Columbia University And Tsinghua University

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Columbia University in the City of New York, commonly referred to as Columbia University, is an American private Ivy League research university located in New York City, New York, United States. Columbia is the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of New York, the fifth oldest in the United StatesSony VAIO VPCF24Q1E battery, and one of the country's nine Colonial Colleges founded before the American Revolution.[5] Today the university operates seven Columbia Global Centers overseas in Amman, Beijing, Istanbul, Paris, Mumbai, Santiago and Nairobi.

The university was founded in 1754 as King's College by royal charter of George II of Great Britain. After the American Revolutionary WarSony VAIO VPCF13M1E/H battery, King's College briefly became a state entity, and was renamed Columbia College in 1784. The University now operates under a 1787 charter that places the institution under a private board of trustees, and in 1896 it was further renamed Columbia University.[7] That same year, the university's campus was moved from Madison Avenue to its location in the Morningside Heights neighborhood of ManhattaSony VAIO VPCF12Z1E/BI batteryn, where it occupies more than six city blocks, or 32 acres (0.13 km2).[8] The university encompasses twenty schools and is affiliated with numerous institutions, including Teachers College, Barnard College, and the Union Theological Seminary, with joint undergraduate programs available through the Jewish Theological Seminary of America as well as the Juilliard SchoolSony VAIO VPCF12S1E/B battery.

Columbia annually administers the Pulitzer Prize and is affiliated with more Nobel Prize laureates than any other academic institution in the world. The university is one of the fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities, and was the first school in the United States to grant the M.D. degree. Notable alumni of the university include nine Justices of the United States Supreme Court; Sony VAIO VPCF13Z8E/BI battery 20 living billionaires;[14] 25 Academy Award winners;[15] and 29 heads of state, including three United States Presidents.


Main article: History of Columbia University

King's College (1754–1784)

King's College Hall, 1770

Discussions regarding the founding of a college in the Province of New York began as early as 1704, when Colonel Lewis Morris wrote to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, the missionary arm of the Church of England, persuading the society that New York City was an ideal community in which to establish a college; Sony VAIO VPCF13Z8E battery however, not until the founding of Princeton University across the Hudson River in New Jersey did the City of New York seriously consider founding a college.[17] In 1746 an act was passed by the general assembly of New York to raise funds for the foundation of a new college. In 1751, the assembly appointed a commission of ten New York residents, seven of whom were members of the Church of EnglandSony VAIO VPCF13M1E/B battery, to direct the funds accrued by the state lottery towards the foundation of a college.

Classes were initially held in July 17, 1754 and were presided over by the college's first president, Dr. Samuel Johnson. Dr. Johnson was the only instructor of the college's first class, which consisted of a mere eight students. Instruction was held in a new schoolhouse adjoining Trinity Church, located on what is now lower Broadway in Manhattan. Sony VAIO VPCF1318E/H batteryThe college was officially founded on October 31, 1754, as King's College by royal charter of King George II, making it the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of New York and the fifth oldest in the United States.

In 1763, Dr. Johnson was succeeded in the presidency by Myles Cooper, a graduate of The Queen's College, Oxford, and an ardent TorySony VAIO VPCF13J0E/H battery. In the charged political climate of the American Revolution, his chief opponent in discussions at the College was an undergraduate of the class of 1777, Alexander Hamilton.[21] The American Revolutionary War broke out in 1776, and was catastrophic for the operation of King's College, which suspended instruction for eight years beginning in 1776 with the arrival of the Continental ArmySony VAIO VPCF13E8E battery. The suspension continued through the military occupation of New York City by British troops until their departure in 1783. The college's library was looted and its sole building requisitioned for use as a military hospital first by American and then British forces.

Columbia College (1784–1896)

The Gothic Revival Law School building on the Madison Avenue campus

After the Revolution, the college turned to the State of New York in order to restore its vitality, promising to make whatever changes to the schools charter the state might demand. Sony VAIO VPCF13E4E battery The Legislature agreed to assist the college, and on May 1, 1784, it passed "an Act for granting certain privileges to the College heretofore called King's College."[25] The Act created a Board of Regents to oversee the resuscitation of King's College, and, in an effort to demonstrate its support for the new Republic, the Legislature stipulated that "the College within the City of New York heretofore called King's College be forever hereafter called and known by the name of Columbia College." Sony VAIO VPCF12M1E/H batteryThe name Columbia is derived from "the land of Columbus", and is the historical and poetic name used for the United States of America and is also the name of its female personification. The Regents finally became aware of the college's defective constitution in February 1787 and appointed a revision committee, which was headed by John Jay and Alexander HamiltonSony VAIO VPCF12F4E/H battery. In April of that same year, a new charter was adopted for the college, still in use today, granting power to a private board of 24 Trustees.

On the May 21, 1787, William Samuel Johnson, the son of Dr. Samuel Johnson, was unanimously elected President of Columbia College. Prior to serving at the university, Johnson had participated in the First Continental Congress and been chosen as a delegate to the Constitutional ConventionSony VAIO VPCF12E1E/H battery. For a period in the 1790s, with New York City as the federal and state capital and the country under successive Federalist governments, a revived Columbia thrived under the auspices of Federalists such as Hamilton and Jay. Both President George Washington and Vice President John Adams attended the college's commencement on May 6, 1789Sony VAIO VPCF11Z1E/BI battery, as a tribute of honor to the many alumni of the school that had been involved in the American Revolution.[28]

The college's enrollment, structure, and academics stagnated for the majority of the 19th century, with many of the college presidents doing little to change the way that the College functioned. In 1857, the College moved from Park Place to a primarily Gothic Revival campus on 49th Street and Madison AvenueSony VAIO VPCF24M1E battery, where it remained for the next fifty years. During the last half of the 19th century, under the leadership of President F.A.P. Barnard, the institution rapidly assumed the shape of a modern university. By this time, the College's investments in New York real estate became a primary source of steady income for the school, mainly owing to the city's rapidly expanding population. Sony VAIO VPCF23S1E battery

Columbia University (1896–present)

An illustration of Columbia in 1915.

In 1896, the trustees officially authorized the use of yet another new name, Columbia University, and today the institution is officially known as "Columbia University in the City of New York." At the same time, university president Seth Low moved the campus again, from 49th Street to its present location, a more spacious campus in the developing neighborhood of Morningside Heights. Sony VAIO VPCF231S1E battery Under the leadership of Low's successor, Nicholas Murray Butler, who served for over four decades, Columbia rapidly became the nation's major institution for research, setting the "multiversity" model that later universities would adopt.[7]

Research into the atom by faculty members John R. Dunning, I. I. Rabi, Enrico Fermi and Polykarp Kusch placed Columbia's Physics Department in the international spotlight in the 1940s Sony VAIO VPCF23Q1E batteryafter the first nuclear pile was built to start what became the Manhattan Project.[32] In 1947, to meet the needs of GIs returning from World War II, University Extension was reorganized as an undergraduate college and designated the Columbia University School of General Studies.[33] During the 1960s Columbia experienced large-scale student activism, which reached a climax in the spring of 1968 when hundreds of students occupied various buildings on campusSony VAIO VPCF23M1E battery. The incident forced the resignation of Columbia's then President, Grayson Kirk and the establishment of the University Senate. Though several schools within the university had admitted women for years, Columbia College first admitted women in the fall of 1983, after a decade of failed negotiations with Barnard College, an all female institution affiliated with the universitySony VAIO VPCF22S8E battery, to merge the two schools.[36] Barnard College still remains affiliated with Columbia, and all Barnard graduates are issued diplomas authorized by both Columbia University and Barnard College.


Morningside Heights

The majority of Columbia's graduate and undergraduate studies are conducted in Morningside Heights on Seth Low's late-19th century vision of a university campus where all disciplines could be taught in one locationSony VAIO VPCF22S1E battery. The campus was designed along Beaux-Arts principles by architects McKim, Mead, and White. Columbia's main campus occupies more than six city blocks, or 32 acres (13 ha), in Morningside Heights, New York City, a neighborhood that contains a number of academic institutions. The university owns over 7,800 apartments in Morningside Heights, housing facultySony VAIO VPCF22M1E battery, graduate students, and staff. Almost two dozen undergraduate dormitories (purpose-built or converted) are located on campus or in Morningside Heights.[8] Columbia University has an extensive underground tunnel system more than a century old, with the oldest portions predating the present campus. Some of these remain accessible to the public, while others have been cordoned offSony VAIO VPCF22L1E battery.

Butler Library, rated one of the most beautiful college libraries in the United States [40]

The Nicholas Murray Butler Library, commonly known simply as Butler Library, is the largest single library in the Columbia University Library System, and is one of the largest buildings on the campus. Proposed as "South Hall" by the university's former President Nicholas Murray Butler as expansion plans for Low Memorial Library stalledSony VAIO VPCF22J1E battery, the new library was funded by Edward Harkness, benefactor of Yale's residential college system, and designed by his favorite architect, James Gamble Rogers. It was completed in 1934 and renamed for Butler in 1946. The library's design is neo-classical in style. Its facade features an arcade of columns in the Ionic order above which are inscribed the names of great writersSony VAIO VPCF11S1E/B battery, philosophers, and thinkers, most of whom are read by students engaged in the Core Curriculum of Columbia College.[41] As of 2009, Columbia's library system includes over 10.4 million volumes, making it the eighth largest library system and fifth largest collegiate library system in the United States.

Several buildings on the Morningside Heights campus are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Low Memorial LibrarySony VAIO VPCF11M1E/H battery, a National Historic Landmark and the centerpiece of the campus, is listed for its architectural significance. Philosophy Hall is listed as the site of the invention of FM radio. Also listed is Pupin Hall, another National Historic Landmark, which houses the physics and astronomy departments. Here the first experiments on the fission of uranium were conducted by Enrico FermiSony VAIO VPCF11D4E battery. The uranium atom was split there ten days after the world's first atom-splitting in Copenhagen, Denmark.

A statue by sculptor Daniel Chester French called Alma Mater is centered on the front steps of Low Memorial Library. McKim, Mead & White invited French to build the sculpture in order to harmonize with the larger composition of the court and library in the center of the campusSony VAIO VPCF11C5E battery. Draped in an academic gown, the female figure of Alma Mater wears a crown of laurels and sits on a throne. The scroll-like arms of the throne end in lamps, representing sapientia and doctrina. A book signifying knowledge, balances on her lap, and an owl, the attribute of wisdom, is hidden in the folds of her gown. Her right hand holds a scepter composed of four sprays of wheatSony VAIO VPCF11C4E/B battery, terminating with a crown of King's College which refers to Columbia's origin as a Royalist institution in 1754. A local actress named Mary Lawton was said to have posed for parts of the sculpture. The statue was dedicated on September 23, 1903, as a gift of Mr. & Mrs. Robert Goelet, and was originally covered in golden leaf. During the Columbia University protests of 1968 a bomb damaged the sculptureSony VAIO PCG-31114V battery, but it has since been repaired.[47] The small hidden owl on the sculpture is also the subject of many Columbia legends, the main legend being that the first student in the freshmen class to find the hidden owl on the statue will be valedictorian, and that any subsequent Columbia male who finds it will marry a Barnard student, given that Barnard is a women's collegeSony VAIO PCG-31114M battery. "The Steps", alternatively known as "Low Steps" or the "Urban Beach", are a popular meeting area for Columbia students. The term refers to the long series of granite steps leading from the lower part of campus (South Field) to its upper terrace. With a design inspired by the City Beautiful movement, the steps of Low Library provides Columbia University and Barnard College studentsSony VAIO PCG-31113M battery, faculty, and staff with a comfortable and spacious outdoor platform and space for informal gatherings, events, and ceremonies. McKim's classical facade epitomizes late 19th century new-classical designs, with its columns and portico marking the entrance to an important structure. On warm days when the weather is favorable, the Low Steps often become a popular gathering place for students to sunbathe, eat lunch, or play frisbee. Sony VAIO PCG-31112M battery

Panorama view of the Morningside Heights campus as seen from Butler Library and facing Low Memorial Library.

Other campuses

In April 2007, the university purchased more than two-thirds of a 17 acres (6.9 ha) site for a new campus in Manhattanville, an industrial neighborhood to the north of the Morningside Heights campus. Stretching from 125th Street to 133rd StreetSony VAIO PCG-31111M battery, the new campus will house buildings for Columbia's schools of business and the arts and allow the construction of the Jerome L. Greene Center for Mind, Brain, and Behavior, where research will occur on neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. The $7 billion expansion plan includes demolishing all buildings, except three that are historically significantSony VAIO PCG-41112M battery, eliminating the existing light industry and storage warehouses, and relocating tenants in 132 apartments. Replacing these buildings will be 6,800,000 square feet (630,000 m2) of space for the university. Community activist groups in West Harlem fought the expansion for reasons ranging from property protection and fair exchange for land, to residents' rightsSony VAIO PCG-41111V battery. Subsequent public hearings drew neighborhood opposition. Most recently, as of December 2008, the State of New York's Empire State Development Corporation approved use of eminent domain, which, through declaration of Manhattanville's "blighted" status, gives governmental bodies the right to appropriate private property for public use. On May 20, 2009, the New York State Public Authorities Control Board approved the Manhanttanville expansion planSony VAIO PCG-41111M battery.

New York-Presbyterian Hospital is affiliated with the medical schools of both Columbia University and Cornell University. According to US News and World Reports "Americas Best Hospitals 2009", it is ranked sixth overall and third among university hospitals. Columbia Medical School has a strategic partnership with New York State Psychiatric InstituteSONY VAIO PCG-21214V battery, and is affiliated with 19 other hospitals in the U.S. and four hospitals overseas. Health-related schools are located at the Columbia University Medical Center, a 20 acres (8.1 ha) campus located in the neighborhood of Washington Heights, fifty blocks uptown. Other teaching hospitals affiliated with Columbia through the New York-Presbyterian network include the Payne Whitney Clinic in ManhattanSONY VAIO PCG-21213V battery, and the Payne Whitney Westchester, a psychiatric institute located in White Plains, New York.[57] On the northern tip of Manhattan island (in the neighborhood of Inwood), Columbia owns 26-acre (11 ha) Baker Field, which includes the Lawrence A. Wien Stadium as well as facilities for field sports, outdoor track, and tennis. There is a third campus on the west bank of the Hudson RiverSONY VAIO PCG-21212V battery, the 157-acre (64 ha) Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory in Palisades, New York. A fourth is the 60-acre (24 ha) Nevis Laboratories in Irvington, New York. A satellite site in Paris, France holds classes at Reid Hall.


Access to Columbia is enhanced by the Columbia University subway station.

In 2006, the university established the Office of Environmental Stewardship to initiate, coordinate and implement programs to reduce the university's environmental footprint. The U.S. Green Building Council selected the university's Manhattanville plan for the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Neighborhood Design pilot programSONY VAIO PCG-21212M battery. The plan commits to incorporating smart growth, new urbanism and "green" building design principles.[58] Columbia is one of the 2030 Challenge Partners, a group of nine universities in the city of New York that have pledged to reduce their greenhouse emissions by 30% within the next ten years. Columbia University adopts LEED standards for all new construction and major renovationsSONY VAIO PCG-21211M battery. The University requires a minimum of Silver, but through its design and review process seeks to achieve higher levels. This is especially challenging for lab and research buildings with their intensive energy use; however, the university also uses lab design guidelines that seek to maximize energy efficiency while protecting the safety of researchers. SONY VAIO PCG-51212M battery

Every Thursday and Sunday of the month, Columbia hosts a greenmarket where local farmers can sell their produce to residents of the city. In addition, from April to November Hodgson's farm, a local New York gardening center, joins the market bringing a large selection of plants and blooming flowers. The market is one of the many operated at different points throughout the city by the non-profit group GrowNYC. SONY VAIO PCG-51211M battery Dining services at Columbia spends 36 percent of its food budget on local products, in addition to serving sustainably harvested seafood and fair trade coffee on campus.[61] Columbia has been rated "B+" by the 2011 College Sustainability Report Card for its environmental and sustainability initiatives. SONY VAIO PCG-51112M battery


Undergraduate admissions and financial aid

Alma Mater is a well-known statue on the steps of Low Memorial Library.

Columbia University's acceptance rate for the Columbia College and Engineering class of 2016 is 7.4%,[63] making Columbia the fourth most selective college in the United States by admission rate behind Harvard, Stanford and Yale[64][65] The undergraduate yield rate for the class of 2015 is 60%.[66] According to the 2011 college selectivity ranking by U.S. News & World ReportSONY VAIO PCG-51111M battery, which factors admission and yield rates among other criteria, Columbia is the third most selective college in the nation, behind Yale and Caltech and tied with Harvard, MIT, and Princeton.[67] Columbia sends approximately 90% of its undergraduates to graduate school in virtually every academic, professional and vocational field.[68] Columbia is a racially diverse school, with approximately 52% of all students identifying themselves as persons of color. AdditionallySONY VAIO PCG-51111V battery, 50.3% of all undergraduates in the Class of 2013 receive financial aid. The average financial aid package for these students exceeds $30,000, with an average grant size of over $20,000.

On April 11, 2007, Columbia University announced a $400m to $600m donation from media billionaire alumnus John Kluge to be used exclusively for undergraduate financial aid. The donation is among the largest single gifts to higher educationSONY VAIO PCG-81211V battery. Its exact value will depend on the eventual value of Kluge's estate at the time of his death; however, the generous donation has helped change financial aid policy at Columbia.[70] Annual gifts, fund-raising, and an increase in spending from the university's endowment have allowed Columbia to extend generous financial aid packages to qualifying studentsSONY VAIO PCG-81111V battery. As of 2008, undergraduates from families with incomes as high as $60,000 a year will have the projected cost of attending the university, including room, board, and academic fees, subsidized by the university. That same year, the university ended loans for incoming and current students who were on financial aid, replacing loans that were traditionally part of aid packages with grants from the universitySONY VAIO PCG-81212M battery. However, this does not apply to international students, transfer students, visiting students, or students in the School of General Studies. In the fall of 2010, admission to Columbia's undergraduate colleges Columbia College and the SEAS, began accepting the Common Application. The policy change made Columbia one of the last major academic institutions and the last Ivy League university to switch to the common applicationSony VAIO PCG-81112M battery.

Scholarships are also given to undergraduate students by the admissions committee. Designations include John W. Kluge Scholars, John Jay Scholars, C. Prescott Scholars, Global Scholars, Egleston Scholars, and Science Research Fellows. Named scholars are selected by the admission committee from first-year applicants. According to ColumbiaSONY VAIO PCG-71111M battery, the first four designated scholars "distinguish themselves for their remarkable academic and personal achievements, dynamism, intellectual curiosity, the originality and independence of their thinking, and the diversity that stems from their different cultures and their varied educational experiences."SONY VAIO PCG-7192V battery


Columbia University is an independent, privately supported, nonsectarian institution of higher education. Its official corporate name is "The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York." The university's first Charter was granted in 1754 by King George II; however, its modern Charter was first enacted in 1787 and last amended in 1810 by the New York State LegislatureSONY VAIO PCG-7191V battery. The university is governed by 24 Trustees, customarily including the President, who serves ex officio. The Trustees themselves are responsible for choosing their successors. Six of the 24 are nominated from a pool of candidates recommended by the Columbia Alumni Association. Another six are nominated by the Board in consultation with the Executive Committee of the University SenateSONY VAIO PCG-7196M battery. The remaining 12, including the President, are nominated by the Trustees themselves through their internal processes. The term of office for Trustees is six years. Generally, they serve for no more than two consecutive terms. The Trustees appoint the President and other senior administrative officers of the university, and review and confirm faculty appointments as requiredSONY VAIO PCG-7195M battery. They determine the university's financial and investment policies, authorize the budget, supervise the endowment, direct the management of the university's real estate and other assets, and otherwise oversee the administration and management of the university.

The University Senate was established by the Trustees after a university-wide referendum in 1969. It succeeded to the powers of the University CouncilSONY VAIO PCG-7194M battery, which was created in 1890 as a body of faculty, deans, and other administrators to regulate inter-Faculty affairs and consider issues of university-wide concern. The University Senate is a unicameral body consisting of 107 members drawn from all constituencies of the university. These include the president of the university, the Provost, the Deans of Columbia College and the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, SONY VAIO PCG-7192M battery all who serve ex officio, and five additional representatives, appointed by the President, from the university's administration. The President serves as the Senate's presiding officer. The Senate is charged with reviewing the educational policies, physical development, budget, and external relations of the university. It oversees the welfare and academic freedom of the faculty and the welfare of studentsSONY PCG-8113M battery.

The President of Columbia University, who is selected by the Trustees in consultation with the Executive Committee of the University Senate and who serves at the Trustees' pleasure, is the chief executive officer of the university. Assisting the President in administering the University are the Provost, the Senior Executive Vice PresidentSONY PCG-8112M battery, the Executive Vice President for Health and Biomedical Sciences, several other vice presidents, the General Counsel, the Secretary of the University, and the deans of the Faculties, all of whom are appointed by the Trustees on the nomination of the President and serve at their pleasure.[75] Lee C. Bollinger became the 19th President of Columbia University on June 1, 2002SONY PCG-7134M battery . A prominent advocate of affirmative action, he played a leading role in the twin Supreme Court cases—Grutter v Bollinger and Gratz v Bollinger—that upheld and clarified the importance of diversity as a compelling justification for affirmative action in higher education. A leading First Amendment scholar, he is widely published on freedom of speech and press, and currently[when?] serves on the faculty of Columbia Law SchoolSONY PCG-7131M battery.

Columbia has three official undergraduate colleges: Columbia College (CC), the liberal arts college offering the Bachelor of Arts degree, Columbia Engineering, formerly known as SEAS, is the engineering and applied science school offering the Bachelor of Science degree, and The School of General Studies (GS), in which nontraditional students obtain a Bachelor of Arts or a Bachelor of Science through either full time or part time study. SONY PCG-7122M battery  The university is affiliated with Teachers College, Barnard College, the Union Theological Seminary, and the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, all located nearby in Morningside Heights. Joint undergraduate programs are available through the Jewish Theological Seminary of America as well as through the Juilliard School. Two affiliated institutions – Barnard College and Teachers College – are also Faculties of the universitySONY PCG-7121M battery.

Research and rankings

Columbia was the first North American site where the uranium atom was split. It was the birthplace of FM radio and the laser.[88] The MPEG-2 algorithm of transmitting high quality audio and video over limited bandwidth was developed by Dimitris Anastassiou, a Columbia professor of electrical engineering. Biologist Martin Chalfie was the first to introduce the use of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) in labelling cells in intact organisms. SONY PCG-7113M battery Other inventions and products related to Columbia include Sequential Lateral Solidification (SLS) technology for making LCDs, System Management Arts (SMARTS), Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) (which is used for audio, video, chat, instant messaging and whiteboarding), pharmacopeia, Macromodel (software for computational chemistry), a new and better recipe for glass concreteSONY PCG-7112M battery , Blue LEDs, and Beamprop (used in photonics).[90] Columbia scientists have been credited with about 175 new inventions in the health sciences each year.[90] More than 30 pharmaceutical products based on discoveries and inventions made at Columbia are on the market today. These include Remicade (for arthritis), Reopro (for blood clot complications), Xalatan (for glaucoma), Benefix, shoulder prosthesisSONY PCG-8Z3M battery , homocysteine (testing for cardiovascular disease), and Zolinza (for cancer therapy).[91] Columbia Technology Ventures (formerly Science and Technology Ventures) currently[when?] manages some 600 patents and more than 250 active license agreements.[91] Patent-related deals earned Columbia more than $230 million in the 2006 fiscal year, according to the university.

Columbia is ranked first (tied with MIT, Stanford University and Penn) SONY PCG-8Z2M battery  in the first tier of the United States' top research universities by the Center for Measuring University Performance, which takes into account total research, federal research, endowment assets, annual giving, National Academy members, faculty awards, doctorates granted, postdoctoral appointees, and undergraduate SAT/ACT range.[93] In 2011, Columbia is ranked #8 in ARWU, SONY PCG-8Z1M battery #10 in QS,[95] and #12 by Times Higher Education in the world.[87] Nationally, the university is ranked #4 by U.S. News & World Report,[83] #7 by ARWU,[94] and #42 by Forbes.[96] Columbia's colleges and schools are also ranked by several independent bodies. For 2011, the College & School of Engineering (undergraduate) is ranked #4 nationally by U.S. News & World Report. SONY PCG-8Y3M battery  the Graduate School of Arts #11,[98] the Columbia Business School #3 by The Wall Street Journal[99] the Teachers College #2 by U.S. News & World Report,[100] the Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science (graduate) #15,[101] the Columbia Law School #4,[102] the College of Physicians and Surgeons #8 for research and #43 for primary care,[103] the Mailman School of Public Health #5, SONY PCG-8Y2M batteryand the School of International and Public Affairs #29. Additionally, Columbia's School of Social Work is ranked #4,[107] its Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation #3,[108] and its Graduate School of Journalism #1.

In the last 12 years (1996–2008), 18 Columbia affiliates have won Nobel Prizes.[111] Columbia faculty awarded the Nobel Prize include Richard Axel, Martin Chalfie, Eric Kandel, Tsung-Dao LeeSONY PCG-7Z1M battery, Robert Mundell, Orhan Pamuk, Edmund S. Phelps, Joseph Stiglitz, and Horst L. Stormer.[112] Other awards and honors won by faculty include 30 MacArthur Foundation Award winners,[113] 4 National Medal of Science recipients, 43 National Academy of Sciences Award winners, 20 National Academy of Engineering Award winners,[114] 38 Institute of Medicine of the National Academies Award recipients and 143 American Academy of Arts and Sciences Award winnersSONY PCG-6W2M battery.

Student life


For the 2010 academic year, Columbia University's student population was 27,606, with 35% of the student population identifying themselves as a minority and 23% born outside of the United States. Columbia enrolled 7,934 students in undergraduate programs, 5,393 students in graduate programs, and 12,090 students in professional programsSONY PCG-5J5M battery.

On-campus housing is guaranteed for all four years as an undergraduate. Columbia College and Columbia Engineering, formerly known as SEAS, share housing in the on-campus residence halls. First-year students usually live in one of the large residence halls situated around South Lawn: Hartley Hall, Wallach Hall (originally Livingston Hall), John Jay Hall, Furnald Hall or Carman HallSONY PCG-5K2M battery. Upperclassmen participate in a room selection process, wherein students can pick to live in a mix of either corridor- or apartment-style housing with their friends. The Columbia University School of General Studies and graduate schools have their own apartment-style housing in the surrounding neighborhoodSONY PCG-5K1M battery .

Columbia University is home to many fraternities, sororities, and co-educational Greek organizations. Approximately 10–15% of undergraduate students are associated with Greek life.[119] There has been a Greek presence on campus since the establishment in 1836 of the Delta Chapter of Alpha Delta Phi. SONY PCG-5J4M battery The InterGreek Council is the self-governing student organization that provides guidelines and support to its member organizations within each of the three councils at Columbia, the Interfraternity Council, Panhellenic Council, and Multicultural Greek Council. The three council presidents bring their affiliated chapters together once a month to meet as one Greek communitySONY PCG-5J1M battery. The InterGreek Council meetings provide opportunity for member organizations to learn from each other, work together and advocate for community needs.


It has been suggested that Columbia Political Review be merged into this article or section. (Discuss) Proposed since July 2012.

One of the earliest logos of Columbia University Press

Columbia University is home to a rich diversity of undergraduate, graduate, and professional publications. The Columbia Daily Spectator is the nation's second-oldest student newspaper; and The Blue and WhiteSONY PCG-5G2M battery, a monthly literary magazine established in 1890, has recently begun to delve into campus life and local politics in print and on its daily blog, dubbed the Bwog.

Political publications include The Current, a journal of politics, culture and Jewish Affairs; the Columbia Political Review, the multi-partisan political magazine of the Columbia Political Union; and AdHoc, which denotes itself as the "progressive" campus magazine and deals largely with local political issues and arts eventsSony VAIO PCG-8131M battery.

Arts and literary publications include the Columbia Review, the nation's oldest college literary magazine; Columbia, a nationally regarded literary journal; the Columbia Journal of Literary Criticism; and The Mobius Strip, an online arts and literary magazine. Inside New York[130] is an annual guidebook to New York City, written, edited, and published by Columbia undergraduatesSony VAIO PCG-8152M battery. Through a distribution agreement with Columbia University Press, the book is sold at major retailers and independent bookstores. It is also sold online in a newly adopted ebook format.

Columbia is home to numerous undergraduate academic publications. The Journal of Politics & Society,[131] is a journal of undergraduate research in the social sciences, published and distributed nationally by the Helvidius GroupSony VAIO PCG-31311M battery; Publius is an undergraduate journal of politics established in 2008 and published biannually; the Columbia East Asia Review allows undergraduates throughout the world to publish original work on China, Japan, Korea, Tibet, and Vietnam and is supported by the Weatherhead East Asian Institute; and The Birch, is an undergraduate journal of Eastern European and Eurasian culture that is the first national student-run journal of its kindSony VAIO PCG-31111M battery; Columbia Political Review, the undergraduate magazine on politics operated by the Columbia Political Union; Columbia Economics Review, the undergraduate economic journal on research and policy supported by the Columbia Economics Department; and the Columbia Science Review is a science magazine that prints general interest articles, faculty profiles, and student research papersSony VAIO PCG-8112M battery.

The Fed a triweekly satire and investigative newspaper, and the Jester of Columbia,[137] the newly (and frequently) revived campus humor magazine both inject humor into local life. Other publications include The Columbian, the undergraduate colleges' annually published yearbook the Gadfly, a biannual journal of popular philosophy produced by undergraduates; Sony VAIO PCG-7186M battery and Rhapsody in Blue, an undergraduate urban studies magazine.[140] Professional journals published by academic departments at Columbia University include Current Musicology[141] and The Journal of Philosophy. During the spring semester, graduate students in the Journalism School publish The Bronx Beat, a bi-weekly newspaper covering the South Bronx. Teachers College publishes the Teachers College RecordSony VAIO PCG-7171M battery, a journal of research, analysis, and commentary in the field of education, published continuously since 1900.

Founded in 1961 under the auspices of Columbia University's Graduate School of Journalism, Columbia Journalism Review (CJR) examines day-to-day press performance as well as the forces that affect that performance. The magazine is published six times a yearSony VAIO PCG-9Z1M battery, and offers a deliberative mix of reporting, analysis, criticism, and commentary., its Web site, delivers real-time criticism and reporting, giving CJR a vital presence in the ongoing conversation about the media. Both online and in print, Columbia Journalism Review is in conversation with a community of people who share a commitment to high journalistic standards in the U.S. and the worldSony VAIO PCG-5S1M battery.


Columbia is home to two early pioneers in undergraduate campus radio broadcasting, WKCR-FM and CTV. WKCR, the student run radio station that broadcasts to the Tri-State area, claims to be the oldest FM radio station in the world, owing to the university's affiliation with Major Edwin Armstrong. The station went operational on July 18, 1939Sony VAIO PCG-5P1M battery, from a 400-foot antenna tower in Alpine, New Jersey, broadcasting the very first FM transmission in the world. Initially, WKCR wasn't a radio station, but an organization concerned with the technology of radio communications. As membership grew, however, the nascent club turned its efforts to broadcasting. Armstrong helped the students in their early effortsSony VAIO PCG-5N2M battery, donating a microphone and turntables when they designed their first makeshift studio in a dorm room.[145] The station has its studios on the second floor of Alfred Lerner Hall on the Morningside campus with its main transmitter tower at 4 Times Square in Midtown Manhattan. Columbia Television (CTV) is the nation's second oldest Student television station and home of CTV News, a weekly live news program produced by undergraduate studentsSony VAIO PCG-3C2M battery.

Speech and debate

The Philolexian Society is a literary and debating club founded in 1802, making it the oldest student group at Columbia, as well as the third oldest collegiate literary society in the country.[148] The society annually administers the Joyce Kilmer Bad Poetry Contest.[149] The Columbia Parliamentary Debate Team competes in tournaments around the country as part of the American Parliamentary Debate AssociationSony VAIO PCG-8161M battery, and hosts both high school and college tournaments on Columbia's campus, as well as public debates on issues affecting the university.[150]

The Columbia International Relations Council and Association (CIRCA), oversees Columbia's Model United Nations activities. CIRCA hosts college and high school Model UN conferences, hosts speakers influential in international politics to speak on campusSony VAIO PCG-8141M battery, trains students from underprivileged schools in New York in Model UN and oversees a competitive team, which travels to colleges around the country and to an international conference every year.[151] The competitive team consistently wins best and outstanding delegation awards and is considered one of the top teams in the country. Sony VAIO PCG-3J1M battery

Technology and entrepreneurship

Pupin Hall, the physics building, showing the rooftop observatory

The Columbia University Organization of Rising Entrepreneurs (CORE) was founded in 1999. The student-run group aims to foster entrepreneurship on campus. Each year CORE hosts dozens of events, including a business plan competition and a series of seminars. Notable seminar speakers include Mark Cuban, owner of the Dallas Mavericks and Chairman of HDNetSony VAIO PCG-3H1M battery, and Blake Ross, creator of Mozilla Firefox. As of 2006, CORE has awarded graduate and undergraduate students with over $100,000 in seed capital. Events are possible through the contributions of various private and corporate groups; previous sponsors include Deloitte & Touche, Citigroup, and i-CompassSony VAIO PCG-3F1M battery.

CampusNetwork, an on-campus social networking site called Campus Network that preceded Facebook, was created and popularized by a Columbia engineering student Adam Goldberg in 2003. Mark Zuckerberg later asked Goldberg to join him in Palo Alto to work on Facebook, but Goldberg declined the offer
Sony VAIO PCG-3C1M battery
. The Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science offers a minor in Technical Entrepreneurship through its Center for Technology, Innovation, and Community Engagement. SEAS' entrepreneurship activities focus on community building initiatives in New York and Worldwide, made possible through partners such as Microsoft CorporationSony VAIO PCG-9Z2L battery.

Columbia is a top supplier of young engineering entrepreneurs for New York City. Over the past 20 years, graduates of Columbia established over 100 technology companies.[156] Mayor Bloomberg has provided over $6.7 million into entrepreneurial programs that partner with Columbia and other universities in New YorkSony VAIO PCG-9Z1L battery. Professor Chris Wiggins of Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science is working in conjunction with Professors Evan Korth of New York University and Hilary Mason, chief scientist at to facilitate the growth of student tech-startups in an effort to transform a traditionally financially-centered New York City into the next Silicon ValleySony VAIO PCG-9131L battery. Their website is a huge gathering ground of ideas and discussions for New York's young entrepreneurial community, the Silicon Alley.[157]

On June 14, 2010, Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg launched the NYC Media Lab to promote innovations within New York's media industry.[158] Situated in the Polytechnic Institute of New York University, the lab is a consortium of Columbia University, New York UniversitySony VAIO PCG-8161L battery, and New York City Economic Development Corporation acting to connect companies with universities in new technology research. The Lab is modeled after similar ones at MIT and Stanford. A $250,000 grant from the New York City Economic Development Corporation was used to establish the NYC Media Lab. Each year, the lab will host a range of roundtable discussions between the private sector and academic institutionsSony VAIO PCG-8152L battery. The lab will support research projects on topics of content format, next generation search technologies, computer animation for film and gaming, emerging marketing techniques, and new devices development. The lab will also create a media research and development database. Columbia University will coordinate the long-term direction of the media lab as well as the involvement of its faculty and those of other universities. Sony VAIO PCG-8141L battery


Lawrence A. Wien Stadium

Main article: Columbia Lions

A member institution of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (Division I-AA FCS), Columbia fields varsity teams in 29 sports and is a member of the Ivy League. The football Lions play home games at the 17,000-seat Lawrence A. Wien Stadium at Baker Field. One hundred blocks north of the main campus at Morningside HeightsSony VAIO PCG-8131L battery, the Baker Athletics Complex also includes facilities for baseball, softball, soccer, lacrosse, field hockey, tennis, track and rowing. The basketball, fencing, swimming & diving, volleyball and wrestling programs are based at the Dodge Physical Fitness Center on the main campus.[160]

Columbia University athletics has had a long history, with many accomplishments in various athletic fieldsSony VAIO PCG-81312L battery. In 1870, Columbia played against Rutgers University in the second football game in the history of the sport. Eight years later, Columbia crew won the famed Henley Royal Regatta in the first-ever defeat for an English crew rowing in English waters. In 1900, Olympian and Columbia College student Maxie Long set the first official world record in the 400 meters with a time of 47.8 secondsSony VAIO PCG-81214L battery. In 1983, Columbia men's soccer went 18-0 and was ranked first in the nation, but losing to Indiana 1-0 in double overtime in the NCAA championship game; nevertheless, the team went further toward the NCAA title than any Ivy League soccer team in history.[161] The football program unfortunately is best known for its record of futility set during the 1980sSony VAIO PCG-81115L battery: between 1983 and 1988, the team lost 44 games in a row, which is still the record for the NCAA Football Championship Subdivision. The streak was broken on October 8, 1988, with a 16-13 victory over archrival Princeton. That was the Lions' first victory at Wien Stadium, which had been opened during the losing streak and was already four years old. Sony VAIO PCG-81114L battery

Former students include Baseball Hall of Famers Lou Gehrig and Eddie Collins, football Hall of Famer Sid Luckman, Marcellus Wiley, and world champion women's weightlifter Karyn Marshall. On May 17, 1939 fledgling NBC broadcasted a doubleheader between the Columbia Lions and the Princeton Tigers at Columbia's Baker Field, making it the first televised regular athletic event in historySony VAIO PCG-81113L battery.

World Leaders Forum

Established in 2003 by university president Lee C. Bollinger, the World Leaders Forum at Columbia University provides the opportunity for undergraduate and graduate students alike to listen to some of the most prominent world leaders in government, religion, industry, finance, and academiaSony VAIO PCG-7142L battery. The World Leaders Forum is a year-around event series that strives to provide a platform for uninhibited speech among nations and cultures, while educating students about the current problems as well as progress around the globe.[167]

Past forum speakers include former President of the United States Bill Clinton, the Prime Minister of India Atal Behari Vajpayee, Former President of Ghana John Agyekum KufuorSony VAIO PCG-7141L battery, President of Afghanistan Hamid Karzai, Prime Minister of Russia Vladimir Putin, President of the Republic of Mozambique Joaquim Alberto Chissano, President of the Republic of Bolivia Carlos Diego Mesa Gisbert, President of the Republic of Romania Ion Iliescu, President of the Republic of Latvia Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga, the first female President of Finland Tarja Halonen, President Yudhoyono of Indonesia, President Pervez Musharraf of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Iraq President Jalal Talabani, the 14th Dalai LamaSony VAIO PCG-71111L battery, President of the Islamic Republic of Iran Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, financier George Soros, Mayor of New York City Michael R. Bloomberg of New York City, President Václav Klaus of the Czech Republic, President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner of Argentina, former Secretary-General of the United Nations Kofi Annan, and Al GoreSony VAIO PCG-61411L battery.


Aerial view of Columbia University

The Columbia University Orchestra was founded by composer Edward MacDowell in 1896, and is the oldest continually operating university orchestra in the United States. Undergraduate student composers at Columbia may choose to become involved with Columbia New Music, which sponsors concerts of music written by undergraduate students from all of Columbia's schools. Sony VAIO PCG-61112L battery

There are a number of performing arts groups at Columbia dedicated to producing student theater, including the Columbia Players, King's Crown Shakespeare Troupe (KCST), Columbia Musical Theater Society (CMTS), NOMADS (New and Original Material Authored and Directed by Students), LateNite Theatre, Columbia University Performing Arts League (CUPAL) Sony VAIO PCG-61111L battery, Black Theatre Ensemble (BTE), sketch comedy group Chowdah, and improvisational troupes Alfred and Fruit Paunch. The Columbia University Marching Band tells jokes during the campus tradition of Orgo Night.

The Columbia Queer Allian

ce is the central Columbia student organization that represents the lesbian, gay, transgender, and questioning student population. It is the oldest gay student organization in the worldSony VAIO PCG-5T4L battery, founded as the Student Homophile League in 1967 by students including lifelong activist Stephen Donaldson. Conversio Virium is the university's student-run BDSM education group. Columbia University campus military groups include the U.S. Military Veterans of Columbia University and Advocates for Columbia ROTC. In the 2005–06 academic year, the Columbia Military SocietySony VAIO PCG-5T3L battery, Columbia's student group for ROTC cadets and Marine officer candidates, was renamed the Hamilton Society for "students who aspire to serve their nation through the military in the tradition of Alexander Hamilton".[175]

The university also houses an independent nonprofit organization, Community Impact, which strives to serve disadvantaged people in the Harlem, Washington HeightsSony VAIO PCG-5T2L battery, and Morningside Heights communities. From its earliest inception as a single service initiative formed in 1981 by Columbia University undergraduates, Community Impact has grown into Columbia University's largest student service organization. CI provides food, clothing, shelter, education, job training, and companionship for residents in its surrounding communitiesSony VAIO PCG-5S3L battery. CI consists of a dedicated corps of about 950 Columbia University student volunteers participating in 25 community service programs, which serve more than 8,000 people each year.

Controversies and student demonstrations

Protests of 1968

Main article: Columbia University protests of 1968

Playwright Tony Kushner protesting at his 1978 graduation

Students initiated a major demonstration in 1968 over two main issues. The first was Columbia's proposed gymnasium in neighboring Morningside Park; this was seen by the protesters to be an act of aggression aimed at the black residents of neighboring HarlemSony VAIO PCG-5S2L battery. A second issue was the Columbia administration's failure to resign its institutional membership in the Pentagon's weapons research think-tank, the Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA). Students barricaded themselves inside Low Library, Hamilton Hall, and several other university buildings during the protests, and New York City police were called onto the campus to arrest or forcibly remove the studentsSony VAIO PCG-5S1L battery.

The protests achieved two of their stated goals. Columbia disaffiliated from the IDA and scrapped the plans for the controversial gym, building a subterranean physical fitness center under the north end of campus instead. The gym's plans were eventually used by Princeton University for the expansion of its athletic facilitiesSony VAIO PCG-5R2L battery. At least 30 Columbia students were suspended by the administration as a result of the protests. Many of the Class of '68 walked out of their graduation and held a countercommencement on Low Plaza with a picnic following at Morningside Park, the place where the protests began.[179] The protests hurt Columbia financially as many potential students chose to attend other universities and some alumni refused to donate money to the schoolSony VAIO PCG-5R1L battery. Allan Bloom, a professor of philosophy at the University of Chicago, believed that the protest efforts at Columbia were responsible for pushing higher education further toward the liberal left. As a result of the protests, Bloom stated, "American universities were no longer places of intellectual and academic debate, but rather places of 'political correctness' and liberalism." Sony VAIO PCG-5P4L battery

Protests against racism and apartheid

Further student protests, including hunger strike and more barricades of Hamilton Hall and the Business School during the late 1970s and early 1980s, were aimed at convincing the university trustees to divest all of the university's investments in companies that were seen as active or tacit supporters of the apartheid regime in South AfricaSony VAIO PCG-5P2L battery. A notable upsurge in the protests occurred in 1978, when following a celebration of the tenth anniversary of the student uprising in 1968, students marched and rallied in protest of university investments in South Africa. The Committee Against Investment in South Africa (CAISA) and numerous student groups including the Socialist Action CommitteeSony VAIO PCG-5N4L battery, the Black Student Organization and the Gay Students group joined together and succeeded in pressing for the first partial divestment of a U.S. university.

The initial (and partial) Columbia divestment,[181] focused largely on bonds and financial institutions directly involved with the South African regime. It followed a year long campaign first initiated by students who had worked together to block the appointment of former United States Secretary of State Henry Kissinger to an endowed chair at the university in 1977Sony VAIO PCG-5N2L battery.

Broadly backed by a diverse array of student groups and many notable faculty members the Committee Against Investment in South Africa held numerous teach-ins and demonstrations through the year focused on the trustees ties to the corporations doing business with South Africa. Trustee meetings were picketed and interrupted by demonstrations culminating in May 1978 in the takeover of the Graduate School of BusinessSony VAIO PCG-51513L battery.

Ahmadinejad speech controversy

Students protest Ahmadinejad's invitation to speak at Columbia University.

The School of International and Public Affairs traditionally extends invitations to many heads of state and heads of government who come to New York City for the opening of the fall session of the United Nations General Assembly. In 2007, Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was one of those invited to speak on campusSony VAIO PCG-51511L battery. Ahmadinejad accepted his invitation and spoke on September 24, 2007, as part of Columbia University's World Leaders Forum.[186] The invitation proved to be highly controversial. Hundreds of demonstrators swarmed the campus on September 24 and the speech itself was televised worldwide. University President Lee C. Bollinger tried to assuage the controversy by letting Ahmadenijad speakSony VAIO PCG-51412L battery, but with a negative introduction (given personally by Bollinger). This did not mollify those who were displeased with the fact that the Iranian leader had been invited onto the campus.[187] Columbia students, though, turned out en masse to listen to the speech on the South Lawn. An estimated 2,500 under graduates and graduates came out for the historic occasionSony VAIO PCG-51411L battery.

During his speech, Ahmadinejad criticized Israel's policies towards the Palestinians; called for research on the historical accuracy of the Holocaust; raised questions as to who initiated the 9/11 attacks; defended Iran's nuclear power program, criticizing the UN's policy of sanctions on his country; and attacked U.S. foreign policy in the Middle EastSony VAIO PCG-51312L battery. In response to a question about Iran's treatment of women and homosexuals, he asserted that women are respected in Iran and that "In Iran, we don't have homosexuals like in your country... In Iran, we do not have this phenomenon. I don't know who told you this."[188] The latter statement drew laughter from the audience. The Manhattan District Attorney's Office accused Columbia of accepting grant money from the Alavi Foundation to support faculty "sympathetic" to Iran's Islamic republic. Sony VAIO PCG-51311L battery

ROTC controversy

Beginning in 1969, during the Vietnam War, the university did not allow the U.S. military to have Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) programs on campus,[190] though Columbia students could participate in ROTC programs at other colleges and universities. At a forum at the university during the 2008 presidential election campaign, both John McCain and Barack Obama said that the university should consider reinstating ROTC on campusSony VAIO PCG-51211L battery. After the debate, the President of the University, Lee C. Bollinger, stated that he did not favor reinstating Columbia's ROTC program, because of the military's anti-gay policies. In November 2008, Columbia's undergraduate student body held a referendum on the question of whether or not to invite ROTC back to campus, and the students who voted were almost evenly divided on the issueSony VAIO PCG-41112L battery. ROTC lost the vote (which would not have been binding on the administration, and did not include graduate students, faculty, or alumni) by a fraction of a percentage point. In April 2010 during Admiral Mike Mullen's address at Columbia, President Lee C. Bollinger stated that the ROTC would be readmitted to campus if the admiral's plans for revoking the don't ask, don't tell policy were successfulSony VAIO PCG-3A4L battery. In February 2011 during one of three town-hall meetings on the ROTC ban, former Army staff sergeant Anthony Maschek, a purple heart recipient for injuries sustained during his service in Iraq, was booed and hissed at by some students during his speech promoting the idea of allowing the ROTC on campus.[197] In April 2011 the Columbia University Senate voted to welcome the ROTC program back on campus.Sony VAIO PCG-3A3L battery Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus and Columbia University President Lee C. Bollinger signed an agreement to reinstate Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps (NROTC) programs at Columbia for the first time in more than 40 years on May 26, 2011. The agreement was signed at a ceremony onboard the USS Iwo Jima, docked in New York for the Navy's annual Fleet WeekSony VAIO PCG-3A2L battery.


For more details on this topic, see Columbia traditions.

Orgo Night

On the day before the Organic Chemistry exam—which is often on the first day of finals—at precisely the stroke of midnight, the Columbia University Marching Band occupies Butler Library to distract diligent students from studying. After a forty-five minutes or so of jokes and music, the procession then moves out to the lawn in front of HartleySony VAIO PCG-3A1L battery, Wallach and John Jay residence halls to entertain the residents there. The Band then plays at various other locations around Morningside Heights, including the residential quadrangle of Barnard College, where students of the all-women's school, in mock-consternation, rain trash – including notes and course packets – and water balloons upon them from their dormitories aboveSony VAIO PCG-394L battery. The Band tends to close their Orgo Night performances before Furnald Hall, known among students as the more studious and reportedly "anti-social" residence hall, where the underclassmen in the Band serenade the graduating seniors with an entertaining, though vulgar, mock-hymn to Columbia, composed of quips that poke fun at the various stereotypes about the Columbia student bodySony VAIO PCG-393L battery.

[edit]Tree-Lighting and Yule Log ceremonies

The campus Tree-Lighting Ceremony is a relatively new tradition at Columbia, inaugurated in 1998. It celebrates the illumination of the medium-sized trees lining College Walk in front of Kent and Hamilton Halls on the east end and Dodge and Journalism Halls on the west, just before finals week in early December. The lights remain on until February 28Sony VAIO PCG-391L battery. Students meet at the sun-dial for free hot chocolate, performances by various a cappella groups, and speeches by the university president and a guest.[201]

Immediately following the College Walk festivities is one of Columbia's older holiday traditions, the lighting of the Yule Log. The Christmas ceremony dates to a period prior to the American Revolutionary WarSony VAIO PCG-384L battery, but lapsed before being revived by University President Nicholas Murray Butler in the early 20th century. A troop of students dressed as Continental Army soldiers carry the eponymous log from the sun-dial to the lounge of John Jay Hall, where it is lit amid the singing of seasonal carols. The Christmas ceremony is accompanied by a reading of A Visit From St. Nicholas by Clement Clarke Moore and Yes, Virginia, There is a Santa Claus by Francis Pharcellus ChurchSony VAIO PCG-383L battery.

The Varsity Show

The Varsity Show is an annual musical written by and for students and was established in 1894, making it one of Columbia's oldest traditions. Past writers and directors have included Columbians Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein, Lorenz Hart, I.A.L. Diamond, Tom Kitt, and Herman Wouk. The show has one of the largest operating budgets of all university events. Sony VAIO PCG-382L battery

Notable people

Main articles: List of Columbia University people and List of Presidents of Columbia University

Three United States Presidents, twenty-six foreign Heads of State, nine Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States (including three Chief Justices) and 40 Nobel Prize winners are alumni of ColumbiaSony VAIO PCG-381L battery. Alumni also have received more than 35 National Book Awards and 112 Pulitzer Prizes.[207] Today,[when?] two United States Senators and 18 Chief Executives of Fortune 500 companies hold Columbia degrees, as do three of the 25 richest Americans and 20 living billionaires. Attendees of King's College, Columbia's predecessor, included five Founding Fathers. Sony VAIO PCG-7185L battery

Former U.S. Presidents Theodore Roosevelt and Franklin Delano Roosevelt attended the law school.[215] Other more recent political figures educated at Columbia include U.S President Barack Obama,[216] Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court Ruth Bader Ginsburg,[217] former U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright,[218] former chairman of the U.S. Federal Reserve Bank Alan Greenspan, Sony VAIO PCG-7184L battery U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder, and U.S. Solicitor General Donald Verrilli Jr..[220] Dwight D. Eisenhower served as the thirteenth president of Columbia University from 1948 to 1953.[221] The university has also educated 26 foreign Heads of State, including President of Georgia Mikheil Saakashvili, President of East Timor Jose Ramos Horta, President of Estonia Toomas Hendrik Ilves and other historical figures such as Wellington Koo, Gaston Eyskens, and T. V. Soong. Sony VAIO PCG-7183L battery The author of India's constitution Dr. B. R. Ambedkar was also an alumnus of Columbia. His bust is on display in the Lehman library.[247]

Alumni of Columbia have occupied top positions in Wall Street and the rest of the business world. Notable members of the Astor family attended Columbia, while some recent business graduates include investor Warren Buffet,[250] former CEO of PBS and NBC Larry Grossman,[251] and chairman of Wal-Mart S. Robson Walton. Sony VAIO PCG-7182L batteryCEO's of top Fortune 500 companies include James P. Gorman of Morgan Stanley, Robert J. Stevens of Lockheed Martin,[254] Philippe Dauman of Viacom,[255] Ursula Burns of Xerox,[256] and Vikram Pandit of Citigroup.[257]

In science and technology, Columbia alumni include: founder of IBM Herman Hollerith;[258] inventor of FM radio Edwin Armstrong;[259] inventor of the nuclear submarine Hyman Rickover;[260] founder of Google China Kai-Fu Lee; Sony VAIO PCG-7181L battery scientists Stephen Jay Gould,[262] Robert Millikan, Helium–neon laser inventor Ali Javan and Michael Pupin;[264] chief-engineer of the New York City subway William Barclay Parsons;[265] philosophers Irwin Edman[266] and Robert Nozick;[267] and economist Milton Friedman[268]

Many Columbia alumni have gone on to renowned careers in the arts, such as the composers Richard Rodgers,[269] Oscar Hammerstein II, Sony VAIO PCG-7174L battery Lorenz Hart,[271] and Art Garfunkel.[272] Four United States Poet Laureates received their degrees from Columbia. Columbia alumni have made an indelible mark in the field of American poetry and literature, with such people as Jack Kerouac, one of the pioneers of the Beat Generation, and Langston Hughes, a seminal figure in the Harlem Renaissance, having both attended the universitySony VAIO PCG-7173L battery. Other notable writers who attended Columbia include authors Isaac Asimov, J.D. Salinger, Upton Sinclair,[277] and the journalist Hunter S. Thompson, who was primarily known for his works in the American magazine Rolling Stone.

University alumni have also been very prominent in the film industry, with 25 different alumni winning a combined 30 Academy Awards, more than any other school in the world. Sony VAIO PCG-7172L battery Some notable Columbia alumni that have gone on to work in film include directors Sidney Lumet (12 Angry Men) and Kathryn Bigelow (The Hurt Locker),[280] screenwriters Howard Koch (Casablanca) and Joseph L. Mankiewicz (All About Eve),[282] and actors James Cagney[283] and Ed Harris.

Tsinghua University (Chinese: 清华大学, qinghua daxue), is a university in Beijing, China. The school is one of the nine universities of the C9 LeagueSony VAIO PCG-7171L battery. It was established in 1911 under the name "Tsinghua Xuetang" or "Tsinghua College" and was renamed the "Tsinghua School" one year later. The university section was founded in 1925 and the name "National Tsinghua University" was adopted in 1928. With a motto of Self-Discipline and Social Commitment, Tsinghua University describes itself as being dedicated to academic excellenceSony VAIO PCG-7162L battery, the well-being of Chinese society and to global development. Tsinghua is often ranked as the first or second best university in mainland China in many national and international rankings.


Further information: Boxer Indemnity Scholarship Program

Since American Secretary of State John Hay suggested that the US $30 million plus Boxer indemnity paid to the United States was excessive, in 1909, President Roosevelt then obtained congressional approval to reduce the Qing Dynasty indemnity payment by US$10.8 millionSony VAIO PCG-7161L battery, on the condition that the said fund was to be used as scholarship for Chinese students to study in the United States. Using this fund, the Tsinghua College Chinese: 清華學堂(Qīnghuá Xuétáng) was established in Beijing, China, on 29 April 1911 on the site of a former royal garden belonging to a prince.[5] It was first a preparatory school for students later sent by the government to study in the United StatesSony VAIO PCG-7154L battery. The faculty members for sciences were recruited by the YMCA from the United States and its graduates transferred directly to American schools as juniors upon graduation. In 1925, the school established its College Department and started its research institute on Chinese Study.

In 1928, the authority officially changed its name to National Tsing Hua University (NTHU). During the Second World War in 1937Sony VAIO PCG-7153L battery, Tsinghua University along with Peking University and Nankai University, merged to form Changsha Temporary University in Changsha, and later National Southwestern Associated University in Kunming of Yunnan province. After the war, Tsinghua moved back to Beijing and resumed its operation.

After the communist revolution at the end of the Chinese Civil War in 1949, which led to the creation of the People's Republic of China (PRC) Sony VAIO PCG-7152L battery, Tsinghua University's then President Mei Yi-Qi, followed by many[quantify] professors, fled to Taiwan where they established the National Tsing Hua Institute of Nuclear Technology in 1955, which later became National Tsing Hua University of Taiwan.

In 1952, the Chinese government regrouped the country's higher education institutions in an attempt to build a Soviet style system, with individual institutions tending to specialise in a certain field of study. When the Cultural Revolution began in 1966Sony VAIO PCG-7151L battery, many university students walked out of the classrooms, and some went on to be part of the Red Guards, resulting in the complete shut down of the university. Only until 1978 when the Cultural Revolution ended, the university began to take in students again.[6] Even so, Tsinghua University remained in the top tier schools in China. In many years following this regroup
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, the school was commonly referred to as the "MIT of China." But since the 1980s, the university began to incorporate a multidisciplinary system. As a result, several schools were re-incorporated. These included the School of Sciences, School of Business and Management, School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Tsinghua Law School, School of Public Policy and Management, and the Academy of Arts and DesignSony VPCW21M2E/WI battery.


Most national and international university rankings place Tsinghua amongst the best universities in mainland China. Admission to Tsinghua is extremely competitive. Every year, many applicants scoring the highest in the National College Entrance Exams choose Tsinghua. According to a report in 2008, 215 out of 300 students who scored the top 10 in the 30 tested provinces and regions chose Tsinghua and 21 out of the 30 top scorers in each province and region chose the university. Sony VPCW21C7E batteryA majority of selected students are among the brightest high school graduates in the country. Admissions to its graduate schools are also daunting by any measure; for instance, only about 16% of MBA applicants are admitted each year.[11] A recent study shows that Tsinghua University is the undergraduate alma mater that produces the most PhDs in U.S. universitiesSony VPCW12S1E/WZ battery.

Tsinghua alumni include the current CPC General secretary, Chinese president Hu Jintao, who graduated with a degree in hydraulic engineering in 1964, and the current Chinese vice president, Xi Jinping, who graduated with a degree in chemical engineering in 1979.

Tsinghua has a reputation for hosting some of the most distinguished guest speakers of any university in the world, with international leaders such as Bill ClintonSony VPCW12S1E/W battery, Tony Blair, Henry Kissinger, Carlos Ghosn, and Henry Paulson, all recently giving lectures to the university community.[13]

As of 2003, Tsinghua University had 12 colleges and 48 departments, 41 research institutes, 35 research centers, and 167 laboratories, including 15 national key laboratories. In September 2006, Peking Union Medical College was renamed to Peking Union Medical College, Tsinghua UniversitySony VPCW12S1E/T battery, although the Peking Union Medical College and Tsinghua University remain two separate institutions.[14] The university offers 51 bachelor's degree programs, 139 master's degree programs and 107 PhD programs. Recently, Tsinghua has become the first Chinese university to offer a Master of Laws program in American law, through a cooperative venture with the Temple University Beasley School of LawSony VPCW12S1E/P battery. The university is a member of LAOTSE, an international network of leading universities in Europe and Asia. Each year, the University celebrates the Intellectual Property Summer Institute in cooperation with Franklin Pierce Law Center of Concord, New Hampshire. It has its own editorial, Tsinghua University PressSony VPCW11S1E/W battery.

Department of Mathematical Sciences

Tsinghua Department of Mathematical Sciences (Tsinghua DMS) was established in 1927. As one of the premier Departments of Mathematical Sciences in China, Tsinghua DMS is famous for its rigorous academic attitude. Many famous Chinese mathematicians such like Shiing-Shen Chern and Luogeng Hua became well-known to the world from itSony VPCW11S1E/T battery.

In 1952, Tsinghua DMS was merged with the Peking University Department of Mathematical Sciences. Then in 1979 it was renamed the "Tsinghua University Department of Applied Mathematics", and renamed again in 1999 to its current title.

Tsinghua DMS has three institutes at present, the institute of Elementary Mathematics which has 27 faculties, the Institute of Applied Mathematics and Probability and Statistics which has 27 facultiesSony VPCW11S1E/P battery, and the Institute of Computational Mathematics and Operations Reacher which has 20 faculties. There are currently about 400 undergraduate students and 200 graduate students.

School of Economics and Management

Tsinghua's School of Economics and Management

The Tsinghua School of Economics and Management (SEM) is consistently ranked one of the best among business schools in China. Sony VPCYA1S1E/B battery It was the first mainland Chinese institution outside of Hong Kong to have achieved AACSB and EQUIS accreditations for its business and accounting programs. Founded in 1984, SEM was the first economics and management school in China. Its Founding Dean, Professor Zhu Rongji, later became the fifth Premier of the People’s Republic of China. It is the successor to Tsinghua University's Department of Economics, which was established in 1926Sony VPCYA1V9E/B battery.

SEM's International MBA program is one of the most prestigious programs in the People's Republic of China. The entirely English program is offered in collaboration with the MIT Sloan School of Management. The school provides more than 100 MBA courses per year. Upon finishing their required courses, students can select from curricula of different tracks Sony VPCY21S1E/SI battery (enterprise management, finance and banking, enterprise innovation and management, accounting analysis and management control, e-commerce, international business administration, etc.). After two years of business and leadership education, students obtain a Masters of Business Administration (MBA) degree from Tsinghua University as well as both a certificate from the MIT Sloan School of Management and MIT Sloan affiliate alumni statusSony VPCY21S1E/L battery. Besides the M.I.T.-Tsinghua International MBA program, international students with Chinese-language skills can also choose to apply to the full-time MBA and the part-time MBA.[18]

SEM also offers an EMBA program in partnership with INSEAD. The Tsinghua-INSEAD Dual Degree Executive MBA program was initiated in 2006, and is the first program of its kind in China combining international business education with a focus on AsiaSony VPCY21S1E/G battery. The program’s first class was opened in the summer of 2007. The program is taught jointly by the two schools’ faculties and focuses on developing the participants’ leadership skills, building their global mindsets, and honing their managerial talents. Upon successful completion of the program, participants are awarded two degrees: an EMBA degree by Tsinghua University and an MBA for Executives degree by INSEAD. Graduates become alumni of the two schoolsSony VPCY11S1E/S battery.

The main administration building, built in 1950s.

There are 8 majors in SEM, namely: management science and engineering, finance, economics, accounting, corporation strategy and policy, marketing, human resources management, and technology economics and management. The school also operates a number of prominent research centers, including: the Research Center for Contemporary ManagementSony VPCY11S1E battery, the Research Center for Technological Innovation, the National Entrepreneurship Research Center, the China Center for Financial Research, the National Center for Economic Research, the China Retail Research Center, the China Business Research Center, the Center for China in the World Economy, the Research Center for Contemporary Management and Technological Innovation, and the China Insurance and Risk Management Research CenterSony VPCZ11X9E/B battery.

Today both SEM's professional and academic programs are considered one of the premier training grounds for China's business leaders.[20]

School of Journalism and Communication

The Tsinghua School of Journalism and Communication (TSJC) was established in April 2002. Its predecessor was Communication Studies in the Department of Chinese Language and Literature and its establishment of coincides with the development of media increasingly influencing world affairs in a time of fast-growing globalizationSony VPCZ11Z9E/B battery. The school's research fields include International Communication, Film and Television Studies, New Media Studies, Media Operation and Management, and Business Journalism and are based on comprehensive academic research in journalism and communication theories. The objective of the school is to bring full advantage of Tsinghua University's comprehensive academic structure to Chinese and international mediaSony VPCZ12M9E/B battery, to construct a first-rate discipline in journalism and communication studies, to cultivate talented professionals in the field and to explore advanced concepts in journalism and communication. The school also offers a two-year graduate program in international business journalism, sponsored by Bloomberg L.P. and the International Center for Journalists (ICFJ) Sony VPCZ12X9E/X battery, that trains talented students and media professionals from around the globe in financial media and corporate communication.[21]

The school has five research-oriented centers to organize and conduct academic research activities. They are: Center for International Communications Studies, Center for New Media Studies, Center for Film and Television Studies, Center for Media Management Studies and Center for Cultural Industry StudiesSony VPCZ12Z9E/X battery.

The first and present dean of the school is Fan Jingyi, a notable chief editor of People's Daily during the period of 1990s.

Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University

The Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, was jointly founded by Tsinghua University and the Shenzhen Municipal Government. The school is directly affiliated with Tsinghua University in Beijing. The campus is located in the University Town of Shenzhen since October 18, 2003Sony VPCZ138GA battery.


Tsinghua University is frequently ranked amongst the best universities in China. It was ranked the 1st in mainland China by Chinese University Ranking Chinese university ranking and ranked 1st in mainland China by Netbig in 2010, 2009, 2008.[23] It was ranked 2nd in mainland China by China's Education Center in 2010, 2009 and 2008,[2] and was ranked 2nd in mainland China by webometrics 2008. Sony VPCZ13M9E/B battery

Tsinghua was ranked the 47th worldwide by QS World University Rankings in 2011,[25] 58th worldwide by Times Higher Education World University Rankings in 2010,[26] 36th worldwide in Human Resources & Labor Review's Best World Universities 2010,[27] 49th worldwide by US News and World Report (USNEWS), Sony VPCZ13M9E/X battery 13th worldwide in the category of engineering and IT by USNEWS, 2009,[29] and ranked 151–200 Worldwide in the Academic Ranking of World Universities by Shanghai Jiao Tong University 2010.[30] In 2011, according to University Ranking by Academic Performance (URAP), it is the 1st university in engineering field based ranking in the worldSony VPCZ13V9E battery.


The Old Gate is a symbol of Tsinghua University

The campus of Tsinghua University is located in northwest Beijing, in the Haidian district which was designated for universities and other academic institutes.

It is located on the former site of Qing Dynasty royal gardens and retains Chinese-style landscaping as well as traditional buildings, but many of its buildings are also in the Western-style, reflecting the American influence in its historySony VPCZ13V9E/X battery. Along with its rival and neighbor the Peking University, it is known throughout China and the wider world for having one of the most beautiful campuses. Tsinghua University's campus was named one of the most beautiful college campuses in the world by Forbes in 2010;[32] it was the only university in Asia on the list. Sony VPCZ13Z9E/X battery

T. Chuang, a 1914 graduate of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, helped design the campus grounds of the Tsinghua University with influences of American architectural style and architectures.[35]

The University's Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology is on a separate campus in a northern suburb of BeijingSony VPCZ21M9E battery.

Entrance to "Gong Zi Ting", the former Qing Prince's Mansion

Tsinghua campus scenery

A Qing Dynasty Jinchun Garden on Tsinghua University Campus

Associated people

Main article: People associated with Tsinghua University

Tsinghua University has produced many notable graduates, especially in political sphere. These include current General secretary, president Hu Jintao, current vice president Xi Jinping, current chairman of the National People's Congress Wu Bangguo, former premier Zhu Rongji, former first vice premier Huang JuSony VPCZ21Q9E battery. Tsinghua also has two Nobel Prize winners, Tsung-Dao Lee and Yang Chen Ning. The latter is currently residing on Tsinghua campus. This is a list of people associated with Tsinghua University in China.

Qinghua clique

The term Qinghua clique refers to a group of Communist Chinese politicians that have graduated from Tsinghua University. They are members of the fourth generation of Chinese leadership, and are purported to hold reformist and hesitantly pro-democratic ideas Sony VPCZ21V9E battery (a number have studied in the United States following graduation from Tsinghua, and some are said to be influenced by the reform ideals of Hu Yaobang). In the PRC, their ascendance to power began in 2008 at the 17th National Congress of the CPC.[36]

Tsinghua graduates who have political prominence are disproportionately greater in number than graduates of other famous universities. Among the nine standing committees at the Politburo, there are four Tsinghua graduates; among the 24 Politburo committee membersSony VPCEH3T9E battery, there are five; and of all the "leaders of the party and the country", there are 10.

The Tsinghua clique also referred to a group of Nationalist Chinese politicians who held high power in the Republic of China government and fled to Taiwan with the government during the Chinese Civil War. All of them are deceasedSony VPCEH3N6E battery.

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