Brown University is an American private Ivy League research university located in Providence, Rhode Island, United States. Founded in 1764 prior to American independence from the British Empire as the College in the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations early in the reign of King George III (1760–1820) Sony PCG-71313M battery, Brown is the third oldest institution of higher education in New England and seventh oldest in the United States.
Brown was the first college in the nation to accept students regardless of religious affiliation. Academically, Brown consists of The College, Graduate School, Alpert Medical School, and the School of Engineering. Brown's international programs are organized through the Watson Institute for International StudiesSony PCG-71212M battery. The New Curriculum, instituted in 1969, eliminated distribution requirements and allows any course to be taken on a satisfactory/no credit basis.[further explanation needed] In addition, there are no pluses or minuses in the letter grading system. The school has the oldest undergraduate engineering program in the Ivy League (1847). Pembroke College, Brown's women's collegeSony PCG-71311M battery, merged with the university in 1971. While Brown is considered a small research university with 689 full-time faculty and 2,000 graduate students, five of its professors and two of its alumni have been honored as Nobel Laureates. The faculty added 100 new professors in the past 10 years under the Boldly Brown campaignSony PCG-71213M battery.
Completed concentrations of undergraduates by area are Social Sciences (42%), Humanities (26%), Life Sciences (17%), and the Physical Sciences (14%). Brown's main campus is located on College Hill on the East Side of Providence. Several of the buildings on the Brown campus from its founding 18th century period through the 20th century offer fine representation of the Georgian style of American colonial era architecture. Sony PCG-61211M battery The university's 37 varsity athletic teams are known as the Brown Bears. The school colors are seal brown, cardinal red, and white. Brown's mascot is the bear, which dates back to 1904. The costumed mascot named "Bruno" frequently makes appearances at athletic games. People associated with the University are known as BrunoniansSony VAIO VPCF24Q1E battery.
Serving as Brown's 18th president from 2001 and to the end of the 2011 fiscal year, Ruth J. Simmons is the first permanent female president of the university. She is also the first African American and second female president of an Ivy League institution. President Simmons will remain as a Professor of Africana Studies and Comparative LiteratureSony VAIO VPCF13M1E/H battery.
Main article: History of Brown University
First Brown President and Delegate to the Congress of the Confederation James Manning. Detail from an oil painting by Cosmo Alexander, 1770; in University Hall, Brown University, Providence, R.I.
Brown owes its founding to the support of learning among a Baptist Church association but in 1762, the Baptist Minister Morgan Edwards was at first ridiculed for suggesting the founding of a collegeSony VAIO VPCF12Z1E/BI battery. In his Materials for a History of the Baptists in Rhode Island, Edwards wrote:"The first mover [Edwards, himself] for it [a Baptist college] in 1762 was laughed at as a projector of a thing impracticable. Nay, many of the Baptists themselves discouraged the design (prophesying evil to the churches in case it should take place) from an unhappy prejudice against learning." Sony VAIO VPCF12S1E/B battery Nonetheless, Edwards joined several others as an original fellow or trustee for the chartering of the College in the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations (the former name for Brown University), the first Baptist college in the original thirteen colonies, and now one of the Ivy League universities. Sony VAIO VPCF13Z8E/BI battery
In 1763, The Reverend James Manning, a Baptist minister, and an alumnus of the College of New Jersey (predecessor to today's Princeton University), was sent to Rhode Island by the Philadelphia Association of Baptist Churches in order to found the college. At the same time, local Congregationalists, led by the theologist Ezra Stiles, were working toward a similar end. Sony VAIO VPCF13Z8E battery The inaugural board meeting of the Corporation of the College in the English Colony of Rhode Island & Providence Plantations was held in the Old Colony House in Newport, Rhode Island. Former colonial governors of Rhode Island Stephen Hopkins and Samuel Ward, as well as the Reverend Isaac Backus and the Reverend Samuel Stillman, were among those who played an instrumental role in Brown's foundation and later became American revolutionariesSony VAIO VPCF13M1E/B battery. On March 3, 1764, a charter was filed to create the College in Warren, Rhode Island, reflecting the work of both Stiles and Manning. The college gained its charter by grant of King George III.
This copper-plate engraving from 1795 is the first known image of Brown. The original campus was a single academic building that was later named University HallSony VAIO VPCF1318E/H battery.
The charter had more than sixty signatories, including the brothers John, Nicholas and Moses of the Brown family, who would later inspire the College's modern name following a gift bestowed by Nicholas Brown, Jr. The college's mission, the charter stated, was to prepare students "for discharging the Offices of Life with usefulness & reputation" by providing instruction "in the Vernacular and Learned LanguagesSony VAIO VPCF13J0E/H battery, and in the liberal Arts and Sciences." The charter required that the makeup of the board of 36 trustees include, 22 Baptists, five Friends, four Congregationalists, and five Church of England members, and by 12 Fellows, of whom eight, including the President, should be Baptists "and the rest indifferently of any or all denominationsSony VAIO VPCF13E8E battery." It specified that "into this liberal and catholic institution shall never be admitted any religious tests, but on the contrary, all the members hereof shall forever enjoy full, free, absolute, and uninterrupted liberty of conscience." One of the Baptist founders, John Gano, had also been the founding minister of the First Baptist Church in the City of New York. The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition remarks that Sony VAIO VPCF13E4E battery"At the time it was framed the charter was considered extraordinarily liberal" and that "the government has always been largely non-sectarian in spirit." In commemoration of this history, each spring faculty and the graduating class proceed down the hill, in academic dress, to the grounds of the First Baptist Meeting House (erected in 1774, "for the publick Worship of Almighty GOD and also for holding Commencement in") for the conferral of the bachelors degree.Sony VAIO VPCF12M1E/H battery
James Manning was sworn in as the College's first president in 1765. His tenure lasted until 1791. During his presidency, the College moved to its present location on College Hill in the East Side of Providence in 1770 and construction of the first building, the College Edifice, began. This building was renamed University Hall in 1823Sony VAIO VPCF12F4E/H battery.
Hope College (left) was built in 1822, while Manning Hall (right) was built in 1834.
The Brown family — Nicholas Sr., John, Joseph, and Moses,— were instrumental in the move to Providence, funding and organizing much of the construction of the new buildings on the former Rev. Chad Brown farm. The family's connection with the college was strong: Joseph Brown became a professor of Physics at the University, and John Brown served as treasurer from 1775 to 1796Sony VAIO VPCF12E1E/H battery. In 1804, a year after John Brown's death, the University was renamed Brown University in honor of John's nephew, Nicholas Brown, Jr., who was a member of the class of 1786 and in 1804 contributed $5,000 toward an endowed professorship. In 1904, the John Carter Brown Library was opened as a research center on Americas based on the libraries of John Carter Brown and his son John Nicholas BrownSony VAIO VPCF11Z1E/BI battery. The Brown family was involved in various business ventures in Rhode Island, and made a small part of its wealth in businesses related to the slave trade. The family itself was divided on the issue. John Brown had unapologetically defended slavery, while Moses Brown and Nicholas Brown Jr. were fervent abolitionists. In recognition of this complex history, under President Ruth SimmonsSony VAIO VPCF24M1E battery, the University established the University Steering Committee on Slavery and Justice in 2003.
Brown began to admit women when it established a Women's College in Brown University in 1891, which was later named Pembroke College in Brown University. "The College" (the undergraduate school) merged with Pembroke College in 1971 and became co-educationalSony VAIO VPCF23S1E battery.
The language of the Brown University charter has long been interpreted by the university as discouraging the founding of a business school or law school. Brown continues to be one of only two Ivy League colleges with neither a business school nor a law school (the other being Princeton). Nevertheless, since recently Brown does offer an Executive MBA program in conjunction with one of the leading Business Schools in Europe; IE Business School in Madrid. Sony VAIO VPCF231S1E battery In this partnership, Brown provides the traditional coursework while IE provides most of the business related subjects.
John Trumbull's Declaration of Independence. The signers included Brown's first chancellor Stephen Hopkins. Hopkins wears a hat and stands in the back of the room near the door on the leftSony VAIO VPCF23Q1E battery.
Stephen Hopkins, Chief Justice and Governor of the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, was a Delegate to the Colonial Congress in Albany in 1754 and to the Continental Congress from 1774 to 1776. He was a signatory to the United States Declaration of Independence on behalf of the state of Rhode Island. He also served as the first chancellor of Brown from 1764 to 1785Sony VAIO VPCF23M1E battery. His house is a minor historical site, located just off the main green at Brown.
National Park Service map of the Washington–Rochambeau Revolutionary Route (W3R)
In 1781, allied American and French armies under the command of General George Washington and the Comte de Rochambeau, who led troops sent by King Louis XVI of France, embarked on a 600-mile (970 km) march from Rhode Island to Virginia, where they fought and defeated British forces sent by King George III of the United Kingdom on the Yorktown, Virginia peninsulaSony VAIO VPCF22S8E battery. The victory ended the major battles of the American Revolutionary War. Prior to the march, Brown University served as an encampment site for French troops, and the College Edifice, now University Hall, was turned into a military hospital.
Other founders of Brown who played significant roles in the American revolutionary effort included John Brown in the Gaspee Affair, Chief Justice Dr. Joshua Babcock as major general in the state militia and William Ellery as a signatory to the Declaration of IndependenceSony VAIO VPCF22S1E battery.
James Mitchell Varnum, who graduated with honors in Brown's first graduating class of 1769, served as one of General George Washington's Continental Army Brigadier Generals and later as Major General in command of the entire Rhode Island militia. David Howell, who graduated with an A.M. in the same year as General Varnum, served as a delegate to the Continental Congress from 1782 to 1785Sony VAIO VPCF22M1E battery.
In 1786, President James Manning was elected and served as representative for Rhode Island to the seventh session of the United States in Congress Assembled, held in New York. In that capacity, he served on the Grand Committee, which proposed fundamental amendments to the Articles of Confederation and presaged the Constitution of the United States. Sony VAIO VPCF22L1E battery
In 1850, Brown President Francis Wayland wrote: "The various courses should be so arranged that, insofar as practicable, every student might study what he chose, all that he chose, and nothing but what he chose." In 1969, the adoption of the New Curriculum marked a milestone in the University's institutional history and is seen as a significant step towards realizing Wayland's visionSony VAIO VPCF22J1E battery. The curriculum was the result of a paper written by Ira Magaziner and Elliot Maxwell entitled "Draft of a Working Paper for Education at Brown University." The paper came out of a year-long Group Independent Study Project (GISP) involving 80 students and 15 professors. The group was inspired by student-initiated experimental schools, especially San Francisco State CollegeSony VAIO VPCF11S1E/B battery, and sought ways to improve education for students at Brown. The philosophy they formed sought to "put students at the center of their education" and to "teach students how to think rather than just teaching facts."
Poster celebrating Brown's 150 year anniversary in 1914
The paper made a number of suggestions for improving education at Brown, including a new kind of interdisciplinary freshman course that would introduce new modes of inquiry and bring faculty from different fields togetherSony VAIO VPCF11M1E/H battery. Their goal was to transform the survey course, which traditionally sought to cover a large amount of basic material, into specialized courses that would introduce the important modes of inquiry used in different disciplines.
Following a student rally in support of reform, President Ray Heffner appointed the Special Committee on Curricular Philosophy with the task of developing specific reforms. These reforms, known as the Maeder Report (after the chair of the committee) Sony VAIO VPCF11D4E battery, were then brought to the faculty for a vote. On May 7, 1969, following a marathon meeting with 260 faculty members present, the New Curriculum was passed. Its key features included the following:
Modes of Thought courses aimed at first-year students
Interdisciplinary University courses
Students could elect to take any course Satisfactory/No Credit
Distribution requirements were dropped
The University simplified grades to ABC/No Credit, eliminating pluses, minuses and D's. Furthermore, "No Credit" would not appear on external transcripts.
Except for the Modes of Thought courses, a key component of the reforms which have been discontinued, these elements of the New Curriculum are still in placeSony VAIO VPCF11C5E battery.
Additionally, due to the school's proximity and close partnership with the Rhode Island School of Design (RISD), Brown students have the opportunity to take up to four courses at RISD and have the credit count towards a Brown degree. Likewise, RISD students can also take courses at Brown. Since the two campuses are effectively adjacent to each other, the two institutions often partner to provide both student bodies with services Sony VAIO VPCF11C4E/B battery (such as the local Brown/RISD after-hours and downtown transportation shuttles). In July 2007 the two institutions announced the formation of the Brown/RISD Dual Degree Program, which allowed students to pursue an A.B. degree at Brown and a B.F.A. degree at RISD simultaneously, a five-year program. The first students in the new program matriculated in 2008. Sony VAIO PCG-31114V battery
Brown University seal as a detail on a university building
As recently as 2006, there has been some debate on reintroducing plus/minus grading to the curriculum. Advocates argue that adding pluses and minuses would reduce grade inflation and allow professors to give more specific grades, while critics say that this plan would have no effect on grade inflation while increasing unnecessary competition among students and violating the principle of the New Curriculum. Sony VAIO PCG-31113V battery Ultimately, the addition of pluses and minuses to the grading system was voted down by the College Curriculum Council.
The University is currently in the process of broadening and expanding its curricular offerings as part of the "Plan for Academic Enrichment." The number of faculty has been greatly expanded. Seminars aimed at freshmen have begun to be offered widely by most departments. Sony VAIO PCG-31114M battery
As a part of the re-accreditation process, Brown University is undergoing an expansive reevaluation of its undergraduate education offerings through the newly appointed Task Force on Undergraduate Education. This Task Force is charged with assessing the areas of general education, concentrations, advising, and pedagogy and assessment. Sony VAIO PCG-31113M battery
Main article: List of Presidents of Brown University
18th Brown President Ruth J. Simmons, 2001 – 2012.
Brown's second President, Jonathan Maxcy, 1792–1802, was also an alumnus (A.B. 1787).
The current president of the University is Ruth J. Simmons. She is the 18th president of Brown University and first African American president of an Ivy League institution. According to a November 2007 poll by The Brown Daily Herald, Simmons enjoys a more than 80% approval rating among Brown undergraduates. Sony VAIO PCG-31112M battery On September 15, 2011, Simmons announced her plans to step down as president at the end of her term in June 2012. She has plans to remain at Brown as a professor of Comparative Literature and Africana Studies. On March 2, 2012 it was officially announced that Dr. Christina Hull Paxson would replace Simmons and become the 19th president of Brown University as of July 1, 2012Sony VAIO PCG-31111M battery.
Main article: The College of Brown University
Robinson Hall, now home to the Department of Economics, was the main university library in the 1800s.
Founded in 1764, The College is the oldest school of Brown University. Nearly 6,000 undergraduate students are currently enrolled in the college, and approximately 80 concentrations (majors) are offered. Completed concentrations of undergraduates by area are Social Sciences (42%)Sony VAIO PCG-41112M battery, Humanities (26%), Life Sciences (17%), and the Physical Sciences (14%). The concentrations with the greatest number of students are Biology, History, and International Relations. Brown is one of the few schools in the United States with an undergraduate concentration (major) in Egyptology. Undergraduates can also design an independent concentration if the existing standard programs do not fit their interestsSony VAIO PCG-41111M battery.
35% of undergraduates pursue graduate or professional study immediately, 60% within 5 years, and 80% within 10 years. For the Class of 1998, 75% of all graduates enrolled in a graduate or professional degree program since graduating from Brown. The most degrees acquired were a Master's (35%) in any field, a Medical (28%), Doctoral (22%), or a Law (14%) degreeSONY VAIO PCG-21212M battery, in highest order. There are not many who pursued the Ph.D compared to a Master's (for instance, business), or a Medical degree.
The highest fields of employment for graduates of the College are Business (36%), Education (19%), Health/Medical (6%), Arts (6%), Government (6%), and Communications/Media (5%) in highest orderSONY VAIO PCG-21211M battery.
Main article: Brown University Graduate School
Established in 1887, The Graduate School currently houses around 2,000 students studying over 50 disciplines. 20 different master's degrees are offered as well as Ph.D. degrees in over 40 subjects ranging from applied mathematics to public policy.
Alpert Medical School
Main article: Alpert Medical School
Med-Ed Building: The new home of Brown Alpert Medical SchoolSONY VAIO PCG-51212M battery
The University's medical program started in 1811, but the school was suspended by President Wayland in 1827 after the program's faculty declined to live on campus (a new requirement under Wayland). In 1975, the first M.D. degrees from the new Program in Medicine were awarded to a graduating class of 58 studentsSONY VAIO PCG-51211M battery. In 1991, the school was officially renamed the Brown University School of Medicine, then renamed once more to Brown Medical School in October 2000. In January 2007, self-made entrepreneur Warren Alpert donated $100 million to Brown Medical School on behalf of the Warren Alpert Foundation, tying Sidney Frank for the largest single monetary contribution ever made to the UniversitySONY VAIO PCG-51112M battery. In recognition of the gift, the faculty of Brown University approved changing the name of the Brown Medical School to The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University. It is currently ranked 29th among U.S. medical schools in research and 28th in primary care according to US News and World Report. Admissions to Alpert is one of the most competitive in the nation, with only less than 2% of those applying through the Standard Route accepted in 2008 (5,902 applications for 94 spots) SONY VAIO PCG-51111M battery.
The medical school is known for its eight-year Program in Liberal Medical Education (PLME), which was started in 1984 and is one of the most selective programs in the nation. Each year, approximately 60 high school students matriculate into the PLME out of an applicant pool of about 1,600. Since 1976, the Early Identification Program (EIP) has encouraged Rhode Island residents to pursue careers in medicine by recruiting sophomores from Providence CollegeSONY VAIO PCG-81212M battery, Rhode Island College, the University of Rhode Island, and Tougaloo College. In 2004, the school once again began to accept applications from premedical students at other colleges and universities via AMCAS like most other medical schools. The medical school also offers combined degree programs leading to the M.D./Ph.D., M.D./M.P.H. and M.D./M.P.P. degreesSony VAIO PCG-81112M battery.
School of Engineering
Main article: Brown University School of Engineering
Brown has the oldest engineering program in the Ivy League. In 1916, multiple Departments of Engineering were consolidated into the Division of Engineering. As part of a broader growth initiative, in 2010, the Division of Engineering was authorized to begin operating as the School of EngineeringSONY VAIO PCG-71111M battery.
Research centers and institutes
Marine Biological Laboratory
Main article: Marine Biological Laboratory
The Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) is an independent research institution established in 1882 at Woods Hole, Massachusetts. The laboratory is linked to 54 current or past Nobel Laureates at its research or teaching faculty. Since 2005, the MBL and Brown University have collaborated in a Ph.D.-awarding Graduate Program in Biological and Environmental SciencesSONY VAIO PCG-7196M battery, which brings together faculty from both institutions. In 2010, the joint program was extended to include more professors participating in the partnership. The current faculty includes those from the Ecosystems Center, the Bay Paul Center, the Program in Cellular Dynamics, and the Marine Resources Center.
Watson Institute for International Studies
Main article: Watson Institute for International StudiesSONY VAIO PCG-7195M battery
The Watson Institute
The Watson Institute for International Studies, usually referred to as the Watson Institute, is a center for the analysis of international issues at Brown University. Its original benefactor was Thomas Watson, Jr., former Ambassador to the Soviet Union and president of IBM.
Pembroke Center for Teaching and Research on Women
Main article: Pembroke Center for Teaching and Research on Women
The Pembroke Center for Teaching and Research on Women, was established at Brown in 1981 as a research center on genderSONY VAIO PCG-7194M battery. It was named in honor of Pembroke College (Brown University), a decade after its merger with Brown University, and to recognize the history of women's efforts to gain access to higher education. Along with its numerous academic programs, including its sponsorship of post-doctoral research fellowships, the undergraduate concentration in Gender and Sexuality StudiesSONY VAIO PCG-7192M battery, and the annual Pembroke Seminar, the Pembroke Center also organizes a number of programs throughout the year to recognize the historical achievements of women. Leading historian and social scientist Joan Wallach Scott was founding director of the Center. The Pembroke Center is affiliated with the Sarah Doyle Women's CenterSONY PCG-8113M battery.
Several projects of note involving hypertext and other forms of electronic text have been developed at Brown, including FRESS, Brown University Interactive Language (BRUIN), Hypertext Editing System, and Women Writers Project. In addition, the Computer Science department at Brown is home to The CAVE. This project is a complete virtual reality room, one of few in the worldSONY PCG-8112M battery , and is used for everything from three-dimensional drawing classes to tours of the circulatory system for medical students. In 2000, a group of students from the university's Technology House converted the south side of the Sciences Library into a giant video display which allowed bystanders to play Tetris, the largest of its kind ever in the Western Hemisphere. Constructed from 11 custom-built circuit boardsSONY PCG-7134M battery , a 12-story data network, a personal computer running Linux, a radio-frequency video game controller, and over 10,000 Christmas lights, the project was named La Bastille and could be seen for several miles.
Academics, administration, and ranking
U.S. News & World Report ranked Brown 15th among national universities in its 2011 edition (published in August 2010) SONY PCG-7131M battery . Undergraduates make up a larger proportion of the student body at Brown than at any of the other Ivy League universities, leading some Brown administrators to question the fairness of the ranking in light of the University's focus on undergraduate education. The same edition also ranked Brown 6th among national universities for undergraduate teaching, and 6th in a high school guidance counselor ranking of which universities "offer the best education to their studentsSONY PCG-7122M battery."
Internationally, in 2011 Brown ranked 49th in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings and the Academic Ranking of World Universities ranked Brown 65th. In 2008 QS World University Rankings placed Brown at 27th. According to the 2005 paper Academic Ranking of World Universities – Methodologies and Problems by the rankers, Brown's PCP (performance per-capita) score is equal to that of Columbia University, at 32.1, or 28th in the worldSONY PCG-7121M battery .
Brown ranked 7th in the country (between Princeton and Columbia) in a study of high school seniors' revealed preferences for matriculation conducted by economists at Harvard, Wharton, and Boston University, and published in 2005 by the National Bureau of Economic Research. The 2008 Center for College Affordability and Productivity (CCAP) ranked Brown 5th in the country among national universitiesSONY PCG-7113M battery."
Brown ranked 5th in the country in Newsweek/The Daily Beast's "America's Brainiac Schools". The rankings are calculated based on the number of prestigious scholarships, adjusted for population size, won by students, including Rhodes Scholarships, Truman Scholarships, Marshall Scholarships, Gates Scholarships (since 2001), and the number of students receiving Fulbright scholarships (since 1993) SONY PCG-7112M battery . Also factored in are scores on admissions tests, admission rates, and the proportion of students in the top 10% of their graduating high school class. The 4 schools besting Brown were, in order of rank, Yale University, Princeton University, Harvard University, and Stanford University.
As it had in 2007 and 2010, the 2011 Princeton Review email poll of college students ranked Brown 1st in the country for "Happiest Students." SONY PCG-8Z3M battery Brown is 3rd in the country (tied with Stanford) in the number of students awarded Fulbright grants, according to the October 2010 ranking compiled by the Chronicle of Higher Education.
Graduate programs that ranked the top 10 in the 2010 US News & World Report graduate school rankings included applied mathematics at 5th and growth economics at 8th. Those that are ranked in the top 20 are history at 14th, economics at 17th, English at 13th, engineering at 20th, mathematics at 14th, and computer science at 20thSONY PCG-8Z2M battery.
Admission and financial aid
Corliss Brackett House, Brown's Undergraduate Admissions Office
Brown is one of the most selective universities in the world. The admission rate for the undergraduate class of 2015 was 8.7 percent. For the class of 2014, 96 percent of accepted students were in the top 10 percent of their high school class, and 38 percent were either valedictorian or salutatorian. Brown began using the Common Application in the Fall of 2008SONY PCG-8Z1M battery. The Graduate School is also intensely competitive, with graduate programs accepting 18% of the 7,283 students who applied in 2008. The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University accepted less than 2% of more than 5,000 applicants.
Brown is need-blind for all domestic applicants. Brown's financial aid policy eliminates loans for all students whose family incomes are under $100,000, as well as all parental contributions for families whose incomes fall under $60,000. SONY PCG-8Y3M battery For these purposes, income is calculated by summing the adjusted gross income plus all untaxed income. In 2012, the program awarded need-based scholarships worth around $90 million.
According to the university, Brown seeks diverse applicants from "all walks of life, backgrounds, interests, and cultural heritages" but has "no quotas of any kind".SONY PCG-8Y2M battery
Brown is the largest institutional landowner in Providence, with properties in the East Side and the Jewelry District. Unlike some other schools, there are also no clear physical landmarks to determine where Brown's campus begins or ends.
There is no official designation of different campus areas from the University, but the institution's buildings can be roughly categorized as followsSONY PCG-7Z1M battery .
Further information: List of Brown University buildings
Built in 1770, University Hall is the oldest building on Brown's campus.
Brown's main campus is located atop College Hill, in the East Side, across the Providence River from downtown Providence. This is the where the University was relocated in 1770 after it was first established in Warren, Rhode Island, in 1764. The main campus consists of 235 buildings and covers 143 acres (0.58 km2) SONY PCG-6W2M battery . A salient feature of Brown's campus is that many of the academic departments reside in smaller, Victorian-era houses that the University has acquired over the years from the surrounding neighborhood.
The main campus area can be subdivided further into the inner, traditional campus greens and the outer neighborhood. The two greens, the Main Green and Ruth J. Simmons Quadrangle (formerly "Lincoln Field"), are large grass fields perpendicular to each otherSONY PCG-5J5M battery . These two areas contain many of the larger and more traditional academic and dormitory buildings, including University Hall (1770). This part of the main campus is enclosed by brick and rod iron fence, with the Van Wickle Gates serving as the prominent entrance on College Street. It is this area that is featured in most publications and photographs of Brown's campusSONY PCG-5K2M battery .
Outside of the gates, but still considered part of the main campus, are other University buildings and libraries that have been built at Brown over the centuries. This includes the Wriston Quad to the south of the Main Green; the John Hay Library and John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Library directly across the street from the Van Wickle Gates; and the Sciences Library and Thomas J. WatsonSONY PCG-5K1M battery, Sr. Center for Information Technology (CIT) adjacent to the Soldiers Memorial Gate. Because this area is not confined by the gates, Brown has been able to acquire larger plots of land and construct much larger buildings as the University has expanded.
Adjacent to Brown's main campus, and further down the Hill to the west by the Providence River, is the campus of the Rhode Island School of Design. Thayer Street, which runs through Brown's campusSONY PCG-5J4M battery , is a commercial district that hosts many restaurants and shops popular with students and faculty from Brown and RISD.
Andrews Hall on the Pembroke Campus
When Pembroke College merged with Brown in 1971, the campus was absorbed as part of Brown's overall campus. For the most part, the campus is made up of dormitories, although notable exceptions include: Alumnae Hall, which houses a dance floor and a small University-run diner known as The GateSONY PCG-5J1M battery; Smith-Buonano hall, the gymnasium of Pembroke College that was later renovated to contain many classrooms; and Pembroke Hall, the original classroom building for Pembroke College and now home to the Cogut Center for the Humanities and the Pembroke Center for Teaching and Research on Women. Furthermore, the campus has its own dining hall, Verney-Woolley Dining Hall, the second of Brown's main dining hallsSONY PCG-5G2M battery . Somewhere between 25 and 30% of the incoming Freshman class lives on Pembroke, though there are also many upperclassmen.
The Walk and surrounding area
The Brown Walk connects Pembroke Campus to the main campus. It's a newer green space, extending north from Waterman Street. It is bordered by the building at 155 Angell St. (home to the Africana Studies Department and the Rites and Reason Theatre) and the UEL (Urban Environmental Lab, a.k.a. The Center for Environmental Studies, also facing Angell St) Sony VAIO PCG-8131M battery among other things. Between Pembroke Campus and Main Campus, next to the Brown Bookstore, the Granoff Center for the Creative Arts opened in January, 2011.
The East Campus was originally the main campus location of Brown's former neighbor Bryant College. Brown purchased Bryant's East Side campus in 1969 for $5.0 million when the latter school was moving to a new location. This added 10 acres (40,000 m2) of land and additional 26 buildings adjacent to the main campus area. The area was officially designated East Campus in 1971Sony VAIO PCG-8152M battery.
On the East Side: Also on the Hill, but further to the south and away from the main campus area, is Wickenden Street, another commercial district offering restaurants and shops. Brown Stadium, built in 1925 and home to the football team, is located approximately a mile to the northeast of the main campus. Marston Boathouse, the home of the crew teams, lies on the Blackstone/Seekonk River, to the southeast of campusSony VAIO PCG-31311M battery.
Elsewhere in Providence: More recently, Brown has expanded into the Jewelry District, located in southern downtown Providence, by acquiring and renovating five buildings to serve as administrative and research facilities.
Outside of Providence: Brown also owns a 376-acre (1.52 km2) property, the Mount Hope Grant, in Bristol, which is the setting of the Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology's Collection Research CenterSony VAIO PCG-31111M battery.
John Hay Library
Main article: John Hay Library
The John Hay Library
The John Hay Library is the second oldest library on campus. It was named for John Hay (class of 1858, private secretary to Abraham Lincoln and Secretary of State under two Presidents) at the request of his friend Andrew Carnegie, who contributed half of the $300,000 cost of the building. Constructed with Vermont white marble in an English Renaissance styleSony VAIO PCG-8112M battery, the library was dedicated on November 10, 1910 and had an estimated collection of 300,000 volumes. It is now the repository of Brown University archives, rare books and manuscripts, and special collections. Noteworthy among the latter are the Anne S. K. Brown Military Collection (described as "the foremost American collection of material devoted to the history and iconography of soldiers and soldiering"), the Harris Collection of American Poetry and Plays Sony VAIO PCG-7186M battery (described as "the largest and most comprehensive collection of its kind in any research library"), the Lownes Collection of the History of Science (described as "one of the three most important private collections of books of science in America"), and (for popularity of requests) the papers of H.P. Lovecraft. The Hay Library is home to one of the broadest collections of incunabula (15th-century printed books) Sony VAIO PCG-7171M battery in the Americas, as well as such rarities as the manuscript of Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four and a Shakespeare First Folio. There are also three books bound in human skin.
The Pembroke Center for Teaching and Research on Women manages the Elizabeth Weed Feminist Theory Papers and the Christine Dunlap Farnham Archives, both rich resources for feminist scholarsSony VAIO PCG-9Z1M battery.
John Carter Brown Library
The John Carter Brown Library
Main article: John Carter Brown Library
The John Carter Brown Library, founded in 1846, is administered separately from the University, but has been located on the Main Green of the campus since 1904. It is generally regarded as the world's leading collection of primary historical sources pertaining to the Americas before 1825. It houses a very large percentage of the titles published before that date about the discoverySony VAIO PCG-5S1M battery, settlement, history, and natural history of the New World. The "JCB", as it is known, publishes Bibliotheca Americana, the main bibliography in the field. Typical of its noteworthy holdings is the best preserved of the seven surviving copies of Bay Psalm Book, the first extant book printed in British North America. There is also a very fine Shakespeare First Folio, added to the collection by John Carter Brown's widow Sony VAIO PCG-5P1M battery (a Shakespeare enthusiast) on the grounds that it includes The Tempest, a play set in the New World. The JCB holdings comprise more than 50,000 early titles and about 16,000 modern books, as well as prints, manuscripts, maps, and other items in the library's specialty. The JCB occupies a Beaux-Arts style building designed by Shepley, Rutan, and Coolidge. The 1904 edifice was expanded in 1990 by architects Hartman-Cox of Washington, D.CSony VAIO PCG-5N2M battery.
Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology
Main article: Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology
Manning Hall, Home to the Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology
The exhibition galleries of the Haffenreffer Museum of Anthropology, Brown's teaching museum, are located in Manning Hall on the campus's main green. Its one million artifacts, available for research and educational purposes, are located at its Collections Research Center in Bristol, RI. The museum's goal is to inspire creative and critical thinking about culture by fosteringSony VAIO PCG-3C2M battery interdisciplinary understanding of the material world. It provides opportunities for faculty and students to work with collections and the public, teaching through objects and programs in classrooms and exhibitions. The museum sponsors lectures and events in all areas of anthropology, and also runs an extensive program of outreach to local schoolsSony VAIO PCG-8161M battery.
Brown University has committed to "minimize its energy use, reduce negative environmental impacts and promote environmental stewardship." The Energy and Environmental Advisory Committee has developed a set of ambitious goals for the university to reduce its carbon emissions and eventually achieve carbon neutralitySony VAIO PCG-8141M battery. The Brown is Green website collects information about Brown's progress toward greenhouse gas emissions reductions and related campus initiatives like courses, research, projects and student groups. Brown received an A- on the 2009 College Sustainability Report Card, developed by the Sustainable Endowments Institute. Brown was one of only 15 schools to receive a grade above a B+. There were no schools in the report that received an "A".Sony VAIO PCG-3J1M battery Brown has a number of active environmental leadership groups on campus. These groups have begun a number of campus-wide environmental initiatives—including promoting the reduction of supply and demand of bottled water and investigating a composting program.
Under President Ruth Simmons, the University has launched Boldly Brown: The Campaign for Academic Enrichment. This campaign consists of re-evaluating the existing curriculum and raising money for greater academic ambitionSony VAIO PCG-3H1M battery. The money will be used for academic programs, research, new facilities, biology and medicine, students who need financial assistance, and expanding the faculty and staff. In June 2009, it was announced that the campaign had met its goal 19 months ahead of target, with record levels of giving despite the global economic crises of the fiscal year. The total sum raised currently stands at over US$1.5 billion. Sony VAIO PCG-3F1M battery
Brown University has recently been ranked #1 for America's Happiest College Students, according to the Princeton Review 2010 rankings. Brown was also named "the most fashionable school in the Ivy League" by the fashion trade journal Women's Wear Daily on the basis that students on campus seem to have the strongest sense of personal style. Sony VAIO PCG-3C1M battery
Main article: Brown Bears
Brown vs. Harvard, September 2009
Brown is a member of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I Ivy League athletic conference. It sponsors 37 varsity intercollegiate teams. Its athletic programs have been featured in the College Sports Honor Roll as one of the top 20 athletic programs in the country according to U.S. News & World Report. Brown Women's Rowing Team has won 6 national titles in the last 12 yearsSony VAIO PCG-9Z2L battery, the Men's Rowing Team perennially finishes in the top 5 in the nation and swept the Eastern Sprints in 2009. Brown Football's reemergence, and its surge in northeast college popularity generally, is credited to its historic 1976 Ivy League championship team, which was Brown's first Ivy League Football Champions. The 1976 "Magnificent Andersons," so named for its coach, John Anderson, was 8–1, tying it with YaleSony VAIO PCG-9Z1L battery, which the 1976 Brown team defeated head to head that year, and included an ABC Sports televised football game, defeating Harvard 16–14. Since the 1976 football championship season, Brown Football has won three Ivy League championships under the most successful coach in its history, Phil Estes: 1999, 2005, and 2008. Brown's Men's Soccer program is consistently ranked in the top 25 and has won 18 Ivy League titles overall, including 8 of the last 12Sony VAIO PCG-9131L battery. Recent graduates play professionally in Major League Soccer and overseas. The Men's Lacrosse team also has a long and storied history, and more recently the program has again attained national rankings and exposure. In 2007, Brown won its first Ivy League baseball championship in school history. Brown's Varsity Equestrian team won the Ivy League Championships for the past two years in a row, and has consistently performed extremely well within the team's zone and region. Sony VAIO PCG-8161L battery Brown also features several competitive intercollegiate club sports, including Sailing, Ultimate, and Women's Rugby teams. In 2005, the Men's Club Ultimate Frisbee team, Brownian Motion, won the National Championships.
See also: Category:Brown University organizations
There are over 300 registered student organizations on campus with diverse interests. The Student Activities Fair, during the orientation program, provides first-year students the opportunity to become acquainted with the wide range of organizationsSony VAIO PCG-8152L battery.
Residential and Greek Societies
A fraternity house in Wriston Quadrangle
12.7% of Brown students are in fraternities or sororities. There are 10 residential Greek houses: six all-male fraternities (Alpha Epsilon Pi, Delta Tau, Delta Phi, Theta Delta Chi, Sigma Chi, and Phi Kappa Psi), two sororities (Alpha Chi Omega and Kappa Alpha Theta), one co-ed fraternity (Zeta Delta Xi), and one co-ed literary society (Alpha Delta Phi). All recognized Greek letter organizations live on-campus in University-owned dorm housingSony VAIO PCG-8141L battery. All ten Greek houses are overseen by the Greek Council and are located on Wriston Quadrangle.
An alternative to fraternity life at Brown are the program houses, which are organized around various themes. As with Greek houses, the existing residents of each house take applications from students, usually at the start of the Spring semester. Examples of program houses include: St. Anthony Hall (located in King House), Buxton International HouseSony VAIO PCG-8131L battery, the Machado French/Hispanic House, Art House, Technology House, Harambee (African culture) House, Culinary Arts (Cooking) House and Interfaith House.
Currently, there are three student cooperative houses at Brown. Two of the houses, Watermyn and Finlandia on Waterman Street, are owned by the Brown Association for Cooperative Housing (BACH), an independent non-profit corporation owned and operated by house membersSony VAIO PCG-81312L battery.
The third co-op, West House, is located in a Brown-owned house on Brown Street. All three houses also run a vegetarian food co-op for residents and non-residents.
Secret societies at Brown originated as literary clubs in the mid-18th century, and primarily existed to organize debates among their members. One early literary club was the Pronouncing Society, which disbanded in the mid-1770s. Another was Athenian at Queen's, founded in 1776 but also dissolved shortly afterwardsSony VAIO PCG-81214L battery. The Philermenian Society (founded as the Misokosmian Society) arose in 1794. In reaction to the Federalist Philermenians, a Democratic-Republican club called the United Brothers Society organized in 1806. In 1824 a third group, the Franklin Society, was formally recognized by the university president, and counted as honorary members Thomas Jefferson, John Quincy Adams, and Henry Clay. Sony VAIO PCG-81115L battery However, by the Civil War, most of these organizations had dissipated on account of newer Greek letter fraternities. There remains some dispute over the presence of these groups today, and at least one student organization, Pacifica House, claims descent from early secret societies. The Undergraduate Council of Students, Brown's student government, also reflects this historical legacySony VAIO PCG-81114L battery. The UCS originated as the Cammarian Club in 1893, a semi-secret senior society that served as an intermediary between the student body and the administration, and which ritualistically "tapped" 15 new men each year until its dissolution after World War II.
Main article: Brown University traditions
Though the early history of Brown as a men's school includes a number of unusual hazing traditions, the University's present-day traditions tend to be non-violent while maintaining the spirit of zaninessSony VAIO PCG-81113L battery.
Van Wickle Gates
Front view of the Van Wickle Gates
Main article: Van Wickle Gates
The Van Wickle Gates, dedicated on June 18, 1901, have a pair of center gates and a smaller gate on each side. The side gates remain open throughout the year, while the center gates remain closed except for two occasions each year. At the beginning of the academic year, the center gates open inward to admit students during Convocation. At the end of the second semester, the gates open outward for the Commencement Day procession. Sony VAIO PCG-7142L battery A traditional superstition is that students who pass through the gates for a second time before graduation do not graduate. The Brown University Band famously flouts this tradition by marching in the yearly commencement procession. Undergraduate members, however, walk through the gates backwards, thereby avoiding the hexSony VAIO PCG-7141L battery.
Josiah S. Carberry
Main article: Josiah S. Carberry
One of Brown's most notable traditions is keeping alive the spirit and accomplishments of Josiah S. Carberry, the fictional Professor of Psychoceramics (the equally fictional study of cracked pots), who was born on a University Hall billboard in 1929. He is the namesake of "Josiah's", a University-run campus eatery. "Josiah" is also the name of the University's electronic library cataloghtml">Sony VAIO PCG-71111L battery.
According to Martha Mitchell's Encyclopedia Brunoniana, "On Friday, May 13, 1955, an anonymous gift of $101.01 was received by the University from Professor Carberry to establish the Josiah S. Carberry Fund in memory of his 'future late wife.' A condition of the gift was that, henceforth, every Friday the 13th would be designated 'Carberry Day,' and on that day friends of the University would deposit their loose change in brown jugs to augment the fundSony VAIO PCG-61411L battery, which is used to purchase 'such books as Professor Carberry might or might not approve of.'" Students have followed this tradition ever since, and the fund currently has over $10,000 in it.
Mitchell writes, "Professor Carberry has been the subject of articles in a number of periodicals, including The New York Times, which proclaimed him 'The World's Greatest Traveler' on the front page of its Sunday travel section in 1974, and in Yankee magazineSony VAIO PCG-61112L battery, where he was 'The Absent-Bodied Professor' in 1975. A recent honor which came to Professor Carberry was the award to him of an Ig Nobel Prize at the First Annual Ig Nobel Prize Ceremony in 1991. At this event sponsored by M.I.T. and the Journal of Irreproducible Results, Carberry, the 1991 Ig Nobel Interdisciplinary Research Prize laureate, was cited as 'bold explorer and eclectic seeker of knowledge, for his pioneering work in the field of psychoceramics, the study of cracked potsSony VAIO PCG-61111L battery.
Main article: Spring Weekend
Starting in 1950, Brown replaced the traditional Junior Week and Junior Prom, which were discontinued during World War II, with Spring Weekend, which featured athletic contests and dances. Concerts featuring invited performers began in 1960, including Bob Dylan, U2, Bruce Springsteen, Janis Joplin, James Brown and Snoop DoggSony VAIO PCG-5T4L battery.
Main article: Brown University Alma Mater
The "Alma Mater" was written by James Andrews DeWolf (Class of 1861) in 1860, who named it "Old Brown" and set it to the tune of "Araby's Daughter" (which was later known as "The Old Oaken Bucket"). The song was renamed "Alma Mater", after the incipit, in 1869. It is sung and played after varsity athletic victories and at formal events such as Convocation and CommencementSony VAIO PCG-5T3L battery.
Notable alumni and faculty
Main article: List of Brown University people
General James Mitchell Varnum, class of 1769, painted posthumously in 1804 by Charles Willson Peale
John Hay, class of 1858, was private secretary to Abraham Lincoln, man of letters, Ambassador to the Court of St. James's, and influential Secretary of State under Presidents McKinley and Theodore RooseveltSony VAIO PCG-5T2L battery
Brown University's alumni include numerous politicians, prominent academics, authors, journalists, activists, businessmen, computer science pioneers, media company heads, stage and film actors, and royalty.
Its prominent alumni include Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court and Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes (1881), father of American public school education Horace Mann (1819), philanthropist John D. Rockefeller Jr. (1897)Sony VAIO PCG-5S3L battery, Secretary of State John Hay (1852), philosopher, civil libertarian, and Amherst College president Alexander Meiklejohn, first president of the University of South Carolina Jonathan Maxcy (1787), Bates College founder Oren B. Cheney (1836), Governor of Wyoming Territory and Governor of Nebraska John Milton Thayer (1841), longest-serving University of Michigan president (1871–1909) James Burrill Angell (1849) Sony VAIO PCG-5S2L battery, notable University of California president (1899–1919) Benjamin Ide Wheeler (1875), Morehouse College's first African-American president John Hope (1894), magazine editor John F. Kennedy, Jr. '83, diplomat Richard Holbrooke '62, presidential advisor Ira Magaziner, founder of The Gratitude Network and The Intersection event Randy Haykin '85, legendary IBM chairman and CEO Thomas WatsonSony VAIO PCG-5S1L battery, Jr. '37, CNN founder and America's Cup yachtsman Ted Turner '60, McKinsey & Co. co-founder and father of modern management consulting Marvin Bower '25, Bank of America chairman and CEO Brian Moynihan '81, Group of Thirty member and Citibank chairman William R. Rhodes '57, Chase Bank chairman and CEO Willard C. Butcher '48, Tiffany & Co CEO Walter Hoving '20, Motorola and Eastman Kodak chairman and CEO George M. C. Fisher (ScM '64, PhD '66)Sony VAIO PCG-5R2L battery, NASDAQ first president and CEO Gordon Macklin '50, Quadrangle Group founder and Treasury Department "Car Czar" for auto industry reorganization Steven Rattner '74, Apple Macintosh and Mac OS designer Andy Hertzfeld '75, architect of Intel 386, 486, and Pentium microprocessors John H. Crawford '75, Apple Computer CEO (1983–1993) John Sculley '61Sony VAIO PCG-5R1L battery, NASA head during first seven Apollo missions Thomas O. Paine '42, chief scientist NASA Mars and lunar programs James B. Garvin '78, National Security Council director of counter-terrorism RP Eddy '94, inventor of the first silicon transistor Gordon Kidd Teal '31, former Securities and Exchange Commissioner, Annette Nazareth '78, Rockefeller Center and Tribune Tower architect Raymond Hood (1902).
Horace Mann, class of 1819, regarded as the father of American public educationSony VAIO PCG-5P4L battery
Charles Evans Hughes, class of 1881
John D. Rockefeller, Jr., class of 1897, philanthropist who gave away half a billion dollars during his life
Alumni in the arts and media include composer and synthesizer pioneer Wendy Carlos '62, actress Jo Beth Williams, actress Laura Linney '86, actor John Krasinski, actor Randall Batinkoff '90, tv personality Karyn Bryant '90, composer Rusty Magee, '01, singer-composer Mary Chapin Carpenter '81, musicians Damian Kulash '98 and Dhani Harrison '02Sony VAIO PCG-5P2L battery, independent movie producer Pompatus of Love DJ Paul '90, composer Duncan Sheik '92, singer Lisa Loeb '90, New Yorker humorist and Marx Brothers screenwriter S.J. Perelman '25, novelists Nathanael West '24, Jeffrey Eugenides '83, Rick Moody '83, Edwidge Danticat (MFA '93), and Marilynne Robinson '66, playwrights Sarah Ruhl '97, Lynn Nottage '86, Richard Foreman '59, Alfred Uhry '58, and Nilo Cruz (MFA '94) Sony VAIO PCG-5N4L battery, Pulitzer Prize-winning investigative reporter and author James Risen '77, political pundit Mara Liasson, film directors Todd Haynes '85, Doug Liman '88, and Davis Guggenheim '86, and director-actor Tim Blake Nelson '86, 20th Century Fox Film Group president Tom Rothman '76, Black Entertainment Television chairman and CEO Debra L. Lee '76, HBO Sports president Ross Greenburg '77, MTV Films and Nick Movies president Scott Aversano '91Sony VAIO PCG-5N2L battery, CNN US News Operations president Jonathan Klein '80, and Bravo TV president Lauren Zalaznick '84. English actress Emma Watson, best known for her role as Hermione Granger in the Harry Potter films, is a member of the class of 2013. Other notable alumni include Pro Football Hall of Fame sportscaster Chris Berman '77, Penn State football coach Joe Paterno '50, Heisman Trophy namesake John W. Heisman '91, Pollard Award namesake and first black All-American and NFL head coach Fritz Pollard '19Sony VAIO PCG-51513L battery.
Notable prominent academics include Dartmouth College president Jim Yong Kim '82, Nobel Laureates Craig Mello '82 and Jerry White '87, Cooley-Tukey FFT algorithm co-originator John Wilder Tukey '36, Gurney Professor of History and Political Science at Harvard Adam Ulam '44, physicist Lewis E. Little '62, Lasker Award winning biologist and founder of microbial pathogenesis Stanley Falkow (PhD '59), MIT computer science department chair John Guttag '71Sony VAIO PCG-51511L battery, MIT neuroscience department chair Mark F. Bear (B.A. '78, Ph.D '84), Penn psychologist, Lasker Award winner and cognitive therapy originator Aaron Beck '50, John Bates Clark Medal winning MIT economist Jerry A. Hausman '68, University of Chicago School of Law dean Daniel Fischel, Chicago Booth economist Randall Kroszner '84, Stanford Law School dean Larry Kramer (legal scholar), '80, and Arthur L. HorwichSony VAIO PCG-51412L battery.
Current governors include Governor of Louisiana Bobby Jindal '91, Delaware Jack Markell '82, and Rhode Island Lincoln Chafee '75.
As of 2010, Brown counts a total of 689 tenured faculty members. According to The Brown Daily Herald, in the 1980s there were only approximately 450 tenured faculty members at Brown. However, given its size, the Brown faculty has always been a small but elite group of world class researchersSony VAIO PCG-51411L battery. Notable past or current faculty have included Nobel Laureates Lars Onsager, George Stigler, Vernon L. Smith, George Snell and Leon Cooper, Fields Medal winning mathematician David Mumford, mathematician Ulf Grenander, Pulitzer Prize winning historian Gordon S. Wood, Sakurai Prize winning physicist Gerald Guralnik for co-elucidation of the Higgs mechanism, award-winning physicist John M. Kosterlitz of the Kosterlitz-Thouless transitionSony VAIO PCG-51312L battery, computer scientist and inventor of hypertext Andries van Dam, computer scientist Robert Sedgewick, prominent engineers Daniel C. Drucker, L. Ben Freund, and Mayo D. Hersey, BrainGate inventor John Donoghue (Ph.D 79'), neuroscientist Mark F. Bear (B.A '78, Ph.D '82), biologist and prominent advocate of biological evolution Kenneth R. Miller, first president of the American Sociological Association Lester Frank Ward, economists Hyman Minsky, Peter MacAvoySony VAIO PCG-51311L battery, who was a former member of the US Council of Economic Advisers, William Poole (economist), Ross Levine, Oded Galor and Peter Howitt (economist), former Prime Minister of Italy and former EU chief Romano Prodi, former President of Brazil Fernando Cardoso, former President of Chile Ricardo Lagos, writers Carlos Fuentes, Chinua Achebe, Robert Coover, and Keith Waldrop, former Presidents of the American Philosophical Association Jaegwon Kim and Ernest SosaSony VAIO PCG-51211L battery, philosophers Curt Ducasse, Roderick Chisholm, and Martha Nussbaum, linguist Hans Kurath, political scientist James Morone and Senior Fellow Sergei Khrushchev.
The University of Hong Kong (or HKU, Chinese: 香港大學) is the oldest tertiary institution in Hong Kong. Its motto is "Sapientia et Virtus" in Latin, meaning "wisdom and virtue", and "明德格物" in Chinese. The medium of instruction in most classes is English. Sony VAIO PCG-41112L batteryThe school adopts the problem-based learning teaching strategy which aims to train students' problem solving skills.
HKU has many great achievements in Humanities, Legal subjects, Political science, Biological science and Medicine, attaining high positions in various University rankings. According to QS World University Rankings 2011/2012, it was at 22nd in the world and the best in Hong Kong as well as Asia. Sony VAIO PCG-3A4L batteryIn the 2011–2012 Times Higher Education World University Rankings cooperating with Thomson Reuters as the new data supplier since 2010, it was ranked 34th in the world and 2nd in Asia (after the The University of Tokyo).
The main building in 1912
The Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese (香港華人西醫書院) was founded in 1887 by the London Missionary Society, with its first graduate (in 1892) being Sun Yat-sen (孫中山). Sun later led the Chinese Revolution (1911) Sony VAIO PCG-3A3L battery, which changed China from an empire to a republic. The Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese was the forerunner of the School of Medicine of the University of Hong Kong, which started in 1911.
The University of Hong Kong was founded in 1911 when Governor Sir Frederick Lugard proposed to establish a university in Hong Kong to compete with the other Great Powers opening universities in China, most notably Prussia, which had just opened Tongji University in ShanghaiSony VAIO PCG-3A2L battery. The colonial Hong Kongers shared British values and allowed Britain to expand its influence in southern China and consolidate its rule in Hong Kong.
HKU Sir Hormusjee Naorojee Mody
Parsi businessman Sir Hormusjee Naorojee Mody learned of Lugard's plan and pledged to donate HK$150,000 towards the construction and HK$30,000 towards other costs. The Hong Kong Government and the business sector in southern ChinaSony VAIO PCG-3A1L battery, which were both equally eager to learn "secrets of the West's success" (referring to technological advances made since the Industrial Revolution), also gave their support. The Swire Group also contributed funds, partly wishing to bolster its corporate image following the death of a passenger on board one of its ships, Fatshan, and the subsequent unrest stirred by the Self-Government Society. Sony VAIO PCG-394L batteryAlong with other donors including the United Kingdom government and companies such as HSBC, Lugard finally had enough to build the university.
Lugard laid the foundation stone of the main building on 16 March 1910 and hoped that the university would educate more Chinese people in British "imperial values", as opposed to those of other Western powersSony VAIO PCG-393L battery.
December 1916: first congregation
The university was formally established in 1911 and had its opening ceremony in 1912. As Lugard felt that Chinese society at the time was not suited to ideals such as communism, the university originally emulated the University of Manchester in emphasising the sciences over the humanities. It opened with only a Faculty of Medicine, which had evolved from the Hong Kong College of Medicine. However, within a year the Faculties of Engineering and ArtsSony VAIO PCG-391L battery (which then did not offer sociology and philosophy degrees) were established. In December 1916, the university held its first congregation, with 23 graduates and five honorary graduates.
Move towards Chinese cultural education, and WW2
Student residences in 1946, with damage from WWII visible
After the 1925–26 Canton-Hong Kong strikes, the government moved towards greater integration of Eastern culture, increasing the number of Chinese courses. In 1927, a degree in Chinese was createdSony VAIO PCG-384L battery. Donations from wealthy businessmen Tang Chi Ngong and Fung Ping Shan – for whom campus buildings are named after – triggered an emphasis on Chinese cultural education. In 1941, the Japanese invasion of Hong Kong led to the damage of university buildings, and the university closed until 1945.
The university was founded as an all-male institution. Women students were admitted for the first time only ten years laterSony VAIO PCG-383L battery. In 1937, the Queen Mary Hospital opened and has served as the university's teaching hospital ever since.
After World War II, the university reopened and underwent structural developments as post-war reconstruction efforts began in earnest, requiring more investment in law and social sciences. The Faculty of Social Sciences was established in 1967 and the Law Department in 1969. The student population in 1961 was 2,000, four times more than in 1941Sony VAIO PCG-382L battery.
In 1982, the Faculty of Dentistry, based at the Prince Philip Dental Hospital, was established. It remains to this day Hong Kong's only faculty training dental professionals. In 1984, both the School of Architecture and School of Education became fully-fledged faculties, and in the same year a separate Faculty of Law was created. The Faculty of Business and Economics was established in 2001 as the university's tenth and youngest facultySony VAIO PCG-381L battery.
After 1989, the Hong Kong government began emphasizing local tertiary college (大專) education, retaining many local students who would have studied abroad in the United Kingdom. In preparation for the 1997 handover, it also greatly increased student places and course variety. Consequently, the 2001 student population had grown to 14,300 and degree courses on offer numbered over a hundredSony VAIO PCG-7185L battery.
HKU has nurtured the largest number of research postgraduate students in Hong Kong, making up approximately 10% of the total student population. All ten faculties and departments provide teaching and supervision for research (MPhil and PhD) students with administration undertaken by the Graduate SchoolSony VAIO PCG-7184L battery.
2001: 90th anniversary
The year 2001 marked the 90th Anniversary of HKU. Growing with Hong Kong: HKU and its Graduates – The First 90 Years was published by the University Press in 2002 as an impact study on HKU's graduates in different fields of Hong Kong.
2006: renaming of Faculty of Medicine
In January 2006, despite protest from some students and various alumni, the Faculty of Medicine was renamed as the Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine "as a recognition of the generosity" of Mr. Li Ka Shing and his FoundationSony VAIO PCG-7183L battery, who pledged HK$1 billion in support of the university "general development as well as research and academic activities in medicine".
2011: 818 incident
On 16 August 2011 Communist Party of China Vice Premier Li Keqiang began a three day visit to promote development between Hong Kong and mainland China. The school was locked down and mishandled by the local police force causing the Hong Kong 818 incident. Sony VAIO PCG-7182L battery
In a statement to the HKU community, the university’s Vice-Chancellor, Professor Lap-chee Tsui, admitted that the security arrangements could have been better planned and organized, and apologized to the university’s students and alumni for not having been able to prevent the unhappy incident. He assured them that "the University campus belongs to students and teachers, and that it will always remain a place for freedom of expression".Sony VAIO PCG-7181L battery
On 30 August 2011, the university’s Council resolved to set up a panel to review issues arising from the State leader’s visit, in order to improve arrangements and establish appropriate mechanisms and policies for university events in the future in a manner that would be consistent with its commitment to freedom of expressionSony VAIO PCG-7174L battery.
Reputation and rankings
There are various published university rankings produced using different methodologies and criteria. HKU has a positive evaluation in many such rankings.
The result of some major rankings in the world are shown below:
ARWU (2010): Among the 201-300th in the world; 2-4th in Hong Kong.
QS World University Rankings (2011-12): 22nd in the world and first in Asia.
Times Higher Education World University Rankings (2011-12): 34th in the world and second in Asia. (after the University of Tokyo) Sony VAIO PCG-7173L battery
Shield, motto and coat of arms
HKU's Shield & Motti , granted in 1913
HKU's coat of arms, granted in 1984
The design of the university's Shield was proposed to the College of Arms by the university in October 1912. On 14 May 1913, the Shield, along with 2 motti (1 in Latin, 1 in Chinese) were granted by the College of Arms. The field resembles the lions on the Coat of arms of England, whereas the book on the shield is a common reference to university's role in learning and knowledgeSony VAIO PCG-7172L battery.
The Latin motto Sapientia et Virtus translated in to English as "Wisdom and Virtue". The Chinese motto on the pages of the opened book, written from right to left, top to bottom in accandance with traditional Chinese writing direction, contains 2 phrases: 明德 (ming tak) and 格物 (kak mat), meaning "illustrious virtue" and "the investigation of things" respectivelySony VAIO PCG-7171L battery. The first phrase ming tak makes homage to the opening sentence of classic Confucian Classical Chinese literature the Great Learning, in which the author discusses the 3 great duties of a ruler – illustrious virtue, the renewal of the people, and repose in the highest good. The second phrase kak mat is a reference to the writing of Confucian scholar Zhu Xi 致知在格物 (lit. exhausting by examination the principles of things and affairs) The phrase occurs in discussion regarding how wise rulers set about cultivating wisdom and virtueSony VAIO PCG-7162L battery. If one desires to rectify his hearts, he must first sought to be sincere in their thoughts. Wishing to be sincere in their thoughts, he must first extended to the utmost their knowledge. Such extension of knowledge lay in the investigation of things.
In 1981, the year of the university's 70th anniversary, an application was made to the College of Arms for a full coat of arms, which was granted in 1984, comprising the original shield and motti with the addition of a crestSony VAIO PCG-7161L battery, supporters, a helmet and compartment.
The supporters of the coat of arms are a Chinese dragon and a lion representing Britain, indicating the university's aspiration to blend East and West, from the foundation by British people in Hong Kong and the later development of the university's research and studies in both west and east culture and technology, whereas the compartment is an allusion to Hong Kong Island, where the university is locatedSony VAIO PCG-7154L battery.
Eliot Hall and Meng Wah Complex
Sun Yat-Sen statue in the Lily Pond
The university's main campus covers 160,000 square metres of land on Bonham Road and Pok Fu Lam Road in the Mid-levels of Hong Kong Island. HKU buildings are some of the few remaining examples of British Colonial architecture in Hong Kong.
The Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine is situated 4.5 km southwest of the main campus, in the Southern District near Sandy Bay and Pok Fu Lam. The medical campus includes Queen Mary Hospital, the William M.W. Mong Building and research facilitiesSony VAIO PCG-7153L battery. The Faculty of Dentistry is situated in the Prince Philip Dental Hospital, Sai Ying Pun.
The university also operates the Kadoorie Agricultural Research Center, which occupies 95,000 square metres of land in the New Territories, and the Swire Institute of Marine Science at the southern tip of the d'Aguilar Peninsula on Hong Kong IslandSony VAIO PCG-7152L battery.
Main building corridor
The oldest structure in the University of Hong Kong was sponsored by Sir Hormusjee Naorojee Mody and designed by Architect Messrs Leigh & Orange. Constructed between 1910 and 1912, it comprised two courtyards in the post-renaissance style built with red brick and granite. The main elevation is articulated by four turrets with a central clock tower Sony VAIO PCG-7151L battery (a gift from Sir Paul Chater in 1930). Two courtyards were added in the south in 1952 and one floor in the end block in 1958. It was originally used as classrooms and laboratories for the Faculty of Medicine and Engineering and is now the home of departments within the Faculty of Arts. The central Great Hall (Loke Yew Hall) is named after Mr. Loke Yew, a benefactor of the university in its early years. It became a declared monument in 1984. Sony VAIO PCG-7148L battery
In around 1980, the Swire Group sponsored the building of a new residential hall in the eastern extremity of the campus. Because of the sponsorship, the new student residence was named Swire Building. The building was officially opened by Mr. John Anthony Swire, C.B.E. on 11 November 1980. In the first open day of Swire Hall, orange was used as the background colourSony VPCW21M2E/WI battery. Luckily, no other halls used orange as their hall colour. Hence, in 1983, orange was chosen to be the hall colour of Swire Hall in the second Annual General Meeting. In 1983, Mrs. J. Lau (Director of Centre Media Resources) provided a design of hall logo. The Swire Hall Students’ Association, HKUSU, then made some amendments to that design. The logo shows the words ‘S’ and ‘H’, which is the abbreviation of Swire Hall at that timeSony VPCW21C7E battery. The design of the word ‘S’ looks like two hands holding together, signifying that all hall-mates should cooperate with each others. This promotes the hall motto ‘Unity and Sincerity’.
Hung Hing Ying Building
Hui Oi-Chow Science Building (Office for Faculty of Education)
Financed by Sir Paul Chater, Professor G. P. Jordan and others, it was opened in 1919 by the Governor of Hong Kong Sir Reginald Stubbs and housed the student union. After World War II, the building was used temporarily for administrative purposes. The East Wing was added in 1960. The building was converted into the Senior Common Room in 1974Sony VPCW12S1E/WZ battery. It was named in honour of Mr Hung Hing Ying in 1986 for his family's donations to the university. The building was subsequently used again for administrative purposes, and now houses the Department of Music. The two-storey Edwardian style structure is characterised by a central dome and the use of red brick to emulate the main building opposite. The building was declared a monument in 1995Sony VPCW12S1E/W battery.
Tang Chi Ngong Building
The idea to establish a school of Chinese was proposed between the two World Wars. Construction of the premises began in 1929 with a donation from Mr Tang Chi-ngong, father of the philanthropist Sir Tang Shiu-kin, after whom the building was named. It was opened by Governor of Hong Kong Sir William Peel in 1931 and since then further donations have been received for the endowment of teaching Chinese language and literatureSony VPCW12S1E/T battery. The building has been used for other purposes since the 1970s but the name remained unchanged. At present, it houses the Centre of Asian Studies. This three-storey flat-roofed structure is surfaced with Shanghai plaster and was declared a monument in 1995.
University Museum and Art Gallery
Main article: University Museum and Art Gallery
The Fung Ping Shan Museum
The three-storey Fung Ping Shan Museum was erected in 1932 as a library for Chinese books. Named after its donor, the building consists of masonry on the ground level surmounted by a two-storey red-brick structure with applied ornamental columns topped by a pediment over its entranceSony VPCW12S1E/P battery. Since 1962, the Chinese books collection, now known as the Fung Ping Shan Library, was transferred to the University's new Main Library and the whole building was converted into a museum for Chinese art and archaeology. Among its collections are ceramics, pottery and bronzes. In 1996, the lowest three floors of the new T. T. Tsui Building were added to the old building to form the University Museum and Art GallerySony VPCW11S1E/W battery.
The TT Tsui Building
Robert Black College
The Kadoorie Biological Sciences Building and Pillar of Shame
To prepare for the new four-year undergraduate curriculum, HKU is developing a Centennial Campus on the west of the main campus. The construction of the campus started in late 2009, and will be completed in 2012, the first year of the introduction of the new academic structure in Hong Kong. In 2012, the Faculty of Arts, the Faculty of Law and the Faculty of Social Science will be moved into the Centennial CampusSony VPCW11S1E/T battery.
The University's Chancellor is the Chief Executive of Hong Kong, Leung Chun-ying. The Pro-Chancellor is David Li. The Chairman of the University Council is Dr. Leong Che Hung. The Vice-Chancellor and President is Professor Lap-Chee Tsui. The Deputy Vice-Chancellor and Provost is Professor Roland T. H. Chin, and the Pro-Vice-Chancellors and Vice-Presidents are Professors S. P. Chow, J. G. MalpasSony VPCW11S1E/P battery, Paul K. H. Tam and Amy B. M. Tsui. The academic staff population is over 800.
Professor Ian Davies was the Vice-Chancellor for two years before a worldwide search culminated in the selection of Professor Lap-Chee Tsui as the new head of the University in 2002.
The business school (now the Faculty of Business and Economics) was founded by Gordon ReddingSony VPCYA1S1E/B battery.
Research and endowment
The university is a founding member of Universitas 21, an international consortium of research-led universities. HKU benefits from a large operating budget supplied by high levels of government funding compared to many Western countries. Since 1991, the Research Grants Council (RGC) has granted the University of Hong Kong a total of HK$893 millionSony VPCYA1V9E/B battery, which is second highest after Chinese University of Hong Kong. HKU professors were among the highest paid in the world as well, having salaries far exceeding those of their U.S. counterparts in private universities. However, with the reduction of salaries in recent years, this is no longer the case.
100 members of academic staff (>10% of professoriate staff) from HKU are ranked among the world's top 1% of scientists by the ISI, by means of the citations recorded on their publicationsSony VPCY22Z5008B battery.
According to the latest profile indicators , the student population of the University was 21,652 in 2008–2009, comprising 11,962 undergraduates, 7,326 taught postgraduates and 2,364 research postgraduates. There were 2,068 non-local students (2008–2009) studying at the universitySony VPCY21S1E/SI battery.
HKU attracts some of the best students from the World in Hong Kong. For the last five years, the university has admitted less than 50% of all the Hong Kong A-level Grade-A students. It accepts most of its undergraduate students from Form 7 graduates of local secondary schools through the Joint University Programmes Admissions System (JUPAS) Sony VPCY21S1E/L battery. The University also operates an Early Admissions Scheme (EAS) which allows Form 6 students with at least 6 Grade A in the HKCEE (local schools) or at least 6 A* in GCSE or IGCSE (international schools) results to join the university without sitting the Hong Kong A-Level Examination. In 2009, over 50% of all Early Admissions Scheme applicants put HKU as their first choiceSony VPCY21S1E/G battery.
The Centennial College (Chinese: 明德學院) was established on 7 March 2012. It pays tribute to the University of Hong Kong in recognising the 100 years of commitment the University has made to academic excellence. The College is continuing the efforts to encourage a lifetime of self-cultivation for today's generation of students. It will provide unique, multifaceted, self-financed, 4-year bachelor degree programmes for HKALESony VPCY11S1E/S battery, HKDSE and other graduates beginning in September, 2012. Academic programmes that will be offered include: a Bachelor of Professional Accounting (Honours) degree course and a Bachelor of Arts (Honours) degree course with majors in Integrated Business, Language and Communication, China Studies and Global StudiesSony VPCY11S1E battery.
HKU School of Professional and Continuing Education
HKU SPACE Admiralty Learning Centre
HKU SPACE was established in 1956 to provide continuing education on a wide range of subjects, for instance, Japanese language courses and Mandarin language courses. HKU SPACE runs its programmes without subsidy from the Hong Kong Government and has recently evolved into a community college-type institution, somewhat similar to community colleges in the US. Sony VPCZ11X9E/B battery
HKU School of Professional and Continuing Education Community College
HKU SPACE Community College was established in March 2000. It mainly provides sub-degree programmes for Form 5 or Form 7 graduates to further their studies. There are three main streams of programmes provided, they are Higher Diploma Programmes (2-year and 3-year full time), Pre-Associate Degree (1-year full time) and Associate Degree (2-year full time) Sony VPCZ11Z9E/B battery.
HKU Libraries (HKUL) was established in 1912 and is the oldest academic library in Hong Kong with over 2.3 million holdings. A web-based library catalogue, DRAGON, allows one to search HKUL's books, journals and other resources.
HKUL now comprises the Main Library and six specialist branch libraries, the Dental, Education, Fung Ping Shan (East Asian Language), Yu Chun Keung Medical, Lui Che Woo Law and the Music Library. They are located in buildings around the campus with varying opening hoursSony VPCZ12M9E/B battery.
HKUL Digital Initiatives
The HKUL Digital Initiatives, through its digitization projects, has opened up online access to local collections originally in print format. The first HKUL Digital Initiative, ExamBase, was launched in 1996 and other projects of scholarly interests were introduced. More digital projects are being developed to provide continuous access to digital content and servicesSony VPCZ12X9E/X battery. It provides open access to Chinese and English academic and medical periodicals published in Hong Kong.
The Students' Union
There are two officially recognised student bodies, giving opportunities for students to participate in extracurricular activities.
The Hong Kong University Students' Union (HKUSU) principally serves the undergraduate students. This organization is renowned amongst student activists, having been the main driving force behind evicting a chancellor in recent yearsSony VPCZ12Z9E/X battery. There was controversy when the head of the Students' Union, Ayo Chan, said that some of the protesters involved in the Tiananmen Square Massacre had acted irrationally. Many students thought his remarks were offensive and he was ousted by a vote in under one week. The Postgraduate Students Association (PGSA) represents the postgraduate studentsSony VPCZ138GA battery.
People affiliated with HKU
See also: List of graduates of the University of Hong Kong and List of Vice-Chancellors of the University of Hong Kong
The University of Hong Kong has educated many notable people. One of them was Dr Sun Yat-sen, founding president of the Republic of China, who was a graduate of the Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese, the predecessor of HKU. Over 40 principal officials, permanent secretariesSony VPCZ13M9E/B battery, and Executive Council/Legislative Council members of the Hong Kong SAR Government are HKU graduates. HKU graduates also form the senior management teams of many large organisations in the private sector.
Study abroad programme
In 2009, the Times Higher Education Supplement ranked the University of Hong Kong 24th in the world. Student welfare is served by several units, including the Centre of Development and Resources for Students (CEDARS) Sony VPCZ13M9E/X battery, which provides guidance for most areas of student life including career counselling; and University Health Service, which provides health care, referrals and preventive services. This student run organization offers more than 100 clubs and associations catering to the student population.
Through the Exchange Buddy Program, students from abroad can choose to be matched with a local student whom they can correspond with prior to their departure for Hong KongSony VPCZ13V9E battery. These local students greet the visiting students upon arrival at the airport, assist with settling into student residence and offer advice and support during their stay.
More than 3,000 students have participated in the exchange programmes through universities spanning 18 countries around the world with the support of the University Grants Committee, the University of Hong Kong Foundation for Educational Development and ResearchSony VPCZ13X5003B battery, the Hongkong Bank Foundation, the UBC Alumni Association (Hong Kong), the Dr. Lee Shiu Scholarships for Hong Kong and South-East Asia Academic Exchange, Shell (Hong Kong) Limited, and the C.V. Starr Scholarship Fund and other donations.
In addition to increased academic research and development, HKU aims to promote continuing education to the public, through improved links between the University and the HKU SPACE|School of Professional and Continuing Education (SPACE) Sony VPCZ13V9E/X battery.
HKU is also trying to better its alumni and external network for financially sustainable development.