California Institute of Technology And Peking University

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The California Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as Caltech) is a private research university located in Pasadena, California, United States. Caltech has six academic divisions with strong emphases on science and engineering. Its 124-acre (50 ha) primary campus is located approximately 11 mi (18 km) northeast of downtown Los Angeles(Sony VGN-NR11Z/S Battery).

Although founded as a preparatory and vocational school by Amos G. Throop in 1891, the college attracted influential scientists such as George Ellery Hale, Arthur Amos Noyes, and Robert Andrews Millikan in the early 20th century. The vocational and preparatory schools were disbanded and spun off in 1910, and the college assumed its present name in 1921(Sony VGN-NR11Z/T Battery). In 1934, Caltech was elected to the Association of American Universities, and the antecedents of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, which Caltech continues to manage and operate, were established between 1936 and 1943 under Theodore von Kármán.

Despite its small size, 31 Caltech alumni and faculty have won the Nobel Prize and 66 have won the National Medal of Science or Technology(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21E battery). There are 109 faculty members who have been elected to the National Academies. In addition, numerous faculty members are associated with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute as well as NASA. Caltech managed $332 million in sponsored research and $1.77 billion for its endowment in 2011. Caltech was ranked first in the 2011–2012 Times Higher Education worldwide rankings of universities as well as ranking first in physical science and engineering(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21Z battery). It also has a long standing rivalry with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

First year students are required to live on campus and 95% of undergraduates remain in the on-campus house system. Although Caltech has a strong tradition of practical jokes and pranks,[10] student life is governed by an honor code which allows faculty to assign take-home examinations. The Caltech Beavers compete in 13 intercollegiate sports in the NCAA Division III's Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21J battery).

History

Throop College

Throop Polytechnic Institute, Pasadena, Calif, 1908, on its original campus at downtown Pasadena.

Caltech began as a vocational school founded in Pasadena in 1891 by local businessman and politician Amos G. Throop. The school was known successively as Throop University, Throop Polytechnic Institute, and Throop College of Technology, before acquiring its current name in 1920. (Sony VAIO VGN-FW11 battery) The vocational school was disbanded and the preparatory program was split off to form an independent Polytechnic School in 1907.

At a time when scientific research in the United States was still in its infancy, George Ellery Hale, a solar astronomer from the University of Chicago, founded the Mount Wilson Observatory in 1904. He joined Throop's board of trustees in 1907, and soon began developing it and the whole of Pasadena into a major scientific and cultural destination(Sony VAIO VGN-FW11M battery). He engineered the appointment of James A. B. Scherer, a literary scholar untutored in science but a capable administrator and fund raiser, to Throop's presidency in 1908. Scherer persuaded retired businessman and trustee Charles W. Gates to donate $25,000 in seed money to build Gates Laboratory, the first science building on campus(Sony VAIO VGN-FW11S battery).

World Wars

Throop Hall, 1912

In 1910, Throop moved to its current site. Arther Fleming donated the land for the permanent campus site. Theodore Roosevelt delivered an address at Throop Institute on March 21, 1911, and he declared:

I want to see institutions like Throop turn out perhaps ninety-nine of every hundred students as men who are to do given pieces of industrial work better than any one else can do them(Sony VAIO VGN-FW21E battery); I want to see those men do the kind of work that is now being done on the Panama Canal and on the great irrigation projects in the interior of this country—and the one-hundredth man I want to see with the kind of cultural scientific training that will make him and his fellows the matrix out of which you can occasionally develop a man like your great astronomer, George Ellery Hale(Sony VAIO VGN-FW21J battery).

In the same year, a bill was introduced in the California Legislature calling for the establishment of a publicly funded "California Institute of Technology," with an initial budget of a million dollars, ten times the budget of Throop at the time. The board of trustees offered to turn Throop over to the state(Sony VAIO VGN-FW21L battery), but the presidents of Stanford University and the University of California successfully lobbied to defeat the bill, which allowed Throop to develop as the only scientific research-oriented education institute in southern California, public or private, until the onset of the World War II necessitated the broader development of research-based science education.[14] The promise of Throop attracted physical chemist Arthur Amos Noyes from MIT to develop the institution and assist in establishing it as a center for science and technology(Sony VAIO VGN-FW41M battery).

With the onset of World War I, Hale organized the National Research Council to coordinate and support scientific work on military problems. While he supported the idea of federal appropriations for science, he took exception to a federal bill that would have funded engineering research at land-grant colleges, and instead sought to raise a $1 million national research fund entirely from private sources. To that end, as Hale wrote in the New York Times(Sony VAIO VGN-FW41M/H battery):

Throop College of Technology, in Pasadena California has recently afforded a striking illustration of one way in which the Research Council can secure co-operation and advance scientific investigation. This institution, with its able investigators and excellent research laboratories, could be of great service in any broad scheme of cooperation(Sony VAIO VGN-FW21M battery). President Scherer, hearing of the formation of the council, immediately offered to take part in its work, and with this object, he secured within three days an additional research endowment of one hundred thousand dollars.

Through the National Research Council, Hale simultaneously lobbied for science to play a larger role in national affairs, and for Throop to play a national role in science. The new funds were designated for physics research(Sony VAIO VGN-FW21Z battery), and ultimately lead to the establishment of the Norman Bridge Laboratory, which attracted experimental physicist Robert Andrews Millikan from the University of Chicago in 1917. During the course of the war, Hale, Noyes and Millikan worked together in Washington on the NRC. Subsequently, they continued their partnership in developing Caltech(Sony VAIO VGN-FW32J battery).

The Sloan Laboratory for Mathematics and Physics

Under the leadership of Hale, Noyes and Millikan (aided by the booming economy of Southern California), Caltech grew to national prominence in the 1920s and concentrated on the development of Roosevelt's "Hundredth Man". On November 29, 1921, the trustees declared it to be the express policy of the Institute to pursue scientific research of the greatest importance and at the same time (Sony VAIO VGN-FW17W battery)"to continue to conduct thorough courses in engineering and pure science, basing the work of these courses on exceptionally strong instruction in the fundamental sciences of mathematics, physics, and chemistry; broadening and enriching the curriculum by a liberal amount of instruction in such subjects as English, history, and economics; and vitalizing all the work of the Institute by the infusion in generous measure of the spirit of research." (Sony VAIO VGN-FW31E battery)In 1923, Millikan was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics. In 1925, the school established a department of geology and hired William Bennett Munro, then chairman of the division of History, Government, and Economics at Harvard University, to create a division of humanities and social sciences at Caltech. In 1928, a division of biology was established under the leadership of Thomas Hunt Morgan, the most distinguished biologist in the United States at the time(Sony VAIO VGN-FW139E battery), and discoverer of the role of genes and the chromosome in heredity. In 1930, Kerckhoff Marine Laboratory was established in Corona del Mar under the care of Professor George MacGinitie. In 1926, a graduate school of aeronautics was created, which eventually attracted Theodore von Kármán. Kármán later helped create the Jet Propulsion Laboratory(Sony VAIO VGN-FW139E/H battery), and played an integral part in establishing Caltech as one of the world's centers for rocket science. In 1928, construction of the Palomar Observatory began.

Millikan served as "Chairman of the Executive Council" (effectively Caltech's president) from 1921 to 1945, and his influence was such that the Institute was occasionally referred to as "Millikan's School." Millikan initiated a visiting-scholars program soon after joining Caltech(Sony VAIO VGN-FW31M battery). Scientists who accepted his invitation include luminaries such as Paul Dirac, Erwin Schrödinger, Werner Heisenberg, Hendrik Lorentz and Niels Bohr.[17] Albert Einstein arrived on the Caltech campus for the first time in 1931 to polish up his Theory of General Relativity, and he returned to Caltech subsequently as a visiting professor in 1932 and 1933(Sony VAIO VGN-FW31J battery).

During World War II, Caltech was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. The United States Navy also maintained a naval training school for aeronautical engineering, resident inspectors of ordnance and naval material, and a liaison officer to the National Defense Research Committee on campus(Sony VAIO VGN-FW31Z battery).

Post-war growth

Beckman Institute

In the 1950s–1970s, Caltech was the home of Murray Gell-Mann and Richard Feynman, whose work was central to the establishment of the Standard Model of particle physics. Feynman was also widely known outside the physics community as an exceptional teacher and colorful, unconventional character(Sony VGN-NR11Z Battery).

During Lee A. DuBridge's tenure as Caltech's president (1946–1969), Caltech's faculty doubled and the campus tripled in size. DuBridge, unlike his predecessors, welcomed federal funding of science. New research fields flourished, including chemical biology, planetary science, nuclear astrophysics, and geochemistry(Sony VGN-NR11S Battery). A 200-inch telescope was dedicated on nearby Palomar Mountain in 1948 and remained the world's most powerful optical telescope for over forty years.

Caltech opened its doors to female undergraduates during the presidency of Harold Brown in 1970, and they made up 14% of the entering class.[22] The fraction of female undergraduates has been increasing since then. (Sony VGN-NR110E Battery)

Caltech undergraduates have historically been so apathetic to politics that there has been only one organized student protest in January 1968 outside the Burbank studios of NBC, in response to rumors that NBC was to cancel Star Trek. In 1973, the students from Dabney House protested a presidential visit with a sign on the library bearing the simple phrase "Impeach Nixon"(Sony VGN-NR110E/T Battery). The following week, Ross McCollum, president of the National Oil Company, wrote an open letter to Dabney House stating that in light of their actions he had decided not to donate one million dollars to Caltech. The Dabney family, being Republicans, disowned Dabney House after hearing of the prank.

Recent history

The new Annenberg Center for Information Science and Technology(Sony VGN-NR110E/S Battery)

Since 2000, the Einstein Papers Project has been located at Caltech.[24] The project was established in 1986 to assemble, preserve, translate, and publish papers selected from the literary estate of Albert Einstein and from other collections.

In fall 2008, the freshman class was 42% female, a record for Caltech's undergraduate enrollment.[3] In the same year, the Institute concluded a six-year long fund-raising campaign(Sony VGN-NR110E/W Battery). The campaign raised more than $1.4 billion from about 16,000 donors. Nearly half of the funds went into the support of Caltech programs and projects.[25]

In 2010, Caltech, in partnership with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and headed by Professor Nathan Lewis, established a DOE Energy Innovation Hub aimed at developing revolutionary methods to generate fuels directly from sunlight. This hub, the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, will receive up to $122 million in federal funding over five years. (Sony VGN-CR11Z Battery)

A TEDx was organized in 2011, called TEDxCaltech. The theme of the event was Feynman's Vision: The Next 50 Years. The speakers included Caltech faculty and students, as well as external professors and entrepreneurs.

Campus

See also: List of California Institute of Technology buildings and facilities

The Millikan Library, the tallest building on campus

Caltech's 124-acre (50 ha) primary campus is located in Pasadena, California, approximately 11 miles (18 km) northeast of downtown Los Angeles(Sony VGN-CR11S Battery). It is within walking distance of Old Town Pasadena and the Pasadena Playhouse District and therefore the two locations are frequent getaways for Caltech students.

In 1917 Hale hired architect Bertram Goodhue to produce a master plan for the 22 acres (8.9 ha) campus. Goodhue conceived the overall layout of the campus and designed the physics building, Dabney Hall, and several other structures(Sony VGN-CR11M Battery), in which he sought to be consistent with the local climate, the character of the school, and Hale's educational philosophy. Goodhue's designs for Caltech were also influenced by the traditional Spanish mission architecture of Southern California.

In 1971 a magnitude-6.6 earthquake in San Fernando caused some damage to the Caltech campus. Engineers who evaluated the damage found that two historic buildings dating from the early days of the Institute(Sony VGN-CR11E Battery) — Throop Hall and the Goodhue-designed Culbertson Auditorium — had cracked. These were some of the first reinforced concrete buildings, and their plans did not contain enough details (such as how much reinforcing bar had been embedded in the concrete) to be sure they were safe, so the engineers recommended demolition. However, demolishing these historic structures required considerably more effort than would have been necessary had they been in real danger of collapse(Sony VGN-CR21E Battery). A large wrecking ball was used to demolish Throop Hall, and smashing the concrete revealed massive amounts of rebar, far in excess of safety requirements. The rebar had to be cut up before the pieces could be hauled away, and the process took much longer than expected.

New additions to the campus include the Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics and the Walter and Leonore Annenberg Center for Information Science and Technology(Sony VGN-CR21S Battery), which opened in 2009, and the Warren and Katherine Schlinger Laboratory for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering followed in March 2010. The Institute also concluded an upgrading of the south houses in 2006. In late 2010, Caltech completed a 1.3 MW solar array projected to produce approximately 1.6 GWh in 2011.

Organization and administration(Sony VGN-CR21Z Battery)

See also: List of California Institute of Technology trustees

The Bridge Laboratory of Physics

The mission statement of Caltech reads:

The mission of the California Institute of Technology is to expand human knowledge and benefit society through research integrated with education. We investigate the most challenging, fundamental problems in science and technology in a singularly collegial, interdisciplinary atmosphere, while educating outstanding students to become creative members of society. (Sony VGN-CR31S Battery)

Caltech is incorporated as a non-profit corporation and is governed by a privately appointed 46-member board of trustees who serve five year terms of office and retire at the age of 72.[11][32] The current board is chaired by Kent Kresa, former chairman and CEO of Northrup Grumman and former chairman of General Motors. (Sony VGN-CR31E Battery) The Trustees elect a President to serve as the chief executive officer of the Institute and administer the affairs on the Institute on behalf of the board, a Provost who serves as the chief academic officer of the Institute below the President, and ten other vice presidential and other senior positions.[32] Former Georgia Tech provost Jean-Lou Chameau became the eighth president of Caltech on September 1, 2006, replacing David Baltimore who had served since 1997. (Sony VGN-CR31Z Battery) Dr. Chameau's compensation for 2008–2009 totaled $799,472. Edward M. Stolper is the Institute's ninth provost and is responsible for academic budget, faculty appointments and promotions, and coordinates curriculum.[36] Caltech's $1.77 billion endowment is governed by a permanent Trustee committee and administered by an Investment Office(Sony VGN-CR41Z Battery).

The Kerckhoff Laboratory of the Biological Sciences

The Institute is organized into six primary academic divisions: Biology, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Engineering and Applied Science, Geological and Planetary Sciences, Humanities and Social Sciences, and Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy. The voting faculty of Caltech include all professors, instructors, research associates and fellows(Sony VGN-CR41S Battery), and the University Librarian. Faculty are responsible for establishing admission requirements, academic standards, and curricula. The Faculty Board is the faculty's representative body and consists of 18 elected faculty representatives as well as other senior administration officials. Full-time professors are expected to teach classes, conduct research, advise students, and perform administrative work such as serving on committees(Sony VGN-CR41E Battery).

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center (FFRDC) owned by NASA and operated as a division of Caltech through a contract between NASA and Caltech. In 2008, JPL spent over $1.6 billion on research and development and employed over 5,000 project-related and support employees. (Sony VGN-CR42Z Battery) The JPL Director also serves as a Caltech Vice President and is responsible to the President of the Institute for the management of the Laboratory.

Academics

Caltech is a small four-year, highly residential research university with a slight majority in graduate programs. The Institute has been accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges since 1949. Caltech is on the quarter system: (Sony VGN-CR42S Battery) the fall term starts in late September and ends before Christmas, the second term starts after New Years Day and ends in mid-March, and the third term starts in late March or early April and ends in early June.[49]

In 2012, the Center for World University Rankings ranked Caltech fifth in the world and fourth nationally in its CWUR World University Rankings(Sony VGN-CR42E Battery).

Caltech was ranked 1st internationally in 2011 by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings. Caltech was ranked as the best university in the world in two categories: Engineering & Technology and Physical Sciences. It was also found to have the highest faculty citation rate in the world(Sony Vaio VGN-CR11S/L Battery).

Shanghai Jiao Tong University's Academic Ranking of World Universities, a ranking with an emphasis on bibliometric data and scientific research, ranked Caltech 6th in the world and 5th in the U.S. for 2011. Caltech was also found to have the highest score for per-capita performance in that ranking. (Sony Vaio VGN-CR11S/P Battery)

U.S. News & World Report ranked Caltech as the 5th best university in the United States in their 2012 national college rankings, together with MIT, Stanford University, University of Chicago and University of Pennsylvania.[55] According to the U.S. News & World Report's Best Graduate Schools 2011 ranking, "California Institute of Technology headlines the new rankings, with top billing in three categories: chemistry, earth sciences and physics." (Sony Vaio VGN-CR11S/W Battery)

The United States National Research Council released its latest Assessment of Research Doctorate Programs in 2010, and 23 of the 24 graduate programs of Caltech were ranked within the top four programs in the nation in their size quartile as determined by both the R95 and S95 rankings. Of particular note, programs that were placed within the top 10% of all size programs in that field based on an average of the R95 and S95 rank order include Aeronautics(Sony Vaio VGN-CR11Z/R Battery), Astrophysics, Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Bioengineering, Biology, Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Electrical Engineering, Environmental Science and Engineering, Geology, Geophysics, Materials Science, Mechanical Engineering, Physics, Planetary Science, and Social Science (Economics) (Sony Vaio VGN-CR13/B Battery).

Undergraduate program

Hallway of Arms Laboratory

The full time, four year undergraduate program emphasizes instruction in the arts and sciences and has high graduate coexistence.[45] Caltech offers 24 majors (called "options") and six minors across all six academic divisions.[58] Caltech also offers interdisciplinary programs in Applied Physics, Biochemistry, Bioengineering, Computation and Neural Systems, Control and Dynamical Systems, Environmental Science and Engineering, Geobiology and Astrobiology(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13/L Battery), Geochemistry, and Planetary Astronomy. The most popular options are Chemical Engineering, Computer Science, Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Physics.[59]

Caltech requires students to take a core curriculum of 30 classes: five terms of mathematics, five terms of physics, two terms of chemistry, one term of biology, a freshman elective "menu" course, two terms of introductory lab courses, 2 terms of science writing, and 12 terms of humanities. (Sony Vaio VGN-CR13/P Battery) A typical class is worth 9 academic units and given the extensive core curriculum requirements in addition to individual options' degree requirements, students need to take an average of 40.5 units per term (more than four classes) in order to graduate in four years. 36 units is the minimum full-time load, 48 units is considered a heavy load, and registrations above 54 units require an overload petition. (Sony Vaio VGN-CR13/R Battery) Approximately 20 percent of students double-major.[62] This is achievable since the humanities and social sciences majors have been designed to be done in conjunction with a science major. Although choosing two options in the same division is discouraged, it is still possible.

First year students are enrolled in first-term classes based upon results of placement exams in math, physics(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13/W Battery), chemistry, and writing and take all classes in their first two terms on a Pass/Fail basis.[61] There is little competition; collaboration on homework is encouraged and the Honor System encourages take-home tests and flexible homework schedules.[63] Caltech offers co-operative programs with other schools, such as the Pasadena Art Center College of Design and Occidental College(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G Battery).

Undergraduate tuition for the 2011–2012 school year was $36,387 and total annual costs were estimated to be $54,090.[64] In 2010–2011, Caltech awarded $14.2 million in need-based aid, $940k in non-need-based aid, and $2.35 million in self-help support to every enrolled undergraduate student. The average financial aid package of all students eligible for need-based aid was $34,928 and students graduated with an average debt of $9,561. (Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G/B Battery)

Upon graduation, Caltech alumni have the highest median starting salary among graduates of other colleges or universities in 2010–2011, of $69,900, according to PayScale. The mid-career median pay is $120,000.[65] Caltech was found to offer the highest return of investment of college education, at $1,713,000 over a 30-year period, according to the same study. (Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G/L Battery)

Caltech offers Army and Air Force ROTC in cooperation with the University of Southern California.

Graduate program

The new Schlinger Laboratory for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

The graduate instructional programs emphasize doctoral studies and are dominated by science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields.[45] The Institute offers graduate degree programs for the Master of Science, Engineer's Degree(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G/W Battery), Doctor of Philosophy, BS/MS and MD/PhD, with the majority of students in the PhD program.[45] The most popular options are Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Electrical Engineering and Chemical Engineering.[59] Applicants for graduate studies are required to take the GRE. GRE Subject scores are either required or strongly recommended. (Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G/P Battery)

The research facilities at Caltech are available to graduate students, but there are opportunities for students to work in facilities of other universities, research centers as well as private industries.[68] The graduate student to faculty ratio is 4:1.

Approximately 99% of doctoral students have full financial support. Financial support for graduate students comes in the form of fellowships, research assistantships(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13G/R Battery), teaching assistantships or a combination of fellowship and assistantship support.[70]

Graduate students are bound by the Honor Code, as are the undergraduates, and the Graduate Review Board oversees any violations of the code.

Research

The Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics

Caltech was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1934 and remains a research university with "very high" research activity, primarily in STEM fields. (Sony Vaio VGN-CR13T/L Battery) Caltech manages research expenditures of $270 million annually,[71] 66th among all universities in the U.S. and 17th among private institutions without medical schools for 2008.[72][73] The largest federal agencies contributing to research are NASA, National Science Foundation, Department of Health and Human Services, Department of Defense(Sony Vaio VGN-CR13T/P Battery), and Department of Energy.[74] Caltech received $144 million in federal funding for the physical sciences, $40.8 million for the life sciences, $33.5 million for engineering, $14.4 million for environmental sciences, $7.16 million for computer sciences, and $1.97 million for mathematical sciences in 2008.[75]

The Institute was awarded an all-time high funding of $357 million in 2009. (Sony Vaio VGN-CR13T/R Battery) Active funding from the National Science Foundation Directorate of Mathematical and Physical Science (MPS) for Caltech stands at $343 million as of 2011, the highest for any educational institution in the nation, and higher than the total funds allocated to any state except California and New York. (Sony Vaio VGN-CR13T/W Battery)

In 2005, Caltech had 739,000 square feet (68,700 m2) dedicated to research: 330,000 square feet (30,700 m2) to physical sciences, 163,000 square feet (15,100 m2) to engineering, and 160,000 square feet (14,900 m2) to biological sciences.

In addition to managing JPL, Caltech also operates the Palomar Observatory in San Diego County, the Owens Valley Radio Observatory in Bishop, California, the Submillimeter Observatory and W. M. Keck Observatory at the Mauna Kea Observatory(Sony Vaio VGN-CR150E/B Battery), the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory at Livingston, Louisiana and Richland, Washington, and Kerckhoff Marine Laboratory in Corona del Mar, California.[37] The Institute launched the Kavli Nanoscience Institute at Caltech in 2006,[79] the Keck Institute for Space Studies in 2008, and is also the current home for the Einstein Papers Project(Sony Vaio VGN-CR21/B Battery). The Spitzer Science Center (SSC), part of the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center located on the Caltech campus, is the data analysis and community support center for NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.

Undergraduates at Caltech are also encouraged to participate in research. About 80% of the class of 2010 did research through the annual Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowships (SURF) program at least once during their stay(Sony Vaio VGN-CR21E/L Battery), and many continued during the school year.[80] Students write and submit SURF proposals for research projects in collaboration with professors, and about 70 percent of applicants are awarded SURFs. The program is open to both Caltech and non-Caltech undergraduate students. It serves as preparation for graduate school and helps to explain why Caltech has the highest percentage of alumni who go on to receive a PhD of all the major universities(Sony Vaio VGN-CR21E/P Battery).

The licensing and transferring of technology to the commercial sector is managed by the Office of Technology Transfer (OTT). OTT protects and manages the intellectual property developed by faculty members, students, other researchers, and JPL technologists. Caltech receives more invention disclosures per faculty member than any other university in the nation.[82] As of 2008, 1891 patents were granted to Caltech researchers since 1969. (Sony Vaio VGN-CR21E/W Battery)

Student life

Walkway from the main residential houses

House system

Main article: House System at the California Institute of Technology

During the early 20th century, a Caltech committee visited several universities and decided to transform the undergraduate housing system from regular fraternities to a house system. Four south houses (or hovses) were built: Blacker House, Dabney House, Fleming House and Ricketts House. In the 1960s, three north houses were built(Sony Vaio VGN-CR21S/L Battery): Lloyd House, Page House, and Ruddock House, and during the 1990s, Avery House. The four south houses closed for renovation in 2005 and reopened in 2006. All first year students live in the house system and 95% of undergraduates remain in it.

Athletics

Caltech has athletic teams in baseball, men's and women's basketball, cross country, fencing, men's soccer, swimming and diving, men's and women's tennis, track and field, women's volleyball, and men's and women's water polo. (Sony Vaio VGN-CR21S/P Battery) Caltech's mascot is the Beaver, and its teams (with the exception of the fencing team) play in the Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference, which Caltech co-founded in 1915.[86] The fencing team[87] competes in the NCAA's Division I, facing teams from USC, UCLA, UCSD, and Stanford, among others(Sony Vaio VGN-CR21S/W Battery).

The Caltech Beavers

On January 6, 2007, the Beavers' men's basketball team snapped a 207-game losing streak to Division III schools, beating Bard College 81–52. It was their first Division III victory since 1996.[88] Until their win over Occidental on February 22, 2011[89] the team had not won a game in conference play since 1985. Ryan Elmquist's free throw with 3.3 seconds in regulation gave the Beavers the victory. (Sony Vaio VGN-CR21Z/N Battery) The documentary film Quantum Hoops concerns the events of the Beavers' 2005–06 season.

On January 13, 2007, the Caltech women's basketball team snapped a 50-game losing streak, defeating the Pomona–Pitzer Sagehens 55–53. The women's program, which entered the SCIAC in 2002, garnered their first conference win. On the bench as honorary coach for the evening was Dr. Robert Grubbs, 2005 Nobel Laureate in Chemistry. (Sony Vaio VGN-CR21Z/R Battery)The team went on to beat Whittier College on February 10, for its second SCIAC win, and placed its first member on the All Conference team.[93] The 2006–2007 season is the most successful season in the history of the program.

On October 22, 2008, the soccer team snapped a 201-game losing streak with a last-second goal against Cal Lutheran University, 1–0(Sony Vaio VGN-CR220E/R Battery).

In 2007, 2008, and 2009, the women's table tennis team (a club team) competed in nationals. The women's Ultimate club team, known as "Snatch", has also been very successful in recent years, ranking 44 of over 200 college teams in the Ultimate Player's Association.[94]

Performing and Visual Arts

The Caltech/Occidental College Orchestra is a full seventy-piece orchestra composed of students, faculty, and staff at Caltech and nearby Occidental College(Sony Vaio VGN-CR23/B Battery). The orchestra gives three pairs of concerts annually, at both Caltech and Occidental College. There are also two Caltech Jazz Bands and a Concert Band. For vocal music, Caltech has Men's and Women's Glee Clubs. The theater program at Caltech is known as TACIT, or Theater Arts at the California Institute of Technology. There are two to three plays organized by TACIT per year, and they were involved in the production of the PHD Movie, released in 2011(Sony Vaio VGN-CR23/P Battery).

Student life traditions

The Beckman Auditorium

Annual events

Every Halloween, Dabney House conducts the infamous "Millikan pumpkin-drop experiment" from the top of Millikan Library, the highest point on campus. According to tradition, a claim was once made that the shattering of a pumpkin frozen in liquid nitrogen and dropped from a sufficient height would produce a triboluminescent spark(Sony Vaio VGN-CR23/R Battery). This yearly event involves a crowd of observers, who try to spot the elusive spark. The title of the event is an oblique reference to the famous Millikan oil-drop experiment which measured e, the elemental unit of electrical charge.

On Ditch Day, the seniors ditch school, leaving behind elaborately designed tasks and traps at the doors of their rooms to prevent underclassmen from entering. Over the years this has evolved to the point where many seniors spend months designing mechanical(Sony Vaio VGN-CR23/L Battery), electrical, and software obstacles to confound the underclassmen. Each group of seniors designs a "stack" to be solved by a handful of underclassmen. The faculty have been drawn into the event as well, and cancel all classes on Ditch Day so the underclassmen can participate in what has become a highlight of the academic year. In 2012, Ditch Day fell on May 24(Sony Vaio VGN-CR23/N Battery).

Another long-standing tradition is the playing of Wagner's Ride of the Valkyries at 7:00 each morning during finals week with the largest, loudest speakers available. The playing of that piece is not allowed at any other time (except if one happens to be listening to the entire 15 hours of The Ring Cycle), and any offender is dragged into the showers to be drenched in cold water fully dressed(Sony Vaio VGN-CR23/W Battery). The playing of the Ride is such a strong tradition that the music was used during Apollo 17 to awaken Astronaut Harrison Schmitt, a Caltech alumnus. Unfortunately, the tradition arose at different times in different Houses, so Schmitt did not react as expected. Instead, he just became confused.

Pranks

Fleming Cannon

Caltech students have been known for the many pranks (also known as "RFs")(Sony VAIO VGN-NW21EF/S battery).

The two most famous in recent history are the changing of the Hollywood Sign to read "Caltech", by judiciously covering up certain parts of the letters, and the changing of the scoreboard to read Caltech 38, MIT 9 during the 1984 Rose Bowl Game. But the most famous of all occurred during the 1961 Rose Bowl Game, where Caltech students altered the flip-cards that were raised by the stadium attendees to display "Caltech"(Sony VAIO VGN-NW21JF battery), and several other "unintended" messages. This event is now referred to as the Great Rose Bowl Hoax.

In 2005, a group of Caltech students pulled a string of pranks during MIT's Campus Preview Weekend for admitted students. These include covering up the word Massachusetts in the "Massachusetts Institute of Technology" engraving on the main building façade with a banner so that it read "That Other Institute of Technology"(Sony VAIO VGN-NW21MF battery). A group of MIT hackers responded by altering the banner so that the inscription read "The Only Institute of Technology." Caltech students also passed out T-shirts to MIT's incoming freshman class that had MIT written on the front and "... because not everyone can go to Caltech" along with an image of a palm tree on the back(Sony VAIO VGN-NW21MF/W battery).

MIT retaliated in April 2006, when students posing as the Howe & Ser (Howitzer) Moving Company stole the 130-year-old, 1.7-ton Fleming House cannon and moved it to their campus in Cambridge, Massachusetts for their 2006 Campus Preview Weekend, repeating a similar prank performed by nearby Harvey Mudd College in 1986. Thirty members of Fleming House traveled to MIT and reclaimed their cannon on April 10, 2006(Sony VAIO VGN-NW31EF/W battery).

On April 13, 2007 (Friday the 13th), a group of students from The California Tech, Caltech's campus newspaper, arrived and distributed fake copies of The Tech, MIT's campus newspaper, while prospective students were visiting for their Campus Preview Weekend. Articles included "MIT Invents the Interweb," "Architects Deem Campus 'Unfortunate'," and "Infinite Corridor Not Actually Infinite." (Sony VAIO VGN-NW21ZF battery)

In recent years, pranking has been officially encouraged by Tom Mannion, Caltech's Assistant VP for Student Affairs and Campus Life. "The grand old days of pranking have gone away at Caltech, and that's what we are trying to bring back," reported the Boston Globe, which noted that "security has orders not to intervene in a prank unless officers get Mannion's approval beforehand." (Sony VAIO VGN-NW31JF battery)

Caltech pranks have been documented in three Legends of Caltech books, the most recent of which was edited by alumni Autumn Looijen '99 and Mason A. Porter '98 and published in May 2007.

In December 2009, some Caltech students declared that MIT had been sold and had become the Caltech East campus. A "sold" banner was hung on front of the MIT dome building and a "Welcome to Caltech East: School of the Humanities"(Sony VAIO VGN-NW320F/B battery) banner over the Massachusetts Avenue Entrance. Newspapers and t-shirts were distributed, and door labels and fliers in the infinite corridor were put up in accordance with the "curriculum change."

In September 2010, MIT students attempted to put a TARDIS, the time machine from the BBC's Doctor Who, onto a roof. Caught in midact, the prank was aborted(Sony VAIO VGN-NW320F/TC battery). In January 2011, Caltech students in conjunction with MIT students helped put the TARDIS on top of Baxter.[98] Caltech students then moved the TARDIS to UC Berkeley[99] and Stanford.[100]

In December 2011, Caltech students went to New York and pulled a prank on Manhattan's Greenwich Village. The prank involved making The Cube sculpture look like the Valve Corporation Weighted Companion Cube from the video game Portal(Sony VAIO VGN-NW11S/S battery).

Honor Code

Throop Memorial Pond

Life in the Caltech community is governed by the Honor Code, which simply states: "No member of the Caltech community shall take unfair advantage of any other member of the Caltech community." This is enforced by a Board of Control, which consists of undergraduate students, and by a similar body at the graduate level, called the Graduate Review Board(Sony VAIO VGN-NW11Z/S battery).

The Honor Code aims at promoting an atmosphere of respect and trust that allows Caltech students to enjoy privileges that make for a more relaxed atmosphere. For example, the Honor Code allows professors to make the majority of exams as take-home, allowing students to take them on their own schedule and in their preferred environment(Sony VAIO VGN-NW11S/T battery).

Through the late 1990s, the only exception to the Honor Code, implemented earlier in the decade in response to changes in federal regulations, concerned the sexual harassment policy. Today, there are myriad exceptions to the Honor Code in the form of new institute policies such as the Fire Policy, and Alcohol Policy(Sony VAIO VGN-NW11Z/T battery). Though both policies are presented in the Honor Code Handbook given to new members of the Caltech Community, some undergraduates regard them as a slight against the Honor Code and the implicit trust and respect it represents within the community.

People

Main article: List of California Institute of Technology people

As of 2010, Caltech has 31 Nobel laureates to its name. This figure includes 17 alumni, 14 non-alumni professors, and 4 professors who are also alumni(SONY VGP-BPS10A battery) (Carl D. Anderson, Linus Pauling, William A. Fowler, and Edward B. Lewis). The number of awards is 32, because Pauling received prizes in both Chemistry and Peace. With fewer than 25,000 alumni in total, more than one in 1,400 have received the Nobel Prize — a ratio unmatched by any other university. Seven faculty and alumni have received a Crafoord Prize from the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, while 56 have been awarded the U.S. National Medal of Science(SONY VGP-BPS10A/B battery), and 10 have received the National Medal of Technology. One alumnus, Stanislav Smirnov, won the Fields Medal in 2010. Other distinguished researchers have been affiliated with Caltech as postdoctoral scholars (for example, Barbara McClintock, James D. Watson and Sheldon Glashow) or visiting professors (for example, Albert Einstein, Stephen Hawking and Edward Witten) (SONY VGP-BPS10/B battery).

Students

Caltech enrolled 978 undergraduate students and 1253 graduate students for the 2011–2012 school year. Women made up 39% of the undergraduate and 28% of the graduate student body.[4] 68% of non-international freshmen are from out of state. Caltech received 5,225 applications for the Class of 2015: 667 were admitted (12.8%) and 244 of them enrolled(SONY VGP-BPS10/S battery). The interquartile range for first year students' SAT scores was 2200 to 2340. 99% of students were ranked in the top tenth of their high school graduating class.[107]

The four-year graduation rate is 80.7% and the six-year rate is 90.3%,[48] which is low compared to most leading U.S. universities,[108] but substantially higher than it was in the 1960s and 70s.[109] Students majoring in STEM fields traditionally have graduation rates below 70%(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ130E battery).

Faculty and staff

Broad Center for Biological Sciences

Richard Feynman was perhaps the most well-known physicist to be associated with Caltech, having published the Feynman Lectures on Physics, an undergraduate physics text, and a few other popular science texts such as Six Easy Pieces for the general audience. The promotion of physics made him a public figure of science, although his Nobel-winning work in quantum electrodynamics was already very established in the scientific community(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ15L battery). Murray Gell-Mann, a Nobel-winning physicist, introduced a classification of hadrons and went on to postulate the existence of quarks, which is currently accepted as part of the Standard Model. Linus Pauling pioneered quantum chemistry and molecular biology, and he went on to solve for the nature of the chemical bond in 1939. Seismologist Charles Richter, also an alumnus, developed the magnitude scale that bears his name(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ15M battery), the Richter scale for measuring the power of earthquakes. In engineering, Theodore von Kármán made many key advances in aerodynamics, notably his work on supersonic and hypersonic airflow characterization. A repeating pattern of swirling vortices is named after him, the von Kármán vortex street. More recently, Michael Brown, a professor of planetary astronomy, discovered many trans-Neptunian objects, most notably the dwarf planet Eris, which prompted the International Astronomical Union to redefine the term "planet"(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ15S battery).

David Baltimore, the Robert A. Millikan Professor of Biology, and Alice Huang, Senior Faculty Associate in Biology, have served as the President of AAAS from 2007–2008 and 2010–2011 respectively.

33 percent of the faculty are members of the National Academy of Science or Engineering and/or fellows of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. This is the highest percentage of any faculty in the country with the exception of the graduate institution Rockefeller University. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ18E battery)

The average salary for assistant professors at Caltech is $111,300, associate professors $121,300, and full professors $172,800.[113] Caltech faculty are highly productive in the fields of applied physics, astronomy and astrophysics, biology, biochemistry, biological engineering, chemical engineering, computer science, geology, mechanical engineering and physics(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ18G battery).

Alumni

Aerial view of Caltech in Pasadena, California.

17 alumni and 14 non-alumni faculty have won the Nobel Prize. The Turing Award, the "Nobel Prize of Computer Science", has been awarded to six alumni, and one has won the Fields Medal.[115]

Alumni have participated in scientific research. Some have concentrated their studies on the very small universe of atoms and molecules. Nobel laureate Carl D. Anderson (BS 1927, PhD 1930) proved the existence of positrons and muons, Nobel laureate Edwin McMillan (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ18S battery) (BS 1928, MS 1929) synthesized the first transuranium element, Nobel laureate Leo James Rainwater (BS 1939) investigated the non-spherical shapes of atomic nuclei, and Nobel laureate Douglas D. Osheroff (BS 1967) studied the superfluid nature of helium-3. Donald Knuth (PhD 1963), the "father" of the analysis of algorithms, wrote The Art of Computer Programming and created the TeX computer typesetting system, which is commonly used in the scientific community(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ18T battery).

Other alumni have turned their gaze to the universe. C. Gordon Fullerton (BS 1957, MS 1958) piloted the third space shuttle mission and orbited the earth in Skylab. Astronaut (and later, United States Senator) Harrison Schmitt (BS 1957) was the only geologist to have ever walked on the surface of the moon. (SONY Vaio VGN-SR11M Battery) Astronomer Eugene Merle Shoemaker (BS 1947, MS 1948) co-discovered Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 (a comet which crashed into the planet Jupiter) and was the first person buried on the moon (by having his ashes crashed into the moon).[117]

Undergraduate alumni founded, or co-founded, companies such as LCD manufacturer Varitronix,[118] Hotmail,[119] Compaq,[120] and MathWorks (which created Matlab),[121] while graduate students founded, or co-founded, companies such as Intel, TRW, and the non-profit educational organization, the Exploratorium(SONY Vaio VGN-SR12G/B Battery).

Arnold Beckman (PhD 1928) invented the pH meter and commecialized it with the founding of Beckman Instruments. His success with that company enabled him to provide seed funding for William Shockley (BS 1932), who had co-invented semiconductor transistors and wanted to commercialize them. Because his aging mother was living in Palo Alto, California at the time(SONY Vaio VGN-SR12G/P Battery), Shockley decided to establish his laboratory near her in 1955, in neighboring Mountain View, California, and thus, Shockley became the founding Director of the Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory division of Beckman Instruments. Shockley was a co-recipient of the Nobel Prize in physics in 1956, but his aggressive management style and odd personality[127] at the Shockley Lab became unbearable. (SONY Vaio VGN-SR12G/S Battery) In late 1957, eight of his researchers, known now as the "traitorous eight" (or "Fairchildren"), resigned and joined Fairchild Camera and Instruments nearby to form a semiconductor division. Among the "traitorous eight" was Gordon E. Moore (PhD 1954), who later left Fairchild to co-found Intel. Other offspring companies of Fairchild Semiconductor include National Semiconductor and Advanced Micro Devices(Sony VAIO VGN-SR19VN battery), which in turn spawned more technology companies in the area. Shockley's decision to use silicon – instead of germanium – as the semiconductor material, coupled with the abundance of silicon semiconductor related companies in the area, gave rise to the term "Silicon Valley"[129] to describe that geographic region surrounding Palo Alto(Sony VAIO VGN-SR19XN battery).

Caltech alumni also held public offices, with Mustafa A.G. Abushagur (PhD 1984) being the Deputy Prime Minister of Libya, with James Fletcher (PhD 1948) being the 4th and 7th Administrator of NASA, Steven Koonin (PhD 1972) being the Undersecretary of Energy for Science and Regina Dugan (PhD 1993) being the director of DARPA. The next director for DARPA, Arati Prabhakar, is also a Caltech alumna (PhD 1984) (Sony VAIO VGN-SR21M/S battery).

Presidents

James Augustin Brown Scherer (1908–1920) (president of Throop

College of Technology before the name change)

Robert A. Millikan (1921–1945), experimental physicist, Nobel laureate in physics for 1923 (his official title was "Chairman of the Executive Council")

Lee A. DuBridge (1946–1969), experimental physicist (first to officially hold the title of President)

Harold Brown (1969–1977), physicist and public servant (left Caltech to serve as United States Secretary of Defense in the administration of Jimmy Carter) (Sony VAIO VGN-SR23H/B battery)

Robert F. Christy (1977–1978), astrophysicist (acting President)

Marvin L. Goldberger (1978–1987), theoretical physicist

Thomas E. Everhart (1987–1997), experimental physicist

David Baltimore (1997–2006), molecular biologist, Nobel laureate in physiology or medicine for 1975

Jean-Lou Chameau (2006–present), civil engineer and educational administrator

In media and popular culture

Caltech has appeared in several works of popular culture, both as itself and in disguised form. As with MIT, a Caltech reference is often used to establish a character's high level of intelligence or a technical background(Sony VAIO VGN-SR25G/B battery). For example, on television, the four male lead characters of the sitcom The Big Bang Theory are all employed at the Institute. Additionally, Hugh Jackmans' character from the movie Swordfish is a Caltech alum. Caltech is also the inspiration, and frequent film location, for the California Institute of Science of Numb3rs. On film, the Pacific Tech of The War of the Worlds[132] and Real Genius is based on Caltech(Sony VAIO VGN-SR25G/P battery). In nonfiction, two 2007 documentaries examine aspects of Caltech; Curious, its researchers, and Quantum Hoops, its men's basketball team.

Given its Los Angeles-area location, the grounds of the Institute are often host to short scenes in movies and television. The Athenaeum dining club appears in the Beverly Hills Cop series, The X-Files, True Romance, and The West Wing.[135] Other examples include Legally Blonde, The Wedding Planner, Greek, The O.C., Entourage and Mission Impossible(Sony VAIO VGN-SR25G/S battery). Caltech also appears in the motion picture Tron: Legacy, where the main character's father is an alumnus.

Peking University (simplified Chinese: 北京大学; traditional Chinese: 北京大學; pinyin: Běijīng Dàxué), colloquially known in Chinese as Beida (北大, Běidà), is a major research university located in Beijing, China, and a member of the C9 League. It is the first established modern national university of China(Sony VAIO VGN-SR25M/B battery). It was founded as Imperial University of Peking in 1898 as a replacement of the ancient Guozijian (國子監 guózǐjiàn).[2] By 1920 it had become a center for progressive thought. Today, many national and international rankings frequently place Peking University as one of the best universities in China. In addition to its academics, Peking University is especially renowned for the beauty of its traditional Chinese architecture on its campus grounds. (Sony VAIO VGN-SR25S/B battery)

Throughout its history, the university has educated and hosted many prominent modern Chinese thinkers, including figures such as: Lu Xun, Mao Zedong, Gu Hongming, Hu Shih, Li Dazhao, and Chen Duxiu.[7] Peking University was influential in the birth of China's New Culture Movement, May Fourth Movement, the Tiananmen Square protest of 1989 and many other significant events. (Sony VAIO VGN-SR25T/P battery)

History

Peking University was established in Beijing on July 3, 1898 during the Hundred Days Reform and was originally known as the Imperial University of Peking (simplified Chinese: 京师大学堂; traditional Chinese: 京師大學堂; pinyin: Jīngshī Dàxuétáng) to replace the ancient Guozijian (國子監 guózǐjiàn). In 1902, the Faculty of Education was spun off to become today's Beijing Normal University, the best teacher's college in China(Sony VAIO VGN-SR25T/S battery). In 1912, following the Xinhai Revolution, the Imperial University was renamed "National Peking University" (simplified Chinese: 国立北京大学; traditional Chinese: 國立北京大學; pinyin: Guólì Běijīng Dàxué). The famous scholar Cai Yuanpei was appointed president on January 4, 1917, and helped transform the university into the country's largest institution of higher learning, with 14 departments and an enrollment of more than 2,000 students(Sony VAIO VGN-SR26/B battery). Cai, inspired by the German model of academic freedom, recruited an intellectually diverse faculty that included Hu Shi, Chen Duxiu, and Lu Xun. In 1919, students of Peking University formed the bulk of the protesters of the May Fourth Movement. Efforts by the Beiyang government to end the protests by sealing off the Peking University campus led to Cai's resignation(Sony VAIO VGN-SR26/P battery). In 1920, Peking University became the second Chinese university to accept female students, after Nanjing University.

View of the central campus

After the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937 (and the resulting expansion of Japanese territorial control in east China), Peking University moved to Changsha and formed the Changsha Temporary University along with Tsinghua University and Nankai University(Sony VAIO VGN-SR26/S battery). In 1938, the three schools moved again, this time to Kunming, and formed the National Southwestern Associated University. In 1946, after World War II, Peking University moved back to Beijing. At that time, the university comprised six schools (Arts, Science, Law, Medicine, Engineering, and Agriculture), and a research institute for humanities. The total student enrollment grew up to 3,000(Sony VAIO VGN-SR26MN/B battery).

In 1952, three years after the People's Republic of China was established, Yenching University was merged into Peking University and Peking University lost its "national" appellation to reflect the fact that all universities under the new socialist state would be public. In 1952 Peking University moved from downtown Beijing to the former Yenching campus(Sony VAIO VGN-SR28/B battery). Also in 1952, Peking University's forestry department was spun-off and merged with faculty from Tsinghua University and the Beijing Agricultural University to form the new Beijing Forestry University.

The first disturbances of the Cultural Revolution began at Peking University in 1966; education there ceased between 1966 and 1970(Sony VAIO VGN-SR28/J battery).

In 2000, Beijing Medical University was merged into Peking University and became the Peking University Health Science Campus. Peking University now has eight affiliated hospitals and 12 teaching hospitals.

In 2001, Peking University set up a satellite campus in Shenzhen. The university's second business school was launched on this campus in 2004 and was renamed HSBC School of Business in 2008(Sony VAIO VGN-SR28/Q battery).

Academics

The Weiming Lake, located in the north center of the university campus

One of the administrative buildings with the huabiao

Peking University during spring

A stone bridge inside the campus

Many domestic rankings place Peking University amongst the top universities in China.[3][9] In 2010, the Chinese University Alumni Association in partner with China Education Center ranked Peking University 1st among national universities in the country,[3] while the China University Ranking placed Peking University 2nd among universities in China, behind Tsinghua. (Sony VAIO VGN-SR31M/S battery)

The Times Higher Education placed Peking University as the 49th best university in the world in their 2011 rankings,[10] while the QS World University Rankings placed the University at 46th worldwide in 2011.

Peking University is a national key university. The university consists of 30 colleges and 12 departments, with 93 specialties for undergraduates, 2 specialties for the second Bachelor's degree(Sony VAIO VGN-SR33H/B battery), 199 specialties for Master's degree candidates and 173 specialties for Doctoral candidates. While in a leading position of basic sciences research and teaching, the university has gained itself very successful development of applied sciences. At present, Peking university has 216 research institutions and research centres, including 2 national engineering research centres, 81 key national disciplines, 12 national key laboratories(Sony VAIO VGN-SR33H/P battery). With 4.5 million holdings, the university library is the largest of its kind in Asia.

The university has made an effort to combine the research on fundamental scientific issues with the training of personnel with high level specialized knowledge and professional skill as demanded by the country's modernization.

Peking University has been becoming a center for teaching and research, consisting of diverse branches of learning such as pure and applied sciences, social sciences and the humanities, and sciences of management and education(Sony VAIO VGN-SR33H/S battery).

Over the past century, more than 400 Peking University alumni had become presidents of other major Chinese universities, including former Tsinghua President Luo Jialun, Renmin University President Yuan Baohua, Zhejiang University President Qian Sanqiang, Fudan University President Zhang Zhirang, Nankai University President Teng Weizao, Chinese University of Science and Technology President Guan Weiyan and many others(Sony VAIO VGN-SR33H battery).

Campus, art and culture

The campus of Peking University was originally located north of the Forbidden City in the center of Beijing, and was later moved to the former campus of Yenching University in 1952. The main campus is located in northwest Beijing, in Haidian district, which was concentrated with many well known colleges and universities(Sony VAIO VGN-SR35G/B battery).

The Peking University's campus site is also situated near the Summer Palace and the Old Summer Palace; the area is traditionally where many of Beijing's most renowned gardens and palaces were built.

The Peking University campus is situated on a former royal garden

The university campus is located in the former site of the Qing Dynasty royal gardens and it retains many traditional Chinese-style landscaping including traditional houses, gardens, pagodas as well as many notable historical buildings and structures(Sony VAIO VGN-SR35G/P battery). There are several gates that lead into campus - East, West and South gates, with the West Gate being the most well known for the painted murals on its ceiling. Peking University is known throughout China, along with its neighbour, Tsinghua University, for their beautiful campuses. Weiming lake is located in the north of the campus, and is surrounded by several walking paths and small gardens(Sony VAIO VGN-SR35G/S battery).

The university also hosts many museums, such as the "Museum of University History" and the "Arthur M. Sackler Museum of Art and Archaeology". Notable items in these museums include funerary objects that were excavated in Beijing and date back thousands of years from the graves of royalties of the Warring States period. There are ritual pottery vessels as well as elaborate pieces of jewelry on display(Sony VAIO VGN-SR35M/B battery). There are also bones of human remains set up in the traditional burial style of that period.

Beyond its main campus, Peking University Health Science Center (PKUHSC) is located in Xue Yuan Rd. where the country's most distinguished colleges are located. The PKUHSC's campus is less aesthetically appealing than the main Peking University campus, but is nonetheless a fitting site for academics and research(Sony VAIO VGN-SR35T/B battery).

In 2001, Peking University's Shenzhen campus, the Shenzhen Graduate School, opened its doors. The campus is located in the northwest part of Shenzhen City.

A performance of Kunqu at the Peking University

In 2008, the THE-QS World University Rankings ranked the Peking University as the 23rd best university in the world in arts and humanities; it is also the highest ranked university from Asia in this field.[17] The Peking University was previously ranked as the 18th (2007 rankings),[18] 10th (2006 rankings),[19] 6th (2005 rankings),[20] and 7th (2004 rankings) (Sony VAIO VGN-SR35T/P battery) best arts and humanities university in the world.

Peking University is well known for its contribution to modern Chinese literature, poetry and art, and for the publications of groundbreaking modern Chinese books such as Hong Zicheng's A History of Contemporary Chinese Literature.[22] Peking University has participated in many joint art-research projects, such as the Center for the Art of East Asia (CAEA) with the University of Chicago, (Sony VAIO VGN-SR35T/S battery) and developing the "Peking University, Department of Digital Art and Design" with UNESCO. Peking University also partners with Stanford University for its Asian cultural studies programs such as "The Stanford Program in Beijing" and "The Stanford-Peking University Summer Program", which encourages Stanford students interested in exploring Chinese language(Sony VAIO VGN-SR38/B battery), history, culture, and society to study on campus at Peking University.[26] It also maintains a joint institute with the University of Michigan, which provides joint academic programs to students from both schools.[27]

China Center for Economic Research

Office buildings

The Life Sciences Building

The Director of China Center for Economic Research, Professor of Economics of Peking University and Professor of the graduate school of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences is Prof. Fan Gang. Dr. Fan had more than 100 academic papers published in both Chinese and English academic journals(Sony VAIO VGN-SR38/P battery), more than 200 articles in newspapers and magazines and had also published several books.

Justin Lin, the founding director of the institute, is the World Bank's chief economist. His appointment marked the first time the post went to a candidate outside Europe or the United States.

International students

The dormitories for international students at the main campus are located at "Shao Yuan"(Sony VAIO VGN-SR38/Q battery). Every year, Peking University has approximately 2,000 international students studying on the Beijing campus and about 50 at the HSBC Business School, located at the Shenzhen Campus. Its international students are made up of students from most countries in the world including most of Western Europe, North America, South America, all parts of Asia, Australia as well as many countries in Africa(Sony VAIO VGN-SR38 battery).

In 2005, Peking University and Cornell University signed an agreement formally establishing the China and Asia-Pacific Studies major[31] at Cornell, which requires students to spend a semester studying at Peking University while working at internships. One year later, Peking University launched a joint undergraduate program with Yale University; (Sony VAIO VGN-SR39D/J battery) students will spend a semester overseas, living and studying together with the host institute's students.[33] Peking University's School of International Studies also launched joint degree programs with London School of Economics and Waseda University. Peking also has a longstanding relationship with Stanford University, and Stanford is currently constructing the Lee Jun Sen Stanford Center at Peking University(Sony VAIO VGN-SR39D/Q battery), which will serve as a joint research center, and base for Stanford students and scholars at Peking.[34] The HSBC Business School has joint degree programs with University of Hong Kong and Chinese University of Hong Kong.

Notable faculty, administrators, and alumni

Faculty of Peking University's Institute for Chinese Classics in 1924

Main article: List of Peking University people

Peking University has produced many notable people, especially prominent thinkers in modern China. These include figures such as Hu Shi, Li Dazhao and Lu Xun. Peking University also has two Nobel Prize winners, Tsung-Dao Lee and Yang Chen Ning, although both conducted their Nobel winning work at Universities in the US. Since 1948(Sony VAIO VGN-SR39D battery), 586 Peking University alumni have been selected into the renowned Academic Division of the Chinese Academy of Science (两院院士), overshadowing any other universities in China.[35]

Peking University is the home to communist, nationalist and liberal thoughts in modern China.[8] Mao Zedong, Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao, all founders of the Communist Party of China, either taught or held offices in the university(Sony VAIO VGN-SR39VN/S battery). Lu Xun, a notable contemporary writer and influential figure of the Chinese New-Culture Movement, which took place in 1919 and sparked China’s anti-imperialism and anti-feudalism march, was also attached to the university. During the Cultural Revolution, Peking University philosophy faculty Nie Yuanzi notoriously published the first big-character poster. Peking University students also led at the Tiananmen Square Protest of 1989 for democracy(Sony VAIO VGN-SR39XN/S battery).

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