Barcelona And Valencia

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Barcelona is the capital of Catalonia and the second largest city in Spain, after Madrid, with a population of 1,621,537 within its administrative limits on a land area of 101.4 km2 (39 sq mi). The urban area of Barcelona extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of between 4,200,000 and 4,500,000 within an area of 803 km2 (310 sq mi), (SONY PCG-5G2L battery)being the sixth-most populous urban area in the European Union after Paris, London, the Ruhr, Madrid and Milan. About five million people live in the Barcelona metropolitan area. It is also the largest metropolis on the Mediterranean Sea. It is located on the Mediterranean coast between the mouths of the rivers Llobregat and Besòs and is bounded to the west by the Serra de Collserola ridge (512 m/1,680 ft) (SONY PCG-5G3L battery).

Founded as a Roman city, Barcelona became the capital of the County of Barcelona. After merging with the Kingdom of Aragon, Barcelona became one of the most important cities of the Crown of Aragon. Besieged several times during its history, Barcelona has a rich cultural heritage and is today an important cultural centre and a major tourist destination(SONY PCG-F305 battery). Particularly renowned are the architectural works of Antoni Gaudí and Lluís Domènech i Montaner, which have been designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean is located in Barcelona. The city is known for hosting the 1992 Summer Olympics as well as world-class conferences and expositions and also many international sport tournaments(SONY PCG-5J1L battery).

Barcelona is today one of the world's leading tourist, economic, trade fair/exhibitions and cultural-sports centres, and its influence in commerce, education, entertainment, media, fashion, science, and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities. Indeed, it is a major cultural and economic centre in southwestern Europe (Iberian Peninsula) (SONY PCG-5J2L battery), 26th in the world (after Moscow, before Dubai)[9] and a growing financial centre (Diagonal Mar and Gran Via). It is the fourth economically powerful city by GDP in the European Union and 35th in the world with an output amounting to €177 billion. As of 2009 the city was ranked Europe's third and one of the world's most successful as a city brand. At the same time, the city was ranked Europe's fourth best city for business and fastest improving European city, with growth improved by 17% per year(SONY PCG-5K2L battery). Barcelona is the transport hub with one of Europe's principal ports, Barcelona international airport, which handles above 34 million passengers per year, extensive motorway network and also is a hub of high-speed rail, particularly that which is intended to link Spain with France and the rest of Europe as the second longest in the world(SONY PCG-5L1L battery).

Names

The name Barcelona comes from the ancient Iberian Phoenician Barkeno, attested in an ancient coin inscription in Iberian script as ,[14] in Ancient Greek sources as Βαρκινών, Barkinṓn; and in Latin as Barcino[citation needed], Barcilonum[16] and Barceno.

During the Middle Ages, the city was variously known as Barchinona, Barçalona, Barchelonaa, and Barchenona(SONY PCG-6S2L battery).

Some sources say that the city may have been named after the Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca, who was supposed to have founded the city in the 3rd century BC.[18]

Nowadays, foreign people occasionally refer to Barcelona as 'Barça', the name of the popular F.C. Barcelona sports club, but locals never refer to the city as 'Barça'. On the other hand, in the eighties, Barcelona's name was often abbreviated as 'Barna'(SONY PCG-6S3L battery), but currently no one uses this abbreviation anymore. Some people, (mainly in Spanish/Catalan), use the BCN acronym.

The founding of Barcelona is the subject of two different legends. The first attributes the founding of the city to the mythological Hercules. The second legend attributes the foundation of the city directly to the historical Carthaginian Hamilcar Barca, father of Hannibal(SONY PCG-6V1L battery), who named the city Barcino after his family in the 3rd century BC.[19]

In about 15 BC, the Romans redrew the town as a castrum (Roman military camp) centred on the "Mons Taber", a little hill near the contemporary city hall (Plaça de Sant Jaume). Under the Romans, it was a colony with the surname of Faventia,[20] or, in full, Colonia Faventia Julia Augusta Pia Barcino[21] or Colonia Julia Augusta Faventia Paterna Barcino(SONY PCG-6W1L battery). Pomponius Mela[22] mentions it among the small towns of the district, probably as it was eclipsed by its neighbour Tarraco (modern Tarragona), but it may be gathered from later writers that it gradually grew in wealth and consequence, favoured as it was with a beautiful situation and an excellent harbour.[23] It enjoyed immunity from imperial burdens.[24] The city minted its own coins; some from the era of Galba survive(SONY PCG-7111L battery).

Basilica of La Mercè (Mare de Déu de la Mercè)

Some important Roman ruins are exposed under the Plaça del Rei, its entrance located by the city museum (Museu d'Història de la Ciutat); the typically Roman grid plan is still visible today in the layout of the historical centre, the Barri Gòtic ("Gothic Quarter"). Some remaining fragments of the Roman walls have been incorporated into the cathedral. (SONY PCG-71511M battery) The cathedral, also known as the Basilica La Seu, is said to have been founded in 343. The city was conquered by the Visigoths in the early 5th century, becoming for a few years the capital of all Hispania. After being conquered by the Arabs in the early 8th century, it was reconquered in 801 by Charlemagne's son Louis, who made Barcelona the seat of the Carolingian "Hispanic March" (Marca Hispanica), a buffer zone ruled by the Count of Barcelona(SONY PCG-6W3L battery).

The Counts of Barcelona became increasingly independent and expanded their territory to include all of Catalonia. In 1137, Aragon and the County of Barcelona merged in dynastic union[26][27] by the marriage of Ramon Berenguer IV and Petronilla of Aragon, their titles finally borne by only one person when their son Alfonso II of Aragon ascended to the throne in 1162(SONY PCG-7113L battery). His territories were later to be known as the Crown of Aragon, which conquered many overseas possessions and ruled the western Mediterranean Sea with outlying territories in Naples and Sicily and as far as Athens in the 13th century. The forging of a dynastic link between the Crowns of Aragon and Castile marked the beginning of Barcelona's decline. The Bank of Barcelona(SONY PCG-7133L battery), probably the oldest public bank in Europe, was established by the city magistrates in 1401. It originated from necessities of the state, as did the Bank of Venice (1402) and the Bank of Genoa (1407).[28]

Barcelona in 1563

The marriage of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile in 1469 united the two royal lines. Madrid became the centre of political power whilst the colonisation of the Americas reduced the financial importance (at least in relative terms) of Mediterranean trade(SONY PCG-7Z1L battery). Barcelona had always been the stronghold of Catalan separatism and was the center of the Catalan Revolt (1640–52) against Philip IV of Spain. The great plague of 1650–1654 halved the city's population.[29]

The fortress at Montjuïc, most southerly point from which measurements were made when calculating the meridional definition of the metre(SONY PCG-7Z2L battery)

In the 18th century, a fortress was built at Montjuïc that overlooked the harbour. In 1794, this fortress was used by the French astronomer Pierre François André Méchain for observations relating to a survey stretching to Dunkirk that provided the official basis of the measurement of a metre.[30] The definitive metre bar, manufactured from platinum(SONY PCG-8Y1L battery), was presented to the French legislative assembly on 22 June 1799. The Napoleonic wars left the province ravaged, but the postwar period saw the start of industrialization.

The city was a Republican stronghold during the Spanish Civil War, and the fall of the city on 26 January 1939 caused a mass exodus of civilians who fled to the French border(SONY PCG-8Y2L battery). The resistance of Barcelona to Franco's coup d'état was to have lasting effects after the defeat of the Republican government. The autonomous institutions of Catalonia were abolished,[31] and the use of the Catalan language in public life was suppressed. Barcelona remained the second largest city in Spain, at the heart of a region which was relatively industrialised and prosperous(SONY PCG-8Z2L battery), despite the devastation of the civil war. The result was a large-scale immigration from poorer regions of Spain (particularly Andalusia, Murcia and Galicia), which in turn led to rapid urbanisation. Barcelona hosted the Olympic Games in 1992, which helped revitalize the city.[32]

A panoramic view of Barcelona (click to enlarge)

Barcelona from space

Barcelona is located on the northeast coast of the Iberian Peninsula, facing the Mediterranean Sea, on a plain approximately 5 km (3 mi) wide limited by the mountain range of Collserola, the Llobregat river to the southwest and the Besòs river to the north. (SONY PCG-8Z1L battery) This plain covers an area of 170 km2 (66 sq mi),[33] of which 101 km² (38.9 sq mi)[34] are occupied by the city itself. It is 120 km (75 mi) south of the Pyrenees and the Catalan border with France.

Tibidabo, 512 m (1,680 ft) high, offers striking views over the city[35] and is topped by the 288.4 m (946.2 ft) Torre de Collserola, a telecommunications tower that is visible from most of the city. Barcelona is peppered with small hills, most of them urbanised(SONY PCG-7112L battery), that gave their name to the neighbourhoods built upon them, such as Carmel (267 m), Putxet (181 m) and Rovira (261 m). The escarpment of Montjuïc (173 m), situated to the southeast, overlooks the harbour and is topped by Montjuïc castle, a fortress built in the 17–18th centuries to control the city as a replacement for the Ciutadella(SONY PCG-6W2L battery). Today, the fortress is a museum and Montjuïc is home to several sporting and cultural venues, as well as Barcelona's biggest park and gardens.

The city borders on the municipalities of Santa Coloma de Gramenet and Sant Adrià de Besòs to the north; the Mediterranean Sea to the east; El Prat de Llobregat and L'Hospitalet de Llobregat to the south; and Sant Feliu de Llobregat, Sant Just Desvern, Esplugues de Llobregat, Sant Cugat del Vallès, and Montcada i Reixac to the west(SONY VGP-BPS13 battery).

Main article: Climate of Barcelona

Barcelona has a Mediterranean climate[36] (Köppen climate classification: Csa),[37] with mild, humid winters and warm, dry summers.

Its average annual temperature is 20 °C (68 °F) during the day and 11 °C (52 °F) at night. The average annual temperature of the sea is about 18 °C (64 °F). In the coldest month – January, the temperature typically ranges from 8 to 17 °C (46 to 63 °F) during the day, 2 to 10 °C (36 to 50 °F) (SONY VGP-BPS13Q battery) at night and the average sea temperature is 13 °C (55 °F).[38] In the warmest month – August, the typical temperature ranges from 25 to 31 °C (77 to 88 °F) during the day, about 20 °C (68 °F) at night and the average sea temperature is 25 °C (77 °F). Generally – the summer / "holiday" season lasts about six months, from May to October. Two months – April and November –(SONY VGP-BPS13A/Q battery)are transitional; sometimes the temperature exceeds 20 °C (68 °F), with an average temperature of 17–18 °C (63–64 °F) during the day and 8–9 °C (46–48 °F) at night. December, January and February are the coldest months, with average temperatures around 14 °C (57 °F) during the day and 5 °C (41 °F) at night. Large fluctuations in temperature are rare, particularly in the summer months(SONY VGP-BPS13B/Q battery).

Barcelona has average several rainy days per month (≥ 1 mm) and annual average relative humidity is 72%, ranging from 69% in July to 75% in October. Sunshine duration is 2,524 hours per year, from 138 (average 4.5 hours of sunshine at day) in December to 310 (average 10 hours of sunshine at day) in July(SONY VGP-BPS13/B battery).

Main sights

Sagrada Família church, Gaudi's masterpiece

The Barri Gòtic (Catalan for "Gothic Quarter") is the centre of the old city of Barcelona. Many of the buildings date from medieval times, some from as far back as the Roman settlement of Barcelona. Catalan modernista architecture (related to the movement known as Art Nouveau in the rest of Europe), developed between 1885 and 1950 and left an important legacy in Barcelona(SONY VGP-BPS13B/B battery). Several of these buildings are World Heritage Sites. Especially remarkable is the work of architect Antoni Gaudí, which can be seen throughout the city. His best-known work is the immense but still unfinished church of the Sagrada Família, which has been under construction since 1882, and is still financed by private donations. As of 2007, completion is planned for 2026(SONY VGP-BPS13A/S battery).

Barcelona was also home to Mies van der Rohe's Barcelona Pavilion. Designed in 1929 for the International Exposition for Germany, it is an iconic building that came to symbolize modern architecture as the embodiment of van der Rohe's aphorisms "less is more" and "God is in the details." The Barcelona pavilion was intended as a temporary structure(SONY VGP-BPS21A/B battery), and was torn down in 1930 less than a year after it was constructed. A modern re-creation by Spanish architects now stands in Barcelona, however, constructed in 1986.

Barcelona won the 1999 RIBA Royal Gold Medal for its architecture,[41] the first (and as of 2012, only) time that the winner has been a city, and not an individual architect.

Historic buildings and monuments(SONY VGP-BPS21B battery)

Further information: List of Modernista buildings in Barcelona

See also category: Buildings and structures in Barcelona

Barcelona Cathedral

Sagrada Família, the international symbol of Barcelona

Palau de la Música Catalana and Hospital de Sant Pau, designed by Lluís Domènech i Montaner, included in the UNESCO Heritage List list in 1997.

Works by Antoni Gaudí, including Park Güell, Palau Güell, Casa Milà (La Pedrera), Casa Vicens, Sagrada Família (Nativity façade and crypt), Casa Batlló, Crypt in Colonia Güell. The first three works were inscribed as a World Heritage Site in 1984(SONY VGP-BPS21 battery). The other four were added as extensions to the site in 2005.

Barcelona has a great number of museums, which cover different areas and eras. The National Museum of Art of Catalonia possesses a well-known collection of Romanesque art while the Barcelona Museum of Contemporary Art focuses on post-1945 Catalan and Spanish art. The Fundació Joan Miró, Picasso Museum and Fundació Antoni Tàpies hold important collections of these world-renowned artists(SONY VGP-BPS21/S battery).

Several museums cover the fields of history and archeology, like the City History Museum, the Museum of the History of Catalonia, the Archeology Museum of Catalonia, the Barcelona Maritime Museum and the private-owned Egyptian Museum. The Erotic museum of Barcelona is among the most peculiar ones, while Cosmocaixa is a science museum that received the European Museum of the Year Award in 2006(SONY VGP-BPS13AS battery).

Park Güell (Parc Güell)

Barcelona contains sixty-eight municipal parks, of which twelve are historic parks, five are thematic (botanical) parks, forty-five are urban parks and six are forest parks.[43] They range from vest-pocket parks to large recreation areas. The urban parks alone cover 10% of the city (549.7 ha/1,358.3 acres).[34] The total park surface grows about 10 ha (25 acres) per year, (SONY VGP-BPS13S battery)with a proportion of 18.1 square metres (195 sq ft) of park area per inhabitant.[45]

Of Barcelona's parks, Montjuïc is the largest, with 203 ha located on the mountain of the same name.[34] It is followed by Parc de la Ciutadella (which occupies the site of the old military citadel and which houses the Parliament building, the Barcelona Zoo and several museums); 31 ha/76.6 acres including the zoo), (SONY VGP-BPS13B/S battery) the Guinardó Park (19 ha/47.0 acres), Park Güell (designed by Antoni Gaudí; 17.2 ha/42.5 acres), Oreneta Castle Park (also 17.2 ha/42.5 acres), Diagonal Mar Park (13.3 ha/32.9 acres, inaugurated in 2002), Nou Barris Central Park (13.2 ha/32.6 acres), Can Dragó Sports Park and Poblenou Park (both 11.9 ha/29.4 acres), the Labyrinth Park (9.10 ha/22.5 acres) (SONY VGP-BPS13B/G battery), named after the garden maze it contains.[34] There are also several smaller parks, for example, the Parc de les Aigües (2 ha/4.9 acres). A part of the Collserolla Park is also within the city limits. PortAventura, one of the largest amusement parks in Europe with 3,000,000 visitors per year, is located one hour's drive from Barcelona. (SONY VGP-BPS14 battery)

The Barceloneta beach

Barcelona beach was listed as number one in a list of the top ten city beaches in the world according to National Geographic[47] and Discovery Channel.[48] Barcelona contains seven beaches, totalling 4.5 km (2.8 mi) of coastline. Sant Sebastià, Barceloneta and Somorrostro beaches, both 1,100 m (3,610 ft) in length,[34] are the largest(SONY VGP-BPL14 battery), oldest and the most-frequented beaches in Barcelona. The Olympic Harbour separates them from the other city beaches: Nova Icària, Bogatell, Mar Bella, Nova Mar Bella and Llevant. These beaches (ranging from 400 to 640 m/1,300 to 2,100 ft) were opened as a result of the city restructuring to host the 1992 Summer Olympics, when a great number of industrial buildings were demolished(SONY VGP-BPS14/B battery). At present, the beach sand is artificially replenished given that storms regularly remove large quantities of material. The 2004 Universal Forum of Cultures left the city a large concrete bathing zone on the eastmost part of the city's coastline.

Demographic evolution, 1900–2007, according to the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Estadística

According to Barcelona's City Council, Barcelona's population as of 1 June 2006 was 1,673,075 people, (SONY VGP-BPS14/S battery) It is the main component of an administrative area of Greater Barcelona, with a population of 3,218,071 in an area of 636 km² (density 5,060 hab/km²). The population of the urban area was 4,223,000. It is the central nucleus of the Barcelona metropolitan area, which relies on a population of 5,083,000.

The population density of Barcelona was 15,779 inhabitants per square kilometre (40,870 /sq mi),[51] with Eixample being the most populated district(SONY VGP-BPS14B battery). 62% of the inhabitants were born in Catalonia, with a 23.5% coming from the rest of Spain. Of the 13.9% from other countries, a proportion which has more than tripled since 2001 when it was 3.9%,[34] the majority come from (in order) Ecuador, Peru, Morocco, Colombia, Argentina, Pakistan and China.[52] The city also has the largest Jewish community in Spain, with an estimated 3,500 Jews living in the city(SONY VGP-BPS22 battery).

As an official language, Spanish is understood almost universally in Barcelona. In addition, 95% of the population understand Catalonia's own native Catalan language, while 74.6% can speak it, 75% can read it, and 47.1% can write it,[54] thanks to the linguistic immersion educational system. While most of the population state they are Roman Catholic (208 churches), (SONY VGP-BPS22 battery) there are also a number of other groups, including Evangelical (71 locations, mostly professed by Roma), Jehovah's Witnesses (21 Kingdom Halls) and Buddhists (13 locations),[55] and a number of Muslims due to immigration.

Forum Park in Barcelona

In 1900, Barcelona had a population of 533,000 people,[33] which grew steadily but slowly until 1950, when it started absorbing a high number of people from other less-industrialized parts of Spain(SONY VGP-BPS18 battery). Barcelona's population peaked in 1979 with 1,906,998 people, and fell throughout the 1980s and 1990s as more people sought a higher quality of life in outlying cities in the Barcelona Metropolitan Area. After bottoming out in 2000 with 1,496,266 people, the city's population began to rise again as younger people started to return, causing a great increase in housing prices. (SONY VGP-BPS22/A battery)

[edit]Population density

Note: This text is entirely based on the municipal statistical database provided by the city council.

Barcelona is one of the most densely populated cities in Europe. For the year 2008 the city council calculated the population to 1,628,090 living in the 102.2 km2 sized municipality, giving the city an average population density of 15,926 inhabitants per square kilometre(SONY VGP-BPS22A battery).

In the case of Barcelona though, the land distribution is extremely uneven. Half of the municipality or 50.2 km2, all of it located on the municipal edge is made up of the ten least densely populated neighbourhoods containing less than 10% of the city's population, the uninhabited Zona Franca industrial area and Montjuïc forest park(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11S battery). Leaving the remaining 90% or slightly below 1.5 million inhabitants living on the remaining 52 square kilometres at an average density close to 28,500 inhabitants per square kilometre.

Of the 73 neighbourhoods in the city, 45 had a population density above 20,000 inhabitants per square kilometre with a combined population of 1,313,424 inhabitants living on 38.6 km2 at an average density of 33,987 inhabitants per square km(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ15T battery). The 30 most densely populated neighbourhoods accounted for 57.5% of the city population occupying only 22,7% of the municipality, or in other words, 936,406 people living at an average density of 40,322 inhabitants per square kilometre. The city's highest density is found at and around the neighbourhood of la Sagrada Família where four of the city's most densely populated neighbourhoods are located side by side(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ15G battery), all with a population density above 50,000 inhabitants per square kilometre.

Fórum Convention Center and Barcelona Stock Exchange

The Barcelona metropolitan area comprises over 66% of the people in one of the richest regions in Southern Europe – Catalonia, with a GDP PPP per capita amounting to €30,300 (21% more than the EU average). The Barcelona metropolitan area had a GDP amounting to $177 billion, equivalent to $34,821 in per capita terms (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ460E battery) (44% more than the EU average) making it the 4th economically powerful city by GDP in the European Union and 35th in the world in 2009.[10] Barcelona city had very high a GDP of €80,894 per head in 2004, according to Eurostat.[57] Furthermore, Barcelona was Europe's fourth best business city and fastest improving European city, with growth improved by 17% per year as of 2009. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ440N battery)

Barcelona is the 14th most "livable city" in the world according to lifestyle magazine Monocle.[58] Similarly, according to Innovation Analysts 2thinknow, Barcelona occupies 13th place in the world on Innovation Cities™ Global Index.[59]

Barcelona has a long-standing mercantile tradition. Less well known is that the region was one of the earliest to begin industrialization in continental Europe, beginning with textile-related works from the mid 1780s but really gathering momentum in the mid-19th century(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11L battery), when it became a major centre for the production of textiles and machinery.[citation needed] Since then, manufacturing has played a large role in its history.

Borsa de Barcelona (Barcelona Stock Exchange) is the main stock exchange in the northeastern part of the Iberian Peninsula.

World Trade Center Barcelona

Drawing upon its tradition of creative art and craftsmanship, Barcelona is known for its award-winning industrial design(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11Z battery). It also has several congress halls, notably Fira de Barcelona – second largest trade fair and exhibition centres in Europe,[60] that host a quickly growing number of national and international events each year (at present above 50). Fira de Barcelona venues total is 405,000 m2 (41 ha), not counting Gran Via center on the Plaza de Europa. However, the economic crisis and deep cuts in business travel are affecting the Council's positioning of the city as a convention centre. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11M battery)

An important business centre, the World Trade Center Barcelona, is located in Barcelona's Port Vell harbour.

The city is known for hosting well as world-class conferences and expositions, including the 1888 Exposición Universal de Barcelona, the 1929 Barcelona International Exposition (Expo 1929), the 2004 Universal Forum of Cultures and the 2004 World Urban Forum(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ18M battery).

Barcelona is the 16th-most-visited city in the world and the fourth most visited in Europe after Paris, London, and Rome, with several million tourists every year.[62]

Barcelona as internationally renowned a tourist destination, with numerous recreational areas, one of the best beaches in the world, mild and warm climate and historical monuments, including eight UNESCO World Heritage Sites has tens good-quality hotels and developed tourist infrastructure. Also, three times more tourists visit than there are residents(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ18 battery).

SEAT and Nissan factories and headquarters are in the city and suburbs

Past and present, Barcelona is an important European automobile manufacturing centre. Formerly there were automobile factories of AFA, Abadal, Actividades Industriales, Alvarez, America, Artés de Arcos, Balandrás, Baradat-Esteve, Biscúter, J. Castro, Clúa, David, Delfín, Díaz y Grilló, Ebro trucks, Edis, Elizalde, Automóviles España, Eucort, Fenix(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31S battery), Fábrica Hispano, Auto Academia Garriga, Fábrica Española de Automóviles Hebe, Hispano-Suiza, Huracán Motors, Talleres Hereter, Junior SL, Kapi, La Cuadra, M.A., Automóviles Matas, Motores y Motos, Nacional Custals, National Pescara, Nacional RG, Nacional Rubi, Nacional Sitjes, Automóviles Nike, Orix, Otro Ford, Partia, Pegaso, PTV, Ricart, Ricart-España, Industrias Salvador, Siata Española(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31Z battery), Stevenson, Romagosa y Compañía, Garaje Storm, Talleres Hereter, Trimak, Automóviles Victoria, Manufacturas Mecánicas Aleu.

Today, the headquarters and a large factory of SEAT (the largest Spanish automobile manufacturer) are in one of its suburbs. There is also a Nissan factory lies in the logistics and industrial area of the city. Also, the factory of Derbi, large manufacturer of motorcycles, scooters and mopeds lies near the city(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31E battery).

As in other modern cities, the manufacturing sector has long since been overtaken by the services sector, though it remains very important. The region's leading industries today are textiles, chemical, pharmaceutical, motor, electronic, printing, logistics, publishing, telecommunications and information technology services(Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31J battery) (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31M battery).

The Brandery, fashion show in Barcelona.

The traditional importance of textiles is reflected in Barcelona's drive to become a major fashion centre. Beginning in the summer of 2000, the city hosted the prestigious Bread & Butter urban fashion fair until 2009, when its organisers announced that it would be returning to Berlin.[67][68] This was a hard blow for the city as the fair brought €100 m to the city in just three days. (Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31B battery) There have been many attempts to launch Barcelona as a fashion capital, notably Gaudi Home. The Brandery, an urban fashion show, is held in Barcelona twice a year. Barcelona is the seventh most important fashion capital in the world.[70]

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