Burundi And Guinea-Bissau And Lesotho 1

Publié le par salebatterymart

Burundi, officially the Republic of Burundi, is a landlocked country in the Great Lakes region of Eastern Africa, bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and south and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west. Its capital is Bujumbura. Although the country is landlocked, much of the southwestern border is adjacent to Lake TanganyikaSony PCG-71313M battery.

The Twa, Tutsi and Hutu peoples have lived in Burundi for at least five hundred years and, for over two hundred years, Burundi was ruled as a kingdom. At the beginning of the twentieth century, however, Germany and Belgium occupied the region and Burundi and Rwanda became a European colony known as Ruanda-UrundiSony PCG-71212M battery. Social differences between the Tutsi and Hutu have since contributed to political unrest in the region, leading to civil war in the middle of the twentieth century. Presently, Burundi is governed as a presidential representative democratic republic.

Burundi is one of the five poorest countries in the world. It has one of the lowest per capita GDPs of any nation in the world[5] and a low gross domestic product largely due to warfare, corruption, poor access to education and the effects of HIV/AIDSSony PCG-71311M battery. Burundi is densely populated and experiences substantial emigration.

Cobalt and copper are among Burundi's natural resources, while coffee and sugar are two of its main exports.

Main articles: German East Africa and Ruanda-Urundi

After its defeat in World War I, Germany handed control of a section of the former German East Africa to Belgium.[6] On October 20, 1924, this land, which consisted of modern-day Rwanda and Burundi, became a Belgian League of Nations mandate territory, in practical terms part of the Belgian colonial empire, known as Ruanda-UrundiSony PCG-71213M battery. However, the Belgians allowed Ruanda-Urundi to continue its kingship dynasty.

Following World War II, Ruanda-Urundi was a United Nations Trust Territory under Belgian administrative authority.[7] During the 1940s, a series of policies caused divisions throughout the country. On October 4, 1943, powers were split in the legislative division of Burundi's government between chiefdoms and lower chiefdoms. Chiefdoms were in charge of landSony PCG-61211M battery, and lower sub-chiefdoms were established. Native authorities also had powers.[8] In 1948, Belgium allowed the region to form political parties.[6] These factions would be one of the main influences for Burundi's independence from Belgium.

Independence and civil war

Flag of the Kingdom of Burundi (1962–1966).

Independence Square and monument in Bujumbura.

On January 20, 1959, Burundi's ruler Mwami Mwambutsa IV requested from the Belgian Minister of Colonies a separation of Burundi and Rwanda and a dissolution of Ruanda-Urundi. SONY PCG-8113M battery Six months later, political parties were formed to bring attention to Burundi's independence from Europe and to separate Rwanda from Burundi.[9] The first of these political parties was the Union for National Progress (UPRONA).

Burundi's push for independence was influenced to some extent by the instability and ethnic persecution that occurred in Rwanda. In November 1959, Rwandese Hutu attacked the Tutsi and massacred them by the thousandsSONY PCG-8112M battery . Many Tutsi escaped to Uganda and Burundi to find freedom from persecution.[10] The Hutu took power in Rwanda by winning Belgian-run elections in 1960.

The UPRONA, a multi-ethnic unity party led by Prince Louis Rwagasore and the Christian Democratic Party (PDC) became the most prominent organizations throughout Burundi-Urundi. After UPRONA's victory in legislative elections, Prince Rwagasore was assassinated on October 13 in 1961, allegedly with the help of the Belgian colonial administration. SONY PCG-7134M battery

The country claimed independence on July 1, 1962,[6] and legally changed its name from Ruanda-Urundi to Burundi.[14] Mwami Mwambutsa IV was named king.[11] On September 18, 1962, just over two months after declaring independence from Belgium, Burundi joined the United Nations. SONY PCG-7131M battery

Upon Burundi’s independence, a constitutional monarchy was established and both Hutus and Tutsis were represented in parliament. When King Mwambutsa appointed a Tutsi prime minister, the Hutus, who were the majority in parliament, felt cheated. An ensuing attempted coup by the Hutu-dominated police was ruthlessly suppressed by the Army, then led by a Tutsi officer, Captain Michel Micombero. SONY PCG-7122M battery When the next Hutu Prime Minister, Pierre Ngendandumwe, was assassinated in 1965, Hutus engaged in a series of attacks on Tutsi, which the government repressed ruthlessly, fearing the killings of Tutsis by Hutus, who wanted to follow the "Model Rwanda". The Burundi police and military were now brought under the control of the TutsiSONY PCG-7121M battery.

Mwambutsa was deposed in 1966 by his son, Prince Ntare V, who claimed the throne. That same year, Tutsi Prime Minister Captain Michel Micombero deposed Ntare, abolished the monarchy, and declared the nation a republic, though it was in effect a military regime.[17]

In 1972, an all Hutu organization known as Umugambwe w'Abakozi b'Uburundi or Burundi Workers' Party (UBU)SONY PCG-7113M battery organized and carried out systematic attacks on ethnic Tutsi with the declared intent of annihilating the whole group.[18] The military regime responded with large-scale reprisals targeting Hutus. The total number of casualties was never established, but estimates for the Tutsi genocide and the reprisals on the Hutus together are said to exceed 100,000 at the very leastSONY PCG-7112M battery , with a similar number of asylum-seekers in Tanzania and Rwanda. In 1976, another Tutsi, Colonel Jean-Baptiste Bagaza, led a bloodless coup and promoted various reforms. A new constitution was promulgated in 1981, keeping Burundi a one-party state.[16] In August 1984, Bagaza was elected head of state. During his tenure, Bagaza suppressed political opponents and religious freedomsSONY PCG-8Z3M battery .

Major Pierre Buyoya, a Tutsi, overthrew Bagaza in 1987 and suspended the constitution, dissolved the political parties, and reinstated military rule under the Military Committee for National Salvation (CSMN).[16] Anti-Tutsi ethnic propaganda disseminated by the remnants of the 1972 UBU, which had re-organized as PALIPEHUTU in 1981SONY PCG-8Z2M battery , led to killings of Tutsi peasants in the northern communes of Ntega and Marangara in August 1988. The death toll was put at 5,000 by the government, though some international NGOs believe this understates the losses.

The new regime did not unleash harsh reprisals (as in 1972), but the trust it gained was soon eroded when it decreed an amnesty for those who had called for, carried out, and taken credit for the killings on ethnic grounds, which amounts to genocide in international lawSONY PCG-8Z1M battery . Many analysts consider this period as the beginning of the "culture of impunity." But other analysts consider the "culture of impunity" to have started from 1965 and 1972, when the revolt of a small and identifiable number of Hutus unleashed massive killings of Tutsis on the whole territory.

This article may be confusing or unclear to readers. Please help us clarify the article; suggestions may be found on the talk page. (April 2012) SONY PCG-8Y3M battery

In the aftermath of the killings, a group of Hutu intellectuals wrote an open letter to Pierre Buyoya, asking for more representation of the Hutus in the administration. The signatories were sent to prison. Nevertheless, only a few weeks later, Buyoya appointed a new government with an equal number of Hutu and Tutsi, and a Hutu, Adrien Sibomana, as Prime MinisterSONY PCG-8Y2M battery . Buyoya also created a commission in charge of addressing the issue of national unity.[16] In 1992, a new constitution that provided for multi-party system was promulgated,[16] and a civil war sprang up from Burundi's core.

An estimated 250,000 people died between 1962 and 1993.[19] Since Burundi's independence in 1962, there have been two events called genocides in the countrySONY PCG-7Z1M battery . The 1972 mass killings of Hutus by the Tutsi-dominated army,[20] and the 1993 mass killings of Tutsis by the Hutu populace are both described as genocide in the final report of the International Commission of Inquiry for Burundi presented to the United Nations Security Council in 2002. SONY PCG-6W2M battery

[edit]First attempt at democracy

In June 1993, Melchior Ndadaye, leader of the Hutu-dominated Front for Democracy in Burundi (FRODEBU), won the first democratic election and became the first Hutu head of state, leading a pro-Hutu government. However, in October 1993, Tutsi soldiers assassinated Ndadaye, which started further years of violence between Hutus and TutsisSONY PCG-5J5M battery. It is estimated that some 300,000 people, mostly civilians, were killed in the years following the assassination.[22]

In early 1994, the parliament elected Cyprien Ntaryamira, also a Hutu, to the office of president. He and the president of Rwanda both died together when their airplane was shot down. More refugees started fleeing to RwandaSONY PCG-5K2M battery. Another Hutu, parliament speaker Sylvestre Ntibantunganya was appointed as president in October 1994. Within months, a wave of ethnic violence began, starting with the massacre of Hutu refugees in the capital, Bujumbura, and the withdrawal of the mainly Tutsi Union for National Progress from the government and parliamentSONY PCG-5K1M battery.

In 1996, Pierre Buyoya, a Tutsi, took power through a coup d’état. He suspended the constitution and was sworn in as president in 1998. In response to the rebel attacks, the population was forced by the government to relocate to refugee camps.[23] Under his rule, long peace talks started, mediated by South Africa. Both parties signed agreements in ArushaSONY PCG-5J4M battery, Tanzania and Pretoria, South Africa, to share power in Burundi. The agreements took four years to plan, and on August 28, 2000, a transitional government for Burundi was planned as a part of the Arusha Peace and Reconciliation Agreement. The transitional government was placed on a trial basis for five yearsSONY PCG-5J1M battery. After several aborted cease-fires, a 2001 peace plan and power sharing agreement has been relatively successful. A cease-fire was signed in 2003 between the Tutsi-controlled Burundian government and the largest Hutu rebel group, CNDD-FDD (National Council for the Defense of Democracy-Forces for the Defense of Democracy). SONY PCG-5G2M battery

In 2003, FRODEBU Hutu leader Domitien Ndayizeye was elected president.[25] In early 2005, ethnic quotas were formed for determining positions in Burundi's government. Throughout the year, elections for parliament and president occurred[26][dead link] and Pierre Nkurunziza, once a leader of a Hutu rebel group, was elected president. As of 2008, the Burundian government is talking with the Hutu-led Palipehutu-National Liberation Forces (NLF)[27Sony VAIO PCG-8131M battery] to bring peace to the country.[28]

[edit]Peace agreements

African leaders began a series of peace talks between the warring factions following a request by the United Nations Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali for them to intervene in the humanitarian crisis. Talks were initiated under the aegis of former Tanzanian President Julius Nyerere in 1995; following his death, South African President Nelson Mandela took the helmSony VAIO PCG-8152M battery. As the talks progressed, South African President Thabo Mbeki and United States President Bill Clinton also lent their respective weight.

The peace talks took the form of Track I mediations. This method of negotiation can be defined as a form of diplomacy involving governmental or intergovernmental representatives, who may use their positive reputations, mediation or the “carrot and stick” method as a means of obtaining or forcing an outcome, frequently along the lines of “bargaining” or “win-lose”. Sony VAIO PCG-31311M battery

The main objective framing the talks was a structural transformation of the Burundian government and military as a way to bridge the ethnic gap between the Tutsis and Hutus. This would be accomplished in two ways. First, a transitional power sharing government would be established, with the presidents holding office for three-year termsSony VAIO PCG-31111M battery. The second objective involved a restructuring of the military, where the two groups would be represented equally.

As the protracted nature of the peace talks demonstrated, there were several obstacles facing the mediators and negotiating parties. First, the Burundian officials perceived the goals as “unrealistic” and viewed the treaty as ambiguousSony VAIO PCG-8112M battery, contradictory and confusing. Second, and perhaps most importantly, the Burundians believed the treaty would be irrelevant without an accompanying cease fire. This would require separate and direct talks with the rebel groups. The main Hutu party was skeptical of the offer of a power-sharing government; they alleged that they were deceived by the Tutsis in past agreements. Sony VAIO PCG-7186M battery

In 2000, the Burundian President signed the treaty, as well as 13 of the 19 warring Hutu and Tutsi factions. However, disagreements persisted over which group would preside over the nascent government and when the ceasefire would commence. The spoilers of the peace talks were the hardliner Tutsi and Hutu groups who refused to sign the accordSony VAIO PCG-7171M battery; as a result, violence intensified. Three years later at a summit of African leaders in Tanzania, the Burundian president and the main opposition Hutu group signed an accord to end the conflict; the signatory members were granted ministerial posts within the government. However, smaller militant Hutu groups – such as the Forces for National Liberation – remained activeSony VAIO PCG-9Z1M battery.

[edit]UN involvement

Between 1993 and 2003, many rounds of peace talks, overseen by regional leaders in Tanzania, South Africa, and Uganda, gradually established power-sharing agreements to satisfy the majority of the contending groups. Initially the South African Protection Support Detachment was deployed to protect Burundian leaders returning from exileSony VAIO PCG-5S1M battery, which then became part of the African Union Mission to Burundi, deployed to help oversee the installation of a transitional government. In June 2004, the UN stepped in and took over peacekeeping responsibilities as a signal of growing international support for the already markedly advanced peace process in Burundi. Sony VAIO PCG-5P1M battery

The mission’s mandate, under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, has been to monitor cease-fire; carry out disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration of former combatants; support humanitarian assistance and refugee and IDP return; assist with elections; protect international staff and Burundian civilians; monitor Burundi’s troublesome borders including halting illicit arms flowsSony VAIO PCG-5N2M battery; and assist in carrying out institutional reforms including those of the Constitution, judiciary, armed forces, and police. The mission has been allotted 5,650 military personnel, 120 civilian police, and about 1,000 international and local civilian personnel. The mission has been functioning well and has greatly benefited from the existence of a fairly functional transitional government, which is in the process of transitioning into a more legitimate, elected entity. Sony VAIO PCG-3C2M battery

The main difficulty the operation faced at first was the continued resistance to the peace process by the last Hutu nationalist rebel group. This organization continued its violent conflict on the outskirts of the capital despite the UN’s presence. By June 2005, the group had stopped fighting and was brought back into the political process. All political parties have accepted a formula for inter-ethnic power-sharingSony VAIO PCG-8161M battery, which means no political party can gain access to government offices unless it is ethnically integrated.[31]

The focus of the UN’s mission had been to enshrine the power-sharing arrangements in a popularly voted constitution, so that elections may be held and a new government installed. Disarmament, demobilization and reintegration were done in tandem with elections preparationsSony VAIO PCG-8141M battery. In February 2005, the Constitution was approved with over 90% of the popular vote. In May, June, and August 2005, three separate elections were also held at the local level for the Parliament and the presidency.

While there are still some difficulties with refugee returns and securing adequate food supplies for the war-weary population, the mission has managed to win the trust and confidence of a majority of the formerly warring leaders as well as the population at large. Sony VAIO PCG-3J1M battery It has also been involved with several “quick impact” projects including rehabilitating and building schools, orphanages, health clinics, and rebuilding infrastructure such as water lines.

2006 to present

View of the capital city Bujumbura in 2006.

Reconstruction efforts in Burundi started to practically take effect after 2006. The UN shut down its peacekeeping mission and re-focused on helping with reconstruction.[32] Toward achieving economic reconstruction, Rwanda, D.R.Congo and Burundi relaunched the regional economic bloc: The Great Lakes Countries Economic Community.Sony VAIO PCG-3H1M battery In addition, Burundi, along with Rwanda, joined the East African Community in 2007.

However, the terms of the September 2006 Ceasefire between the government and the last remaining armed opposition group, the FLN (Forces for National Liberation, also called NLF or FROLINA), were not totally implemented, and senior FLN members subsequently left the truce monitoring team, claiming that their security was threatened. Sony VAIO PCG-3F1M battery In September 2007, rival FLN factions clashed in the capital, killing 20 fighters and causing residents to begin fleeing. Rebel raids were reported in other parts of the country.[32] The rebel factions disagreed with the government over disarmament and the release of political prisoners.[34] In late 2007 and early 2008, FLN combatants attacked government-protected camps where former combatants were livingSony VAIO PCG-3C1M battery. The homes of rural residents were also pillaged.[34]

The 2007 report[34] of Amnesty International mentions many areas where improvement is required. Civilians are victims of repeated acts of violence done by the FLN. The latter also recruits child soldiers. The rate of violence against women is high. Perpetrators regularly escape prosecution and punishment by the stateSony VAIO PCG-9Z2L battery. There is an urgent need for reform of the judicial system. Genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity remain unpunished. The establishment of a Truth and Reconciliation Commission and a Special Tribunal for investigation and prosecution has not yet been implemented. The freedom of expression is limited; journalists are frequently arrested for carrying out legitimate professional activities. A total of 38,087 Burundian refugees have been repatriated between January and November 2007Sony VAIO PCG-9Z1L battery.

In late March 2008, the FLN sought for the parliament to adopt a law guaranteeing them ‘provisional immunity’ from arrest. This would cover ordinary crimes, but not grave violations of international humanitarian law like war crimes or crimes against humanity .[34] Even though the government has granted this in the past to people, the FLN has been unable to obtain the provisional immunitySony VAIO PCG-9131L battery.

On April 17, 2008, the FLN bombarded Bujumbura. The Burundian army fought back and the FLN suffered heavy losses. A new ceasefire was signed on May 26, 2008. In August 2008, President Nkurunziza met with the FLN leader Agathon Rwasa, with the mediation of Charles Nqakula, South Africa’s Minister for Safety and Security. This was the first direct meeting since June 2007Sony VAIO PCG-8161L battery. Both agree to meet twice a week to establish a commission to resolve any disputes that might arise during the peace negotiations.[35]

Refugee camps are now closing down, and 450,000 refugees have returned. The economy of the country is shattered – as of 2011 Burundi has one of the lowest per capita gross incomes in the world. With the return of refugees, amongst others, property conflicts have startedSony VAIO PCG-8152L battery.

Burundi now participates in African Union peackeeping missions, including the mission to Somalia against Al-Shahab militants.[36]

Pierre Nkurunziza, President of Burundi.

Main article: Politics of Burundi

Burundi's political system is that of a presidential representative democratic republic based upon a multi-party state. The President of Burundi is the head of state and head of government. There are currently 21 registered parties in Burundi. Sony VAIO PCG-8141L battery On March 13, 1992, Tutsi coup leader Pierre Buyoya established a constitution,[37] which provided for a multi-party political process[38] and reflected multi-party competition. Six years later, on June 6, 1998, the constitution was changed, broadening National Assembly's seats and making provisions for two vice presidents. Because of the Arusha Accord, Burundi enacted a transitional government in 2000.Sony VAIO PCG-8131L battery

Burundi's legislative branch is a bicameral assembly, consisting of the Transitional National Assembly and the Transitional Senate. As of 2004, the Transitional National Assembly consists of 170 members, with the Front for Democracy in Burundi holding 38% of seats, and 10% of the assembly is controlled by UPRONA. Fifty-two seats are controlled by other partiesSony VAIO PCG-81312L battery. Burundi's constitution mandates representation in the Transitional National Assembly to be consistent with 60% Hutu, 40% Tutsi, and 30% female members, as well as three Batwa members.[6] Members of the National Assembly are elected by popular vote and serve for five-year terms.[40]

The Transitional Senate has fifty-one members, and three seats are reserved for former presidents. Due to stipulations in Burundi's constitutionSony VAIO PCG-81214L battery, 30% of Senate members must be female. Members of the Senate are elected by electoral colleges, which consist of members from each of Burundi's provinces and communes.[6] For each of Burundi's seventeen provinces, one Hutu and one Tutsi senator are chosen. One term for the Transitional Senate is five years. Sony VAIO PCG-81115L battery

Together, Burundi's legislative branch elect the President to a five-year term.[42] Burundi's president appoints officials to his Council of Ministers, which is also part of the executive branch.[39] The president can also pick fourteen members of the Transitional Senate to serve on the Council of Ministers.[6] Members of the Council of Ministers must be approved by two-thirds of Burundi's legislature. The president also chooses two vice-presidents. Sony VAIO PCG-81114L battery As of 2010, the President of Burundi is Pierre Nkurunziza. The First Vice President is Therence Sinunguruza, and the Second Vice President is Gervais Rufyikiri.[43]

The Court Supreme (Supreme Court) is Burundi's highest court. There are three Courts of Appeals directly below the Supreme Court. Tribunals of First Instance are used as judicial courts in each of Burundi's provinces as well as 123 local tribunalsSony VAIO PCG-81113L battery.

Provinces, communes and collines

Main articles: Provinces of Burundi, Communes of Burundi, and Collines of Burundi

Burundi is divided into 17 provinces,[7] 117 communes,[6] and 2,638 collines (hills).[44] Provincial governments are structured upon these boundaries. In 2000, the province encompassing Bujumbura was separated into two provinces, Bujumbura Rural and Bunjumbura MairieSony VAIO PCG-7142L battery.

Main article: Geography of Burundi

One of the smallest countries in Africa, Burundi is landlocked and has an equatorial climate. Burundi is a part of the Albertine Rift, the western extension of the East African Rift. The country lies on a rolling plateau in the center of Africa. The average elevation of the central plateau is 5,600 feet (1,707 m), with lower elevations at the bordersSony VAIO PCG-7141L battery. The highest peak, Mount Heha at 8,810 feet (2,685 m),[45] lies to the southeast of the capital, Bujumbura. The source of the Nile River is in Burundi province, and is linked from Lake Victoria to its headwaters via the Ruvyironza River[46][clarification needed] Lake Victoria is also an important water source, which serves as a fork to the Kagera River. Sony VAIO PCG-71111L battery Another major lake is Lake Tanganyika, located in much of Burundi's southwestern corner.[49]

Burundi's lands are mostly agricultural or pasture. Settlement by rural populations has led to deforestation, soil erosion and habitat loss.[50] Deforestation of the entire country is almost completely due to overpopulation, with a mere 230 square miles (600 km2) remaining and an ongoing loss of about 9% per annum. Sony VAIO PCG-61411L battery There are two national parks, Kibira National Park to the northwest (a small region of rain forest, adjacent to Nyungwe Forest National Park in Rwanda), Ruvubu National Park to the northeast (along the Rurubu River, also known as Ruvubu or Ruvuvu). Both were established in 1982 to conserve wildlife populations. Sony VAIO PCG-61112L battery

Main article: Economy of Burundi

Graphical depiction of Burundi's product exports in 28 color coded categories.

Burundi is one of the world's poorest countries, owing in part to its landlocked geography,[7] poor legal system, lack of economic freedom, lack of access to education, and the proliferation of HIV/AIDS. Approximately 80% of Burundi's population lives in poverty.[53] Famines and food shortages have occurred throughout Burundi, most notably in the 20th century, Sony VAIO PCG-61111L battery and according to the World Food Programme, 56.8% of children under age five suffer from chronic malnutrition.[54] One scientific study of 178 nations rated Burundi's population as having the lowest satisfaction with life in the world.[55] As a result of poverty, Burundi is dependent on foreign aid.[7]

Fishermen on Lake Tanganyika.

Burundi's largest industry is agriculture, which accounted for 58% of the GDP in 1997. Subsistence agriculture accounts for 90% of agriculture. Sony VAIO PCG-5T4L battery The nation's largest source of revenue is coffee, which makes up 93% of Burundi's exports.[57] Other agricultural products include cotton, tea, maize, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, manioc (tapioca); beef, milk, and hides. Some of Burundi's natural resources include uranium, nickel, cobalt, copper, and platinum.[58] Besides agriculture, other industries includeSony VAIO PCG-5T3L battery: assembly of imported components; public works construction; food processing, and light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, and soap. Burundi's currency is the Burundian franc (BIF); as of May 26, 2012, 1,371.00 Burundian franc were equivalent to one United States dollar.[59]

Lack of access to financial services is a serious problem for the majority of the population, particularly in the densely populated rural areasSony VAIO PCG-5T2L battery: only 2 percent of the total population holds bank accounts, and fewer than 0.5 percent use bank lending services. Microfinance, however, plays a larger role, with 4 percent of Burundians being members of microfinance institutions – a larger share of the population than that reached by banking and postal services combined. 26 licensed microfinance institutions (MFIs) offer savingsSony VAIO PCG-5S3L battery, deposits, and short- to medium-term credit. Dependence of the sector on donor assistance is limited.[60]

Burundi is part of the East African Community and a potential member of the planned East African Federation.

A group of Burundian women rearing goats.

Main articles: Demographics of Burundi and Languages of Burundi

As of July 2012, Burundi is projected to have an estimated population of 10,557,259 people. This estimate explicitly takes into account the effects of AIDS, which has a significant effect on the demographics of the country.[7] Over 500,000 have been displaced due to the disease. Sony VAIO PCG-5S2L battery

Many Burundians have migrated to other countries as a result of the civil war. In 2006, the United States accepted approximately 10,000 Burundian refugees.[61]

Most Burundians live in rural areas, while 11% of the population lived in urban areas in 2010.[62] The population density of around 315 people per square kilometer (753 per sq mi) is the second highest in Sub-Saharan Africa. Sony VAIO PCG-5S1L battery Roughly 85% of the population are of Hutu ethnic origin, 15% are Tutsi, and fewer than one percent are indigenous Twa/Pygmies.[63] Burundi has the fifth highest total fertility rate in the world, at 6.08 children born/woman (2012 estimates).[62]

Sources estimate the Christian population to be 75 percent, with Roman Catholics representing the largest group at 60 percent. Protestant and Anglican practitioners constitute the remaining 15 percentSony VAIO PCG-5R2L battery. An estimated 20 percent of the population adheres to traditional indigenous religious beliefs. The Muslim population is estimated to be at 5 percent, the majority of whom live in urban areas. Sunnis make up the majority of the Muslim population, the remainder being Shi'a.[64]

Main article: Health in Burundi

There is less health care in Burundi than in most other countries. Life expectancy at birth is estimated to be 59.24 years.[7] A large proportion of the population is undernourished. There were 3 physicians per 100,000 persons in 2004.Sony VAIO PCG-5R1L batteryThe World Health Organization estimated that HIV/AIDS prevalence in Burundi was 3.3% of the adult population in 2009.[65] Demographic and Health Surveys completed two surveys in Burundi in 1987 and 2010 .[66]

Drums from Gitega.

Main articles: Culture of Burundi and Music of Burundi

Burundi's culture is based on local tradition and the influence of neighboring countries, though cultural prominence has been hindered by civil unrest. Since farming is the main industry in Burundi, a typical Burundian meal consists of sweet potatoes, corn, and peasSony VAIO PCG-5P4L battery. Due to the expense, meat is eaten only a few times per month. When several Burundians of close acquaintance meet for a gathering they drink impeke, a beer, together from a large container to symbolize unity. Notable Burundians include the footballer Mohammed Tchité and singer Jean Pierre Nimbona, popularly known as Kidumu (who is based in Nairobi, Kenya). Sony VAIO PCG-5P2L battery

Crafts are an important art form in Burundi and are attractive gifts to many tourists. Basket weaving is a popular craft for Burundian artisans.[68] Other crafts such as masks, shields, statues and pottery are made in Burundi.[69]

Drumming is an important part of the Burundian cultural heritage. The world-famous Royal Drummers of Burundi, who have performed for over forty years, are noted for traditional drumming using the karyenda, amashako, ibishikisoSony VAIO PCG-5N4L battery, and ikiranya drums.[70] Dance often accompanies drumming performance, which is frequently seen in celebrations and family gatherings. The abatimbo, which is performed at official ceremonies and rituals, and the fast-paced abanyagasimbo are some famous Burundian dances. Some musical instruments of note are the flute, zither, ikembe, indonongo, umuduri, inanga, and the inyagara. Sony VAIO PCG-5N2L battery

Football in Burundi.

Kirundi, French, and Swahili are spoken throughout Burundi.[7] Burundi's oral tradition is strong, relaying history and life lessons through storytelling, poetry, and song. Imigani, indirimbo, amazina, and ivyivugo are types of literary genres existing in Burundi.[72]

Basketball and track and field are noted sports in Burundi. Martial Arts are popular, as well. There are five major Judo Clubs: Club Judo de l'Entente SportiveSony VAIO PCG-51513L battery, located in Downtown, and four others located throughout the city.[73] Football (soccer) is a popular pastime throughout the country, as are mancala games.

Most Christian holidays are celebrated in Burundi, with Christmas being the largest.[74] Burundian Independence Day is celebrated annually on July 1.[75] In 2005, the Burundian government declared Eid al-Fitr, an Islamic holiday, to be a public holiday. Sony VAIO PCG-51511L battery

In April 2009, the government of Burundi changed the law to criminalise homosexuality. Persons found guilty of consensual same-sex relations risk two to three years in prison and a fine of 50,000 to 100,000 Burundian francs. Amnesty International has condemned the action, calling it a violation of Burundi’s obligations under international and regional human rights law, and against Burundi’s constitution, which guarantees the right to privacy. Sony VAIO PCG-51412L battery

Carolus-Magnus-School in Burundi. The school benefits from the campaign "Your Day for Africa" by Aktion Tagwerk.

Main article: Education in Burundi

In 2009, the adult literacy rate in Burundi was estimated to be 67% (73% male and 61% female), with a literacy rate of 77% and 76% respectively for men and women between the ages of 15 to 24.[78] Literacy among adult women in Burundi has increased by 17% since 2002. Sony VAIO PCG-51411L battery Burundi's literacy rate is low due to low school attendance and because literacy in Kirundi only provides access to materials printed in that language. Ten percent of Burundian boys are allowed a secondary education.[80][dead link]

Burundi has the University of Burundi. There are several museums in the cities, such as the Burundi Geological Museum in Bujumbura and the Burundi National Museum and the Burundi Museum of Life in GitegaSony VAIO PCG-51312L battery.

Guinea-Bissau, officially the Republic of Guinea-Bissau i/ˈɡɪni bɪˈsaʊ/ (Portuguese: República da Guiné-Bissau, pronounced: [ʁeˈpublikɐ dɐ ɡiˈnɛ biˈsaw]), is a country in West Africa. It is bordered by Senegal to the north and Guinea to the south and east, with the Atlantic Ocean to its west. It covers 36,125 km² (nearly 14,000 sq mi) with an estimated population of 1,600,000Sony VAIO PCG-51311L battery.

Guinea-Bissau was once part of the kingdom of Gabu, as well as part of the Mali Empire. Parts of this kingdom persisted until the 18th century, while a few others were part of the Portuguese Empire since the 16th century. It then became the Portuguese colony of Portuguese Guinea in the 19th century. Upon independence, declared in 1973 and recognised in 1974Sony VAIO PCG-51211L battery, the name of its capital, Bissau, was added to the country's name to prevent confusion with the bordering Republic of Guinea. Guinea-Bissau has a history of political instability since gaining independence and no elected president has successfully served a full five-year term. On the evening of 12 April 2012, members of the country's military staged a coup and arrested the interim president and a leading presidential candidate. The military has yet to declare a current leader for the country. Sony VAIO PCG-41112L battery However, former vice chief of staff, General Mamadu Ture Kuruma has taken care of the country in the transitional period and started negotiations with opposition parties.[5][6]

Only 14% of the population speaks the official language, Portuguese. A plurality of the population (44%) speaks Kriol, a Portuguese-based creole language, and the remainder speak native African languagesSony VAIO PCG-3A4L battery. The main religions are African traditional religions and Islam, and there is a Christian (mostly Catholic) minority.

The country's per-capita gross domestic product is one of the lowest in the world.

Guinea-Bissau is a member of the African Union, Economic Community of West African States, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Latin Union, Community of Portuguese Language Countries, La Francophonie and the South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation ZoneSony VAIO PCG-3A3L battery.

Main articles: History of Guinea-Bissau and Portuguese Guinea

Guinea-Bissau was once part of the kingdom of Gabu, part of the Mali Empire; parts of this kingdom persisted until the 18th century, while others were part of the Portuguese Empire.[7] Portuguese Guinea was known also, from its main economic activity, as the Slave Coast.

Early reports of Europeans reaching this area include those of the Venetian Alvise Cadamosto's voyage of 1455Sony VAIO PCG-3A2L battery, the 1479–1480 voyage by Flemish-French trader Eustache de la Fosse[9], and Diogo Cão who in the 1480s reached the Congo River and the lands of Bakongo, setting up thus the foundations of modern Angola, some 1200 km down the African coast from Guinea-Bissau.[10]

Although the rivers and coast of this area were among the first places colonized by the Portuguese, since the 16th centurySony VAIO PCG-3A1L battery, the interior was not explored until the 19th century. The local African rulers in Guinea, some of whom prospered greatly from the slave trade, had no interest in allowing the Europeans any further inland than the fortified coastal settlements where the trading took place.[11] African communities that fought back against slave traders had even greater incentives to distrust European adventurers and would-be settlersSony VAIO PCG-394L battery. The Portuguese presence in Guinea was therefore largely limited to the port of Bissau and Cacheu, although isolated European farmer-settlers established farms along Bissau's inland rivers.

For a brief period in the 1790s, the British attempted to establish a rival foothold on an offshore island, at Bolama.[12] But by the 19th century the Portuguese were sufficiently secure in Bissau to regard the neighbouring coastline as their own special territory, also up north in part of present South SenegalSony VAIO PCG-393L battery.

An armed rebellion beginning in 1956 by the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC) under the leadership of Amílcar Cabral gradually consolidated its hold on then Portuguese Guinea.[13] Unlike guerrilla movements in other Portuguese colonies, the PAIGC rapidly extended its military control over large portions of the territorySony VAIO PCG-391L battery, aided by the jungle-like terrain, its easily reached borderlines with neighbouring allies and large quantities of arms from Cuba, China, the Soviet Union, and left-leaning African countries.[14] Cuba also agreed to supply artillery experts, doctors and technicians.[15] The PAIGC even managed to acquire a significant anti-aircraft capability in order to defend itself against aerial attackSony VAIO PCG-384L battery. By 1973, the PAIGC was in control of many parts of Guinea, although the movement suffered a setback in January 1973 when Cabral was assassinated.[16]

Independence was unilaterally declared on 24 September 1973. Recognition became universal following the 25 April 1974 socialist-inspired military coup in Portugal which overthrew Lisbon's Estado Novo regime. Sony VAIO PCG-383L battery

Luís Cabral, brother of Amílcar and co-founder of PAIGC, was appointed the first President of Guinea-Bissau. Following independence local black soldiers that fought along with the Portuguese Army against the PAIGC guerrillas were slaughtered by the thousands. Some managed to escape and settled in Portugal or other African nations. Sony VAIO PCG-382L battery One of the massacres occurred in the town of Bissorã. In 1980 the PAIGC admitted in its newspaper "Nó Pintcha" (dated 29 November 1980) that many were executed and buried in unmarked collective graves in the woods of Cumerá, Portogole and Mansabá.

The country was controlled by a revolutionary council until 1984. The first multi-party elections were held in 1994, but an army uprising in 1998 led to the president's ousting and the Guinea-Bissau Civil WarSony VAIO PCG-381L battery. Elections were held again in 2000 and Kumba Ialá was elected president.[19]

In September 2003, a coup took place in which the military arrested Ialá on the charge of being "unable to solve the problems."[20] After being delayed several times, legislative elections were held in March 2004. A mutiny of military factions in October 2004 resulted in the death of the head of the armed forces, and caused widespread unrestSony VAIO PCG-7185L battery.

In June 2005, presidential elections were held for the first time since the coup that deposed Ialá. Ialá returned as the candidate for the PRS, claiming to be the legitimate president of the country, but the election was won by former president João Bernardo Vieira, deposed in the 1999 coup. Vieira beat Malam Bacai Sanhá in a runoff election, but Sanhá initially refused to concede, claiming that tampering occurred in two constituencies including the capital, Bissau. Sony VAIO PCG-7184L battery

Despite reports that there had been an influx of arms in the weeks leading up to the election and reports of some "disturbances during campaigning"—including attacks on government offices by unidentified gunmen—foreign election monitors labelled the election as "calm and organized".[22] PAIGC won a strong parliamentary majority, with 67 of 100 seats, in the parliamentary election held in November 2008. Sony VAIO PCG-7183L battery

In November 2008, President Vieira's official residence was attacked by members of the armed forces, killing a guard but leaving the president unharmed.[24] On 2 March 2009, however, Vieira was assassinated by what preliminary reports indicated to be a group of soldiers avenging the death of the head of joint chiefs of staff, General Batista Tagme Na WaiSony VAIO PCG-7182L battery. Tagme died in an explosion on Sunday, 1 March 2009 in an assassination. Military leaders in the country have pledged to respect the constitutional order of succession. National Assembly Speaker Raimundo Pereira was appointed as an interim president until a nationwide election on 28 June 2009,[25] which was won by Malam Bacai SanháSony VAIO PCG-7181L battery.

Main article: Politics of Guinea-Bissau

Ministry of Justice, Bissau

Guinea-Bissau is a republic. In the past, the government had been highly centralized, and multiparty governance has been in effect since mid-1991. The president is the head of state and the prime minister is the head of government. At the legislative level, there is a unicameral "Assembleia Nacional Popular" (National People's Assembly) made up of 100 membersSony VAIO PCG-7174L battery. They are popularly elected from multi-member constituencies to serve a four-year term. At the judicial level, there is a "Tribunal Supremo da Justiça" (Supreme Court) which consists of nine justices appointed by the president; they serve at the pleasure of the president.[26]

Until March 2009 João Bernardo "Nino" Vieira was President of Guinea-Bissau. Elected in 2005 as an independent candidate, being declared winner of the second round by the CNE (Comité Nacional de Eleições) Sony VAIO PCG-7173L battery. Vieira returned to power in 2005 after winning the presidential election only six years after being ousted from office during a civil war. Previously, he held power for 19 years after taking power in 1980 in a bloodless coup. In that action, he toppled the government of Luís Cabral. He was killed on 2 March 2009, possibly by soldiers in retaliation for the killing of the head of the joint chiefs of staffSony VAIO PCG-7172L battery, General Batista Tagme Na Waie.[27] This did not trigger additional violence, but there were signs of turmoil in the country, according to the advocacy group swisspeace.[28]

In 2012, President Rachide Sambu-balde Malam Bacai Sanhá died. He belonged to PAIGC (African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde) – one of two major political parties in Guinea-Bissau along with the PRS (Party for Social Renewal) Sony VAIO PCG-7171L batteryand alongside over twenty smaller parties.[29] In the 2009 election to replace the assassinated Vieira, Sanhá was the presidential candidate of the PAIGC while Kumba Ialá was the presidential candidate of the PRS.

[edit]Regions and sectors

Guinea-Bissau is divided into 8 regions (regiões) and one autonomous sector (sector autónomo). These in turn are subdivided into thirty-seven sectors. The regions areSony VAIO PCG-7162L battery:

Pour être informé des derniers articles, inscrivez vous :

Commenter cet article