Brasília And Asunción

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Brasília is the federal capital of Brazil and the seat of government of the Federal District. The name is commonly spelled Brasilia in English. The city is located in the Federal District, and is in the Central-West region of the country, along a plateau known as Planalto Central(Dell N3010 battery). It has a population of about 2,562,963 (3,716,996 in the metropolitan area) as of the 2008 IBGE estimate, making it the fourth largest city in Brazil. However, as a metropolitan area, it ranks lower at sixth. It is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Brasilia is the largest city in the world that did not exist at the beginning of the 20th century(Dell Inspiron N4010 battery).

Brasília has the 5th GDP among Latin American cities, and the 3rd in Brazil. Its GDP per capita is by far the highest among the larger Latin American cities, at a high - for Latin American standards - average of around USD$25,500.00 (almost three times the Brazilian national average).

As the national capital, Brasília is the seat of all three branches of the Brazilian government. The city also hosts the headquarters of many Brazilian companies(Dell Inspiron 1420 battery). Planning policies such as the location of residential buildings around expansive urban areas, as well as building the city around large avenues and dividing it into sectors, have sparked a debate and reflection on life in big cities in the 20th century. The city's design divides it into numbered blocks as well as sectors for specified activities, such as the Hotel Sector, the Banking Sector or the Embassy Sector. Brasília hosts 124 foreign embassies(Dell Inspiron 1464 battery).

The city was planned and developed in 1956 with Lúcio Costa as the principal urban planner and Oscar Niemeyer as the principal architect. On April 22 of 1960, it formally became Brazil's national capital. Viewed from above, the main portion of the city resembles an airplane or a butterfly. The city is commonly referred to as Capital Federal, or simply BSB. (Dell Inspiron 1564 battery) Residents of Brasília are known as brasilienses or candangos (the latter referring to those not born in the city, but migrated there when the city was established).

In local usage, the word "Brasília" usually refers only to the First Administrative Region within the Distrito Federal (Federal District), where the most important government buildings are located. Brasília has a unique status in Brazil(Dell Inspiron 1764 battery), as it is an administrative division rather than a legal municipality like nearly all cities in Brazil. Nationally, the term is almost always used synonymously with the Federal District, which constitutes an indivisible Federative Unit, analogous to a state. There are several "satellite cities," which are also part of the Federal District(Dell Inspiron 1520 battery).

Brasília International Airport is the main airport in Brasília, connecting the capital to all major Brazilian cities and many international destinations. It is the third most important airport in Brazil, in terms of passengers and aircraft movements.

History

Main articles: History of Brasília and History of Brazil

Brasília under construction in 1959.

Juscelino Kubitschek, President of Brazil from 1956 to 1961, ordered the construction of Brasília, fulfilling an article of the country's first republican constitution dating back to 1891 stating(Dell Inspiron 1521 battery) that the capital should be moved from Rio de Janeiro to a place close to the center of the country. The plan was originally conceived in 1827 by José Bonifácio, an advisor to Emperor Pedro I. He presented a plan to the General Assembly of Brazil for a new city called Brasilia, with the idea of moving the capital westward from the heavily populated southeastern corridor. The bill was not enacted because Pedro I dissolved the Assembly(Dell inspiron 1525 battery).

Lúcio Costa won a contest and was the main urban planner in 1957, with 5550 people competing. Oscar Niemeyer, a close friend, was the chief architect of most public buildings and Roberto Burle Marx was the landscape designer. Brasília was built in 41 months, from 1956 to April 21, 1960, when it was officially inaugurated. From 1763 to 1960(Dell inspiron 1526 battery), Rio de Janeiro was the capital of Brazil. At this time, resources tended to be centered in Brazil's southeast region near Rio de Janeiro. Brasília's geographically central location fostered a more regionally neutral federal capital. The idea of locating the capital in the center of Brazil was first suggested in 1891, but not defined until 1922(Dell Inspiron 1720 battery).

Until the 1980s, the governor of the Distrito Federal was appointed by the Federal Government, and the laws of Brasília were issued by the Brazilian Federal Senate. With the Constitution of 1988 Brasília gained the right to elect its Governor, and a District Assembly (Câmara Legislativa) was elected to exercise legislative power(Dell INSPIRON 3800 battery).

According to legend, Italian saint Don Bosco in 1883 had a dream in which he described a futuristic city that roughly fitted Brasília's location.[6] In Brasília today, there are many references to Bosco who founded the Salesian order, and one church in the city bears his name(Dell INSPIRON 4000 battery).

Aerial view of Brasilia

See also: Climate of Brazil

The national capital's climate is Tropical savanna climate (Aw) according to many of Köppen's classifications. Brasilia's climate closely borders a subtropical highland climate (Cwa/Cwb), showing many of the "eternal spring" features of that climate. The individual seasons are defined according to the degree of humidity of the air: one season is dry(Dell Inspiron 5000 battery), while the other one is comparatively humid. The average temperature is 20.5 °C (68.9 °F).[7] September, at the end of the dry season, has the highest average maximum temperature, 28 °C (82 °F), and July has the lowest average maximum temperature, 26 °C (79 °F). The lowest average minimum temperature is in June and July 11 °C (52 °F). Average temperatures from September through April are a consistent 22 °C (72 °F). Those, however, are monthly averages(Dell INSPIRON 500M battery); temperatures sometimes fall outside of this range. The absolute minimum temperature recorded was 0 °C (32 °F), and the absolute maximum was 37 °C (99 °F).

The dry season lasts from late March or early April to late September or early October, though there is commonly some rain also in late May. Humidity averages about 50% during the dry season, but often falls below 30% around noon(Dell INSPIRON 5100 battery).

Demographics

See also: Demographics of Brazil

Cultural Complex of Brasília.

According to the 2010 IBGE Census, there were 2,469,489 people residing in the city of Brasília.[11] The census revealed the following numbers: 1,239,882 Brown (Multiracial) people (48.2%), 1,084,418 White people (42.2%), 198,072 Black people (7.7%), 41,522 Asian people (1.6%), 6,128 Amerindian people (0.2%).(Dell INSPIRON 510M battery)

In 2010, the city of Brasília was the 4th most populous city in Brazil, after São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Salvador.[13]

In 2010, the city had 474,871 opposite-sex couples and 1,241 same-sex couples (see more at LGBT rights in Brazil). The population of Brasília was 52.2% female and 47.8% male. (Dell INSPIRON 6000 battery)

In the 1960 census there were almost 140,000 residents in the new Federal District. By 1970 this figure had grown to more than 537,000. In 2000 the population of the Federal District was over 2,000,000. Planned for only 500,000 inhabitants, Brasília has seen its population grow much more than expected. Several satellite cities have been created over the years to house the extra inhabitants(Dell INSPIRON 600M battery).

From the beginning, the growth of Brasília was greater than original estimates. According to the original plans, Brasília would be a city for government authorities and staff. However, during the construction period, Brazilians from all over the country migrated to Brasília, seeking public and private jobs. (Dell Inspiron 6400 battery)

This makes it the largest city (by population) in the world at the close of the 20th century that did not exist at the beginning of the century (a distinction held by Chicago in the 19th century). Brasília has one of the highest growth rates in Brazil, with its population increasing by 2.82% each year, mostly because of internal migration(Dell INSPIRON 7000 battery).

Brasília's inhabitants include a foreign population of mostly embassy workers as well as large numbers of Brazilian migrants. Today, the city has important communities of immigrants and refugees. The Human Development Index in the city is at 0.936 in the year 2000, (developed nation level), and the illiteracy rate is around 4.35%(Dell INSPIRON 700M battery).

Cityscape

Brazilian National Flag.

At the northwestern end of the Monumental Axis are federal district and municipal buildings, while at the southeastern end, near the middle shore of Lake Paranoá, stand the executive, judicial, and legislative buildings around the Square of Three Powers, the conceptual heart of the city(Dell Inspiron 710m battery).

These and other major structures were designed by Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer. In the Square of Three Powers, he created as a focal point the dramatic Congressional Palace, which is composed of five parts: twin administrative towers flanked by a large, white concrete dome (the meeting place of the Senate) and by an equally massive concrete bowl (the Chamber of Deputies), which is joined to the dome by an underlying, flat-roofed building(Dell INSPIRON 8200 battery).

A series of low-lying annexes (largely hidden) flank both ends. Also in the square are the glass-faced Planalto Palace housing the presidential offices, and the Palace of the Supreme Court. Farther east, on a triangle of land jutting into the lake, is the Palace of the Dawn (Palácio da Alvorada; the presidential residence) (Dell INSPIRON 8600 battery). Between the federal and civic buildings on the Monumental Axis is the city's cathedral, considered by many to be Niemeyer's finest achievement (see photographs of the and interior). The parabolically shaped structure is characterized by its 16 gracefully curving supports, which join in a circle 115 feet (35 meters) above the floor of the nave; stretched between the supports are translucent walls of tinted glass(Dell INSPIRON 9100 battery). The nave is entered via a subterranean passage rather than conventional doorways. Other notable buildings are Buriti Palace, Itamaraty Palace, the National Theater, and several foreign embassies that creatively embody features of their national architecture. The Brazilian landscape architect Roberto Burle Marx designed landmark modernist gardens for some of the principal buildings(Dell INSPIRON 9200 battery).

Both low-cost and luxury housing were built by the government in the central city. The residential zones of the inner city are arranged into superquadras ("superblocks"): groups of apartment buildings along with a prescribed number and type of schools, retail stores, and open spaces. At the northern end of Lake Paranoá, separated from the inner city, is a peninsula with many fashionable homes(Dell INSPIRON 9300 battery), and a similar neighbourhood exists on the southern lakeshore. Originally the city planners envisioned extensive public areas along the shores of the artificial lake, but during early development private clubs, hotels, and upscale residences and restaurants gained footholds around the water. Set well apart from the city are suburban satellite cities, including Gama, Ceilândia, Taguatinga, Núcleo Bandeirante, Sobradinho, and Planaltina(Dell Inspiron 9400 battery). These towns, with the exception of Gama and Sobradinho were not planned.

Monumental civic scale

The city has been acclaimed for its use of modernist architecture on a grand scale and for its somewhat utopian city plan. It has been criticized for the same reasons.

After a visit to Brasília, the French writer Simone de Beauvoir complained that all of its superquadras exuded "the same air of elegant monotony," and other observers have equated the city's large open lawns, plazas and fields to wastelands(Dell Inspiron E1505 battery). As the city has matured, some of these have gained adornments, and many have been improved by landscaping, giving some observers a sense of "humanized" spaciousness. Although not fully accomplished, the "Brazilian utopia" has produced a city of relatively high quality of life, in which the citizens live in forested areas with sporting and leisure structure (the superquadras) flanked by small commercial areas, bookstores and cafes(Dell Inspiron E1705 battery); the city is famous for its cuisine and efficiency of transit.

Even these positive features have sparked controversy, expressed in the nickname "ilha da fantasia" ("fantasy island"), indicating the sharp contrast between the city and surrounding regions, marked by poverty and disorganization in the cities of the state of Goiás, around Brasília.

Critics of Brasília's grand scale have characterized it as a modernist platonic fantasy about the future(Dell Inspiron Mini 9 battery):

Nothing dates faster than people's fantasies about the future. This is what you get when perfectly decent, intelligent, and talented men start thinking in terms of space rather than place; and single rather than multiple meanings. It's what you get when you design for political aspirations rather than real human needs. You get miles of jerry-built platonic nowhere infested with Volkswagens(Dell Latitude D400 battery). This, one may fervently hope, is the last experiment of its kind. The utopian buck stops here.

— Robert Hughes, The Shock of the New, Episode 4: Trouble in Utopia, (1980)

World Heritage Site

The Brazilian capital is the only city in the world built in the 20th century to be awarded (in 1987) the status of Historical and Cultural Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO, an agency of the UN. It also holds the distinction of waiting the shortest amount of time to be designated a World Heritage Site of any UNESCO entry, which occurred just 27 years after its completion in 1960(Dell STUDIO 1450 battery).

Economy

See also: Economy of Brazil

Shopping streets of Brasilia.

The major roles of construction and of services (government, communications, banking and finance, food production, entertainment, and legal services) in Brasília's economy reflect the city's status as a governmental rather than an industrial centre. Industries connected with construction, food processing, and furnishings are important(Dell Vostro 1400 battery), as are those associated with publishing, printing, and computer software. GDP is divided in Public Administration 54.8%, Services 28.7%, Industry 10.2%, Commerce 6.1%, Agribusiness 0.2%.[17]

Besides being the political center, Brasília is an important economic center. The city is the 3rd richest of Brazil, showing a gross domestic product (GDP) from 99.5 billion reais(Dell Vostro 1500 battery), representing 3.76% of the total Brazilian GDP. The main economic activity of the federal capital results from its administrative function. Its industrial planning is studied carefully by the Government of the Federal District. Being a town registered by UNESCO, the government in Brasilia has opted to encourage the development of non-polluting industries such as software, film, video(Dell XPS M1210 battery), and gemology among others, with emphasis on environmental preservation and maintaining ecological balance, preserving the city property.

According to Mercer's city rankings of cost of living for expatriate employees, Brasília ranks 45th among the most expensive cities in the world in 2012, up from the 70th position in 2010, ranking behind São Paulo (12th) and Rio de Janeiro (13th) (Dell XPS M1330 battery).

Central Bank of Brazil.

(91% of local GDP, according to the IBGE):

Government – the public sector is by far the largest employer, accounting for around 40% of the city jobs. Government jobs include all levels, from the federal police to diplomacy, from the transportation bureau to the armed forces;

Communications – the telephony used to be a state monopoly, and Brasilia held the HQ of Telebrás, the central state company; one of the enterprises that resulted from the privatization of the system in the 90's, Brasil Telecom, keeps it HQ in the city(Dell XPS 1340 battery); the official Postal Service (Correios) HQ is located in the city as well; as it is the main place of Federal Government news, it is also notable the activities of TV stations, including the main offices of four public networks (TV Brasil/Agência Brasil, TV Câmara, TV Senado and TV Justiça), the regional offices of four major private television networks (Globo, SBT, Rede Bandeirantes and Rede Record) and a main affiliate of RedeTV! (Dell XPS M1530 battery);

Banking and finance – headquarters of the Banco do Brasil and the Caixa Econômica Federal, both controlled by the Federal Government, and the Banco de Brasília, controlled by the city local government; it is also the site of the headquarters of the Central Bank, the main government regulatory agency of the financial sector(Dell XPS M170 battery);

Entertainment – the shopping malls Conjunto Nacional, ParkShopping, Pátio Brasil Shopping, Brasília Shopping, Boulevard Shopping, Taguatinga Shopping and Iguatemi Brasília.

Information technology (Politec, Poliedro, CTIS, among others), and legal services.

The main agricultural products produced in the city are coffee, guavas, strawberries, orange, lemons, papayas, soy beans and mangoes. It has over 110,000 cows and it exports wood products worldwide(Dell XPS M1710 battery).

The Federal District, where Brasília is located, has a GDP of R$ 220,630,109 (about US$ 110,844 billion), according to IBGE. Its share of the total Brazilian GDP is about 3.8%.[18]

The Federal District has the largest GDP per capita income of Brazil US$ 40.996,00. Brasília's per capita income is believed to be much higher(Dell XPS M1730 battery).

Accommodation

The city's planned design included specific areas for almost everything, including accommodation, Hotels Sectors North and South. New hotel facilities are being developed elsewhere, such as the hotels and tourism Sector North, located on the shores of Lake Paranoá. Brasília has a range of tourist accommodation from inns, pensions and hostels to larger international chain hotels(Dell XPS M2010 battery).

Brasília receives visitors from all of Brazil and the world, and offers a range of restaurants serving a variety of Brazilian regional and international food.

Culture

See also: Culture of Brazil

Independence Day parade along the Ministries Esplanade.

As a venue for political events, music performances and movie festivals, Brasília is a cosmopolitan city, with around 119 embassies, a wide range of restaurants and complete infrastructure ready to host any kind of event(Dell Latitude E5400 battery). Not surprisingly, the city stands out as an important business tourism destination, which is an important part of the local economy, with dozens of hotels spread around the national capital. Traditional parties take place throughout the year. In June, there are large festivals celebrating Catholic saints, such as Saint Anthony, Saint John the Baptist, and Saint Peter, that are called "festas juninas," or June festival(Dell Latitude E5500 battery). On September 7, the traditional Independence Day parade is held on the Ministries Esplanade. Throughout the year there are local, national and international events spread through the city. Christmas is widely celebrated, and New Years Eve usually hosts major events.

The city also hosts a varied assortment of art works from artists like Bruno Giorgi, Alfredo Ceschiatti, Athos Bulcão(Dell Latitude E6400 battery), Marianne Peretti, Alfredo Volpi, Di Cavalcanti, Dyllan Taxman, Victor Brecheret and Burle Marx, whose works have been integrated into the city's architecture, making it a unique landscape. The cuisine in the city is very diverse. Many of the best restaurants in the city can be found in the Asa Sul district(Dell Latitude E6500 battery).

Ministries Esplanade on the Eixo Monumental.

Historic sites and museums

Eixo Monumental

At the end of the Eixo Monumental lies the Esplanada dos Ministérios ("Ministries Esplanade"), an open area in downtown Brasília. The rectangular lawn is surrounded by two eight-lane avenues where many government buildings, monuments and memorials are located(Dell Inspiron Mini 12 battery).

National Congress

The National Congress Building.

The Palácio da Alvorada.

Brazil's bicameral National Congress consists of the Senate (the upper house) and the Chamber of Deputies of Brazil (the lower house). Since the 1960s, the National Congress has its seat in Brasília. As with most of the official buildings in the city, it was designed by Oscar Niemeyer in the style of modern Brazilian architecture. The hemisphere to the left is the seat of the Senate and the hemisphere to the right is the seat of the Chamber of Deputies(Dell XPS M140 battery). Between them there are two towers of offices. The Congress also occupies other surrounding buildings, some connected by tunnels.

The building is located in the middle of the Eixo Monumental, the main avenue of the capital. In front of it there is a large lawn and a reflecting pool. The building faces the Praça dos Três Poderes, where the Palácio do Planalto and the Supremo Tribunal Federal are located(Dell XPS 13 battery).

Palácio da Alvorada

The Palácio da Alvorada is the official residence of the President of Brazil. The palace was designed, along with the rest of the city of Brasília, by Oscar Niemeyer and inaugurated in 1958.

One of the first structures built in the republic's new capital city, the "Alvorada" lies on a peninsula at the margins of Lake Paranoá(Dell XPS 16 battery). The principles of simplicity and modernity, that in the past characterized the great works of architecture, motivated Niemeyer. The viewer has an impression of looking at a glass box, softly landed on the ground with the support of thin external columns.

The building has an area of 7,000 m2 and three floors: basement, landing and second floor. The auditorium, kitchen, laundry, medical center, and the administration are at basement level. The rooms used by the presidency for official receptions are on the landing(Dell XPS 1640 battery). There are four suites, two apartments and other private rooms on the second floor which is the residential part of the palace.

The building also has a library, a heated Olympic-sized swimming pool, a music room, two dining rooms and various meeting rooms. A chapel and heliport are in adjacent buildings.

Palácio do Planalto

The Palácio do Planalto.

The Palácio do Planalto is the official workplace of the President of Brazil. It is located at the Praça dos Três Poderes in Brasília. As the seat of government, the term "O Planalto" is often used as a metonym for the executive branch of government(Dell XPS 1645 battery).

The main working office of the President of the Republic is in the Palácio do Planalto. The President and his family do not live in it, rather in the official residence, the Palácio da Alvorada. Besides the President, senior advisors also have offices in the "Planalto," including the Vice-President of Brazil and the Chief of Staff. The other Ministries are along the Esplanada dos Ministérios(Dell XPS 1647 battery).

The architect of the Palácio do Planalto was Oscar Niemeyer, creator of most of the important buildings in Brasília. The idea was to project an image of simplicity and modernity using fine lines and waves to compose the columns and exterior structures.

The Palace is four stories high, and has an area of 36,000 m2. Four other adjacent buildings are also part of the complex(Dell Latitude 131L battery).

Complexo Cultural da República

The Complexo Cultural da República (Portuguese for Cultural Complex of the Republic) is formed by the National Library of Brasília and the National Museum of the Republic. It is situated in the Eixo Monumental, next to the Cathedral of Brasília.

The National Library of Brasília (Biblioteca Nacional de Brasília in Portuguese) occupies an area of 14,000 m2, consisting of reading and study rooms, auditorium and a collection of over 300,000 items(Dell Latitude C400 battery).

The National Museum of the Republic (Museu Nacional da República in Portuguese) consists of a 14,500 m2 exhibit area, two 780-seat auditoriums, and a laboratory. The space is mainly used to display temporary art exhibits.

Paranoá Lake

Paranoá Lake is a large artificial lake built to increase the amount of water available to the region. It has the second largest marina in Brazil, and hosts wakeboarders and windsurfers(Dell Latitude C500 battery).

Juscelino Kubitschek bridge

The Juscelino Kubitschek Bridge.

The Juscelino Kubitschek bridge, also known as the 'President JK Bridge' or the 'JK Bridge', crosses Lake Paranoá in Brasília. It is named after Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira, former president of Brazil. It was designed by architect Alexandre Chan and structural engineer Mário Vila Verde. Chan won the Gustav Lindenthal Medal for this project at the 2003 International Bridge Conference in Pittsburgh due to "(Dell Latitude C510 battery)...outstanding achievement demonstrating harmony with the environment, aesthetic merit and successful community participation".

It consists of three 60 m (200 ft) tall asymmetrical steel arches that crisscross diagonally. With a length of 1,200 m (0.75 miles), it was completed in 2002 at a cost of US$ 56.8 million. The bridge has a pedestrian walkway and is accessible to bicyclists and skaters(Dell Latitude C540 battery).

Praça dos Três Poderes

Supremo Tribunal Federal.

Praça dos Três Poderes (Portuguese for Square of the Three Powers) is a plaza in Brasília. The name is derived from the encounter of the three federal branches around the plaza: the Executive, represented by the Palácio do Planalto (presidential office); the Legislative, represented by the Congresso Nacional (National Congress); and the Judicial branch, represented by the Supremo Tribunal Federal (Supreme Federal Court) (Dell Latitude C600 battery).

It is a tourist attraction in Brasília, designed by Lúcio Costa and Oscar Niemeyer as a place where the three branches would meet harmoniously.

[edit]Cathedral of Brasília

The Cathedral of Brasília in the capital of the Federative Republic of Brazil, is an expression of the architect Oscar Niemeyer. This concrete-framed hyperboloid structure, seems with its glass roof reaching up, open, to the heavens. On 31 May 1970, the Cathedral’s structure was finished(Dell Latitude C610 battery), and only the 70 m (229.66 ft) diameter of the circular area were visible. Niemeyer's project of Cathedral of Brasília is based in the hyperboloid of revolution which sections are asymmetric. The hyperboloid structure itself is a result of 16 identical assembled concrete columns. These columns, having hyperbolic section and weighing 90 t, represent two hands moving upwards to heaven. The Cathedral was dedicated on 31 May 1970(Dell Latitude C640 battery).

Popular culture

Don Bosco Sanctuary in Brasília.

Brasília has also been the focus of modern day literature. Published in 2008, The World In Grey: Dom Bosco's Prophecy, by author Ryan J. Lucero, tells an apocalyptic story based on the famous prophecy from the late 19th century by the Italian saint Don Bosco.

According to Don Bosco's prophecy:

Between parallels 15 and 20, around a lake which shall be formed; A great civilization will thrive, and that will be the Promised Land(Dell Latitude C800 battery).

Brasília lies between the parallels 15° S and 20° S, where an artificial lake (Paranoá Lake) was formed. Don Bosco is Brasília's patron saint.

American Flagg!, the First Comics comic book series created by Howard Chaykin, portrays Brasilia as a cosmopolitan world capital of culture and exotic romance. In the series, it is a top vacation and party destination(Dell Latitude C810 battery).

Brasília International Airport (BSB).

Brasília International Airport – President Juscelino Kubitschek serves the metropolitan area with major domestic and international flights. It is the third busiest Brazilian airport based on passengers and aircraft movements.[23] Because of its strategic location it is a civil aviation hub for the rest of the country. This makes for a large number of takeoffs and landings and it is not unusual for flights to be delayed in the holding pattern before landing(Dell Latitude C840 battery). Following the airport's master plan, Infraero built a second runway, which was finished in 2006. In 2007, the airport handled 11,119,872 passengers.[23] The main building's third floor, with 12 thousand square meters, has a panoramic deck, a food court, shops, four movie theaters with total capacity of 500 people, and space for exhibitions. There are 136 shop spaces at Brasília Airport(Dell Latitude D410 battery).

The airport is located about 11 km (6.8 mi) from the central area of Brasília, outside the metro system. There are many taxis outside the main gate, and some bus lines which connect the airport to the central area of Brasília. The parking lot accommodates 1,200 cars.[24] In addition to domestic and regional services (TAM, GOL, Azul, WebJET, Trip and Avianca) (Dell Latitude D420 battery). Brasilia is improving its international connections; non-stop flights to Miami, United States with AA started in Nov 2010 and with TAM in Dec 2010. There are already direct flights to Atlanta, United States with Delta; Lima, Peru with LAN and TACA ; and to Lisbon, Portugal with TAP. On March 28, 2011 PLUNA begun direct service to Montevideo, Uruguay, which was then withdrawn following PLUNA's bankruptcy. (Dell Latitude D430 battery)On June 18 Copa Airlines begun direct service to Panama City, Panama increasing and improving connections to the rest of the American continent through the company's Hub of the Americas at Tocumen International Airport.

Main article: Brasília Metro

Galeria Metro Station.

Metrô de Brasília is Brasília's underground metro system. The subway system has 24 stations on two lines, the Orange and Green lines, distributed along a total network of 42 km (26 mi), covering most of the metropolitan area(Dell Latitude D500 battery). Both lines begin at the Central Station and run parallel until the Águas Claras Station. The Brasília metro is not comprehensive, so buses may provide better access to the city center. The metro leaves the Rodoviária (bus station) and goes south, avoiding most of the political and tourist areas. The main purpose of the metro is to serve the largest satellite cities(Dell Latitude D505 battery), such as Samambaia, Taguatinga and Ceilândia, as well as Guará and Águas Claras. The satellite cities are more populated than the Plano Piloto itself (the census of 2000 indicated that Ceilândia had 344,039 inhabitants, Taguatinga had 243,575, whereas the Plano Piloto had approximately 400,000 inhabitants), and most residents of the satellite cities depend on public transportation. (Dell Latitude D510 battery)

[edit]High speed rail

A high speed railway was planned between Brasília and Goiânia, although it will be probably turn into a regional service linking these capital cities and cities in between, like Anápolis and Alexânia.[27]

Brasília's new tram to be built on W3 Avenue.

BR-060 is the main road which links Goiânia and Brasília. The two cities are 209 km (130 mi) apart(Dell Latitude D520 battery).

The main bus hub in Brasília is the Central Bus Station, located in the crossing of the Eixo Monumental and the Eixão, about 2 km (1.2 mi) from the Three Powers Plaza. The original plan was to have a bus station as near as possible to every corner of Brasília. Today, the bus station is the hub of urban buses only, some running within Brasília and others connecting Brasília to the satellite cities. In the original city plan(Dell Latitude D600 battery), the interstate buses should also stop at the Central Station. Because of the growth of Brasília (and corresponding growth in the bus fleet), today the interstate buses leave from the older interstate station (called Rodoferroviária), located at the western end of the Eixo Monumental. The Central Bus Station also contains a main metro station(Dell Latitude D610 battery).

A new bus station was opened in July 2010. It is on Saída Sul (South Exit) near Parkshopping Mall and with its metro station, and it's also an inter-state bus station, used only to leave the Federal District.

Nearby attractions include:

Chapada dos Veadeiros – A National Park with plenty of cerrado wildlife and surrounded by several waterfalls(Dell Latitude D620 battery).

Itiquira Falls – this 168 m-high waterfall is just over 100 km from Brasília, in the municipality of Formosa, Goiás

Caldas Novas – The largest natural hot springs resort in the world. Located about 360 km (220 mi) southeast of the city in the state of Goiás.

Pirenópolis – The city, located 150 km from Brasília, is well known for its waterfalls and Portuguese colonial architecture, and a popular festival involving mounted horses called Festa do Divino Espírito Santo which takes place 45 days after Easter(Dell Latitude D630 battery). Its nightlife is very popular, and a Jazz Festival takes place in May.

Goiás Velho – Former capital of the State of Goiás, filled with Portuguese colonial architecture, also known by its popular parties and ceremonies, like the Fogaréu, in which masked men honor Christ's death and resurrection on Easter Sunday.

See also: 2014 FIFA World Cup

Brasília is home to two major football teams:

Brasiliense Futebol Clube from Taguatinga (Commonly called "Jacaré")

Sociedade Esportiva do Gama (Commonly called "Verdão")

Neither of them have been successful in the First Division of the Brazilian Championship. Brasiliense at the moment plays Second Division, while Gama was relegated to the Third Division for 2009(Dell Latitude D800 battery).

The main stadiums are the Estádio Mané Garrincha and the Serejão.

Brasília is one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup and 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup, for which Brazil is the host nation. The rebuilding of Garrincha Stadium is ongoing. The brand-new stadium which is being constructed in its place will be called National Stadium of Brasilia(Dell Latitude D810 battery).

Brasília will also host football tournaments during the 2016 Summer Olympics to be held in Rio de Janeiro.

Hang gliding

Brasília is known as a departing point for the practice of unpowered air sports, sports that may be practiced with hang gliding or paragliding wings. Practitioners of such sports reveal that, because of the city's dry weather, the city offers strong thermal winds and great "cloud-streets"(Dell Latitude D820 battery), which is also the name for a manoeuvre quite appreciated by practitioners. The national capital hosted the 14th Hang Gliding World Championship, one of the categories of free flying, in 2003. And in 2005, from August 21 to 27, it has host the 2nd stage of the Brazilian Hang Gliding Championship(Dell Latitude D830 battery).

Motor sport

Brasília is the site of the Autódromo Internacional Nelson Piquet which hosted a non-championship round of the 1974 Formula One Grand Prix season.

Basketball

The city is home to Uniceub BRB, one of Brazil's best basketball clubs. Currently NBB champion (2010,2011 and 2012). The club host some of its games at the 16,000 all-seat Nilson Nelson Gymnasium(Dell Latitude 2100 battery).

Notable people in Brasília

Kaká, soccer player born in the satellite city of Gama and playing for Real Madrid, having previously played for AC Milan and São Paulo.

Legião Urbana (Portuguese for Urban Legion) were a Brazilian rock band formed in 1982 in Brasília, Distrito Federal. The band primarily consisted of Renato Russo (vocals), Dado Villa-Lobos (guitar) and Marcelo Bonfá (drums) (Dell Latitude 2110 battery).

The Ciudad de Asunción is an autonomous capital district not part of any department. The metropolitan area, called Gran Asunción, includes the cities of San Lorenzo, Fernando de la Mora, Lambaré, Luque, Mariano Roque Alonso, Ñemby, San Antonio, Limpio, Capiatá and Villa Elisa, which are part of the Central Department(Dell Latitude E4300 battery). The Asunción metropolitan area has more than 2 million inhabitants. Asunción is located at 25°16′S 57°40′W (-25.2667, -57.6667). The Municipality of Asunción is listed on the Asunción Stock Exchange, as BVPASA: MUA, a unique feature of any city.

It is the home of the national government, principal port, and the chief industrial and cultural centre of the country(Dell Vostro 1310 battery).

Asunción is one of the oldest cities in South America and the longest continually inhabited area in the Rio de la Plata Basin; for this reason that it is known as "Mother of Cities". It was from here that the colonial expeditions departed to found other cities, including the second foundation of Buenos Aires and of other important cities such as Villarrica, Corrientes, Santa Fe and Santa Cruz de la Sierra(Dell Vostro 1320 battery).

The site of the city may have been first visited by Spanish conqueror Juan de Ayolas, on his way north, up the Paraguay River, looking for a passage to the mines of Alto Perú (present-day Bolivia). Later, Juan de Salazar y Espinosa and Gonzalo de Mendoza, relative of Pedro de Mendoza, were sent in search of Ayolas, but were unable to find him. On his way up and then down the river(Dell Vostro 1510 battery), de Salazar stopped briefly at a bay in the left bank to resupply his ships. He found the natives friendly, and decided to found a fort there, in August, 1537. He named it Nuestra Señora Santa María de la Asunción.

In 1541, natives destroyed Buenos Aires, and the Spaniards fled to Asunción. Thus, the city became the center of a large Spanish colonial province comprising part of Brazil, present-day Paraguay and northeastern Argentina: the Giant Province of the Indies(Dell Vostro 1520 battery). In 1603 Asunción was the seat of the First Synod of Asunción, which set guidelines for the evangelization of the natives in their lingua franca, Guaraní.

Asunción at night

In 1731, an uprising under José de Antequera y Castro was one of the first rebellions pene against Spanish colonial rule. The uprising failed, but it was the first sign of the independent spirit that was growing among the criollos, mestizos and natives of Paraguay(Dell Vostro 2510 battery). The event influenced the independence of Paraguay, which then materialised in 1811. The secret reunions between the independence leaders to plan an ambush against the Spanish Governor in Paraguay Bernardo de Velasco were held at the home of Juana María de Lara, in downtown Asunción. On the night of May 14 and May 15 the rebels succeeded and were able to force governor Velasco to surrender(Dell Vostro 1014 battery). Today, Lara's home is known as Casa de la Independencia (House of the Independence) and serves as a museum and historical building.

After Paraguay became independent, there was significant change in Asunción. Under the presidency of Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia roads were built throughout the city and the streets were named. However, it was during the presidency of Carlos Antonio López that Asunción (and Paraguay) progressed, as the new president implemented new economic policies(Dell Inspiron 1410 battery). More than 400 schools, metallurgic factories and the first railroad service in South America were built during the López presidency. After López died, his son Francisco Solano López became the new president and led the country through the disastrous Paraguayan War that lasted for five years. After the end of the armed conflict, Asunción was occupied by Brazilian troops until 1876(Dell Vostro 1015 battery).

Many historians have claimed that this war provoked a steady downfall of the city and country, since it massacred two thirds of the country's population. Progress slowed down greatly afterwards, and the economy remained stagnated.

After the Paraguayan War, Asunción began a slow recovery attempt. Towards the end of the 19th Century and during the early years of the 20th Century(Dell Inspiron 1088 battery), a flow of immigrants from Europe and the Ottoman Empire came to the city. This led to a change in the appearance of the city as many new buildings were built and Asunción went through an era more prosperous than any since the war.

The population is approximately 540,000 people in the city proper.[1] Roughly 30% of Paraguay's 6 million people live within Greater Asunción. Sixty-five percent of the total population in the city are under the age of 30. (Dell Vostro A840 battery)

The population has increased greatly during the last few decades as a consequence of internal migration from other Departments of Paraguay, at first because of the economic boom in the 1970s, and later because of economic recession in the countryside. The adjacent cities in the Gran Asunción area, such as Luque, Lambaré, San Lorenzo(SONY PCG-5G2L battery), Fernando de la Mora and Mariano Roque Alonso, have absorbed most of this influx due to the low cost of the land and easy access to Asunción. The city has ranked as the least expensive city to live in for five years running by Mercer Human Resource Consulting.

Most of the population of Asunción professes the Catholic religion. But in Paraguay's capital there are also places of worship of other Christian denominations including the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, as well as other religions including Islam, Buddhism and Judaism(SONY PCG-5G3L battery).

The main language spoken is Spanish (56,9%), Guaraní language is spoken by (11,1%), the (27,4%) of the population speaks Jopará, which is a positive dialect of mixing (pidgin) from Spanish to Guaraní. Other languages ​​show a presence of 4.5% in the population.

6 districts of the city of Asunción

Asunción is organized geographically into districts and these in turn bring together the different neighborhoods(SONY PCG-5J1L battery).

Geography

The Mariscal Lopez Avenue, one of the largest in the city

Asunción is located between the parallels 25° 15' and 25° 20' of south latitude and between the meridians 57° 40' and 57° 30' of west longitude. The city sits on the left bank of the Paraguay River, almost at the confluence of this river with the River Pilcomayo. The Paraguay River and the Bay of Asunción in the northwest separate the city from the Occidental Region of Paraguay and Argentina in the south part of the city(SONY PCG-5J2L battery). The rest of the city is surrounded by the Central Department.

With its location along the Paraguay River, the city offers many landscapes; it spreads out over gentle hills in a pattern of rectangular blocks. Places such as Cerro Lambaré, a hill located in Lambaré, offer a spectacular show in the springtime because of the blossoming lapacho trees in the area. Parks such as Parque Independencia and Parque Carlos Antonio López offer large areas of typical Paraguayan vegetation and are frequented by tourists(SONY PCG-5K2L battery). There are several small hills and slightly elevated areas throughout the city, including Cabará, Clavel, Tarumá, Cachinga, and Tacumbú, among others.

Asunción has a borderline humid subtropical and tropical climate, characterized by hot, humid summers and mild winters. Relative humidity is high in the summer, so the heat index is higher than the true air temperature.[citation needed] The average annual temperature is 23 °C (74°F). The average annual precipitation is 1,400 mm (55 in), distributed in 83 days yearly(SONY PCG-5L1L battery).

Asunción generally has a very short dry season that only covers the month of July and a wet season that covers the remainder of the year. The climate of Asunción can be described as hot and humid for most of the year. During the wet season, Asunción is generally hot and humid though towards the end of this season(SONY PCG-6S2L battery), it becomes noticeably cooler. In contrast, Asunción's dry season is pleasantly mild. Asuncion's annual precipatation values observe a summer maximum, due to severe subtropical summer thunderstorms which travel southward from northern Paraguay, originating in the Gran Chaco region of the northwestern part of the country. The wettest and driest months of the year are April and July respectively(SONY PCG-6S3L battery). receiving 166 mm (6.54 in) and 39 mm (1.54 in) of average total monthly precipitation respectively.

Schools

See also: List of high schools in Asunción

The city has a large number of both public and private schools. The best-known public schools are the Colegio Nacional de la Capital (which is one of the oldest schools in the city, founded in 1877), Colegio Nacional Presidente Franco and Colegio Nacional Asunción Escalada. The best-known private schools are Colegio Inmaculado Corazón de María, Salesianito(SONY PCG-6V1L battery), Colegio Cristo Rey, Colegio Internacional, Colegio San José, Colegio San Ignacio de Loyola, Colegio Santa Teresa de Jesús, American School of Asunción, Colegio Dante Alighieri, Colegio Santa Clara, Colegio Campoalto, Colegio Goethe and Colegio de la Asunción.

Universidad Americana

The main universities in the city are the Universidad Católica Nuestra Señora de la Asunción (private Catholic university) and the Universidad Nacional de Asunción (state-run) (SONY PCG-6W1L battery). The Católica has a small campus in the downtown area next to the Cathedral and a larger campus in the Santa Ana neighborhood, outwards toward the adjoining city of Lambaré, while the Universidad Nacional has its main campus in the city of San Lorenzo, some 5 km (3 mi) eastward from Asunción. There are also a number of smaller privately run universities such as Uninorte(SONY PCG-7111L battery), Universidad Americana and Universidad Autónoma de Asunción, among others.

In terms of commerce, this sector has grown considerably in recent years stretching towards the suburbs where shopping malls and supermarkets have been built. Paraguay's only stock exchange, the BVPASA, is located here. The city itself is listed on it, as BVPASA: MUA.

In Asuncion, the most important companies, businesses and investment groups are headquartered(SONY PCG-71511M battery). This city is the economic center of Paraguay, followed by Ciudad del Este and Encarnación.

The distribution of the economically active population varies across economic sectors and indicates that this population is principally involved in the tertiary sector (trade and services), taking up to 8 out of 10 individuals. The secondary sector (industry and construction) accounts for 16% of the economically active, while the share in the primary sector (agriculture) is negligible(SONY PCG-6W3L battery), since Assumption is a strictly urban area.[citation needed] On trade, this area has developed considerably in recent years, moving from the historic center to the suburbs, where they extend shopping, shopping and business trips.[citation needed]

Major international banks have their headquarters in the capital, among them we find Citibank, Itau Bank, HSBC, BBVA, etc. While among the Paraguayan capital banks are the National Development Bank, Family Bank(SONY PCG-7133L battery), Bank Amambay, Regional Bank, the Bank Vision, etc.26 At the same time, the Central Bank of Paraguay has its headquarters in this city.

Municipal expenditures budgeted and executed in Asunción totaled $ 544 441 in 2008. Of this amount $ 408 364 were executed, the balance of $ 136 077 was transferred the next year presupuestario.28 surveys have been conducted in 144 cities on the planet to find out the cheapest for foreign staff(SONY PCG-7Z1L battery). The survey revealed that Asuncion is the cheapest and support rigorously the title for the fifth consecutive year.

Transportation

Because the Paraguay River runs right next to Asunción the city is served by a river terminal in the downtown area. This port is strategically located inside a bay and it is where most freight enters and leaves the country. There is a lesser terminal in the Sajonia neighbourhood, and a shuttle port in Ita Enramada, almost opposite the Argentine city of Clorinda(SONY PCG-7Z2L battery)    .

Main access roads

Public transportation is used heavily and is served through buses that reach all the regions of the city and surrounding dormitory communities. The main long-distance bus terminal is on the Avenida República Argentina and its bus services connect all of the Departments of Paraguay, as well as international routes to nearby countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia and Uruguay(SONY PCG-8Y1L battery).

Silvio Pettirossi International Airport

Silvio Pettirossi International Airport (IATA: ASU, ICAO: SGAS) is Paraguay's main national and international gateway, located at Luque, suburb of

the capital Asunción.

Tourist attractions

Traditional buildings in Calle Palma

The Lopez Presidential Palace

The city is home to the Godoi Museum, the Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes (which contains old paintings from the 19th century), the Church of La Encarnación, the Metropolitan Cathedral and the National Pantheon of the Heroes(SONY PCG-8Y2L battery), a smaller version of Les Invalides in Paris, where many of the nation's heroes are entombed. Other landmarks include the Palacio de los López, the old Senate building (a modern building opened to house Congress in 2003) and the Casa de la Independencia (one of the few examples of colonial architecture remaining in the city) (SONY PCG-8Z2L battery).

Calle Palma is the main street downtown where several historical buildings, plazas, shops, restaurants and cafes are located. The "Manzana de la Rivera", located in front of the Presidential Palace, is a series of old traditional homes that have been restored and serve as a museum showcasing the architectural evolution of the city. The old railway station maintains the old trains that now are used in tourist trips to the cities of Luque and Areguá(SONY PCG-8Z1L battery).

For more details on this topic, see rail transport in Paraguay.

Asunción also has luxurious malls that contain shops selling well-known brands. The biggest shopping malls are Shopping del Sol; Mariscal López Shopping, Shopping Villa Morra in the central part of the city, and the Mall Excelsior downtown.

Football is the main sport in Paraguay, and Asunción is home to some of the most important and traditional soccer teams like Olimpia, Cerro Porteño and Club Libertad(SONY PCG-7112L battery), Club Nacional, Club Guaraní, Club Sol de América, which have their own stadiums and sport facilities for affiliated members. The Defensores del Chaco stadium is the main football stadium of the country and is located in the neighbourhood of Sajonia, just a few minutes away from the centre of Asunción. Since it is a national stadium sometimes it is used for other activities such as rock concerts. Asunción is also the heart of Paraguayan rugby union(SONY PCG-6W2L battery).

The nightlife revolves around two areas: one in the downtown part of the city and the other in the neighbourhoods of Manora and Las Carmelitas, a night full of nightclubs and bars.

Metropolitan Cathedral

Asunción also hosts several symphony orchestras, and ballet, opera and theater companies. The most well known orchestras are the City of Asunción's Symphony Orchestra (OSCA), the National Symphony Orchestra and the Northern University Symphony Orchestra(SONY PCG-5K1L battery). Among professional ballet companies, most renowned are the Asunción Classic and Modern Municipal Ballet, the National Ballet and the Northern University Ballet. The main opera company is the Northern University Opera Company. A long-standing theater company is Arlequín Theater Foundation's. Traditional venues include the Municipal Theater, the Paraguayan-Japanese Center, the Central Bank's Great Lyric Theater(SONY VGP-BPS9 battery), the Juan de Salazar Cultural Center, the Americas Theater, the Tom Jobim Theater, the Arlequín Theater and the Manzana de la Rivera.

The 7 treasures of cultural heritage material of Asunción

The choice of the seven treasures of cultural heritage material has been developed Asunción during the months of April and May 2009. Promoted by the "Organización Capital Americana de la Cultura", with the collaboration of the Paraguayan authorities participating in the election was carried out with the intention to disclose the material cultural heritage of Assumption(SONY VGP-BPS9/S battery).

A total of 45 candidates have chosen to become one of the treasures of cultural heritage material Assumption. The result of the vote, which involved 12,417 people, is as follows:

Newspapers

The most read newspapers are: Diario ABC Color, Diario Popular, Diario La Nación, Diario Última Hora and Diario Crónica. But the most successful are: Diario Popular and Diario ABC Color(SONY VGP-BPS9A battery).

National TV Channels

The National TV Channels are: SNT Cerro Corá, Red Guaraní, Telefuturo, Paravisión, Canal 13, La Tele(Paraguay) and TV Pública (Paraguay).

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