Cornell University And Johns Hopkins University 2

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Main article: Cornell Big Red

A 1908 print depicting a Cornell baseball player

Cornell has 36 varsity intercollegiate teams that have the nickname of the Big Red. An NCAA Division I institution, Cornell is a member of the Ivy League and ECAC Hockey and competes in the Eastern College Athletic Conference (ECAC), the largest athletic conference in North America.[230] (Note that ECAC Hockey is no longer affiliated with the ECAC.) HP Pavilion dv6-1237ca battery Cornell's varsity athletic teams currently are highly successful within the Ivy League and consistently challenge for NCAA Division I titles in a number of sports, including men's lacrosse, men's ice hockey, and rowing (the women's crew program is subject to the NCAA, while the men's rowing program is governed by its own administrative body, the Intercollegiate Rowing Association). Under the Ivy League athletic agreement, the university does not offer athletic scholarships for athletic recruitingHP Pavilion dv6-1236ss battery.

Cornell University's football team had at least a share of the national championship four times before 1940 and has won the Ivy League championship three times, last in 1990.[234] Cornell's Men's Heavyweight Rowing program has won the national championship a record 38 times (12 under the RAAC format and 26 under the IRA format), making it one of the most successful athletic programs in the history of intercollegiate sportsHP Pavilion dv6-1236et battery. The Cornell Men's Ice Hockey team has won the national championship twice.

In addition to the school's varsity athletics, club sports teams have been organized as student organizations under the auspices of the Dean of Students. Cornell's intramural program includes 30 sports. Beside such familiar sports such as flag football, squash, or water polo, such unusual offerings as "inner tube water polo" and formerly "broomstick polo" have been offered, as well as a sports trivia competition. HP Pavilion dv6-1236eo battery Cornell students also often participate in the International Rutabaga Curling Championship, held annually at the Ithaca Farmers' Market. Cornell also has a rich history of martial arts on campus, particularly Sport Taekwondo.[236] Since 1987, Cornell Sport Taekwondo has competed in the Ivy-Northeast Collegiate Taekwondo League (INCTL). In 2007 after a 4 year slump, Cornell Sport Taekwondo defeated MIT Sport Taekwondo to take the INCTL CupHP Pavilion dv6-1235ss battery.

Cornelliana

A tradition started in 1901, Dragon Day celebrates a feat by first-year architecture students to construct a colossal dragon to be paraded to center campus and then burned.

An ivy-covered emblem of Ezra Cornell circumscribed by the university motto

Main article: Cornelliana

Cornelliana is a term for Cornell's traditions, legends, and lore. Cornellian traditions include Slope Day, a celebration held on the last day of classes of the spring semester, and Dragon Day, which includes the burning of a dragon built by architecture studentsHP Pavilion dv6-1235sb battery. Dragon Day is one of the school's oldest traditions and has been celebrated annually since 1901, typically on or near St. Patrick's Day. The dragon is built secretly by the architecture students, and taunting messages are left for the engineering students for the week before Dragon Day. On Dragon Day, the dragon is paraded across the Arts Quad and then set afireHP Pavilion dv6-1235et battery.

According to legend, if a virgin crosses the Arts Quad at midnight, the statues of Ezra Cornell and Andrew Dickson White will walk off their pedestals, meet in the center of the Quad, and shake hands, congratulating themselves on the chastity of students. There is also another myth that if a couple crosses the suspension bridge on North Campus, and the young woman does not accept a kiss from her partner, the bridge will fallHP Pavilion dv6-1235es battery. If the kiss is accepted, the couple is assured a long future together.

The university is also host to various student pranks. For example, on at least two different occasions the university has awoken to find something odd atop the 173-foot (52.7 m) tall McGraw clock tower—once a 60-pound (27 kg) pumpkin and another time a disco ball. Because there is no access to the spire atop the tower, how the items were put in place remains a mysteryHP Pavilion dv6-1235eo battery. The colors of the lights on McGraw tower change to orange for Halloween and green for St. Patrick's Day.[241] The clock tower also plays music.

The school colors are carnelian (a shade of red) and white, a play on "Cornellian" and Andrew Dickson White. A bear is commonly used as the unofficial mascot, which dates back to the introduction of the mascot "Touchdown" in 1915HP Pavilion dv6-1235ee battery, a live bear who was brought onto the field during football games. The university's alma mater is "Far Above Cayuga's Waters", and its fight song is "Give My Regards to Davy". People associated with the university are called "Cornellians".

Health

Cornell offers a variety of professional and peer counseling services to students. Gannett Clinic offers on-campus outpatient health services with emergency services and residential treatment provided by Cayuga Medical Center. For most of its historyHP Pavilion dv6-1235ec battery, Cornell provided residential medical care for sick students, including at the historic Sage Infirmary. Cornell offers specialized reproductive health and family planning services.

The university received worldwide attention for a series of six student suicides that occurred during the 2009–10 school year, and they have since added temporary fences to its bridges while more permanent measures are in process. Before this abnormal cluster of suicidesHP Pavilion dv6-1234tx battery, the suicide rate at Cornell had been similar to or below the suicide rates of other American universities, including a period between 2005 and 2008 in which no suicides occurred.

People

See also: List of Nobel laureates affiliated with Cornell University

Cornell counts numerous notable individuals who have either come to the university as faculty to teach and to conduct research, or as students who have gone on to do noteworthy things. In total, 41 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with Cornell as faculty or studentsHP Pavilion dv6-1234nr battery.

Faculty

1916 Cornell faculty

Main article: List of Cornell University faculty

As of 2009, Cornell had 1,639 full-and part-time faculty members affiliated with its main campus,[4] 1,235 affiliated with its New York City divisions, and 34 affiliated with its campus in Qatar.[4] Cornell's faculty for the 2005–06 academic year included three Nobel laureates, a Crafoord Prize winner, two Turing Award winners, a Fields Medal winnerHP Pavilion dv6-1234eo battery, two Legion of Honor recipients, a World Food Prize winner, an Andrei Sakharov Prize winner, three National Medal of Science winners, two Wolf Prize winners, five MacArthur award winners, four Pulitzer Prize winners, a Carter G. Woodson Scholars Medallion recipient, 20 National Science Foundation career grant holders, a recipient of the National Academy of Sciences AwardHP Pavilion dv6-1233et battery, a recipient of the American Mathematical Society's Steele Prize for Lifetime Achievement, a recipient of the Heineman Prize for Mathematical Physics, and three Packard Foundation grant holders.

Kurt Lewin taught at Cornell from 1933 to 1935 and is considered the "father of social psychology". Norman Borlaug taught at the university from 1982 to 1988 and is considered the "father of the Green Revolution", being awarded the Nobel Peace PrizeHP Pavilion dv6-1233eo battery, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the Congressional Gold Medal, and 49 honorary doctorates. Frances Perkins joined the Cornell faculty in 1952 after serving as the first female member of the United States Cabinet and served until her death in 1965. Perkins was a witness to the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in her adolescence and went on to champion the National Labor Relations Act, the Fair Labor Standards ActHP Pavilion dv6-1232ss battery, and the Social Security Act while United States Secretary of Labor. Buckminster Fuller was a visiting professor at Cornell for one year (1952), and Henry Louis Gates, African American Studies scholar and subject of an arrest controversy and White House "Beer Summit", taught at Cornell from 1985 to 1989. Emmy Award-winning actor John Cleese, known for his roles in Monty PythonHP Pavilion dv6-1232et battery, James Bond, Harry Potter, and Shrek, has taught at Cornell since 1999. Charles Evans Hughes taught in the law school from 1893 to 1895 before becoming Governor of New York, United States Secretary of State, and Chief Justice of the United States. Georgios Papanikolaou, who taught at Cornell's medical school from 1913 to 1961, invented the Pap smear test for cervical cancer. Carl Sagan was a professor at the university from 1968 to 1996HP Pavilion dv6-1232eo battery. He narrated and co-wrote the PBS series Cosmos, the Emmy- and Peabody-award-winning show that became the most watched series in public-television history. He also wrote the novel Contact, the basis for a 1997 film of the same name, and he won a Pulitzer Prize for his novel The Dragons of Eden: Speculations on the Evolution of Human Intelligence. M. H. Abrams is a professor emeritus of English and was the founding editor of The Norton Anthology of English LiteratureHP Pavilion dv6-1231eo battery.

Cornell has twice (2008 and 2009) been named a "Great College to Work For" by The Chronicle of Higher Education, due to receiving high ratings in compensation and benefits, connection to institution and pride, faculty-administration relations, job satisfaction, and post-retirement benefitsHP Pavilion dv6-1230us battery.

Alumni

Main article: List of Cornell University alumni

Cornell counted 245,027 living alumni as of August 2008. Its alumni constitute 31 Marshall Scholars and 28 Rhodes Scholars, and Cornell is the only university with three female winners (Pearl S. Buck, Barbara McClintock, and Toni Morrison) of unshared Nobel Prizes among its graduates. Many alumni maintain university ties through Homecoming's reunion weekend, through Cornell Magazine, and through the Cornell Club of New YorkHP Pavilion dv6-1230ss battery. In 2005, Cornell ranked #3 nationwide for gifts and bequests from alumni.

The Cornell Club in New York City is a focal point for alumni.

Cornellians are noted for their accomplishments in public, professional, and corporate life. Lee Teng-hui was president of Taiwan,[262] Mario García Menocal was president of Cuba,[263] Jamshid Amuzegar was prime minister of Iran, Hu Shih was a Chinese reformer and representative to the United Nations, Janet Reno ('60) HP Pavilion dv6-1230sl battery was the first female United States Attorney General, and Ruth Bader Ginsburg ('54) serves on the Supreme Court.[267] Alumnus David Starr Jordan (1872) was the founding president of Stanford University,[268] and M. Carey Thomas (1877) founded Bryn Mawr College. Additionally, alumnus Matt Urban ('41) holds the distinction as the most decorated serviceman in United States historyHP Pavilion dv6-1230sf battery.

Cornellians in business include: Citigroup CEO Sanford Weill, Goldman Sachs Group Chairman Stephen Friedman, Kraft Foods CEO Irene Rosenfeld, Aetna CEO Mark Bertolini ('84),[274] S.C. Johnson & Son CEO Fisk Johnson ('79, '80, '82, '84, '86),[275] Cargill Chairman Warren Staley ('67), Chevron Chairman Kenneth T. Derr ('59), Sprint Nextel CEO Dan Hesse, Verizon CEO Lowell McAdam ('76),[279] Mastercard CEO Robert Selander ('72), HP Pavilion dv6-1230sb battery Coors Brewing Company CEO Adolph Coors, Loews Corporation Chairman Andrew Tisch ('71), Baupost Group founder Seth Klarman ('79), Burger King founder James McLamore ('47), Hotels.com founder David Litman ('79), PeopleSoft founder David Duffield ('62), Priceline.com founder Jay Walker, Staples founder Myra Hart ('62), Qualcomm founder Irwin M. Jacobs ('56), and Tata Group CEO Ratan TataHP Pavilion dv6-1230ew battery.

In medicine, alumnus Robert Atkins developed the Atkins Diet, Henry Heimlich ('47) developed the Heimlich maneuver, Wilson Greatbatch ('50) invented the pacemaker,[293] James Maas ('66; also a faculty member) coined the term "power nap",[294] and C. Everett Koop ('41) served as Surgeon General of the United StatesHP Pavilion dv6-1230et battery.

A number of Cornellians have been prominent innovators. Thomas Midgley, Jr. ('11) invented Freon,[296] Jon Rubinstein ('78) is credited with the development of the iPod,[297] and Robert Tappan Morris developed the first computer worm on the Internet. Eight Cornellians have served as NASA astronauts, Steve Squyres ('81) is the principal investigator on the Mars Exploration Rover Mission,[298] and Bill Nye ('77) is well known as "The Science Guy".HP Pavilion dv6-1230er battery

In literature, Toni Morrison ('50; Nobel laureate) is well known for her novel Beloved, Pearl S. Buck ('25; Nobel laureate) authored The Good Earth,[300] Thomas Pynchon ('59) penned such canonical works of postwar American fiction as Gravity's Rainbow and The Crying of Lot 49, and E. B. White ('21) authored Charlotte's Web and Stuart LittleHP Pavilion dv6-1230eq battery. Media personalities who have graduated from Cornell include conservative Ann Coulter ('84) and liberals Bill Maher ('78) and Keith Olbermann ('79).

Several Cornellians have also achieved critical acclaim in entertainment. Christopher Reeve ('74) played Superman, Frank Morgan was The Wizard of Oz, Jimmy Smits ('82) was in Star Wars,[271] and Ronald D. Moore created the 2004 remake of Battlestar Galactica. On the architectural front, alumnus Richmond Shreve (1902) designed the Empire State Building, HP Pavilion dv6-1230eo battery and Raymond M. Kennedy ('15) designed Hollywood's famous Grauman's Chinese Theatre.[305]

In athletics, Cornell graduates include football legend Glenn "Pop" Warner (1894), former head coach of the United States men's national soccer team Bruce Arena ('73), National Hockey League commissioner Gary Bettman ('74), six-time Stanley Cup winning hockey goalie Ken Dryden ('69)[309] and Toronto Raptors president Bryan Colangelo ('87)HP Pavilion dv6-1230ek battery. Alumni also include Super Bowl champions Kevin Boothe and Ed Marinaro ('71).

Fictional alumni have been portrayed in several films, television shows, and books. Characters include Andy Bernard of The Office,[312] Natalie Keener of Up in the Air,[313] and Christina Pagniacci (portrayed by Cameron Diaz) in Any Given Sunday.

The Johns Hopkins University[5] (informally Johns Hopkins, JHU, or simply Hopkins) is a private research university based in Baltimore, Maryland, United StatesHP Pavilion dv6-1230ej battery. The university was founded on January 22, 1876 and named for its benefactor, the philanthropist Johns Hopkins.[6] Daniel Coit Gilman was inaugurated as first president on February 22, 1876.[7]

Johns Hopkins maintains campuses in Maryland; Washington, D.C.; Italy; China and Singapore. The university is organized into two undergraduate divisions and five graduate divisions on two main campusesHP Pavilion dv6-1230ed battery—the Homewood campus and the Medical Institutions campus—both located in Baltimore. The university also consists of the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, the Peabody Institute, the Carey Business School, and various other facilities.

Johns Hopkins pioneered the concept of the modern research university in the United States and has ranked among the world's top such universities throughout its historyHP Pavilion dv6-1230ec battery. The National Science Foundation (NSF) has ranked Johns Hopkins #1 among U.S. academic institutions in total science, medical and engineering research and development spending for 31 consecutive years.[8] As of 2011, thirty-seven Nobel Prize winners have been affiliated with Johns Hopkins,[9] and the university's research is among the most cited in the worldHP Pavilion dv6-1230ca battery.

History

The philanthropist and the founding

See also: Johns Hopkins' Philanthropy and Legacy

Johns Hopkins

On his death in 1873, Johns Hopkins, a Quaker entrepreneur and childless bachelor, bequeathed $7 million (Between $140 million to $1.6 billion in 2011 dollars, by varying estimates) to fund a hospital and university in Baltimore, Maryland. At that time this fortune, generated primarily from the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, was the largest philanthropic gift in the history of the United StatesHP Pavilion dv6-1229tx battery.

The first name of philanthropist Johns Hopkins is the surname of his great-grandmother, Margaret Johns, who married Gerard Hopkins. They named their son Johns Hopkins, who named his own son Samuel Hopkins. Samuel named one of his sons after his father and that son would be the university's benefactorHP Pavilion dv6-1229sf battery.

In his 2001 undergraduate commencement address, university president William R. Brody said about the name: "In 1888, just 12 years after the university was founded, Mark Twain wrote about this university in a letter to a friend. He said: 'A few months ago I was told that the Johns Hopkins University had given me a degree. I naturally supposed this constituted me a Member of the Faculty and so I started in to help as I could thereHP Pavilion dv6-1229et battery. I told them I believed they were perfectly competent to run a college as far as the higher branches of education are concerned, but what they needed was a little help here and there from a practical commercial man. I said the public is sensitive to little things and they wouldn't have full confidence in a college that didn't know how to spell the name JohnHP Pavilion dv6-1229er battery.' More than a century later, we continue to bestow diplomas upon individuals of outstanding capabilities and great talent. And we continue to spell Johns with an s."

Milton Eisenhower, a former university president, once spoke at a convention in Pittsburgh where the Master of Ceremonies introduced him as "President of John Hopkins." Eisenhower retorted that he was "glad to be here in Pittburgh." HP Pavilion dv6-1228tx battery

[edit]Early years and Daniel Coit Gilman

The original board opted for an entirely novel university model dedicated to the discovery of knowledge at an advanced level, extending that of contemporary Germany. Johns Hopkins thereby became the model of the modern research university in the United States. Its success eventually shifted higher education in the United States from a focus on teaching revealed and/or applied knowledge to the scientific discovery of new knowledgeHP Pavilion dv6-1228sf battery. The founders intended the university to be national in scope to strengthen ties across a divided country in the aftermath of the American Civil War. Therefore, the university's official inauguration took on great significance: 1876 was the nation's centennial year and February 22 was George Washington's birthdayHP Pavilion dv6-1228ez battery.

Wikisource has the text of a 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article about the Early History.

The University's viability depended on its first president, Daniel Coit Gilman, recruited from the presidency of the University of California. Gilman launched what many at the time considered an audacious and unprecedented academic experiment to merge teaching and research. He dismissed the idea that the two were mutually exclusiveHP Pavilion dv6-1227sf battery: "The best teachers are usually those who are free, competent and willing to make original researches in the library and the laboratory," he stated. To implement his plan, Gilman recruited internationally known luminaries such as the biologist H. Newell Martin; the physicist Henry A. Rowland (the first president of the American Physical Society), the classical scholars Basil Gildersleeve and Charles D. Morris;[16] the economist Richard T. ElyHP Pavilion dv6-1225tx battery; and the chemist Ira Remsen, who became the second president of the university in 1901.

Daniel Coit Gilman

Gilman focused on the expansion of knowledge, graduate education and support of faculty research. To Gilman, Johns Hopkins existed not for the sake of God, the state, the community, the board, the parents, or even the students, but for knowledge. Faculty who added to such knowledge were rewardedHP Pavilion dv6-1225sv battery. A complementary focus on graduate education fused advanced scholarship with such professional schools as medicine and engineering. Hopkins became the national trendsetter in doctoral programs and the host for numerous scholarly journals and associations with the founding of the first U.S. university press in 1878HP Pavilion dv6-1225ss battery.

With the completion of Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1889 and the medical school in 1893, the university's research–focused mode of instruction soon began attracting world-renowned faculty members who would become major figures in the emerging field of academic medicine, including William Osler, William Halsted, Howard Kelly, and William WelchHP Pavilion dv6-1225so battery. During this period Hopkins made more history by becoming the first medical school to admit women on an equal basis with men and to require a Bachelors degree, based on the efforts of Mary E. Garrett, who had endowed the school at Gilman's request.

In his will and in his instructions to the trustees of the university and the hospital, Hopkins requested that both institutions be built upon the vast grounds of his Baltimore estateHP Pavilion dv6-1225sf battery, Clifton. When Gilman assumed the presidency, he decided that it would be best to use the university's endowment for recruiting faculty and students, deciding to "build men, not buildings." In his will Hopkins stipulated that none of his endowment should be used for construction; only interest on the principal could be used for this purpose. Unfortunately, stocks in The Baltimore and Ohio RailroadHP Pavilion dv6-1225ew battery, which would have generated most of the interest, became virtually worthless soon after Hopkins's death. The university's first home was thus in Downtown Baltimore delaying plans to site the university in Clifton. This decision became the only major criticism of Gilman's presidency. In the early 20th century the university outgrew its buildings and the trustees began to search for a new homeHP Pavilion dv6-1225et battery. Developing Clifton for the university was too costly, and so the estate became a public park. In the end, the 140 acres (57 ha) estate in north Baltimore known as Homewood was purchased as the university's new campus with assistance from prominent Baltimore citizens.

Since the 1910s, Johns Hopkins University has famously been a "fertile cradle" to Arthur Lovejoy's history of ideasHP Pavilion dv6-1225er battery.

Institutions

The Johns Hopkins University Press, founded in 1878, is the oldest American university press in continuous operation. Along with the hospital, Hopkins established one of the nation's oldest schools of nursing in 1889. The school of medicine was America's first coeducational, graduate-level medical school, and was a prototype for academic medicine that emphasized bedside learning, research projects, and laboratory trainingHP Pavilion dv6-1225ei battery. In 1909, the university was among the first to start adult continuing education programs and in 1916 it founded the US' first school of public health. Programs in international studies and the performing arts were established in 1950 and 1977 when the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies in Washington D.C and the Peabody Institute in Baltimore became divisions of the universityHP Pavilion dv6-1225ef battery.

Civil rights

African-Americans

Hopkins was a prominent abolitionist who supported Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. After his death, reports said his conviction was a decisive factor in enrolling Hopkins' first African-American student, Kelly Miller, a graduate student in physics, astronomy and mathematics, and in admitting Harvard-trained physician Whitfield Winsey and two other African-American physicians to Maryland's Medical and Chirurgical Society MedChi. HP Pavilion dv6-1225ee battery These physicians could attend meetings only because they were held on campus. As the memory of Hopkins faded and trustees like King died, Hopkins became like other Baltimore institutions, particularly in terms of race. The Johns Hopkins University chronology stated that on March 15, 1892, an administrator hired by Gilman recommended that the hospital should have a "…separate ward for colored patients." HP Pavilion dv6-1224eo batteryJohns Hopkins Hospital subsequently became segregated. Johns Hopkins' "separate but equal" stance was evident when it came to these segregated wards: "Special care will be taken to see that the heating and ventilation apparatus is as perfect as possible. A sun balcony will be erected on each floor on the east side, for convalescents, while a sun bay-window will be constructed at the south end of the south wingHP Pavilion dv6-1223sl battery. On each floor there will be a dining room, kitchen, lavatory and bath-rooms...The building will be fireproof throughout."[19]

As segregation grew within Johns Hopkins institutions, it affected pay, hiring and promotions. Staff in segregated wards and those employed in the lower rungs of the service industries had the longest history within the Johns Hopkins InstitutionsHP Pavilion dv6-1223sf battery. Johns Hopkins' students, physicians, administrators and staff of African descent had a much shorter history within these institutions. The first black undergraduate was Frederick Scott who entered the school in 1945. In 1967 the first black students earned graduate degrees. Dr. James Nabwangu a British-trained Kenyan, was the first black graduate of the medical school. A second was earned by Robert Gamble. HP Pavilion dv6-1223eo battery

The first African-American instructor was laboratory supervisor Vivien Thomas, who also invented and developed research instruments, served as an assistant in surgery to surgeon Alfred Blalock and worked closely with Blalock and Helen Taussig in developing and conducting the first successful blue baby operation. Black students and professionals were rare at Johns Hopkins Institutions and Maryland's state medical societies until after the 1940sHP Pavilion dv6-1222tx battery. Diversity increased only in the 1960s and 1970s. African-Americans and women were labeled "The Uninvited" in the second major history of the university.

[edit]Women

Hopkins' most well–known battle for women's rights was the one led by daughters of trustees of the university; Mary E. Garrett, M. Carey Thomas, Mamie Gwinn, Elizabeth King, and Julia Rogers. HP Pavilion dv6-1222sl battery They donated and raised the funds needed to open the medical school, and required Hopkins' officials to agree to their stipulation that women would be admitted. Unfortunately, this stipulation applied only to the medical school. Other graduate schools were opened to women by president Ira Remsen only in 1907. Christine Ladd-Franklin was the first woman to earn a PhD at Hopkins, in mathematics in 1882HP Pavilion dv6-1222et battery. The trustees denied her the degree and refused to change the policy about admitting women; she finally received her degree 44 years later. In 1893 Florence Bascomb became the university's first female PhD.

The nursing school opened in 1889 and accepted women and men as students.

The decision to admit women at undergraduate level was not considered until the late 1960s and was eventually adopted in October 1969HP Pavilion dv6-1222eo battery; in the fall of 1970, 90 females, five of them African-American, became undergraduates. In the academic year 1970–1971, 4.7% of students in the Arts and Sciences programs were women. In the year 1985–1986 the proportion of female students in the Arts and Sciences programs had increased to around 38%. As of 2009–2010, the undergraduate population was 47% female and 53% male. HP Pavilion dv6-1221tx battery

Homewood

Main article: Homewood Campus of Johns Hopkins University

Homewood House

Zanvyl Krieger School of Arts and Sciences: The Krieger School offers more than 60 undergraduate majors and minors and more than 40 graduate programs.[23]

G.W.C. Whiting School of Engineering: The Whiting School contains 14 undergraduate and graduate engineering programs and 12 additional areas of study.

School of Education: Originally established in 1909 as The School of Professional Studies in Business and Education, the divisions of Education and Business became separate schools in 2007HP Pavilion dv6-1221sl battery.

The first campus was located on Howard Street. Eventually, they relocated to Homewood, in northern Baltimore, the estate of Charles Carroll, son of the oldest surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence. Carroll's Homewood House is considered one of the finest examples of Federal residential architectureHP Pavilion dv6-1221eo battery. The estate then came to the Wyman family, which participated in making it the park-like main campus of the schools of arts and sciences and engineering at the start of the 20th century. Most of its architecture was modeled after the Federal style of Homewood House. Homewood House is preserved as a museum. Most undergraduate programs are hereHP Pavilion dv6-1221ax battery.

East Baltimore

Johns Hopkins Hospital

Collectively known as Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions (JHMI) campus, the East Baltimore facility occupies several city blocks spreading from the Johns Hopkins Hospital trademark dome.

School of Nursing: The School of Nursing is is one of America's oldest and pre-eminent schools for nursing education. It has consistently ranked first in the nation. HP Pavilion dv6-1220tx battery

School of Medicine: The School of Medicine is widely regarded as one of the best medical schools and biomedical research institutes in the world.

Bloomberg School of Public Health: The Bloomberg School was founded in 1916, the world's first and largest public health school. It has consistently been ranked first in its field.[28]

Downtown Baltimore

Peabody Institute

Carey Business School: The Carey Business School was established in 2007, incorporating divisions of the former School of Professional Studies in Business and EducationHP Pavilion dv6-1220st battery. It was originally located on Charles Street, but relocated to the Legg Mason building in Harbor East in 2011.

Peabody Institute: founded in 1857, is the oldest continuously active music conservatory in the United States; it became a division of Johns Hopkins in 1977. The Conservatory retains its own student body and grants degrees in musicology and performance, though both Hopkins and Peabody students may take courses at both institutions. It is located on East Mount Vernon PlaceHP Pavilion dv6-1220ss battery.

Washington, D.C.

Washington D.C. Campus (SAIS)

Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) is located on the Washington D.C. campus near Dupont Circle. SAIS is devoted to international studies, particularly international relations, diplomacy, and economics. SAIS has full-time international campuses in Bologna, Italy and Nanjing, China. Founded in 1943, SAIS became a part of the university in 1950HP Pavilion dv6-1220sp battery. In a 2005 survey 65% of respondents ranked SAIS as the nation's top Master's Degree program in International Relations.[29]

The Krieger School of Arts and Sciences' Advanced Academic Programs (AAP)

Carey Business School

The Washington, D.C. campus is on Massachusetts Avenue.

Laurel, Maryland

Installing a New Horizons Imager at the APL

Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL): The APL in Laurel, Maryland, specializes in research for the U.S. Department of Defense, NASA and other government and civilian research agencies. It has developed more than 100 biomedical devices, many in collaboration with the Johns Hopkins Medical InstitutionsHP Pavilion dv6-1220so battery.

The Applied Physics Laboratory, a division of the university co-equal to the nine schools but with a non-academic mission, lies between Baltimore and Washington in Laurel, Maryland.

Other campuses

see also List of Johns Hopkins University Research Centers and Institutes

Domestic

Columbia, Maryland Center (Branches of The Carey Business School[32] and The School of Education) HP Pavilion dv6-1220sh battery

Montgomery County, Maryland Campus (Part-time programs in Biosciences, Engineering, Business & Education[34])

[edit]International

The SAIS Bologna Center, Italy

The SAIS Hopkins-Nanjing Center for Chinese and American Studies, China

Yong Siew Toh Conservatory of Music (Collaboration between the Peabody Institute and the National University of Singapore)

In 2009, JHU ranked fifth among US universities in private fund–raising, collecting $433.39 millionHP Pavilion dv6-1220sd battery.

The President is JHU's chief executive officer, and the university is organized into nine academic divisions.

Campus environmental initiatives

Johns Hopkins University has implemented a number of sustainability initiatives.[37]

In 2011, the Sustainable Endowments Institute gave Johns Hopkins a College Sustainability Report Card grade of "C+." In particular the Institute criticized JHU for failing to disclose its endowment's holdings and proxy voting record on environmental issues. HP Pavilion dv6-1220sb battery

Transportation

In 2007 carbon emissions were inventoried and electric vehicles were used for some campus transportation needs.

Food

As of 2007 dining services managers sought locally–sourced produce and seafood, and integrated organic food into menus.[39] In addition, the smaller cafés around campus sell exclusively organic, shade–grown coffees. A small pilot composting program operated on the undergraduate campusHP Pavilion dv6-1220sa battery.

Buildings

In 2007 the university was pursuing LEED certification for several buildings.[39] Energy retrofits in certain buildings have resulted in over 50% less energy consumption.[39] Retrofits included a green roof, experimentation with waterless urinals and low-flow shower heads, and upgraded fluorescent lighting that reduced electricity for lighting on one campus by over 40 percentHP Pavilion dv6-1220ez battery. Similar lighting retrofits were underway at all campuses. At the beginning of 2012, Hopkins sustainability announced the installation of 2,708 solar panels atop buildings at Homewood (Rec/Athletic Center, Mattin Center), the Eastern Building on 33rd Street and the East Baltimore Campus (Pinkard Building, 2024 Building, Bloomberg Building, Hampton House). These solar panels will produce 997,400 kWh and decrease 1,200,000 lbs of greenhouse gases each year. HP Pavilion dv6-1220ew battery

Water

In 2004, one campus completed a water conservation retrofit that annually saved over 8,000,000 US gallons (30,000,000 l) of water.

Student support

As of 2010 students contributed significantly to environmental initiatives, setting up the JHU recycling program, hosting a national "Greening" conference, launching a transportation shuttle service between campuses and making the campus more bike-friendly. HP Pavilion dv6-1220ev battery Each year, students conduct the "S.E.X.:I.T." competition to see which dormitory can save the most electricity.

Organization

The Johns Hopkins entity is structured as two corporations, the university and The Johns Hopkins Health System, formed in 1986. The latter has grown into the bigger entity, with fiscal year 2005 consolidated net revenue of $3.3 billion, employing 27,700 people, including some 4,700 full–time physicians. HP Pavilion dv6-1220er battery

JHU's bylaws specify a Board of Trustees of between 18 and 65 voting members. Trustees serve six–year terms subject to a two–term limit. The alumni select 12 trustees. Four recent alumni serve 4-year terms, one per year, typically from the graduating class. The bylaws prohibit students, faculty or administrative staff from serving on the Board, except the President as an ex–officio trusteeHP Pavilion dv6-1220ek battery. The Johns Hopkins Health System has a separate Board of Trustees, many of whom are doctors or health care executives. Some JHU Trustees also serve on the Johns Hopkins Health System Board.

Academics

Mason Hall, the Visitor's Center & Admissions Office at Johns Hopkins University

The full-time, four year undergraduate program is "most selective"[44] with low transfer-in and a high graduate co-existence. The university is one of fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities (AAU) HP Pavilion dv6-1220ei battery; it is also a member of the Consortium on Financing Higher Education (COFHE) and the Universities Research Association (URA).

Undergraduate Admissions

In 2010, 87% of admitted students graduated in the top tenth of their high school class and the inter-quartile range on the SAT reading was 670–750, math was 690–780, and writing was 670–770. 97% of freshmen returned after the first year, 84% of students graduated in 4 years and 92% graduated in 6 yearsHP Pavilion dv6-1220eg battery. Over time, applications to Johns Hopkins University have risen steadily. As a result, the selectivity of Johns Hopkins University has also increased. Early Decision is an option at Johns Hopkins University for students who wish to demonstrate that the university is their first choice. These students, if admitted, are required to enrollHP Pavilion dv6-1220ec battery. This application is due November 1. Most students, however, apply Regular Decision, which is a traditional non-binding round. These applications are due January 1 and students are notified April 1.

Rankings

At the undergraduate level, Hopkins was ranked #13 among National Universities by U.S. News and World Report (USNWR). It is ranked #6 in the nation in the high school counselor reputation rankings. The 2010 Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) HP Pavilion dv6-1219tx battery ranked Hopkins #18 internationally (#16 nationally) and 3rd in the world for Clinical Medicine and Pharmacy. In 2010, Johns Hopkins ranked 13th in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings and 16th in the 2011 QS World University Rankings. Johns Hopkins also placed #2 in the 2010 University Ranking by Academic Performance (URAP) HP Pavilion dv6-1219ez battery, #2 in the 2011 HEEACT – Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities, ranked #7 among Top Performing Schools according to the Faculty Scholarly Productivity Index (FSPI) in 2008,[65] and was listed #9 among research universities by the Center for Measuring University Performance in 2007.[66]

For medical and public health research U.S. News and World Report ranks the School of Medicine #2[67] and has consistently ranked the Bloomberg School of Public Health in the nationHP Pavilion dv6-1218tx battery. The School of Nursing was ranked #1 nationally among peer institutions.[69] The Times Higher Education Supplement ranked Johns Hopkins University #3 in the world for biomedicine and life sciences.[70] Hopkins ranks #1 nationally in receipt of federal research funds and the School of Medicine is #1 among medical schools in receipt of extramural awards from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). HP Pavilion dv6-1218ss battery Newsweek named Johns Hopkins as the "Hottest School for Pre-meds" in 2008. The Johns Hopkins Hospital was ranked as the top hospital in the United States for the eighteenth year in a row by the U.S. News and World Report annual ranking of American hospitals.

The university's graduate programs in the areas of Biological & Biomedical Sciences, Engineering (Biomedical, Electrical & Environmental), Human Development & Family Studies, Health SciencesHP Pavilion dv6-1218ca battery, Humanities, Physical & Mathematical Sciences and International Affairs & Development all rank among the top-10 of their respective disciplines.

The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) ranked #1 (2005), #2 (2007), and #2 (2009), by College of William and Mary's surveys conducted once every two years beginning in 2005, for its MA program among the world's top schools of International Affairs for those who want to pursue a policy career. HP Pavilion dv6-1217tx battery

The School of Education is ranked #6 nationally by U.S. News and World Report.[76] Although no formal rankings exist for music conservatories, the Peabody Institute is generally considered one of the most prestigious conservatories in the country, along with Juilliard and the Curtis Institute.

Johns Hopkins is ranked the #1 Social Media College by StudentAdvisor. HP Pavilion dv6-1217ss battery Several university departments have been known to actively engage on various social media platforms such as Blogs, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and Flickr to reach prospective students, current students, and alumni.

Libraries

The Johns Hopkins University Library system houses more than 3.6 million volumes.[79] It includes ten main divisions: the Sheridan Libraries at Homewood, the Welch Medical Library, the Medical Institution Libraries, the School of Nursing LibraryHP Pavilion dv6-1217er battery, Abraham M. Lilienfeld Library at the Bloomberg School, the Peabody Institute Library, the Carey Business School and School of Education libraries, the School of Advanced International Studies Libraries (Sydney R. and Elsa W. Mason Library and Bologna Center Library), the R.E. Gibson Library at the Applied Physics Laboratory Library and other minor satellite locations, as well as the archivesHP Pavilion dv6-1217ax battery.

Milton S. Eisenhower Library

The Milton S. Eisenhower Library, located on the Homewood campus, is the main library. It was built in the 1960s. It houses over 2.6 million volumes and over 20,000 journal subscriptions. The Eisenhower Library is a member of the university's Sheridan Libraries encompassing collections at the Albert D. Hutzler Reading Room (called "The Hut" by students) in Gilman HallHP Pavilion dv6-1216tx battery, the John Work Garrett Library at Evergreen House, and the George Peabody Library at Mount Vernon Place. Together these collections provide the major research library resources for the university, serving Johns Hopkins academic programs worldwide. The library was named for Milton S. Eisenhower, former president of the university and brother of former U.S. president Dwight D. EisenhowerHP Pavilion dv6-1216ss battery. JHU's library was previously housed in Gilman Hall, and other smaller departmental libraries throughout the Homewood campus.[80]

Only two of the Eisenhower library's six stories are above ground, though the architects designed the building so that every level has windows and natural light. The design accords with a bit of traditional campus lore that no structure can be taller than Gilman HallHP Pavilion dv6-1216sl battery, the oldest academic building ( although no written rule limits building height). In December 2008, an addition directly to the south of the library was announced. The six-and-a-half-story expansion will be named the Brody Learning Commons in honor of University President William R. Brody and will function as a "…collaborative learning space." It is scheduled to open on August 13, 2012HP Pavilion dv6-1216sa battery.

Research

The opportunity to participate in important research is one of the distinguishing characteristics of Hopkins' undergraduate education. About 80 percent of undergraduates perform independent research, often alongside top researchers.[45][83] In FY 2009, Johns Hopkins received $1.856 billion in federal research grants—more than any other US university. HP Pavilion dv6-1216er batteryThirty-six (36) Nobel Prize winners have been affiliated with the university as alumni or faculty members.[84] JHU views its academic strengths as being in art history, biological, physical and other natural sciences, biomedical engineering, creative writing, English, history, economics, international studies, medicine, music, neuroscience, nursing, political theory, public health, public policy, and the Romance languages. HP Pavilion dv6-1216ax battery

Between 1999 and 2009, Johns Hopkins was among the most cited institutions in the world. It attracted nearly 1,222,166 citations and produced 54,022 papers under its name, ranking #3 globally behind Harvard University and Max Planck Society with the highest total citations published in Thomson Reuters-indexed journals over 22 fields in America. HP Pavilion dv6-1215tx battery

In FY 2000, Johns Hopkins received $95.4 million in research grants from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), making it the leading recipient of NASA research and development funding.[85] In FY 2002, Hopkins became the first university to cross the $1 billion threshold on either list, recording $1.14 billion in total research and $1.023 billion in federally sponsored researchHP Pavilion dv6-1215ss battery. In FY 2008, Johns Hopkins University performed $1.68 billion in science, medical and engineering research, making it the leading U.S. academic institution in total R&D spending for the 30th year in a row, according to a National Science Foundation (NSF) ranking.[86] These totals include grants and expenditures of JHU's Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, MarylandHP Pavilion dv6-1215sl battery. The Johns Hopkins University also offers the "Center for Talented Youth" program—a nonprofit organization dedicated to identifying and developing the talents of the most promising K-12 grade students worldwide. As part of the Johns Hopkins University, the "Center for Talented Youth" or CTY helps fulfill the university's mission of preparing students to make significant future contributions to the world. HP Pavilion dv6-1215sg battery

Johns Hopkins University Press

Main article: Johns Hopkins University Press

The Johns Hopkins University Press is the publishing division of the Johns Hopkins University. It was founded in 1878 and holds the distinction of being the oldest continuously running university press in the United States.[96] To date the Press has published more than 6,000 titles and currently publishes 65 scholarly periodicals and over 200 new books each yearHP Pavilion dv6-1215sf battery. Since 1993, the Johns Hopkins University Press has run Project MUSE, an online collection of over 250 full–text, peer–reviewed journals in the humanities and social sciences. The Press also houses the Hopkins Fulfilment Services (HFS), which handles distribution for a number of university presses and publishers. Taken together, the three divisions of the Press—Books, Journals (including MUSE) and HFS—make it one of the largest of America's university pressesHP Pavilion dv6-1215sd battery.

Student life

Students gather under the holidays lights at the yearly "Lighting of the Quad", a Hopkins tradition

The Johns Hopkins Student Government Association represents undergraduates in campus issues and projects. It is elected annually.[97] Blueprints for a new programming board called The Hopkins Organization for Programming ("The HOP") were drawn up during the summer and fall of 2006HP Pavilion dv6-1215sa battery.

In addition Charles Village, the region of North Baltimore surrounding the university, has undergone several restoration projects, and the university has gradually bought the property around the school for additional student housing and dormitories. The Charles Village Project, scheduled for completion in 2008, brought new commercial spaces to the neighborhoodHP Pavilion dv6-1215ez battery. The project included Charles Commons, a new, modern residence hall that includes popular retail franchises.

Hopkins invested in improving campus life with an arts complex in 2001, the Mattin Center, and a three–story sports facility, the O'Connor Recreation Center. The large on–campus dining facilities at Homewood were renovated in the summer of 2006HP Pavilion dv6-1215ew battery.

Quality of life is enriched by the proximity of neighboring academic institutions, including Loyola College, Maryland Institute College of Art (MICA), UMBC, Goucher College, and Towson University, as well as nearby Inner Harbor.

Annually, the Johns Hopkins Spring Fair is held on the Homewood campus over a three day weekend in mid-to-late AprilHP Pavilion dv6-1215er battery. Food, arts and crafts, and non–profit vendors, along with a popular musical act and various other activities attract nearly 25,000 people from the greater Baltimore–Washington area. The Spring Fair is the largest entirely student–run fair in the country.

Since 1972, the Johns Hopkins Outdoors Club, or JHOC, has organized weekend trips for students looking to experience the outdoors. Along with Outdoor Pursuits, an arm of the University's Rec CenterHP Pavilion dv6-1215ei battery, JHOC offers students the opportunity to participate in activities such as

canoeing, kayaking, caving, and mountain biking.

Housing

Freshman Residence Hall at JHU

Living on campus is required for first- and second-year students, except for commuter students who live with a parent or legal guardian.[100] Housing is not guaranteed for juniors or seniors at Johns Hopkins.

Freshmen housing is centered around Freshman Quad, which consists of three major residence hall complexesHP Pavilion dv6-1215ee battery: The Alumni Memorial Residences (AMR I and AMR II), Building A and Building B. AMR I was built in 1923 and includes Royce, Sylvester, Vincent, Willard, Wilson and Wood houses; AMR II in 1954, holding Adams, Baker, Clark, Gildersleeve, Griffin, Hollander, Jennings, Lazear houses.[citation needed] The houses were named for Hopkins Alumni who died in World Wars I and IIHP Pavilion dv6-1215ax battery. While each house has its own outside entrance, there are no dividers indoors that distinguish them. In 1983, Buildings A and B were added to Freshmen Quad. They have not yet been dedicated. Freshmen are also housed in Wolman Hall and the terrace floor of McCoy Hall, located on the other side of North Charles StreetHP Pavilion dv6-1214tx battery.

Freshman enter a housing lottery in their spring semester to determine where they will live during their sophomore year. Juniors and seniors may choose between entering the campus housing lottery or moving into nearby apartments or row houses. They occupy one of four buildings.[102] The first, McCoy Hall, is located next to Wolman Hall on North Charles StreetHP Pavilion dv6-1214sl battery. McCoy Hall is predominantly composed of sophomores and transfer students.[103] Apartment-style housing is offered in the Bradford Apartments, one block east of campus on St. Paul Street, and in the Homewood Apartments, two blocks south on North Charles Street.[102] The last is Charles Commons, the newest and largest university–owned dormitory, located at the corner of North Charles and East 33rdHP Pavilion dv6-1214ax battery. It was completed in 2006 to house 618 students and represented a major step by the university towards offering on–campus housing to students.[103] Charles Commons consists of two 11–story towers connected by a bridge, residential suites and features a ballroom, fitness center and several conference rooms. Nolan's on 33rd, a dining hall specializing in dinner services, is also located in the building. HP Pavilion dv6-1213tx battery

JHU rents several buildings on North Charles Street to house students when necessary. At full capacity, dormitory buildings can house approximately 60% of undergraduates.[citation needed] Privately–owned apartment buildings around Homewood are usually filled with Hopkins upperclassmen, so despite the lack of university–owned dormitories, housing is availableHP Pavilion dv6-1213ax battery.

Fraternities and Sororities

The University Office of Greek Life recognizes thirteen fraternities and eight sororities, which include approximately 25% of the student body. Greek life has been a part of the university culture since 1877, when Beta Theta Pi fraternity became the first to form a chapter on campus. Sororities arrived at Hopkins in 1982HP Pavilion dv6-1212tx battery. As with all Hopkins programs, Greek discrimination on the basis of "marital status, pregnancy, race, color, ethnicity, national origin, age, disability, religion, sexual orientation, veteran status" is prohibited. JHU also has an anti–hazing policy and prohibits alcohol at recruitment activities. Hopkins does not permit "city–wide" chapters, and requires all members of a JHU recognized fraternity or sorority to be a JHU studentHP Pavilion dv6-1212sl battery.

As of Spring 2011, 1,208 students were members of one of Hopkins' fraternities or sororities. The All–Greek Average GPA was 3.31, above the undergraduate average GPA.[108] In Spring 2010 the university was considering construction of a "fraternity row" of houses to consolidate the groups on campus. HP Pavilion dv6-1211tx battery

All Johns Hopkins fraternities and sororities belong to one of four Councils: the Inter–Fraternity Council, the National Panhellenic Conference, the National Pan-Hellenic Council and the Multicultural Council.

The Inter–Fraternity Council includes eleven fraternities:[110]

Alpha Delta Phi fraternity, chapter founded 1889.

Alpha Epsilon Pi fraternity, Psi chapter founded 1936. Jewish interest.

Beta Theta Pi fraternity, Alpha Chi chapter founded 1877.

Lambda Phi Epsilon fraternity, Upsilon chapter founded 1994. Asian–American interest.

Phi Delta Theta fraternity, Maryland Delta chapter founded 2008HP Pavilion dv6-1211sg battery.

FIJI – Phi Gamma Delta fraternity, Beta Mu chapter founded 1891.

Phi Kappa Psi fraternity, Maryland Alpha chapter founded 1879.

Pi Kappa Alpha fraternity, Iota Tau chapter founded 1994.

Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity, Maryland Phi chapter founded 1994.

Sigma Chi fraternity, Kappa Upsilon chapter founded 2003.

Sigma Phi Epsilon fraternity, Maryland Alpha chapter founded 1929.

The National Panhellenic Conference includes four sororities:[113]

Alpha Phi sorority, Zeta Omicron chapter founded 1982HP Pavilion dv6-1211sa battery.

Kappa Kappa Gamma sorority, Eta Epsilon chapter founded 1999.

Phi Mu sorority, Gamma Tau chapter founded 1982.

Pi Beta Phi sorority, Maryland Gamma chartered November 20, 2010.

The National Pan–Hellenic Council includes two historically African–American groups:

Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity, Sigma Sigma chapter founded 1991.

Sigma Gamma Rho sorority, Rho Omega chapter founded 2009.

The Multicultural Council includes four groups:

Johns Hopkins University Main Campus at Homewood.

Alpha Kappa Delta Phi sorority, associate chapter founded 1997. Asian–American interest.

Delta Xi Phi sorority, Lambda chapter founded 2003. Multicultural interestHP Pavilion dv6-1211er battery.

INΔ – Iota Nu Delta fraternity, chapter founded 2008. South Asian interest.

Sigma Omicron Pi sorority, Lambda chapter founded 2002. Asian–American interest.

Delta Phi Fraternity, also known as St. Elmo's, maintains a chapter exclusive to students at Johns Hopkins, though it is not recognized by the Office of Greek Life.

Unrecognized Alpha Kappa Alpha and Delta Sigma Theta African–American interest sororities often recruit Johns Hopkins undergraduates, in their city–wide chaptersHP Pavilion dv6-1211ax battery. Delta Sigma Theta was the first National Pan–Hellenic Council member to charter on the campus in 1976, as well as the first sorority of any kind on the JHU campus.[citation needed]

Kappa Alpha Theta, a National Panhellenic Conference (NPC) sorority, was disbanded by its national headquarters on April 14, 2009 after twelve years on campus. The removal was due to repeated risk management violationsHP Pavilion dv6-1210tx battery.

In March 2010, Johns Hopkins University officially opened for NPC extension. In May 2010, the University Panhellenic Council selected Pi Beta Phi, which opened in the fall of 2010.

Recruitment for Inter–Fraternity Council and Panhellenic Conference fraternities and sororities takes place during the spring semester for freshmen, though some groups recruit upperclassmen during the fall semesterHP Pavilion dv6-1210sv battery. All participants must have completed one semester and must be in good academic standing.

Many of the fraternities maintain houses off campus, but no sororities do.[citation needed] Baltimore City allows housing to be zoned specifically for use as a fraternity or sorority house, but in practice this zoning code has not been awarded for at least 50 years.[citation needed] Only Sigma Phi Epsilon's building has this zoning code due to its consistent ownership since the 1920sHP Pavilion dv6-1210sr battery.

Student publications

Gilman Hall, Center for the Humanities

Hopkins has many student publications.

The Johns Hopkins News-Letter, founded in 1896, is one of the oldest continuously published weekly college newspapers in the nation with a press run of 5,200.[119] The News-Letter won a Associated Collegiate Press Newspaper Pacemaker award for four–year, non–daily college newspapers in 2007HP Pavilion dv6-1210sl battery.

The Hopkins Donkey is a political newspaper with a Democratic perspective on international, national and state–wide political topics.

The Carrollton Record is a political newspaper with an American conservative perspective on campus and city–wide politics.

Epidemic Proportions is the university's public health research journal, designed to highlight JHU research and field work in public health. Combining research and scholarship, the journal seeks to capture the breadth and depth of the JHU undergraduate public health experienceHP Pavilion dv6-1210sf battery.

Thoroughfare, Zeniada and j.mag are literary magazines. Prometheus is the undergraduate philosophy journal.

Frame of Reference is an annual magazine that focuses on film and film culture.

The New Diplomat is the multi–disciplinary international relations journal. Foundations is the undergraduate history journalHP Pavilion dv6-1210sb battery.

Américas is the Latin American Studies journal.

Argot is the undergraduate anthropology journal.

The Triple Helix is the university's journal to address issues concerning science, law and society.

Perspectives is the official newsletter of the Black Student Union.

The Black & Blue Jay is among the nation's oldest campus humor magazines. It was founded in 1920.[128] According to The Johns Hopkins News–Letter, the magazine's name led the News–Letter to first use the moniker Blue Jays to refer to a Hopkins athletic team in 1923HP Pavilion dv6-1210sa battery. While the magazine enjoyed popularity among students, it received repeated opposition from the university administration, reportedly for its vulgar humor. In October 1934, Dean Edward R. Berry removed financial support for the magazine; without funding, the magazine continued under the name The Blue Jay until Berry threatened to expel the editors in 1939. The magazine had a revival in 1984, and has appeared intermittently since then. HP Pavilion dv6-1210ez battery

Student–Run Businesses

Hopkins Student Enterprises (HSE) is a startup incubator with the goal of fostering student innovation and encouraging the development of student–run businesses. Currently, 4 businesses are in operation:

Hopkins Consulting Agency (HCA)—Business and technology consulting company that prepares technology commercialization reports and business plansHP Pavilion dv6-1210ew battery.

Hopkins Student Movers (HSM)—Moving and storage company that serves JHU faculty, staff, and students and the broader Baltimore community.

Hopkins Student Creative Services (HSCS)—Full service graphic design company.

The Blue Jay Cleaners - Student janitorial service for all on-campus and select off campus residence halls.

Athletics

Athletics logo

Main article: Johns Hopkins Blue Jays

Athletic teams are called Blue Jays. Even though sable and gold are used for academic robes, the university's athletic colors are Columbia blue (PMS 284) and black. HP Pavilion dv6-1210et battery Hopkins celebrates Homecoming in the spring to coincide with the height of the lacrosse season. The Men's and Women's lacrosse teams are in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I. Other teams are in Division III and participate in the Centennial Conference. JHU is also home to the Lacrosse Museum and National Hall of Fame, maintained by US LacrosseHP Pavilion dv6-1210es battery.

Men's lacrosse

Main article: Johns Hopkins Blue Jays men's lacrosse

Johns Hopkins Men's Lacrosse at Homewood Field

The school's most prominent team is its men's lacrosse team. The team does not belong to a conference. The team has won 44 national titles – nine Division I (2007, 2005, 1987, 1985, 1984, 1980, 1979, 1978, 1974), 29 United States Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association (USILA), and six Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association (ILA) titlesHP Pavilion dv6-1210er battery. Hopkins' primary national rivals are Princeton University, Syracuse University, and the University of Virginia; its primary intrastate rivals are Loyola College (competing in what is called the "Charles Street Massacre"), Towson University, the United States Naval Academy, and the University of Maryland. The rivalry with Maryland is the oldest. The schools have met 103 times since 1899, twice in playoff matchesHP Pavilion dv6-1210ek battery.

Women's lacrosse

Main article: Johns Hopkins Blue Jays women's lacrosse

The women's team is a member of the American Lacrosse Conference (ALC). The team is developing into a top twenty team. The Lady Blue Jays were ranked number 19 in the 2008 Inside Lacrosse Women's DI Media Poll (ILWDIMP). They ranked number 8 in both the 2007 Intercollegiate Women's Lacrosse Coaches Association (IWLCA) Poll for Division I and the ILWDIMPHP Pavilion dv6-1210eg battery. In 2006, they were ranked 14th in the ILWDIMP, in 2005, they were 11th, and, in 2004, they were 9th. However, recently the team has struggled and finished with a record of 5 wins and 12 losses in the 2009 season.

Other teams

Hopkins has notable Division III Athletic teams. JHU Men's Swimming won three consecutive NCAA Championships in 1977, 1978, and 1979. HP Pavilion dv6-1210ee battery In 2009–2010, Hopkins won 8 Centennial Conference titles in Women's Cross Country, Women's Track & Field, Baseball, Men's and Women's Soccer, Football, and Men's and Women's Tennis. The Women's Cross Country team became the first women's team at Hopkins to achieve a #1 National ranking. In 2006–2007 teams won Centennial Conference titles in BaseballHP Pavilion dv6-1208ca battery, Men's and Women's Soccer, Men's and Women's Tennis and Men's Basketball. Hopkins has an acclaimed fencing team, which ranked in the top three Division III teams in the past few years and in both 2008 and 2007 defeated the University of North Carolina, a Division I team. In 2008, they defeated UNC and won the MACFA championshipHP Pavilion dv6-1207tx battery.

The Swimming team ranked highly in NCAA Division III for the last 10 years, most recently placing second at DIII Nationals in 2008. The Water Polo team was number one in Division III for several of the past years, playing a full schedule against Division I opponents. Hopkins also has a century-old rivalry with McDaniel College (formerly Western Maryland College) HP Pavilion dv6-1207sf battery, playing the Green Terrors 83 times in football since the first game in 1894. In 2009 the football team reached the quarterfinals of the NCAA Division III tournament, with three tournament appearances since 2005. In 2008, the baseball team ranked second, losing in the final game of the DIII College World Series to Trinity College.

Notable alumni, faculty and staff

Main article: List of Johns Hopkins University people

Nobel laureates

Main article: List of Nobel laureates affiliated with Johns Hopkins UniversityHP Pavilion dv6-1207ax battery

As of 2011, there had been 37 Nobel Laureates, who attended the university as undergraduate students, graduate students or were faculty members.[138] Woodrow Wilson, who received his PhD from Johns Hopkins in 1886, was Hopkins' first affiliated laureate, winning the Nobel Peace Prize in 1919. Twenty-three laureates were faculty members, five earned PhDs, eight earned M.D. while Francis Peyton Rous and Martin Rodbell earned undergraduate degreesHP Pavilion dv6-1207au battery.

Eighteen Johns Hopkins laureates have won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, more than any other category.[138] Four Nobel Prizes were shared by Johns Hopkins laureates: George Minot and George Whipple won the 1934 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine,[140] Joseph Erlanger and Herbert Spencer Gasser won the 1944 Nobel Prize in Physiology or MedicineHP Pavilion dv6-1206tx battery, Daniel Nathans and Hamilton O. Smith won the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine,[142] and David H. Hubel and Torsten N. Wiesel won the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Two Johns Hopkins laureates won Nobel Prizes in Physics, Riccardo Giacconi in 2002 and Adam Riess in 2011HP Pavilion dv6-1205tx battery.

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