda's most distinctive features, its large size and its round face, are adaptations to its bamboo diet. Panda researcher Russell Ciochon observed that(Sony VAIO PCG-6S1L Akku): “[much] like the vegetarian gorilla, the low body surface area to body volume [of the giant panda] is indicative of a lower metabolic rate. This lower metabolic rate and a more sedentary lifestyle allow the giant panda to subsist on nutrient poor resources such as bamboo.”[36] Similarly, the giant panda's round face is the result of powerful jaw muscles, which attach from the top of the head to the jaw.[36] Large molars crush and grind fibrous plant material(Sony VAIO PCG-6S2L Akku).

Pandas eat any of twenty-five bamboo species in the wild, such as Fargesia dracocephala[37] and Fargesia rufa.[38] Only a few bamboo species are widespread at the high altitudes pandas now inhabit. Bamboo leaves contain the highest protein levels; stems have less.[39] Given this large diet, the giant panda can defecate up to 40 times a day. (Sony VAIO PCG-6W1L Akku)

Because of the synchronous flowering, death, and regeneration of all bamboo within a species, the giant panda must have at least two different species available in its range to avoid starvation. While primarily herbivorous, the giant panda still retains decidedly ursine teeth, and will eat meat, fish, and eggs when available(Sony VAIO PCG-6W2L Akku). In captivity, zoos typically maintain the giant panda's bamboo diet, though some will provide specially formulated biscuits or other dietary supplements.[41]

Genomics

The giant panda genome was sequenced in 2009 using a next-generation sequencing technology.[42] Its genome contains 20 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes.

Classification

For many decades the precise taxonomic classification of the giant panda was under debate because it shares characteristics[clarification needed] of both bears and raccoons(Sony VAIO PCG-6W3L Akku).[43] However, molecular studies suggest that the giant panda is a true bear and part of the Ursidae family,[44][45] though it differentiated early in history from the main ursine stock. The giant panda's closest extant relative is the spectacled bear of South America.[46] The giant panda has been referred to as a living fossil(Sony VAIO PCG-7111L Akku).[47]

Despite the shared name, habitat type, and diet, as well as a unique enlarged bone called the pseudo thumb (which helps them grip the bamboo shoots they eat), the giant panda and red panda are only distantly related. Molecular studies have placed the red panda in its own family Ailuridae, and not under Ursidae(Sony VAIO PCG-7112L Akku).

Hua Mei, the baby panda born at the San Diego Zoo in 1999.

Subspecies

Two subspecies of giant panda have been recognized on the basis of distinct cranial measurements, color patterns, and population genetics (Wan et al., 2005).

The nominate subspecies Ailuropoda melanoleuca melanoleuca consists of most extant populations of panda. These animals are principally found in Sichuan and display the typical stark black and white contrasting colors(Sony VAIO PCG-7113L Akku).

The Qinling Panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca qinlingensis[48] is restricted to the Qinling Mountains in Shaanxi at elevations of 1300–3000 m. The typical black and white pattern of Sichuan giant pandas is replaced with a dark brown versus light brown pattern. The skull of A. m. qinlingensis is smaller than its relatives, and it has larger molars(Sony VAIO PCG-7131L Akku).

Uses and human interaction

Early references

In the past, pandas were thought to be rare and noble creatures – the mother of Emperor Wen of Han was buried with a panda skull in her vault. The grandson of Emperor Taizong of Tang is said to have given Japan two pandas and a sheet of panda skin as a sign of goodwill. Unlike many other animals in Ancient China, pandas were rarely thought to have medical uses(Sony VAIO PCG-7132L Akku). The few known uses include the Sichuan tribal peoples' use of panda urine to melt accidentally swallowed needles, and the use of panda pelts to control menses as described in the Qin Dynasty encyclopedia Erya.[49]

The creature named mo (貘) mentioned in some ancient books has been interpreted as giant panda.[49] The dictionary Shuowen Jiezi (Eastern Han Dynasty) says that the mo, from Shu (Sichuan), is bear-like, but yellow-and-black(Sony VAIO PCG-7133L Akku),[50] although the older Erya describes mo simply as a "white leopard".[51] The interpretation of the legendary fierce creature pixiu (貔貅) as referring to the giant panda is also common.[52]

During the reign of the Yongle Emperor (early 15th century), his relative from Kaifeng sent him a captured zouyu (騶虞), and another zouyu was sighted in Shandong. Zouyu is a legendary "righteous" animal, which, similarly to a qilin(Sony VAIO PCG-7z1L Akku), only appears during the rule of a benevolent and sincere monarch. It is said to be fierce as a tiger, but gentle and strictly vegetarian, and described in some books as a white tiger with black spots. Puzzled about the real zoological identity of the creature captured during the Yongle era, J.J.L. Duyvendak exclaims, "Can it possibly have been a Pandah?" (Sony VAIO PCG-7z1L Akku)

The comparative obscurity of the giant panda throughout most of China's history is illustrated by the fact that, despite there being a number of depictions of bears in Chinese art starting from its most ancient times, and the bamboo being one of the favorite subjects for Chinese painters, there are no known pre-20th-century artistic representations of giant pandas. (Sony VAIO PCG-8Y1L Akku)

Western discovery

The West first learned of the giant panda in 1869 because the French missionary Armand David[43] received a skin from a hunter on 11 March 1869. The first Westerner known to have seen a living giant panda is the German zoologist Hugo Weigold, who purchased a cub in 1916. Kermit and Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., became the first Westerners to shoot a panda(Sony VAIO PCG-8Y2L Akku), on an expedition funded by the Field Museum of Natural History in the 1920s. In 1936, Ruth Harkness became the first Westerner to bring back a live giant panda, a cub named Su Lin[55] who went to live at the Brookfield Zoo in Chicago. In 1938, five giant pandas were sent to London;[56][57] these activities were later halted because of wars and for the next half of the century, the West knew little of pandas(Sony VAIO PCG-8Z1L Akku).

Gao Gao, an adult male giant panda at San Diego Zoo.

Panda diplomacy

Main article: Panda diplomacy

Loans of giant pandas to American and Japanese zoos formed an important part of the diplomacy of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in the 1970s, as it marked some of the first cultural exchanges between the People's Republic and the West. This practice has been termed "Panda diplomacy"(Sony VAIO PCG-8Z2L Akku).

By 1984, however, pandas were no longer given as gifts. Instead, the PRC began to offer pandas to other nations only on 10-year loans, under terms including a fee of up to US$1,000,000 per year and a provision that any cubs born during the loan are the property of the PRC. Since 1998, because of a WWF lawsuit(Akku Sony VGN-NR11M/S), the United States Fish and Wildlife Service only allows a U.S. zoo to import a panda if the zoo can ensure that the PRC will channel more than half of its loan fee into conservation efforts for the giant panda and its habitat.

In May 2005, the People's Republic of China offered a breeding pair to Taiwan. The issue became embroiled in cross-Strait relations—both over the underlying symbolism(Akku Sony VGN-NR11S/S), and over technical issues such as whether the transfer would be considered "domestic" or "international," or whether any true conservation purpose would be served by the exchange.[58] A contest in 2006 to name the pandas was held in the mainland, resulting in the politically charged names Tuan Tuan and Yuan Yuan (from tuanyuan, meaning "reunion", i.e. "reunification")(Akku Sony VGN-NR11Z/S). PRC's offer was initially rejected by President Chen of Taiwan. However when Ma Ying-jeou assumed the presidency in 2008 the offer was accepted, and the pandas arrived in December of that year.[59]

Conservation

The giant panda is an endangered species, threatened by continued habitat loss and by a very low birthrate, both in the wild and in captivity.[22]

The giant panda has been a target for poaching by locals since ancient times and by foreigners since it was introduced to the West(Akku Sony VGN-NR11Z/T). Starting in the 1930s, foreigners were unable to poach giant pandas in China because of the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Chinese Civil War, but pandas remained a source of soft furs for the locals. The population boom in China after 1949 created stress on the pandas' habitat, and the subsequent famines led to the increased hunting of wildlife, including pandas(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11E Battery). During the Cultural Revolution, all studies and conservation activities on the pandas were stopped. After the Chinese economic reform, demand for panda skins from Hong Kong and Japan led to illegal poaching for the black market, acts generally ignored by the local officials at the time.

Close up of a baby seven-month-old panda cub in the Wolong Nature Reserve in Sichuan, China(Akku Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11L).

Though the Wolong National Nature Reserve was set up by the PRC government in 1958 to save the declining panda population, few advances in the conservation of pandas were made, owing to inexperience and insufficient knowledge of ecology. Many believed that the best way to save the pandas was to cage them. As a result, pandas were caged at any sign of decline(Akku Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11M), and suffered from terrible conditions. Because of pollution and destruction of their natural habitat, along with segregation caused by caging, reproduction of wild pandas was severely limited. In the 1990s, however, several laws (including gun control and the removal of resident humans from the reserves) helped the chances of survival for pandas. With these renewed efforts and improved conservation methods(Akku Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11S), wild pandas have started to increase in numbers in some areas, even though they still are classified as a rare species.

In 2006, scientists reported that the number of pandas living in the wild may have been underestimated at about 1,000. Previous population surveys had used conventional methods to estimate the size of the wild panda population, but using a new method that analyzes DNA from panda droppings, scientists believe that the wild panda population may be as large as 3,000. (Akku Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11Z) Although the species is still endangered, it is thought that the conservation efforts are working. In 2006, there were 40 panda reserves in China, compared to just 13 reserves two decades ago.[10]

The giant panda is among the world's most adored and protected rare animals, and is one of the few in the world whose natural inhabitant status was able to gain a UNESCO World Heritage Site designation. The Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuaries(Akku Sony VAIO VGN-FZ130E/B), located in the southwest Sichuan province and covering seven natural reserves, were inscribed onto the World Heritage List in 2006.[60][61]

Not all conservationists agree that the money spent on conserving pandas is money well spent. Chris Packham has argued that breeding pandas in captivity is "pointless" because "there is not enough habitat left to sustain them".[62] Packham argues that the money spent on pandas would be better spent elsewhere, (Akku Sony VAIO VGN-FZ140E) [62] and has said that he would "eat the last panda if I could have all the money we have spent on panda conservation put back on the table for me to do more sensible things with,"[63] though he has apologized for upsetting people who like pandas.[64] He points out that "The panda is possibly one of the grossest wastes of conservation money in the last half century." (Akku Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21E)

In 2012, Earthwatch Institute, a global non-profit that teams volunteers with scientists to conduct important environmental research, launched a program called "On the Trail of Giant Panda." This program, based in the Wolong National Nature Reserve, allows volunteers to work up close with pandas cared for in captivity, and help them adapt to life in the wild, so that they may breed, and live longer and healthier lives(Akku Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21J).

Reproduction

Panda Research and Breeding Centre in Chengdu.

Initially the primary method of breeding giant pandas in captivity was by artificial insemination, as they seemed to lose their interest in mating once they were captured.[66] This led some scientists to try extreme methods such as showing them videos of giant pandas mating[67] and giving the males Viagra.[68] Only recently have researchers started having success with captive breeding programs(Akku Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21M), and they have now determined that giant pandas have comparable breeding to some populations of the American black bear, a thriving bear family. The current reproductive rate is considered one young every two years.[12][24]

Giant pandas reach sexual maturity between the ages of four and eight, and may be reproductive until age 20.[69] The mating season is between March and May(Akku Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21S), when a female goes into her estrous cycle which lasts for two or three days and only occurs once a year.[70] When mating, the female is in a crouching, head-down position as the male mounts her from behind. Copulation time is short, ranging from thirty seconds to five minutes, but the male may mount her repeatedly to ensure successful fertilization. The gestation period ranges from 95 to 160 days. (Akku Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21Z)

If twins are born, usually only one survives in the wild. The mother will select the stronger of the cubs, and the weaker will die. It is thought that the mother cannot produce enough milk for two cubs since she does not store fat.[71] The father has no part in helping raise the cub.

When the cub is first born, it is pink, blind, and toothless,[72] weighing only 90 to 130 grams (3.2 to 4.6 ounces), or about 1/800 of the mother's weight. (Akku Sony VAIO VGN-FZ38M) It nurses from its mother's breast 6 to 14 times a day for up to 30 minutes at a time. For three to four hours, the mother may leave the den to feed, which leaves the cub defenseless. One to two weeks after birth, the cub's skin turns gray where its hair will eventually become black. A slight pink color may appear on cub's fur, as a result of a chemical reaction between the fur and its mother's saliva(Akku Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31E). A month after birth, the color pattern of the cub's fur is fully developed. A cub's fur is very soft and coarsens with age. The cub begins to crawl at 75 to 80 days;[43] mothers play with their cubs by rolling and wrestling with them. The cubs are able to eat small quantities of bamboo after six months,[73] though mother's milk remains the primary food source for most of the first year(Akku Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31J). Giant panda cubs weigh 45 kg (100 pounds) at one year, and live with their mothers until they are 18 months to two years old. The interval between births in the wild is generally two years.

In July 2009, Chinese scientists confirmed the birth of the first cub to be successfully conceived through artificial insemination using frozen sperm.[74] The cub was born at 07:41 on 23 July that year in Sichuan as the third cub of You You, an 11-year-old. (Akku Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31M)The technique for freezing the sperm in liquid nitrogen was first developed in 1980 and the first birth was hailed as a solution to the problem of lessening giant panda semen availability which had led to in-breeding.[76][77] It has been suggested that panda semen, which can be frozen for decades, could be shared between different zoos to save the species. Sony VAIO PCG-8131M battery It is expected that zoos in destinations such as San Diego in the United States and Mexico City will now be able to provide their own semen to inseminate more giant pandas.[77]

Attempts have also been made to reproduce giant pandas by interspecific pregnancy by implanting cloned panda embryos into the uterus of an animal of another species. This has resulted in panda fetuses, but no live births. Sony VAIO PCG-8152M battery

Name

There is no conclusive explanation of the origin of the word "panda". The closest candidate is the Nepali word ponya, possibly referring to the adapted wrist bone. The Western world originally applied this name to the red panda. Until 1901, when it was erroneously stated that it was related to the red panda, the giant panda was known as "mottled bear" (Ailuropus melanoleucus) or "particolored bear".Sony VAIO PCG-31311M battery

In most encyclopedic sources, the name "panda" or "common panda" originally referred to the lesser-known red panda,[80] thus necessitating the inclusion of "giant" and "lesser/red" prefixes in front of the names. Even in 2010, the Encyclopædia Britannica still used "giant panda" or "panda bear" for the bear[81] and simply "panda" for the Ailuridae,[82] despite the popular usage of the word "panda"Sony VAIO PCG-31111M battery.

Since the earliest collection of Chinese writings, the Chinese language has given the bear 20 different names, such as 花熊 (huā xióng) "spotted bear" and 竹熊 (zhú xióng) "bamboo bear".[83] The most popular names in China today are 大熊貓 (dà xióng māo), literally "large bear cat", or just 熊貓 (xióng māo), "bear cat"Sony VAIO PCG-8112M battery. The name may have been inspired by the giant panda's eyes, which have pupils that are cat-like vertical slits – unlike other bear species, which have round pupils.[84]

In Taiwan, the popular name for panda is the inverted 貓熊 (māo xióng) "cat bear," even though many encyclopedia and dictionaries in Taiwan still use "bear cat" as the correct name. Some linguists argue that, in this construction, "bear" instead of "cat" is the base noun, making this name more grammatically and logically correct, which may have led to the popular choice despite official writings. Sony VAIO PCG-7186M battery

In zoos

See also: Category:Individual giant pandas

Pandas have been kept in zoos as early as the Western Han Dynasty in China, where the writer Sima Xiangru notes that the panda was the most treasured animal in the emperor's garden of exotic animals in the capital Chang'an (present Xi'an). Not until the 1950s were pandas again recorded to have been exhibited in China's zoos. Sony VAIO PCG-7171M battery

Chi Chi at the London Zoo became very popular. This influenced the World Wildlife Fund to use a panda as its symbol.[86]

A 2006 New York Times article[87] outlined the economics of keeping pandas, which costs five times more than that of the next most expensive animal, an elephant. American zoos generally pay the Chinese government $1 million a year in fees, as part of a typical ten-year contractSony VAIO PCG-9Z1M battery. San Diego's contract with China was to expire in 2008 but got a five-year extension at about half of the previous yearly cost.[88] The last contract, with the Memphis Zoo in Memphis, Tennessee, ends in 2013.

Asia

China

Tai Shan in June 2007

Many zoos and breeding centers in China house giant pandas. These include:

Beijing Zoo – home of the internationally notorious Gu Gu.

Bifengxia Panda Base, Ya'an, Sichuan – home to U.S. born giant pandas Mei Sheng (M), Hua Mei (F), Tai Shan (M),[90] Su Lin (F),[91] and Zhen Zhen (F).[91] It is also home to the Austrian-born Fu Long. Sony VAIO PCG-5S1M battery

Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding, Chengdu, Sichuan – Twelve cubs were born here in 2006. It is also home to Japanese-born Xiong Bang (M) and U.S.-born Mei Lan (F).

China Conservation and Research Center for the Giant Panda at the Wolong National Nature Reserve, Sichuan – Seventeen cubs were born here in 2006.[93]

Ocean Park, Hong Kong – home to Jia Jia (F), An An (M), Le Le (M), and Ying Ying (F). Sony VAIO PCG-5P1M battery

Other places in Asia

Taipei Zoo, Taipei, Taiwan – home to Tuan Tuan (M) and Yuan Yuan (F).[97]

Chiang Mai Zoo, Chiang Mai, Thailand – home to Chuang Chuang (M), Lin Hui (F), and Lin Bing, a female cub born 27 May 2009[98][99]

Adventure World, Shirahama, Wakayama – Until recently, home to Ei Mei (M), Mei Mei (F), Rau Hin (F), Ryu Hin and Syu Hin (male twins), and Kou Hin (M). In December 2006, twin cubs were born to Ei Mei and Mei Mei. Two cubs, Eiihin (M) and Meihin (F) Sony VAIO PCG-5N2M battery, were born to Rau Hin on 13 September 2008. Mei Mei, a mother of ten cubs, died on 15 October 2008.

Oji Zoo, Kobe, Hyōgo – home of Kou Kou (M), Tan Tan (F)[104]

River Safari, a new park under Wildlife Reserves Singapore, Singapore – to receive two pandas (Kai Kai and Jia Jia) in 2012.

Australia

Adelaide Zoo, Adelaide – home to Wang Wang (M) and Funi (F). They arrived on 28 November 2009, and went on display on 14 December. They are expected to stay for a minimum of 10 years, and are the only giant pandas living in the Southern Hemisphere. Sony VAIO PCG-3C2M battery

Europe

Giant panda in Vienna’s zoo Tiergarten Schönbrunn

Zoologischer Garten Berlin, Berlin, Germany – home of Bao Bao, age 32,[107] the oldest male panda living in captivity; he has been in Berlin for 25 years and has never reproduced.

Tiergarten Schönbrunn, Vienna, Austria – home to Yang Yang (F) and Long Hui (M), born in Wolong, China in 2000. They gave birth to Fu Long (M) in 2007,[108] and Fu Hu (M) in 2010. Fu Long, who has been relocated to China, was the first to be born in Europe in 25 years. Sony VAIO PCG-8161M battery

Zoo Aquarium, Madrid, Spain – home of Bing Xing (M) and Hua Zuiba (F) since 2007. They gave birth to twin cubs on 7 September 2010. The zoo was also the site of the first giant panda birth in Europe, back in 1982. That giant panda cub was named Chu-lin.

The Edinburgh Zoo – home to Tian Tian (F) and Yang Guang (M) since 4 December 2011.

ZooParc de Beauval – home to Huan Huan (F) and Yuan Zi (M) since 15 Jan 2012Sony VAIO PCG-8141M battery.

North America

Bai Yun at San Diego Zoo, has given birth to 5 cubs in captivity and is considered one of the most successfully reproductive captive pandas

Chapultepec Zoo, Mexico City – home of Xiu Hua, born on 25 June 1985, Shuan Shuan, born on 15 June 1987, and Xin Xin, born on 1 July 1990 from Tohui (Tohui born on Chapultepec Zoo on 21 July 1981 and died on 16 November 1993), all females.

San Diego Zoo, San Diego – home of Bai Yun (F), Gao Gao (M), and Yun Zi (M).

National Zoo in Washington, D.C. – home of Mei Xiang (F) and Tian Tian (M) Sony VAIO PCG-3J1M battery.

Zoo Atlanta, Atlanta – home of Lun Lun (F), Yang Yang (M), Xi Lan (M), and Po (M), born 3 November 2010.[118]

Memphis Zoo, Memphis – home of Ya Ya (F) and Le Le (M)

The Toronto Zoo and Calgary Zoo will receive a pair of pandas named Er Shun (M) and Ji Li (F). The two pandas are expected to start their time in Canada at the Toronto Zoo sometime in 2013 and will spend 10 years in Canada, evenly split between Toronto and Calgary (5 years each).[120]

North American–born pandasSony VAIO PCG-3H1M battery

Tohui (Nahuatl word for kid), born 21 July 1981, died 16 November 1993; female. Chapultepec Zoo, Mexico City. Was the first giant panda that was born and survived in captivity outside China. Her parents were Ying Ying and Pe Pe.

Hua Mei, born 1999 in the San Diego Zoo and sent to China 2004.

Mei Sheng, born 2003 at the San Diego Zoo, sent to China 2007.

Tai Shan, born 9 July 2005 at the National Zoo in Washington, D.C., sent to China 2010.

Su Lin, born 2 August 2005 at the San Diego Zoo and moved to China 2010.

Mei Lan, born 6 September 2006 at Zoo Atlanta, sent to China 2010Sony VAIO PCG-3F1M battery.

Zhen Zhen, born 3 August 2007 at the San Diego Zoo and moved to China 2010.

Xi Lan, born 30 August 2008 at Zoo Atlanta.

Yun Zi, born 5 August 2009 at the San Diego Zoo.

In popular culture

For complete list see: Panda_(disambiguation)

A drawing depicting a panda

Franz Camenzind shot the first sequences of pandas in the wild for American Broadcasting Company (ABC) in about 1982. They were bought by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) Natural History Unit for their weekly magazine show Nature.

In the early 21st century Natural History New Zealand (NHNZ) featured pandas in two documentaries
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Panda Nursery (2006) featured China's Wolong National Nature Reserve in the mountains in Sichuan Province; forty giant pandas and a dedicated team of staff play a crucial role in ensuring the survival of the species. As part of the Reserve’s panda breeding program, a revolutionary new method of rearing twin cubs called ‘swap-raising’ has been developedSony VAIO PCG-9Z2L battery. Each cub is raised by both its natural mother and one of the Reserve’s veterinarians, Wei Rongping, to increase the chances of both cubs surviving.

Growing Up: Giant Panda (2003) featured Chengdu Giant Panda Center in south-west China as one of the best in the world. Yet with female pandas' short fertility cycles and low birth rates, raising the captive panda population is an uphill battleSony VAIO PCG-9Z1L battery.

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