Cornell University And Johns Hopkins University 1

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Cornell University is a private Ivy League research university located in Ithaca, New York, United States. It is a private land-grant university, receiving annual funding from the State of New York for certain educational missionsHP Pavilion dv6-1299lx battery. Founded in 1865 by Ezra Cornell and Andrew Dickson White, the university was intended to teach and make contributions in all fields of knowledge—from the classics to the sciences, and from the theoretical to the applied. These ideals, unconventional for the time, are captured in Cornell's motto, a popular 1865 Ezra Cornell quotation: "I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any study." HP Pavilion dv6-1299ez battery

The university is broadly organized into seven undergraduate colleges and seven graduate divisions at its main Ithaca campus, with each college and division defining its own admission standards and academic programs in near autonomy. The university also administers two satellite medical campuses, one in New York City and one in Education City, QatarHP Pavilion dv6-1299es battery. Cornell is one of two private land grant universities,[note 1] and its seven undergraduate colleges include three private, state-supported statutory or contract colleges. As a land grant college, it also operates a cooperative extension outreach program in every county of New York.

Since its founding, Cornell has been a co-educational, non-sectarian institution where admission is offered irrespective of religion or raceHP Pavilion dv6-1299er battery. Cornell counts more than 245,000 living alumni, 31 Marshall Scholars, 28 Rhodes Scholars and 41 Nobel laureates as affiliated with the university. The student body consists of nearly 14,000 undergraduate and 7,000 graduate students from all 50 states and 122 countries.

History

Main article: History of Cornell University

Cornell University was founded on April 27, 1865 as the result of a New York State (NYS) Senate bill that named the university as the state's land grant institutionHP Pavilion dv6-1299eo battery. Senator Ezra Cornell offered his farm in Ithaca, New York as a site and $500,000 of his personal fortune as an initial endowment. Fellow senator and experienced educator Andrew Dickson White agreed to be the first president. During the next three years, White oversaw the construction of the initial two buildings and traveled around the globe to attract students and faculty. HP Pavilion dv6-1299ef battery The university was inaugurated on October 7, 1868, and 412 men were enrolled the next day.

Cornell's founders

Andrew Dickson White

Cornell continued to be a technological innovator applying its research to its own campus as well as to outreach efforts. For example, it was one of the first university campuses to use electricity to light the grounds from a water-powered dynamo in 1883HP Pavilion dv6-1299ea battery. Since 1894, Cornell has included state-funded statutory colleges and has also administered research and extension activities that have been jointly funded by state and federal matching funds. Cornell has had an active alumni since its earliest classes and was one of the first universities to include alumni-elected representatives on its Board of TrusteesHP Pavilion dv6-1295el battery.

Cornell expanded significantly, particularly since World War II, with its student population in Ithaca growing to its current count of about 20,000 students. The faculty also expanded, and by the century's end, the university had more than 3,400 faculty members. The school also increased its breadth of course offeringsHP Pavilion dv6-1291es battery. Today the university has wide-ranging programs and offers more than 4,000 courses. Cornell received national attention in April 1969 when African American students occupied Willard Straight Hall in protest over alleged racism. The crisis resulted in the resignation of President James A. Perkins and the restructuring of university governanceHP Pavilion dv6-1290ev battery.

Since 2000, Cornell has been expanding its international programs. In 2004, the university opened the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar, the first American medical school outside of the United States.[18] It continues to forge partnerships with major institutions in India, Singapore, and the People's Republic of China. The university, with its high international profile, claims to be "the first transnational university".HP Pavilion dv6-1290es battery On March 9, 2004, Cornell and Stanford laid the cornerstone for a new Bridging the Rift Center located on the Israel–Jordan border.[23]

Campuses

Ithaca campus

The Arts Quad on Cornell's main campus with iconic McGraw Tower in the background

Overlooking Ho Plaza from atop McGraw Tower, with Sage Hall and Barnes Hall in the background

Sage Chapel hosts religious services and concerts, and is the final resting place of the university's foundersHP Pavilion dv6-1290en battery

Main articles: Cornell Central Campus, Cornell North Campus, and Cornell West Campus

Cornell's main campus is on East Hill in Ithaca, New York, overlooking the town and Cayuga Lake. When the university was founded in 1865, the campus consisted of 209.5 acres (0.85 km²) of Ezra Cornell's roughly 300 acre (1.2 km²) farm. Since then, it has swelled to about 745 acres (3.0 km²), encompassing both the hill and much of the surrounding areas. HP Pavilion dv6-1290ec battery Some 260 university buildings are divided primarily between Central and North Campuses on the plateau of the Hill, West Campus on its slope, and Collegetown immediately south of Central Campus.[24][not in citation given] Central Campus has laboratories, administrative buildings, and almost all of the campus' academic buildings, athletic facilities, auditoriums, and museumsHP Pavilion dv6-1288la battery. The only remaining residential facility on Central Campus is the Law School's dormitory, Hughes Hall. North Campus contains freshman and graduate student housing, themed program houses, and 29 fraternity and sorority houses. West Campus has upperclass residential colleges and an additional 25 fraternity and sorority houses. HP Pavilion dv6-1285es batteryCollegetown contains two upperclass residence halls and the Schwartz Performing Arts Center amid a neighborhood of apartments, eateries, and businesses.[28]

The main campus is marked by an irregular layout and eclectic architectural styles, including ornate Collegiate Gothic, Victorian, Neoclassical buildings, and less decorative international and modernist structures. The more ornate buildings generally predate World War II. Because the student population doubled from 7,000 in 1950 to 15,000 by 1970HP Pavilion dv6-1282et battery, grandiosity was neglected in favor of less expensive and more rapidly constructed styles.[29] While some buildings are neatly arranged into quadrangles, others are packed densely and haphazardly. These eccentricities arose from the university's numerous, ever-changing master plans for the campus. For example, in one of the earliest plans, Frederick Law Olmsted, the designer of Central ParkHP Pavilion dv6-1280us battery, outlined a "grand terrace" overlooking Cayuga Lake.[30] Because the terrace plan was dropped, McGraw Hall appears to face the wrong direction, facing Libe Slope rather than the Arts Quad. The university is home to several buildings on the National Register of Historic Places, including the Andrew Dickson White House, Bailey Hall, Caldwell Hall, Comstock HallHP Pavilion dv6-1280sn battery, Morrill Hall, and Deke House. At least three other historic buildings—the original Roberts Hall, East Robert Hall and Stone Hall—have also been listed on the NRHP, despite their demolitions in the 1980s.[31]

The Ithaca Campus is among the rolling valleys of the Finger Lakes region and, atop East Hill, provides a view of the surrounding area, including 38 miles (61.4 km) long Lake Cayuga. Two gorgesHP Pavilion dv6-1280ev battery, Fall Creek Gorge and Cascadilla Gorge, bound Central Campus and become popular swimming holes during the warmer months (although the university discourages their use).[citation needed] Adjacent to the main campus, Cornell owns the 2,800 acre (11.6 km²) Cornell Plantations, a botanical garden containing flowers, trees, and ponds along manicured trailsHP Pavilion dv6-1280et battery.

Cornell has adopted a comprehensive sustainability action plan, and has a number of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certified buildings on the Ithaca campus.[33][not in citation given] In 2009, a new gas-fired combined heat and power facility replaced a coal-fired steam plant, resulting in a reduction in carbon emissions to 7% below 1990 levelsHP Pavilion dv6-1280es battery, and to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 75,000 tons per year.[34] The facility meets 15% of campus electrical needs,[35] and a university-run, on-campus hydroelectric plant in the Fall Creek Gorge provides an additional 2%.[36] An award-winning lake source cooling project uses Lake Cayuga to air condition campus buildings, with an 80% energy saving over conventional systems. HP Pavilion dv6-1280ep batteryIn 2007, Cornell established a Center for a Sustainable Future.[38] Cornell has been rated "A-" by the 2011 College Sustainability Report Card for its environmental and sustainability initiatives.[39]

New York City campuses

Cornell's medical campus in New York, also called Weill Cornell, is on the Upper East Side of Manhattan, New York City. It is home to two Cornell divisions, Weill Cornell Medical College and Weill Cornell Graduate School of Medical Sciences, and has been affiliated with the NewYork–Presbyterian Hospital since 1927. HP Pavilion dv6-1280el batteryAlthough their faculty and academic divisions are separate, the Medical Center shares its administrative and teaching hospital functions with the Columbia University Medical Center.[citation needed] These teaching hospitals also include the Payne Whitney Clinic in Manhattan and the Westchester Division in White Plains, New York. HP Pavilion dv6-1277la battery Weill Cornell Medical College is also affiliated with the neighboring Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center, Rockefeller University, and the Hospital for Special Surgery. Many faculty members have joint appointments at these institutions, and Weill Cornell, Rockefeller, and Memorial Sloan–Kettering offer the Tri-Institutional MD–PhD Program to selected entering Cornell medical students.[42] From 1942 to 1979, the campus also housed a Cornell school of nursing. HP Pavilion dv6-1277el battery

Weill Medical Center overlooks the East River in New York City.

On December 19, 2011, a bid by a consortium of Cornell University and Technion-Israel Institute of Technology won a competition for rights to claim free city land as well as $100 million in subsidies to build an engineering campus in the city. The competition was established by New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg in order to increase entrepreneurship and job growth in the city's technology sectorHP Pavilion dv6-1275la battery. The winning bid consisted of a 2.1 million square feet state-of-the-art tech campus to be built on Roosevelt Island. Instruction is to begin in the fall of 2012 in a temporary location in Manhattan.[44] Thom Mayne of the architecture firm Morphosis has been selected to design the first building to be constructed on Roosevelt Island. Construction would begin in 2014 with a target completion for the start of the 2017 academic yearHP Pavilion dv6-1275eg battery.

In addition to the tech campus and medical center, New York City hosts local offices for some of Cornell's service programs. The Cornell Urban Scholars Program encourages students to pursue public service careers with organizations working with New York City's poorest children, families, and communitiesHP Pavilion dv6-1270st battery. The NYS College of Human Ecology and the NYS College of Agriculture and Life Sciences provide means for students to reach out to local communities by gardening and building with the Cornell Cooperative Extension. Students with the NYS School of Industrial and Labor Relations' Extension & Outreach Program make workplace expertise available to organizations, union members, policy makersHP Pavilion dv6-1270ss battery, and working adults. The College of Engineering's Operations Research Manhattan, in the city's financial district, brings together business optimization research and decision support services addressed to both financial applications and public health logistics planning. The College of Architecture, Art, and Planning has a facility on West 17th Street, near Union Square, to provide studio and seminar space for students and facultyHP Pavilion dv6-1270la battery.

Qatar campus

Weill Cornell Medical College in Education City, Qatar

Main article: Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar

Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar is in Education City, near Doha. Opened in September 2004, it was the first American medical school outside the United States. The college is part of Cornell's program to increase its international influence. The College is a joint initiative with the Qatar government, which seeks to improve the country's academic programs and medical care. HP Pavilion dv6-1270ev batteryAlong with its full four-year MD program, which mirrors the curriculum taught at Weill Medical College in New York City, the college offers a two-year undergraduate pre-medical program with a separate admissions process. This undergraduate program opened in September 2002 and was the first coeducational institute of higher education in QatarHP Pavilion dv6-1270et battery.

The college is partially funded by the Qatar government through the Qatar Foundation, which contributed $750 million for its construction. The medical center is housed in a large two-story structure designed by Arata Isozaki. In 2004, the Qatar Foundation announced the construction of a 350-bed Specialty Teaching Hospital near the medical college in Education CityHP Pavilion dv6-1270eq battery. The hospital is currently under construction and is slated to be completed in the next few years.

Other facilities

Cornell University owns and operates many facilities around the world.[54] The Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico, site of the world's largest single-dish radio telescope, was operated by Cornell under a contract with the National Science Foundation from its construction until 2011. The Shoals Marine Laboratory, operated in conjunction with the University of New HampshireHP Pavilion dv6-1270el battery, is a seasonal marine field station dedicated to undergraduate education and research on 95 acre (0.4 km²) Appledore Island off the Maine–New Hampshire coast.

A World War I Memorial on Cornell's West Campus in Ithaca

Many Cornell facilities focus on conservationism and ecology. The New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, operated by the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, is in Geneva, New York, 50 miles (80 km) northwest of the main campus. The facility comprises 20 major buildings on 130 acres (0.5 km²) of land as well as more than 700 acres (2.8 km²)HP Pavilion dv6-1270eg battery of test plots and other lands devoted to horticultural research.[58][not in citation given] It also operates three substations: The Cornell Lake Erie Research and Extension Laboratory (CLEREL) in Portland,[59] Hudson Valley Laboratory in Highland,[60] and the Long Island Horticultural Research Laboratory in Riverhead.

Cornell's Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, designed by I.M. Pei

The Cornell Lab of Ornithology in Ithaca's Sapsucker Woods performs research on biological diversity, primarily in birdsHP Pavilion dv6-1270ec battery. On April 18, 2005, the lab announced that it had rediscovered the Ivory-billed Woodpecker, long thought to be extinct (Although some experts disputed the evidence and subsequent surveys were inconclusive).[63] The Animal Science Teaching and Research Center in Harford, New York, and the Duck Research Laboratory in Eastport, New York, are resources for information on animal disease control and husbandryHP Pavilion dv6-1268tx battery. The Arnot Teaching and Research Forest, a 4,075 acre (16.5 km²) forest 20 miles (32.2 km) south of the Ithaca campus, is the primary field location for faculty and student training and research related to professional forestry. The mission of the Cornell Biological Field Station in Bridgeport, New York, is "to provide a center for long-term ecological research and support the University's educational programsHP Pavilion dv6-1268nr battery, with special emphasis on freshwater lacustrine systems". The Department of Horticulture operates the Homer C. Thompson Vegetable Research Farm and Freeville Organic Research Farm in Freeville, New York. In addition, the university operates biodiversity laboratories in Punta Cana, Dominican Republic, and in the Amazon Rainforest in Peru named the Cornell University Esbaran Amazon Field LaboratoryHP Pavilion dv6-1266el battery.

The university also maintains offices for study abroad and scholarship programs. The Cornell in Washington is a program that allows students to study for a semester in Washington, D.C., holding research and internship positions while earning credit toward a degree. Cornell in Rome, operated by the College of Architecture, Art, and PlanningHP Pavilion dv6-1265tx battery, allows students to use the city as a resource for learning architecture, urban studies, and art. The College of Human Ecology offers the Urban Semester Program, an opportunity to take courses and complete an internship in New York City for a semester. As well, the Capital Semester program allows students to intern in the New York state legislatureHP Pavilion dv6-1265sg battery. As New York State's land grant college, Cornell operates a cooperative extension service with 56 offices spread out across the state, each staffed with extension educators who offer programs in five subjects: Agriculture & Food Systems; Children, Youth, & Families; Community & Economic Vitality; Environment & Natural Resources; and Nutrition & Health. Cornell also operates New York's Animal Health Diagnostic CenterHP Pavilion dv6-1264tx battery.

Organization and administration

Cornell is a non-profit organization governed by a 64-member board of trustees consisting of both privately and publicly appointed trustees. Three trustees are appointed by the Governor of New York; one seat is reserved for the eldest lineal descendant of Ezra Cornell; two members from each of the fields of agriculture, business and labor in New York stateHP Pavilion dv6-1264ca battery; eight trustees to be elected from among and by the alumni of the university; two trustees to be elected from among and by the faculty of the university at Ithaca and Geneva; two trustees to be elected from among and by the membership of the university's student body at Ithaca (one undergraduate and one graduate student);[75] and one trustee to be elected from among and by the nonacademic staff and employees of the university at Ithaca and GenevaHP Pavilion dv6-1263cl battery, 37 trustees at large and finally, the Governor, Temporary President of the Senate, Speaker of the Assembly, and president of the university serve in an ex officio voting capacity. Peter C. Meinig has served as the chairman of the board since 2002. The Board elects a President to serve as the chief executive and educational officer. The twelfth and current president, David J. Skorton has served since July 2006 and succeeded Jeffrey S. LehmanHP Pavilion dv6-1261tx battery. The Board of Trustees hold four regular meetings each year, and portions of those meetings are subject to the New York State Open Meetings Law.

Cornell consists of nine privately endowed colleges as well as four publicly supported "statutory colleges": the New York State College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, College of Human Ecology, School of Industrial and Labor Relations, and College of Veterinary MedicineHP Pavilion dv6-1260tx battery. These statutory colleges received $131.9 million in SUNY appropriations in 2010-2011 to support their teaching, research, and service missions, which makes them accountable to SUNY trustees and other state agencies. The budget also includes $3.9 million of state funds for Cornell Cooperative Extension Residents of New York enrolled in these colleges also qualify for discounted tuitionHP Pavilion dv6-1260sn battery. However, Attorney General Eliot Spitzer issued a 2005 opinion asserting that, with respect to their academic activities, statutory colleges should be understood to be private, non-state parties.

Cornell is decentralized, with its colleges and schools exercising wide autonomy. Each defines its own academic programs, operates its own admissions and advising programs, and confers its own degreesHP Pavilion dv6-1260sh battery. The only university-wide requirements for a baccalaureate degree are to pass a swimming test, take two physical education courses, and satisfy a writing requirement.[85] A handful of inter-school academic departments offer courses in more than one college. All academic departments are affiliated with at least one college; the last department without such an affiliation, the Cornell Africana Studies and Research Center, merged with the Arts College in July 2011HP Pavilion dv6-1260sg battery.

Seven schools provide undergraduate programs and an additional seven provide graduate and professional programs. Students pursuing graduate degrees in departments of these schools are enrolled in the Graduate School. The School of Continuing Education and Summer Sessions offers programs for college and high school students, professionals, and other adults. HP Pavilion dv6-1260se battery Of the 13,515 undergraduate students, 4,251 (31.5%) are affiliated with the largest college by enrollment, Arts and Sciences, followed by 3,153 (23.3%) in Agriculture and Life Sciences and 2,680 (19.8%) in Engineering. By student enrollment, the smallest of the seven undergraduate colleges is Architecture, Art, and Planning, with 515 (3.8%) studentsHP Pavilion dv6-1260ev battery.

Several other universities have used Cornell as their model, including Stanford University, the University of Sydney in Australia and the University of Birmingham in the United Kingdom; the latter on the recommendation of one of its financiers, Andrew Carnegie, who was a Cornell TrusteeHP Pavilion dv6-1260et battery.

The university also operates eCornell, which offers both certificate programs and professional development courses online. In addition to being New York's land-grant college, Cornell is also is a partner in New York's sea-grant program,[92] is the hub of the Northeast's sun-grant program,[93] and is a part of New York's space-grant consortium.HP Pavilion dv6-1260ep battery

In 2009, Cornell ranked third among universities in the U.S. in fund-raising, collecting $446.75 million in private support. In addition to the central University development staff located in Ithaca and New York City, each college and program has its own staffed fundraising program. In 2006, Cornell launched a $4 billion fundraising campaign, which reached $3 billion in November 2010HP Pavilion dv6-1260ej battery.

Academics

Sage Hall, home to the Samuel Curtis Johnson Graduate School of Management

Cornell is a large, primarily residential research university with a majority of enrollments in undergraduate programs.[97] The university has been accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education since 1921. HP Pavilion dv6-1260ei battery Cornell operates on a 4–1–4 academic calendar with the fall term beginning in late August and ending in early December, a three week winter session in January, and the spring term beginning in late January and ending in early May.[99]

The university awarded the world’s first degree in journalism, the nation’s first university degree in veterinary medicine, and the first doctorates in electrical engineering and industrial engineeringHP Pavilion dv6-1260ec battery. It also established the first four-year schools of hotel administration and industrial and labor relations. Cornell was the first U.S. university to offer a major in American studies, and it was the first university to teach modern Far Eastern languages.[4]

Cornell and Oregon State University are the only two institutions which are members of the Land Grant, Sea Grant, Space Grant, and Sun Grant programsHP Pavilion dv6-1259tx battery.

Admissions

For the undergraduate class of 2016, Cornell admitted a total of 6,123 students out of 37,812 applicants, for an acceptance rate of 16.2%. Cornell's College of Arts and Sciences admitted less than 14% of applicants for the class of 2015. For the students enrolling in the class of 2014, 89% of were in the top 10% of their class.[100] For the undergraduate class of 2013HP Pavilion dv6-1259dx battery, the admission rate was 19.1%.[101] For the undergraduate class of 2012, the admission rate was 20.4%.[102] Of those admitted, the average SAT Verbal score was 700, while the average SAT Math was a 720. Also, 92% of admitted students for the Class of 2011 were in the top 10% of their graduating high school class. Cornell's policy of requiring students to submit all their SAT scores is uncommon among American universities. HP Pavilion dv6-1256tx battery Cornell enrolls students from all 50 U.S. states and more than 120 countries. The Class of 2010 has representatives from all states. As of Fall 2005, 28% of undergraduate students identified themselves as members of ethnic minority groups.[4] Legacy applicants receive a slight advantage in the admission processHP Pavilion dv6-1255tx battery.

In 2005, the Graduate School accepted 21.6% of applicants, the Law School accepted 20.6%, and the Veterinary School accepted 10.9%.The Weill Cornell Medical School accepted 4.3%.[109][not in citation given] In 2010, the Samuel Curtis Johnson Graduate School of Management enrolled 10.1% of its applicants for its two-year MBA programHP Pavilion dv6-1255eg battery.

Financial aid

The sarcophagus in Sage Chapel of Jennie McGraw, Cornell benefactor

At the time of its founding, Cornell University was considered revolutionary because its founder, Ezra Cornell, was committed to access for all students, regardless of economic circumstance. Section 9 of the original charter of Cornell University ensured that the university "shall be open to applicants for admission ... at the lowest rates of expense consistent with its welfare and efficiency, and without distinction as to rank, class, previous occupation or locality."HP Pavilion dv6-1255ee battery The University Charter provided for free instruction to one student chosen from each Assembly district in the state. Within the first 10 years of operation, the university admitted women and underrepresented minority students and provided financial aid for many students, using a combination of grant, loan and work-study opportunities. The university awarded need-based grants as early as 1879, and its first endowed scholarship fund was created in 1892HP Pavilion dv6-1254tx battery.

Starting in the 1950s Cornell coordinated with other Ivy League schools to provide a consistent set of financial aid. However, in 1989, a consent decree to end a Justice Department antitrust investigation ended such coordination. Even after the decree, all Ivy League schools continue to award aid on financial need without offering any athletic scholarships. HP Pavilion dv6-1253cl battery In December 2010, Cornell announced a policy of matching any grant component of financial aid offers from other Ivy League schools, MIT, Duke University or Stanford, if an accepted applicant is trying to decide between Cornell and those other schools.

On January 31, 2008, Cornell announced a new financial aid initiative to be phased in over the following two yearsHP Pavilion dv6-1253ca battery. In the first year, 2008–09, Cornell replaced need-based loans with scholarships for undergraduate students from families with incomes under $60,000 and capped such loans annually at $3,000 for students from families with incomes between $60,000 and $120,000. The following year, 2009–10, the program improved by replacing loan with scholarships for students from families with incomes up to $75,000HP Pavilion dv6-1252tx battery, and capped annual loans at $3,000 for students from families with income between $75,000 and $120,000. For families above $120,000, need-based loans were capped at $7,500 per year. The initiative costs an additional $14 million per year to fully implement. Although Cornell's endowment dropped 27% in the second half of 2008, its President announced that the financial aid initiative will continue by withdrawing an additional $35 million from the endowment for undergraduate financial aid in 2009–10HP Pavilion dv6-1250us battery. Cornell is seeking $125 million in gifts to support the financial aid initiative. In 2010, 1,647 of the 3,181 full-time freshmen enrolled were found to have financial need (40%).Of these, Cornell could meet the full financial aid needs of all 1,647 freshmen. Cornell's average undergraduate student's indebtedness at graduation is $21,549HP Pavilion dv6-1250ss battery.

International programs

Students performing a Raas, a traditional folk dance from India

Cornell offers undergraduate curricula with international focuses, including the Africana Studies, French Studies, German Studies, Jewish Studies, Latino Studies, Near Eastern Studies, Romance Studies, and Russian Literature majors. Cornell was the first university to teach modern Far Eastern languages.[4] In addition to traditional academic programs, Cornell students may study abroad on any of six continentsHP Pavilion dv6-1250sp battery.

The Asian Studies major, South Asia Program, South East Asia Program and China and Asia-Pacific Studies (CAPS) major provide opportunities for students and researchers in Asia. Cornell has an agreement with Peking University allowing students in the CAPS major to spend a semester in BeijingHP Pavilion dv6-1250sn battery. Similarly, the College of Engineering has an agreement to exchange faculty and graduate students with Tsinghua University in Beijing, and the School of Hotel Administration has a joint master's program with Nanyang Technological University in Singapore. The College of Agriculture and Life Sciences has signed an agreement with Japan's National Institute of Agrobiological SciencesHP Pavilion dv6-1250sc battery, as well as the University of the Philippines, Los Baños, to engage in joint research and exchange graduate students and faculty members. It also cooperates in agricultural research with the Indian Council of Agricultural Research.

In the Middle East, Cornell's efforts focus on biology and medicine. The Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar trains new doctors to improve health services in the regionHP Pavilion dv6-1250eq battery. The university is also developing the Bridging the Rift Center, a "Library of Life" (or database of all living systems) on the border of Israel and Jordan, in collaboration with those two countries and Stanford University. Cornell has partnered with Queen's University in Canada to offer a joint Executive MBA. The innovative program includes both on-campus and videoconferencing-based, interactive virtual classroom sessionsHP Pavilion dv6-1250ep battery. Graduates of the program earn both a Cornell MBA and a Queen's MBA.

Cornell University is member of the United Nations Academic Impact aligning institutions of higher education to the United Nations and promoting international cooperation.

Rankings

Cornell is usually ranked among the top twenty universities in the world in a variety of rankings. In 2011, Cornell ranked 15th in the QS World University Rankings and 20th in the Times Higher Education World University RankingsHP Pavilion dv6-1250eo battery. (in 2010 Times Higher Education World University Rankings and QS World University Rankings parted ways to produce separate rankings). The university ranked 15th in the 2011 U.S. News & World Report National Universities ranking (tied with Brown University), tied for 6th with Columbia University and Brown University in the 2011 U.S. News & World Report High School Counselor rankingsHP Pavilion dv6-1250el battery, and 13th globally in an academic ranking of world universities by Shanghai Jiao Tong University in 2011. Cornell was ranked 38th nationally and sixth among Ivy League universities in The Washington Monthly's 2010 ranking of universities' contributions to research, community service, and social mobility. In 2006, The Princeton Review reported that Cornell ranked ninth as a "dream college" for high school students and their parents, HP Pavilion dv6-1250eg battery however the school is not featured in the 2011 top ten list. Newsweek named Cornell the 'Hottest Ivy' in its 2007 listing of America's 25 Hot Schools. Instead of using the traditional school ranking methods, Newsweek offers a snapshot of today's most interesting colleges according to high school counselors, admissions officers, consultants, students, and parents, who noted Cornell for its emphasis on "problem-solving as well as scholarly debate" and "variety on campus" among other thingsHP Pavilion dv6-1250eb battery. Forbes ranked Cornell 51st in 2011, based on student criteria.

Many of Cornell's schools have been consistently ranked as some of the top schools in the United States. In its annual edition of "America's Best Architecture & Design Schools", the journal DesignIntelligence has consistently ranked Cornell's Bachelor of Architecture program as number one in the nation (2000–2002, 2005–2007, and 2009–2011)HP Pavilion dv6-1249tx battery. In the 2011 survey, the program ranked first and the Master of Architecture program ranked sixth. In 2011 and 2012, Design Intelligence ranked Cornell's Master of Landscape Architecture program 4th in the nation with the undergraduate program placing 8th for the same two years. In 2011, US News and World Report ranked Cornell's Sloan Program in Health Administration 14th in the nationHP Pavilion dv6-1249eo battery.

Cornell's 2008 commencement ceremony at Schoellkopf Field

Among business schools in the United States, the Samuel Curtis Johnson Graduate School of Management was ranked 7th by BusinessWeek in 2004, 9th by Forbes in 2005, 14th by U.S. News in 2008, and 18th by The Wall Street Journal in 2005. Worldwide, the school was ranked 17th by The Economist in 2005 and 36th by the Financial Times in 2006. U.S. News ranked the Weill Cornell Medical School as the 15th best in the United States in its 2007 editionHP Pavilion dv6-1248eo battery. The College of Veterinary Medicine was ranked first among national veterinary medicine graduate schools. The Cornell Law School was ranked as the 12th best graduate law program among national universities.[158] In 2005, The National Law Journal reported that Cornell Law had the sixth highest placement rate at the top 50 law firms in the U.S. among law schools with recent graduatesHP Pavilion dv6-1248ca battery.

Among graduate engineering programs, Cornell was ranked 9th in the United States by U.S. News in 2008. In 2006, Cornell was ranked 1st in the United States and 4th in the world in producing the most graduates who went on to receive engineering or natural science Ph.D.'s at American universities. In its 2006, 2007,[163] and 2008 ranking of undergraduate engineering programs at universities in the United StatesHP Pavilion dv6-1247tx battery, U.S. News placed Cornell 1st in engineering physics. In 1954, Conrad Hilton called the Cornell School of Hotel Administration "the greatest hotel school in the world."[165] According to the latest ranking of National Research Council in 1995, Cornell ranks sixth nationally in the number of graduate programs in the top ten in their fields.[166] Cornell had 19 ranked in the top 10 in terms of overall academic qualityHP Pavilion dv6-1247ez battery. Also National Research Council ranked the quality of faculties as 5th in Arts and Humanities, 6th in Mathematics and Physical Sciences, and 5th in Engineering. Cornell's international relations offerings are also ranked in Foreign Policy magazine's Inside the Ivory Tower survey, which lists the world's top twenty of such programs at the undergraduate, Master's and Ph.D. levels.[169] In 2012, the survey ranked Cornell 11th overall for doctoral programs and 12th overall in the undergraduate category. HP Pavilion dv6-1247et battery

The Cornell Law Library is one of 12 national depositories for print records of briefs filed with the U.S. Supreme Court.

Main article: Cornell University Library

The Cornell University Library is the 11th largest academic library in the United States, ranked by number of volumes held. Organized into 20 divisions, in 2005 it held 7.5 million printed volumes in open stacks, 8.2 million microfilms and microfiches, and a total of 440,000 maps, motion pictures, DVDs, sound recordings, and computer files in its collectionsHP Pavilion dv6-1247eo battery, in addition to extensive digital resources and the University Archives.[172] It was the first among all U.S. colleges and universities to allow undergraduates to borrow books from its libraries.[4] In 2006, The Princeton Review ranked it as the 11th best college library,[173] and it climbed to 6th best in 2009. The library plays an active role in furthering online archiving of scientific and historical documentsHP Pavilion dv6-1247cl battery. arXiv, an e-print archive created at Los Alamos National Laboratory by Paul Ginsparg, is operated and primarily funded by Cornell as part of the library's services. The archive has changed the way many physicists and mathematicians communicate, making the e-print a viable and popular means of announcing new researchHP Pavilion dv6-1246tx battery.

Press and scholarly publications

Main article: Cornell University Press

The Cornell University Press, established in 1869 but inactive from 1884 to 1930, was the first university publishing enterprise in the United States. Today, the press is one of the country's largest university presses.[4] It produces approximately 150 nonfiction titles each year in various disciplines including anthropology, Asian studies, biological sciences, classics, history, industrial relations, literary criticism and theory, natural history, philosophy, politics and international relations, veterinary science, and women's studiesHP Pavilion dv6-1246eo battery.

Cornell's academic units and student groups also publish a number of scholarly journals. Faculty-led publications include the Johnson School's Administrative Science Quarterly,[179] the ILR School's Industrial and Labor Relations Review, the Arts and Sciences Philosophy Department's The Philosophical Review, the College of Architecture, Art, and Planning's Journal of Architecture, and the Law School's Journal of Empirical Legal Studies. HP Pavilion dv6-1245et battery Student-led scholarly publications include the Law Review, the Public Affairs School's Cornell Policy Review, the International Law Journal, the Journal of Law and Public Policy, the International Affairs Review, and the HR Review.

Research

Cornell's Center for Advanced Computing was one of the five original centers of the NSF's Supercomputer Centers Program.

Cornell Plantations, located adjacent to the Ithaca campus, is used for conservation research as well as for recreation by CornelliansHP Pavilion dv6-1245es battery

In the basement of Goldwin Smith Hall, researchers in the Dendrochronology Lab determine the age of archaeological artifacts found at digs

Cornell, a research university, is ranked fourth in the world in producing the largest number of graduates who go on to pursue PhDs in engineering or the natural sciences at American institutions, as well as fifth in the world in producing graduates who pursue PhDs at American institutions in any field. HP Pavilion dv6-1245eo battery Research is a central element of the university's mission; in 2009 Cornell spent $671 million on science and engineering research and development, the 16th highest in the United States.[182]

For the 2004–05 fiscal year, the university spent $561.3 million on research.[183] The primary recipients of this funding were the colleges of Medicine ($164.2 million), Agriculture and Life Sciences ($114.5 million), Arts and Sciences ($80.3 million), and Engineering ($64.8 million). HP Pavilion dv6-1245dx battery The money comes largely from federal sources, with federal investment of $381.0 million. The federal agencies that invest the most money are the Department of Health and Human Services and the National Science Foundation that make up, respectively, 51.4% and 30.7% of all federal investment in the university. Cornell was on the top-ten list of U.S. universities receiving the most patents in 2003HP Pavilion dv6-1244tx battery, and was one of the nation's top five institutions in forming start-up companies.[184] In 2004–05, Cornell received 200 invention disclosures, filed 203 U.S. patent applications, completed 77 commercial license agreements, and distributed royalties of more than $4.1 million to Cornell units and inventors. HP Pavilion dv6-1244sb battery

Since 1962, Cornell has been involved in unmanned missions to Mars.[185] In the 21st century, Cornell had a hand in the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. Cornell's Steve Squyres, Principal Investigator for the Athena Science Payload, led the selection of the landing zones and requested data collection features for the Spirit and Opportunity rovers. HP Pavilion dv6-1243cl battery Jet Propulsion Laboratory engineers took those requests and designed the rovers to meet them. The rovers, both of which have operated long past their original life expectancies, are responsible for the discoveries that were awarded 2004 Breakthrough of the Year honors by Science.[187] Control of the Mars rovers has shifted between NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory at Caltech and Cornell's Space Sciences Building. HP Pavilion dv6-1242tx battery Further, Cornell researchers discovered the rings around the planet Uranus,[189] and Cornell built and operates the world's largest and most sensitive radiotelescope located in Arecibo, Puerto Rico.

The Automotive Crash Injury Research project was begun in 1952 by John O. Moore at the Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory, which spun off in 1972 as Calspan CorporationHP Pavilion dv6-1242et battery. It pioneered the use of crash testing, originally using corpses rather than dummies. The project discovered that improved door locks, energy-absorbing steering wheels, padded dashboards, and seat belts could prevent an extraordinary percentage of injuries. The project led Liberty Mutual to fund the building of a demonstration Cornell Safety Car in 1956, which received national publicity and influenced carmakers. HP Pavilion dv6-1241tx battery Carmakers soon started their own crash-test laboratories and gradually adopted many of the Cornell innovations. Other ideas, such as rear-facing passenger seats,[192] never found favor with carmakers or the public.[citation needed]

In the early 1980’s, Cornell deployed the first IBM 3090-400VF and coupled two IBM 3090-600E systems to investigate course-grained parallel computing. In 1984, the National Science Foundation began work on establishing five new supercomputer centersHP Pavilion dv6-1241et battery, including the Cornell Center for Advanced Computing, to provide high-speed computing resources for research within the United States. As an NSF center, Cornell deployed the first IBM Scalable Parallel supercomputer. In the 1990’s, Cornell developed scheduling software and deployed the first supercomputer built by Dell. Most recently, Cornell deployed Red Cloud, one of the first cloud computing services designed specifically for researchHP Pavilion dv6-1241eo battery. Today, the center is a partner on the National Science Foundation XSEDE supercomputing program, providing coordination for XSEDE architecture and design, systems reliability testing, and online training using the Cornell Virtual Workshop learning platform.

Cornell scientists have researched the fundamental particles of nature for more than 70 years. Cornell physicists, such as Hans Bethe, contributed not only to the foundations of nuclear physics but also participated in the Manhattan Project HP Pavilion dv6-1240us battery (see also: List of Cornell Manhattan Project people). In the 1930s, Cornell built the second cyclotron in the United States. In the 1950s, Cornell physicists became the first to study synchrotron radiation. During the 1990s, the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, located beneath Alumni Field, was the world's highest-luminosity electron-positron collider. After building the synchrotron at CornellHP Pavilion dv6-1240tx battery, Robert R. Wilson took a leave of absence to become the founding director of Fermilab, which involved designing and building the largest accelerator in the United States. Cornell's accelerator and high-energy physics groups are involved in the design of the proposed International Linear Collider and plan to participate in its construction and operationHP Pavilion dv6-1240sh battery. The International Linear Collider, to be completed in the late 2010s, will complement the Large Hadron Collider and shed light on questions such as the identity of dark matter and the existence of extra dimensions.

In the area of humanities and social sciences, Cornell is best known for being one of the world's greatest centers for the study of Southeast Asia. The Southeast Asia Program (SEAP) at Cornell is designated as a National Resource Center (NRC) HP Pavilion dv6-1240sf battery by the United States Department of Education 2010–2014. Therefore, the SEAP is nationally prominent in promoting advanced foreign language training, area and international knowledge in the liberal arts and applied discipline focused on Southeast Asia.[198] The George McTurnan Kahin Center for Advanced Research on Southeast Asia is located in the historic "Treman House." HP Pavilion dv6-1240sb battery The house was built by Robert Henry Treman, the son of an enterprising local family and the first member of that family to attend Cornell University and be elected to its board of trustees. The George McTurnan Kahin Center is home to SEAP graduate students, visiting fellows and scholars, faculty members, and SEAP's Publication and Outreach officesHP Pavilion dv6-1240ez battery.

For the 2006–07 academic year, Cornell had 901 registered student organizations. These clubs and organizations run the gamut from kayaking to full-armor jousting, from varsity and club sports and a cappella groups to improvisational theatre, from political clubs and publications to chess and video game clubsHP Pavilion dv6-1240ep battery. They are subsidized financially by academic departments and/or the Student Assembly and the Graduate & Professional Student Assembly, two student-run organizations with a collective budget of $3.0 million per year. The assemblies also finance other student life programs including a concert commission and an on-campus theater. HP Pavilion dv6-1240eo battery The Cornell International Affairs Society sends over 100 Cornellians to collegiate Model United Nations conferences across North America and hosts the Cornell Model United Nations Conference each spring for over 500 high school students. Additionally, the Cornell International Affairs Society's travelling Model United Nations team is ranked number 16 in the nation. HP Pavilion dv6-1240el battery Cornell United Religious Work is a collaboration among many diverse religious traditions, helping to provide spiritual resources throughout a student's time at college. The Cornell Catholic Community is the largest Catholic student organization on campus, updated to Vatican II in 2004 by Mr. Jackson Browne. Mr. Browne, a quiet student of religious studies and known best for his relationship between the Provost and many Student organizationsHP Pavilion dv6-1240ek battery. Student organizations also include a myriad of musical groups that play everything from classical, jazz, to ethnic styles in addition to the Big Red Marching Band, which performs regularly at football games and other campus events. Organized in 1868, the oldest Cornell student organization is the Cornell University Glee ClubHP Pavilion dv6-1240ei battery. The university is home to two secret honor societies called Sphinx Head and Quill and Dagger that have maintained a presence on campus for well over 120 years. It also has a Student Innovation Group, a think-tank dedicated to improving student life on campus.

Cornell hosts a large fraternity and sorority system, with 70 chapters involving 33% of male and 24% of female undergraduates. Alpha Phi Alpha, the first intercollegiate Greek-letter organization established for African Americans, was founded at Cornell in 1906HP Pavilion dv6-1240ef battery.

During the 2004–05 academic year, the Greek system committed 21,668 community service and advocacy hours and raised $176,547 in philanthropic efforts.[210] However, the administration has expressed concerns over student misconduct in the system. In 2004–05, of the

251 social events registered with the Office of Fraternity and Sorority AffairsHP Pavilion dv6-1240ed battery, 37 (15%) resulted in a complaint. In that same year, there were five reported instances of property destruction, five reports of bias, three hazing incidents, and various other allegations.[210] Misconduct by students, faculty or staff is reviewed by the Judicial Administrator, who administers Cornell's justice system. However, students accused of academic and conduct code violations at Cornell are entitled to representation in the Cornell justice system by the Office of the Judicial Codes CounselorHP Pavilion dv6-1240ec battery. Judicial Codes Counselors are usually Cornell Law students appointed by the University president to advocate for students accused of academic and conduct code violations. In addition to the right to representation, Cornell students have the right to not self-incriminate during Judicial Administrator investigations, which is an unusual (though very important) right in college justice systemsHP Pavilion dv6-1240ea battery.

Press and radio

The Cornell student body produces several works by way of print and radio. Student-run press outlets include The Cornell Daily Sun, the oldest continuously independent college daily newspaper in the United States; The Cornell Lunatic, a campus humor magazine; the Cornell Chronicle, the university's newspaper of record; The Cornell ReviewHP Pavilion dv6-1239tx battery, a conservative newspaper;, Kitsch Magazine, a feature magazine published in cooperation with Ithaca College, and Law and Society Review, a university-wide undergraduate publication. The Cornellian is an independent student organization that organizes, arranges, produces, edits, and publishes the yearbook of the same name; it is composed of artistic photos of the campus, student life, HP Pavilion dv6-1239et battery and athletics, as well as the standard senior portraits. It carries the Silver Crown Award for Journalism as well as a Benjamin Franklin Award for Print Design – the only Ivy League Yearbook with such a distinction. Cornellians are represented over the radio waves on WVBR, an independent commercial FM radio station owned and operated by Cornell students. Other student groups also operate internet streaming audio sitesHP Pavilion dv6-1239es battery.

Housing

One of several footbridges that span Cornell's gorges and ease commuting from housing to academic buildings on campus

University housing is broadly divided into three sections: North Campus, West Campus, and Collegetown. Since a 1997 residential initiative, West Campus houses transfer and returning students, whereas North Campus is almost entirely populated by freshmen. HP Pavilion dv6-1238nr battery

The only options for living on North Campus for upperclassmen are the program houses: Risley Residential College, Just About Music, the Ecology House, Holland International Living Center, the Multicultural Living Learning Unit, the Latino Living Center, Akwe:kon, and Ujamaa. In an attempt to create a sense of community and an atmosphere of education outside the classroom and continue Andrew Dickson White's visionHP Pavilion dv6-1238et battery, a $250 million reconstruction of West Campus created residential colleges there for undergraduates. The idea of building a house system can be attributed in part to the success of Risley Residential College, the oldest continually operating residential college at Cornell.

Additionally, Cornell has several housing areas for graduate and professional students. Of these, Schuyler House (which was formerly a part of Sage Infirmary) and Hughes Hall (which is the domitory wing of the law school complex) have a dorm layoutHP Pavilion dv6-1238es battery, while Maplewood Apartments, Hasbrouck Apartments, and Thurston Court Apartments are apartment-style, some even allowing for family living. Off campus, many single family houses in the East Hill neighborhoods adjacent to the university have been converted to apartments. Private developers have also built several multi-story apartment complexes in the Collegetown neighborhoodHP Pavilion dv6-1238ca battery. Nine percent of undergraduate students reside in fraternity and sorority houses, although first semester freshmen are not permitted to join them.[225] Cornell’s Greek system has 67 chapters and over 54 Greek residences that house approximately 1,500 students. About 42% of Greek members live in their houses.[226] Housing cooperatives or other independent living units exist, including Watermargin, Telluride House, Triphammer Cooperative, the Center for Jewish LivingHP Pavilion dv6-1237et battery, the Wait Cooperative and most famously the ever-prestigious, Cayuga Lodge.

As of 2008, Cornell's dining system was ranked 11th in the nation by the Princeton Review. The university has 30 on-campus dining locations, and a program called the Cross Country Gourmet Guest Restaurant Series periodically brings chefs, menus, and atmosphere from restaurants to Cornell's ten cafeteriasHP Pavilion dv6-1237es battery.

 

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