The Australian National University (ANU) is a public university located in Canberra, the capital of Australia. Established by a Federal Act of Parliament in 1946, it is the only Australian university to be established by Federal, as opposed to State or Territory, legislationSony PCG-71313M battery.
Centered at the Acton, Canberra campus, the university comprises seven teaching and research colleges, several focused postgraduate research centres and three non-tertiary educational entities. It also hosts the Australian National Centre for the Public Awareness of Science, the National Film and Sound Archive of Australia and the National Computational Infrastructure facilitySony PCG-71212M battery.
In 2011, ANU was ranked 1st and 2nd among Australian universities, and 26th and 38th among the world's universities by the QS World University Rankings and the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, respectively. Two Australian Prime Ministers attended the university, and ANU counts six Nobel laureates among its staff and alumniSony PCG-71311M battery.
ANU is a member of several university alliances and cooperative networks, including the Group of Eight, the Association of Pacific Rim Universities, the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy and the International Alliance of Research Universities. As of 2010, there are 3,681 staff, including 1,506 academic staff who teach 8,688 undergraduate and 4,752 postgraduate studentsSony PCG-71213M battery.
The remains of the ANU 500MJ Homopolar generator designed by Mark Oliphant
20th century origins
The undergraduate teaching component of the current institution originated with the establishment in 1930 of the Canberra University College via the Canberra University College Ordinance 1929, intended to fulfil the need for a tertiary education provider in the Australian Capital Territory area, pending the establishment of a complete teaching universitySony PCG-61211M battery. Studies at the college were facilitated by the University of Melbourne, from which enrolled students formally received their accreditation.
A group of eminent Australian scholars were involved in the infancy of ANU, such as Sir Mark Oliphant, a leader in radar development and nuclear physics; Sir Howard Florey, a co-discoverer of the benefits of penicillinSony VAIO VPCF24Q1E battery; Sir Keith Hancock, an eminent historian; and H. C. Coombs, a renowned economist and public servant.
The Australian National University was established by an act of the Parliament of Australia, introduced by the then Prime Minister Ben Chifley and the Minister for Post-war Reconstruction J.J. Dedman with support of the Opposition Leader Robert Menzies. The bill was passed on 1 August 1946 and its provisions came into effect on 7 February 1947.Sony VAIO VPCF13M1E/H battery ANU is the only Australian university to be established by an act of the Federal Parliament. Administrative and research staff began their appointments in 1950, the University's focus being limited to research tenure and postgraduate education until 1960, when the Canberra University College was amalgamated into the Australian National University as the undergraduate degree providing School of General Studies. Sony VAIO VPCF12Z1E/BI battery
On 5 July 1960 a fire during the night destroyed much of the eastern end of the Cockcroft Building. The damage included the drawing office, many student's and staff's results and files and the control room for the 600 kV Cockcroft-Walton accelerator. The 600 kV accelerator though only water damaged had to be scrappedSony VAIO VPCF12S1E/B battery. Refurbishment of the burnt out area was completed in September 1961.
Early departments that have now been spun off into research schools of their own include the departments of Astronomy and Geophysics and Geochemistry. Geophysics and Geochemistry separated into the Research School of Earth Sciences in 1973. Mount Stromlo Observatory became part of the Department of Astronomy in 1957. While part of the schoolSony VAIO VPCF13Z8E/BI battery, the Department of Astronomy developed Siding Spring Observatory and installed many new telescopes at Mount Stromlo Observatory. It separated into the Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics in 1986.
Remains of the dome of the 50-inch Great Melbourne telescope
Walter Burley Griffin’s plan for the design of Canberra not only designated Acton peninsula as a hospital site, but did so whilst simultaneously placing it adjacent to a university where he envisaged a medical school would be located. Sony VAIO VPCF13Z8E battery In April 2001, after intense public debate and a committee of inquiry lasting eight months, it was announced that ANU was to develop Australia's 12th and the world's 896th medical school. Shortly afterwards staff at the medical school made a proposal to the National Capital Authority that the old hospice and isolation block facilities on Acton Peninsula Sony VAIO VPCF13M1E/B battery (which had been heritage listed for a health use) should be leased to the Medical School for teaching and clinical purposes.
On 18 January 2003 the Canberra firestorm hit the Mount Stromlo Observatory, destroying five telescopes, workshops, seven homes and the heritage listed administration building. The only telescope to escape the fires was the 1868 15-centimetre Farnham telescope. Relics from the fire are preserved in the collection of the National Museum of AustraliaSony VAIO VPCF1318E/H battery. They include a melted telescope mirror and a piece of melted optical glass (flint). The latter has pieces of charcoal and wire fused into it from the fierce heat of the fire. Redevelopment is largely completed.
Mount Stromlo after the fires: remains of the old administration building with the dome of the Farnham telescopeSony VAIO VPCF13J0E/H battery
ANU main campus occupies most of the Canberra suburb of Acton, covering 1.45 square kilometres (360 acres) of buildings, roads and access routes, preserved original vegetation and new plantings. It is roughly bisected by Sullivans Creek and is bordered by the native bushland of Black Mountain, Lake Burley Griffin, the suburb of Turner and the city centreSony VAIO VPCF13E8E battery. The ANU campus is divided into eight precincts, with three on the west side of Sullivans Creek; Dickson Precinct, Linnaeus Precinct, Daley Precinct; and five on the east side; Kingsley Precinct, Baldessin Precinct, Ellery Precinct, Liversidge Precinct and Garran Precinct.
The university incorporates a number of structures and sites of historical and conservational significance dating from the earliest establishment of the national capitalSony VAIO VPCF13E4E battery, with many buildings recognised by one or more of the Commonwealth Heritage List, the ACT Heritage Register and the National Trust. Notable structures on campus include Old Canberra House, completed in 1913, the previous Canberra Community Hospital and a previous diplomatic mission.
With over 10,000 trees on its campus, ANU was awarded the Silver Greenhouse Challenge Award at the annual Australian Engineering Excellence Awards in 2003Sony VAIO VPCF12M1E/H battery.
Standing figure, (1981–82). University House.
Australian National University Library
Main article: Australian National University Library
R. G. Menzies Building
The Australian National University Library is part of ANU's Division of Information. The Australian National University Library began with the appointment of the first University Librarian, Arthur Leopold Gladstone McDonald in early 1948Sony VAIO VPCF12F4E/H battery. The establishment of the ANU Library was deemed so important to the development of the University, that McDonald was appointed by the Interim Council before any of the professors.
Initially McDonald and several assistants were housed in Ormond College at the University of Melbourne, where they began to form the collection. At the end of 1950s the collection, which had grown to approximately 40,000 volumesSony VAIO VPCF12E1E/H battery, was transferred to Canberra, to be located in the Canberra Community Hospital and nearby huts. Over the course of the 1950s the collection grew steadily, and by the time of McDonald's retirement in the 1960s, the collection had grown to 150,000 volumes.
The ANU Library collection is housed in four main locations; the R.G. Menzies Building (Asia Pacific material); the J.B. Chifley Building Sony VAIO VPCF11Z1E/BI battery (Social Sciences & Humanities material); the W.K. Hancock Building (Science material); and the Law Library in the Law School Building. Additional services are provided by five science branch libraries: Art Library, Chemistry Branch Library, Earth Sciences Branch Library, Eccles Medical Sciences Library and Music Library. ANU owns a collection of rare books, housed in a closed access collection held in the Rare Book Room in the R.G. Menzies BuildingSony VAIO VPCF24M1E battery.
Centre for the Public Awareness of Science
Main article: Centre for the Public Awareness of Science
Centre for the Public Awareness of Science at the Australian National University in Canberra
The Centre for the Public Awareness of Science (CPAS) is a UNESCO Centre, which engages with science communication and communicators in the Pacific region and beyond. CPAS was launched in 1996 with Professor Richard Dawkins performing the opening ceremony. Sony VAIO VPCF23S1E battery It owes it origin to the establishment, twenty years earlier, of a modest science centre in a vacant primary school in Canberra. This burgeoning science centre eventually grew into Questacon – The National Science and Technology Centre. Questacon was the brainchild of Michael Gore, a senior lecturer in Physics at the Australian National University, who became its first directorSony VAIO VPCF231S1E battery. An important part of its activities was outreach, supported from the beginning by sponsorship from Shell Australia.
By 1994, the demand was so great that the Faculty of Science agreed to fund a Lectureship in Science Communication. This was the first in Australia. Dr Susan Stocklmayer was appointed to the position and immediately announced her intention of establishing a university centre for science communication. The Centre was established in 1996Sony VAIO VPCF23Q1E battery, with Professor Bryant as its first director. Dr Stocklmayer took over the position in 1998, where she remains today.
In partnership with the UNESCO Pacific Office in Apia, Samoa, CPAS has focused on science teaching training and communication in Pacific nations. As well as running a science journalism workshop for Pacific Island journalists in 2001, CPAS followed up in the same year with a science teacher workshop and the first Pacific Science Communication Forum. Sony VAIO VPCF23M1E battery The UNESCO office in Jakarta invited CPAS to join a mission to Cambodia to conduct a survey to identify and assess the needs of the country with respect to science education in schools and universities. Other activities include joining with UNESCO (Apia) to help in its aims to raise social participation in science in and around the Pacific. CPAS also established, as a pilot project, the Register of Pacific ScientistsSony VAIO VPCF22S8E battery, an online database for those involved with Pacific Science to record their details and/or search for other people with similar or complementary interests. Other activities of CPAS include the presentation of workshops for secondary school science teachers and others in Fiji, India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Japan and New Zealand. A joint teaching program is being developed with the National University of SingaporeSony VAIO VPCF22S1E battery. In South Africa, CPAS helped to develop a touring hands-on science exhibition and has been invited to work in and with various South African science centres.
In subsequent years, the work of CPAS has been recognised by a number of awards and honours: In 1999, CPAS, Shell Australia and Questacon jointly won the Business/Higher Education Round Table AwardSony VAIO VPCF22M1E battery. The citation commends CPAS as “a university centre whose brief is to empower Australians by encouraging in them the confidence of 'ownership' of modern science. It is intended to increase science awareness in the Australian community and to improve communication skills of scientists.” In 2000, it was designated as the first UNESCO Centre for Science CommunicationSony VAIO VPCF22L1E battery.
Other campuses and facilities
ANU occupies six additional locations in the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, the Northern Territory. The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics (RSAA) is located away from the main campus in Acton, at the Mount Stromlo Observatory, near Weston Creek in south Canberra. RSAA also runs the Siding Spring Observatory near CoonabarabranSony VAIO VPCF22J1E battery, New South Wales. Since the destruction of Mount Stromlo's telescopes in the Canberra bushfires of 2003, this is university's only operational telescope site. The university also runs a coastal campus at Kioloa on the South Coast of New South Wales dedicated to field work training, and a North Australia Research Unit in Darwin in the Northern TerritorySony VAIO VPCF11S1E/B battery.
Undergraduate students on all campuses are represented by the ANU Students' Association. Postgraduate students are represented by the Postgraduate and Research Students' Association (PARSA), a member of the Council of Australian Postgraduate Associations. The Australian National University Union provides representation to all students in the provision of catering and retail services as well as functions amenitiesSony VAIO VPCF11M1E/H battery.
Residential halls and colleges
Eight of the university's nine affiliated halls and colleges are located on campus, while Fenner Hall is located on Northbourne Avenue in the nearby suburb of Braddon. The halls and colleges are: Bruce Hall, Ursula Hall, Fenner Hall, Burgmann College, John XXIII College, Burton & Garran Hall, UniLodge Davey, UniLodge Kinloch, Unilodge Warrumbul, Lena Karmel LodgeSony VAIO VPCF11D4E battery, Toad Hall, University House and Graduate House. In 2010, Griffin Hall, a non-residential college, was established for students living off-campus.
Burgmann and neighbouring John XXIII College are the only remaining independent residential colleges among the Australian National University's ten halls of residence. Burgmann and John XXIII continue to administer their own admissions processes separate from the university's central clearinghouse for accommodationSony VAIO VPCF11C5E battery.
Although the University accommodation houses more than 3,700 students, in the past ANU suffered from chronic shortage of student accommodation, due in part to over-enrolment. This has since been alleviated by the construction of new colleges.
Administration, organisation and academic structure
Main article: Academic Structure of the Australian National University
The governing body is a 15 member Council which governs under the Australian National University Act 1991Sony VAIO VPCF11C4E/B battery. The Council's key responsibilities include appointing the Vice Chancellor and Principal, approving the strategic direction and annual budget, establishing operational policies and procedures, and overseeing academic and commercial activities as well as risk management. The chair of the Council is the Chancellor, Professor The Hon Gareth Evans AO QC.
In 2010, the university had an endowment of approximately A$1.2371 billionSony VAIO PCG-31114M battery.
ANU School of Art
ANU is divided into seven academic Colleges and three postgraduate research focus centres, which each contain a network of inter-related faculties, research schools and centres. Each College is responsible for undergraduate and postgraduate education as well as research in its respective fieldSony VAIO PCG-31113M battery.
ANU College of Arts and Social Sciences
The ANU College of Arts and Social Sciences encompasses the field of humanities, creative arts and social sciences. It incorporates the Research School of Social Sciences, delivering education and research in the fields of history, philosophy, politics, international relations, and sociology; the Research School of Humanities and the Arts, including the ANU School of Music and ANU School of Art; and the Australian Demographic and Social Research InstituteSony VAIO PCG-31112M battery.
ANU College of Asia and the Pacific
The ANU College of Asia and the Pacific hosts education and research in a wide range of fields with a focus on Australia's geographic neighbourhood. The School of Culture, History and Language (which includes the former Faculty of Asian Studies) teaches and researches in the humanities and social sciences of the Asia Pacific region, as well as teaching a wide range of Asian languagesSony VAIO PCG-31111M battery. The Crawford School of Economics and Government conducts economic and public policy research on domestic, regional and international issues. The School of International, Political and Strategic Studies conducts education and research in the analysis and understanding of the international, political, societal, and strategic affairs of Asia and the PacificSony VAIO PCG-41112M battery. The School of Regulation, Justice and Diplomacy comprises the Asia Pacific College of Diplomacy and the Regulatory Institutions Network and conducts education and research into social and economic regulation and international diplomacy.
ANU College of Business and Economics
The ANU College of Business and Economics (CBE) comprises various schools and centres. These are the School of Accounting and Business Information Systems (ABIS), the School of Economics, the School of Finance, Actuarial Studies and Applied Statistics (FASS) Sony VAIO PCG-41111M battery, the School of Management, Marketing and International Business (MMIB), the Research School of Economics (RSE) and the Research School of Business. The centres are the Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, National Centre for Information Systems Research (NCISR) and the Australian National Centre for Audit and Assurance ResearchSONY VAIO PCG-21212M battery.
ANU College of Engineering and Computer Science
The ANU College of Engineering and Computer Science comprises the Research School of Computer Science and the Research School of Engineering. The Research School of Information Sciences and Engineering (RSISE) was established on 1 January 1994. RSISE resulted from the merger of the Department of Systems Engineering (1981) and the Computer Sciences Laboratory (1988) SONY VAIO PCG-21211M battery, both of which were part of the Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering (RSPhysSE). The Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology (FEIT) was established in 1993, and the Research School joined in 2004 form a single institute that would become ANU College of Engineering and Computer Science (CECS) on 1 January 2006. The 2006 merger joined the undergraduate and research activities into two schoolsSONY VAIO PCG-51212M battery; the School of Engineering and the School of Computer Science, which were renamed as Research Schools in February 2011. The college has roughly 150 academic staff, 100 general staff, 200 higher degree by research students, and 1,000 undergraduate students.
ANU College of Law
ANU College of Law.
The ANU College of Law was established in 1960. The college conducts research and teaching, and engages with the community in a wide range of outreach activities such as advising government, sitting on tribunals, giving pro bono legal adviceSONY VAIO PCG-51211M battery. It offers a range of undergraduate and postgraduate law programmes, as well as practical legal training through their 'Legal Workshop' programme. In addition to its academic programme, the law school promotes a range of co-curricular activities including mooting, negotiation and client interview competitions, membership of the Federal Law Review student editor board, and The ANU Law RevueSONY VAIO PCG-51112M battery.
ANU College of Medicine, Biology and Environment
The ANU College of Medicine, Biology and Environment embraces Medical Research, Life Sciences, Psychology and Environmental Science. It cover all aspects of medicine from fundamental research to clinical practice and population health. Research is carried out in areas such as agriculture, environment, neuroscience, visual science, neuroethology, health and technologySONY VAIO PCG-51111M battery.
The John Curtin School of Medical Research (JCSMR) was formed in 1948 as a result of the vision of Nobel Laureate Howard Florey and Prime Minister John Curtin. Two Nobel Prizes (John Carew Eccles in 1963 and Peter C. Doherty and Rolf M. Zinkernagel in 1996) have been won by research performed at John CurtinSONY VAIO PCG-81212M battery.
ANU School of Medicine
ANU College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences
The ANU College of Physical & Mathematical Sciences comprises the departments of Astronomy & Astrophysics; Chemistry; Earth Sciences; Mathematical Sciences; Physics; and Science Communication. The college contains the Research School of Physics and Engineering, a body which focuses primarily on research into materials science and engineeringSony VAIO PCG-81112M battery; lasers, nonlinear optics and photonics; nanotechnology and mesoscopic physics; physics of atoms, molecules and the nucleus; plasma physics and surface science; physics and the environment.
The Research School of Physics and Engineering was founded by Sir Mark Oliphant, its first Director from 1950 to 1963, in 1947. The school was originally called the "Research School of Physical Sciences" with "Engineering" being added to its title in 1990 to highlight the large amount of engineering work that is undertaken in the schoolSONY VAIO PCG-71111M battery. The name was again changed in 2008 to the "Research School of Physics and Engineering" to coincide with the merger with ANU's undergraduate physics teaching department.For much of the early years the focus of a large part of the school was designing, re-designing and building a cyclo-synchrotron that in its final intended form was to produce a beam of 10.6 GeV protons for nuclear physics researchSONY VAIO PCG-7196M battery. Designed to be a world class research machine it was referred to within the school as "The Big Machine". Due to shifting goalposts and huge costs the cyclo-syncrotron was never completed. The small 7.7 MeV cyclotron designed to function as the proton injector was completed in 1955, and the large homopolar generator intended to power the system was first operated in 1962, but by this time work on "The Big Machine" itself had been abandonedSONY VAIO PCG-7195M battery.
The John Curtin School of Medical Research
The homopolar generator, the largest ever built, was capable of supplying currents of over 2 megaamperes. Even though it was never used for its intended purpose it ended up being used for numerous research projects requiring an extremely high current source until its disassembly in 1986SONY VAIO PCG-7194M battery. One of these projects was the invention and development of the railgun by John Barber and Richard Marshall. The school also benefited in an indirect way from the construction of the massive generator, the accumulated engineering experience and techniques where later used to build other research equipment around the school including the Plasma Physics H1NF Heliac. Some parts of the homopolar generator are now on permanent display on the lawn outside the research schoolSONY VAIO PCG-7192M battery.
The school has been home to many different particle accelerators over the years. The first accelerator installed was a 1.25 MV Cockcroft-Walton known as HT1, this was in use from 1952 until 1967 when it was sold to the University of New South Wales. A second smaller 600 kV Cockcroft-Walton machine (HT2) was assembled in house using many spare parts acquired for HT1SONY PCG-8113M battery. In 1955 the UK government supplied a 33 MeV electron synchrotron as a gift. It was moved to the University of Western Australia in 1961. During 1960–1980 a HVEC EN tandem accelerator was used by nuclear physics for light ion research. 1975 saw the school's 14UD accelerator come online, which has since been augmented with a superconducting linear acceleratorSONY PCG-8112M battery.
Arms, Colours and Insignia
The ANU logo is composed of three elements: the crest, the logotype, and the name of the University. The name of the University is printed in capitalised Rotis Semi Sans. The university's coat of arms is a blue shield bearing a stylised representation of Australia beneath the stars of the Southern Cross. The motto is written on a scroll beneath the shield, Naturam Primum Cognoscere Rerum ("First to learn the nature of things")SONY PCG-7134M battery.
Collaborations and memberships
ANU is a member of several university alliances and cooperative networks, including the Group of Eight, the Association of Pacific Rim Universities, the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy and the International Alliance of Research Universities.
The following publications ranked universities worldwide.
The University currently has the highest rankingfor universities in Australia. It is also one of the highest ranked universities in Asia and the Southern Hemisphere according to several compilations, including the Academic Ranking of World Universities, SONY PCG-7131M batterythe Times Higher Education World University Rankingsand the QS World University Rankings(the latter two were amalgamated as the THE-QS World University Rankingsuntil 2010).The Australian National University is the second highest ranked university outside North America and Britain, after ETH Zurich. The QS World University Rankingsconsistently ranks the Australian National University highlySONY PCG-7122M battery. In 2011 it was ranked first in Australasia and twenty-sixth in the World, one below the University of Tokyo, one above King's College London. It has dropped nine places since the 2009 THE-QS World University Rankings(in 2010 Times Higher Education World University Rankings.and QS World University Rankingsparted ways to produce separate rankings) where it came seventeenth globallySONY PCG-7121M battery.
Notable graduates and faculty
Main article: List of Australian National University people
Bob Hawke, 23rd Prime Minister of Australia, 1983–1991.
Kevin Rudd, 26th Prime Minister of Australia, 2007–2010.
Academic leaders have included Professors Manning Clark, Bart Bok, Derek Freeman, and Hanna Neumann. Notable political alumni include former Prime Ministers of Australia, Bob Hawke and Kevin Rudd, current Premier of New South Wales Barry O'Farrell, Patricia Hewitt, and Kim Edward BeazleySONY PCG-7113M battery . Alumni in other fields include Supreme Court Judge Catherine Holmes, linguist Nicholas Evans and mathematician John H. Coates.
Nobel prize winners associated with the University include Lord Howard Florey, an early academic adviser to ANU and Chancellor from 1965–1968 and Professor John Eccles awarded in 1963 for Medicine – for his pioneering work on aspects of the mammalian central nervous systemSONY PCG-7112M battery. Professor Eccles was founding Professor of Physiology at The John Curtin School of Medical Research. Professor John Harsanyi received the 1994 Nobel Prize for Economics for his work on game theory, providing a new tool for economic analysis. Professor Harsanyi taught economics at ANU from 1958 to 1961, completing some of his early research on game theory while at the University. Professor Rolf M. Zinkernagel and Professor Peter Doherty received the 1996 Nobel Prize for Medicine for their revolutionary work in immunologySONY PCG-8Z3M battery; Professors Doherty and Zinkernagel first met and worked together at The John Curtin School of Medical Research. In 2011, Brian P. Schmidt shared the Nobel Prize in Physics with Saul Perlmutter and Adam Riess for observations which provided evidence for the accelerating Universe.
McGill University is a public research university located in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The university bears the name of James McGill, a prominent Montreal merchant from GlasgowSONY PCG-8Z2M battery , Scotland and alumnus of Glasgow University, whose bequest formed the beginning of the university. Founded in 1821, McGill was chartered during the British colonial era, 46 years before the Canadian Confederation, making it one of the oldest universities in Canada.
As of 2011, McGill ranked 17th in the world in the QS World University Rankings. According to the 2011 Emerging/SONY PCG-8Z1M batteryTrendence Global Employability Ranking, McGill was ranked 19th in the world for popularity among major employers. In the Maclean's 21st Annual University Ranking (2011), McGill was ranked 1st in Canada among all institutions offering medical and doctoral degrees, maintaining this ranking for the seventh year in a row.
With almost 215,000 living alumni worldwideSONY PCG-8Y3M battery, students and professors at McGill have been recognized in fields ranging from the arts and sciences, to business, politics, and sports. Notable alumni include eleven Nobel Laureates, one hundred and thirty-two Rhodes Scholars, three astronauts, two Canadian prime ministers, eleven justices of the Canadian Supreme Court, three foreign leaders, nine Academy Award winners, three Pulitzer Prize winners, and twenty-eight Olympic medalistsSONY PCG-8Y2M battery.
The main campus is set upon 32 hectares (79 acres) at the foot of Mount Royal in Downtown Montreal, covering much of the Golden Square Mile. A second campus, the Macdonald Campus, is situated on 6.5 square kilometres (2.5 sq mi) of fields and forested land in Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, 30 km (19 mi) west of the downtown campus. With 21 faculties and professional schoolsSONY PCG-7Z1M battery, McGill offers degrees and diplomas in over 300 fields of study, including medicine and law. Although the language of instruction is English, students have the right to submit any graded work in English or in French, except when learning a particular language is an objective of the course. Approximately 34,000 students attend McGill, with international students comprising one-fifth of the student populationSONY PCG-6W2M battery .
Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning
The creation of the Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning (RIAL) in 1801, and its formation of two new Royal Grammar Schools in 1816, acted as turning points for Canada in two particular ways. First, the schools "were created by legislation, the District Public Schools Act of 1807SONY PCG-5J5M battery, and they showed the government's willingness to support the costs of education and even the salary of a schoolmaster. Second, the law involved the state in education, an important first step in the creation of nondenominational schools." The original two schools closed in 1846; by the mid-19th century the RIAL lost control of the other 82 grammar schools it had administered. SONY PCG-5K2M batteryIts sole remaining purpose was to administer the McGill bequests on behalf of the college. McGill College continued to grow, now having the sole aim of providing post-secondary education. The RIAL continues to exist today; it is the corporate identity that runs the university and its various constituent bodies, including the former Macdonald College (now Macdonald Campus), the Montreal Neurological Institute and the Royal Victoria College (the former women's college turned residence) SONY PCG-5K1M battery. Since the revised Royal Charter of 1852, The Trustees of the RIAL comprise the Board of Governors of McGill University. One of Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll`s works as a sculptor is the statue of her Royal mother Queen Victoria erected in front of the Royal Victoria College, Montreal.
James McGill, the original benefactor of McGill University.
James McGill, born in Glasgow, Scotland on 6 October 1744, was a successful English and French-speaking merchant in Quebec, having matriculated into Glasgow University in 1756. Between 1811 and 1813 he drew up a will leaving his "Burnside estate"SONY PCG-5J4M battery, a 19-hectare (47-acre) tract of rural land and 10,000 pounds to the Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning.
Upon McGill's death in December 1813 the Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning, established in 1801 by an Act of the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada, added the establishing of a University pursuant to the conditions of McGill's will to its original function of administering elementary education in Lower CanadaSONY PCG-5J1M battery. As a condition of the bequest, the land and funds had to be used for the establishment of a "University or College, for the purposes of Education and the Advancement of Learning in the said Province." The will specified that the college would be required to bear his name and must be established within 10 years of his death; otherwise the bequest would revert to the heirs of his wifeSONY PCG-5G2M battery.
On March 31, 1821, after protracted legal battles with the Desrivieres family (the heirs of his wife), McGill College received a royal charter from King George IV. The Charter provided that the College should be deemed and taken as a University, with the power of conferring degrees.
The Arts Building, built in 1839 and designed by John Ostell, is the oldest building on campus still standingSony VAIO PCG-8131M battery.
Despite having a royal charter, McGill College was inactive until 1829 when the Montreal Medical Institution, which had been founded in 1823, became the college's first academic unit and Canada's first medical school. The Faculty of Medicine granted its first degree, a Doctor of Medicine and Surgery, in 1833; this was also the first medical degree to be awarded in CanadaSony VAIO PCG-8152M battery. The Faculty of Medicine remained the school's only functioning faculty until 1843 when the Faculty of Arts commenced teaching in the newly constructed Arts Building and East Wing (Dawson Hall). The university also historically has strong linkage with the The Canadian Grenadier Guards, a military regiment in which James McGill served as the Lieutenant-ColonelSony VAIO PCG-31311M battery. This title is marked upon the stone that stands before the Arts building, from where the Guards step off annually to commemorate Remembrance Day.
Sir John William Dawson, Principal of McGill University 1855-1893.
Sir John William Dawson, McGill's principal from 1855 to 1893, is often credited with transforming the school into a modern university. He recruited the aid of Montreal's wealthiest citizens (eighty percent of Canada's wealth was then controlled by families who lived within the Golden Square Mile area that surrounded the university) Sony VAIO PCG-31111M battery, many of whom donated property and funding needed to construct the campus buildings. Their names adorn many of the campus's prominent buildings. William Spier (architect) designed the addition of West Wing of the Arts Building for William Molson, 1861 Alexander Francis Dunlop designed major alterations to the East Wing of McGill College (now called the Arts Building, MCGill University) for Prof. Bovey and the Science Dept., 1888.Sony VAIO PCG-8112M battery This expansion of the campus continued until 1920. Buildings designed by Andrew Taylor (Architect), include the Redpath Museum (1880), Macdonald Physics Building (1893), the Redpath Library (1893), the Macdonald Chemistry Building (1896), the Macdonald Engineering Building (1907), and the Strathcona Medical Building (1907)—since renamed the Strathcona Anatomy and Dentistry BuildingSony VAIO PCG-7186M battery.
In 1885, the university's Board of Governors formally adopted the use of the name McGill University. The Faculty of Law was founded in 1848, making it Canada's oldest. The school of architecture at McGill University was founded in 1896.
Women's education at McGill began in 1884, when Donald Smith, also known as Lord Strathcona, began funding separate lectures for women, given by university staff members. The first degrees granted to women at McGill were conferred in 1888. Sony VAIO PCG-7171M batteryIn 1899, the Royal Victoria College (RVC) opened as a residential college for women at McGill. Until the 1970s, all female undergraduate students, known as "Donaldas," were considered to be members of RVC. Beginning in the autumn of 2010, the newer Tower section of Royal Victoria College is a co-ed dormitory, whereas the older West Wing remains strictly for womenSony VAIO PCG-9Z1M battery. Both the Tower and the West Wing of Royal Victoria College form part of the university's residence system. In 1900, the university established the MacLennan Travelling Library. McGill University waltz composed by Frances C. Robinson, was published in Montréal by W.H. Scroggie, c 1904.
In 1905, the university acquired a second campus when Sir William C. Macdonald, one of the university's major benefactors, endowed a college in Sainte-Anne-de-BellevueSony VAIO PCG-5S1M battery, 32 kilometres west of Montreal. Macdonald College, now known as the Macdonald Campus, opened to students in 1907, originally offering programs in agriculture, household science, and teaching.
McGill established the first post-secondary institutions in British Columbia to provide degree programs to the growing cities of Vancouver and Victoria. It created Victoria College in 1903, a two-year college offering first and second-year McGill courses in arts and scienceSony VAIO PCG-5P1M battery, which was the predecessor institution to the modern University of Victoria. The province's first university was incorporated in Vancouver in 1908 as the McGill University College of British Columbia. The private institution granted McGill degrees until it became the independent University of British Columbia in 1915Sony VAIO PCG-5N2M battery.
George Allan Ross (architect) designed the Pathological Building, 1922–23; the Neurological Institute, 1933; Neurological Institute addition 1938 at McGill University. Jean Julien Perrault (architect) designed the McTavish Street residence for Charles E. Gravel, which is now called David Thompson House (1934) Sony VAIO PCG-3C2M battery.
The War Memorial Hall (more generally known as Memorial Hall) is a landmark building on the campus of McGill University. At the dedication ceremony the Governor General of Canada (Viscount of Tunis) laid the cornerstone. Dedicated on October 6, 1946, the Memorial Hall and adjoining Memorial Pool honour students who had enlisted and died in the First World War, and in the Second World WarSony VAIO PCG-8161M battery. In Memorial Hall, there are two Stained Glass Regimental badge World War I and World War II Memorial Windows by Charles William Kelsey c. 1950/1. A war memorial window (1950) by Charles William Kelsey in the McGill War Memorial Hall depicts the figure of St. Michael and the badges of the Navy, Army and the Air Force. Six other windows (1951) by Charles William Kelsey on the west wall of the memorial hall depict the coats of arms of the regiments in which the McGill alumni were membersSony VAIO PCG-8141M battery. There is a memorial archway at Macdonald College, two additional floors added to the existing Sir Arthur Currie gymnasium, a hockey rink and funding for an annual Memorial Assembly. A Book of Remembrance on a marble table contains the names of those lost in both World Wars. The National Film Board of Canada documentary `Occupation` (1970), directed by Bill ReidSony VAIO PCG-3J1M battery, documents the occupation of the offices of the Political Science Department at McGill University in 1970 by striking political science students.`
McGill's student population includes 25,938 undergraduate and 8,881 graduate students representing diverse geographic and linguistic backgrounds. Of the entire student population, 54.7% are from Quebec and 25.4% are from the rest of Canada, while 20.0% are from outside of Canada (including the United States) Sony VAIO PCG-3H1M battery. International students hail from about 150 different countries, with Americans comprising about half of all international undergraduates and a third of all international postgraduates in the entering class of 2010. In recent years, a growing number of American students are attending McGill: many are attracted to the culture and dynamism of MontrealSony VAIO PCG-3F1M battery, the university's reputation, and the relatively low tuition costs in comparison to many top public and private universities in the United States. Almost half of McGill students claim a first language other than English. While the university is located in a Francophone province, only 17.8% of the students claim French as their mother tongue, compared to 51.8% who claim English and 30.5% who claim some other language. Sony VAIO PCG-3C1M battery
Faculties and schools
In the 2007–2008 school year, McGill offered over 340 academic programs in eleven faculties. The university also offers over 250 doctoral and master's graduate degree programs. Despite strong increases in university enrollment across North America, McGill has upheld a relatively low and appealing student-faculty ratio of 16:1. Sony VAIO PCG-9Z2L battery There are nearly 1,600 tenured or tenure-track professors and 4,300 adjunct and visiting professors teaching at the university.
22% of all students are enrolled in the Faculty of Arts, McGill's largest academic unit. Of the other larger faculties, the Faculty of Science enrolls 15%, the Faculty of Medicine enrolls 13%, the Centre for Continuing Education enrolls 12%, the Faculty of Engineering and the Desautels Faculty of Management enrol about 10% each. Sony VAIO PCG-9Z1L battery The remainder of all students are enrolled in McGill's smaller schools, including the Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Faculty of Education, Faculty of Law, Schulich School of Music, and the Faculty of Religious Studies. Since the 1880s, McGill has been affiliated with three Theological CollegesSony VAIO PCG-9131L battery; the Montreal Diocesan Theological College (Anglican Church of Canada), The Presbyterian College, Montreal (Presbyterian Church in Canada), and United Theological College (United Church of Canada). The university's Faculty of Religious Studies maintains additional affiliations with other theological institutions and organizations, such as the Montreal School of Theology. Sony VAIO PCG-8161L battery
Schools at the university include the School of Architecture, the School of Computer Science, the School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition, the School of Nursing, the School of Social Work, the School of Urban Planning, and the McGill School of Environment. They also include the Institute of Islamic Studies (established in 1952) which offers graduate courses leading to the M.A. and Ph.D. degrees, Sony VAIO PCG-8152L batteryand covering the history, culture, and civilization of Islam since its inception and up to modern times; the Institute is also served by one of the richest libraries in North America on Islamic studies with sources in many languages. The Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies (GPS) oversees the admission and registration of graduate students (both master's and Ph.D.) Sony VAIO PCG-8141L battery. The GPS administers graduate fellowships, postdoctoral affairs, and the graduation process, including the examination of theses. In conjunction with other units, it conducts regular program reviews in all study disciplines.
Founded in 1956, the McGill Executive Institute provides business seminars and custom executive education to companies, government services and non-profit organizations. Led primarily by McGill facultySony VAIO PCG-8131L battery, the executive courses and management training programs are designed for all managerial levels, from board members to senior-level executives to junior managers.
Research centres and institutes
Centre for International Peace and Security Studies
Research plays a critical role at McGill. According to the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, "Researchers at McGill are affiliated with about 75 major research centres and networks, and are engaged in an extensive array of research partnerships with other universities, government and industry in Quebec and CanadaSony VAIO PCG-81312L battery, throughout North America and in dozens of other countries." Annually, around 100 inventions take place at McGill. In recognition of its research quality, McGill is affiliated with 11 Nobel Laureates and professors have won major teaching prizes. McGill's researchers are supported by the McGill University Library, which comprises 13 branch libraries and holds over six million items. Sony VAIO PCG-81214L battery
Since 1926, McGill has been a member of the Association of American Universities (AAU), an organization of leading research universities in North America. McGill is also a founding member of Universitas 21, an international network of leading research-intensive universities that work together to expand their global reach and advance their plans for internationalizationSony VAIO PCG-81115L battery.
McGill is a member of the U15, a group of prominent research universities within Canada. McGill-Queen's University Press began as McGill in 1963 and amalgamated with Queen's in 1969. McGill-Queen's University Press focuses on Canadian studies and publishes the Canadian Public Administration SeriesSony VAIO PCG-81114L battery.
Radon, discovered at McGill by physicist Ernest Rutherford
McGill is perhaps best recognized for its research and discoveries in the health sciences. William Osler, Wilder Penfield, Donald Hebb, Brenda Milner, and others made significant discoveries in medicine, neuroscience and psychology while working at McGill. The Montreal Neurological Institute is also located in McGill university, where many of these individuals workedSony VAIO PCG-81113L battery. The first hormone governing the Immune System (later christened the Cytokine 'Interleukin-2') was discovered at McGill in 1965 by Gordon & McLean. The invention of the world's first artificial cell was made by Thomas Chang, an undergraduate student at the university. While chair of physics at McGill, nuclear physicist Ernest Rutherford performed the experiment that led to the discovery of the alpha particle and its function in radioactive decaySony VAIO PCG-7142L battery, which won him the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1908. Alumnus Jack Szostak, now a professor of genetics at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize in medicine for discovering a key mechanism in the genetic operations of cells, an insight that has inspired new lines of research into cancer.
William Chalmers invented Plexiglas while a graduate student at McGill. In computing, MUSIC/SP, software for mainframes once popular among universities and colleges around the worldSony VAIO PCG-7141L battery, was developed at McGill. A team also contributed to the development of Archie, a pre-WWW search engine. A 3270 terminal emulator developed at McGill was commercialized and later sold to Hummingbird Software.
McGill is Canada's top-ranked university among those offering medical and doctoral degrees, ranking first in Canada for the seventh consecutive year in the Maclean's 21st annual University Rankings issue. Sony VAIO PCG-71111L battery The university has held first place in student awards for nine consecutive years, and consistently ranks first for reputation, average size, and number of social sciences and humanities grants per full-time faculty. The Gourman Ranking of Canadian Universities also ranked McGill first in Canada in its 1998 report on undergraduate programs.Sony VAIO PCG-61411L battery
In the 2011 QS World University Rankings, McGill was ranked the best university in Canada, the second best public university in North America (behind University of Michigan), and 17th in the world, going up two places since the 2010 THE-QS World University Rankings (in 2010 Times Higher Education World University Rankings and QS World University Rankings parted ways to produce separate rankings) Sony VAIO PCG-61112L battery. McGill was also ranked 15th in the world for Employer Reputation by Q.S. Within specific fields, in 2009 McGill ranked 10th in the life sciences and biomedicine, 14th in the arts and humanities, 17th in the social sciences, 26th in the natural sciences, and 20th in technology. When McGill placed 12th overall in the 2007 ranking, the achievement was regarded as the "highest rank to be reached by a Canadian institution." Sony VAIO PCG-61111L battery McGill ranks 28th in the world according to the 2011 Times Higher Education World University Rankings. In the most recent ranking of world universities by U.S. News & World Report, McGill university is ranked 17th. In Shanghai Jiao Tong University's Academic Ranking of World Universities 2011, McGill ranked third in Canada and 64th in the world. ">Sony VAIO PCG-5T4L battery In Newsweek's global rankings of 2011, the university ranks 13th among institutions outside the United States, and third in Canada. In 2011, the Trendence/Emerging Global Employability Ranking, based on a survey of hundreds of major employers in 10 different countries, ranked schools according to their perceived popularity among major job recruitersSony VAIO PCG-5T3L battery. McGill placed 19th in the world for employability in this ranking. In the 2008 College Prowler Online rankings for Academics at North American universities, McGill earned an A- for Academics; making it the only Canadian school to achieve a grade above a B-.
In 2009, Forbes ranked McGill's business school, the Desautels Faculty of Management, 11th in the world among non-U.S. universities for its two-year MBA program. Sony VAIO PCG-5T2L battery The Eduniversal Ranking placed the Desautels Faculty of Management of McGill University first in Canada and 8th in the world among business schools. The Financial Times, in its global MBA ranking, placed Desautels 44th in the world in 2006 and 57th in 2011. The ranking placed it 33rd and 31st worldwide in the value for money and alumni recommended categories respectivelySony VAIO PCG-5S3L battery. In BusinessWeek's Best International B-Schools Of 2008, Desautels was ranked among the top 16 international business schools, ranking fourth in intellectual capital with a selectivity of 32%.
Since Maclean's began ranking Canadian law schools in 2007, it has placed McGill's law school second overall for the second year in a row. In particular, McGill's law school, which requires reading knowledge of French and offers the joint B.C.L./LL.BSony VAIO PCG-5S2L battery. degree in both civil law and common law, ranked first by supreme court clerkships, second by elite firm hiring, third by faculty hiring, fourth by faculty journal citations, and eighth by national reach.
The Globe and Mails Canadian University Report awarded McGill top marks in its 2008 annual university survey. McGill received an A+ for Academic Reputation, the highest score of any large, medium, or small sized University. Additionally the school received an A- forSony VAIO PCG-5S1L battery: most satisfied students, quality of education, extracurricular activities, recreation and athletics, and campus atmosphere; as well as A's in both library services and campus technology. The Canadian University Report awarded McGill's downtown campus a D for its 'on-campus' food services and a C for its on-campus pub GertsSony VAIO PCG-5R2L battery.
Research Infosource named McGill "Research University of the Year" in its 2003 and 2005 rankings of Canada's Top 50 Research Universities. In 2007, Research Infosource ranked McGill the second-best research university in the country, after the University of Toronto. They also ranked McGill University third in Canada in research-intensity and fourth in total-research funding, Sony VAIO PCG-5R1L batteryfinding that McGill ranks in the top five universities in terms of research dollars per full-time faculty member and number of refereed publications per full-time faculty member. The study showed that research funding represents approximately $259,100 per faculty member, the fourth highest in the country.
McGill was named one of "Canada's Top 100 Employers" in October 2008 and October 2009 by Mediacorp Canada Inc., and was featured in Maclean's newsmagazineSony VAIO PCG-5P4L battery.
The Sustainable Endowments Institute gave McGill a grade of "B" on the 2009 College Sustainability Report Card for its improvements in on-campus environmental sustainability, with only 34 schools earning higher grade.
Playboy magazine, in its May 2006 issue, ranked McGill as the tenth best party school in North America. McGill was the only Canadian university in the listSony VAIO PCG-5P2L battery.
For Fall 2010, McGill accepted 13,709 (47.2%) of 29,059 undergraduate applicants, and 3,537 (34.4%) of 10,268 graduate applicants; about 6,000 undergraduates and 2,000 graduates matriculate each year. Among admitted students, the median Quebec CEGEP r-score was 30.1, while the median grade 12 averages for students entering McGill from outside of Quebec ranged between 91% and 92% (A). Sony VAIO PCG-5N4L battery For American students, the median SAT scores in the verbal, math, and writing sections were 690, 700, and 690 respectively, for a combined SAT score of around 2080; the median ACT score was 31.
For law students, the median undergraduate GPA was 85% (or 3.7 on a 4.0 scale) and the median LSAT score was 163 (88.1th percentile) out of a possible 180 points. For medical students, the median undergraduate GPA was 3.8 out of 4.0 and the median MCAT score was 32.1. Sony VAIO PCG-5N2L battery Among the 30% of applicants admitted to the Desautels Faculty of Management's MBA program, applicants had, on average, a GMAT score of 665, an age of 27, and 49 months of work experience.
A hockey game on campus in 1884, just seven years after McGill students wrote the then-new game's first rule book, with the Arts Building, Redpath Museum, and Morrice Hall (then the Presbyterian College) visibleSony VAIO PCG-51513L battery.
McGill's downtown campus at night viewed from Mount Royal. The circular building in the foreground is the McIntyre Medical Sciences Building.
McGill's main campus is situated in downtown Montreal at the foot of Mount Royal. Most of its buildings are situated in a park-like campus located north of Sherbrooke Street and south of Pine Ave between Peel and Aylmer streetsSony VAIO PCG-51511L battery. The campus also extends west of Peel for several blocks, starting north of Docteur-Penfield. The campus is near the Peel and McGill metro stations. All of the major university buildings were constructed using local grey limestone, which serves as a unifying element.
The university's first classes were held in at Burnside Place, James McGill's country home. Burnside Place remained the sole educational facility until the 1840s, when the school began construction on its first buildings: the central and east wings of the Arts Building. Sony VAIO PCG-51412L battery The rest of the campus was essentially a cow pasture, a situation similar to the few other Canadian universities and early American colleges of the age.
The university's athletic facilities, including Molson Stadium, are located on Mount Royal, near the residence halls and the Montreal Neurological Institute. The Gymnasium is named in honour of General Sir Arthur William Currie.
The collegiate Gothic facade of the Faculty of Religious StudiesSony VAIO PCG-51411L battery.
Old entrance of the Macdonald Physics Building
The Strathcona Music Building, formerly Royal Victoria College.
The Redpath Library, and example of the Richardsonian Romanesque.
The Macdonald-Stewart Library Building houses the Schulich Library of Science and Engineering.
View from the arts building.
McGill's residence system is relatively small for a school of its size, housing approximately 2,700 undergraduate students and a handful of graduate students. Sony VAIO PCG-51312L battery Most McGill students do not live in residence (known colloquially as "rez") after their first year of study, even if they are not from the Montreal area. With the exception of students returning as "floor fellows" or "dons", the majority of McGill residences are for first-year undergraduate students only. Senior students are expected to find off-campus housingSony VAIO PCG-51311L battery.
Many first-year students live in the Bishop Mountain Residences ("Upper Rez"), a series of concrete dormitories on the slope of Mount Royal, consisting of McConnell Hall, Molson Hall, Gardner Hall, and Douglas Hall. Douglas Hall, which opened in 1937, is distinguished by its impressive stone facade and wood interiors. McConnell, Molson, and Gardner HallsSony VAIO PCG-51211L battery, all built in the 1960s, share a cafeteria, located at the centre of the three dormitories, known as Bishop Mountain Hall.
Royal Victoria College, the second-largest residence at McGill, was a women's only dormitory; however in September 2010 the dormitory became co-ed. McGill's second newest residence, aptly named New Residence Hall ("New Rez") is a converted four-star hotel located a few blocks east of campus. New Rez is the largest of the university's dormitoriesSony VAIO PCG-41112L battery. Solin Hall is an apartment-style residence four metro stops from campus. The McGill Off-Campus Residence Experience (MORE) residences consist of a series of converted apartment buildings and houses, the largest of which is The Greenbriar, an apartment-style residence located across from the Milton GatesSony VAIO PCG-3A4L battery.
In autumn 2008, due to increased demand for first-year housing, the University chose to lease four floors of a privately owned apartment building for use as a university residence. The building, called "515 Ste. Catherine", is on the corner of Rue Ste. Catherine and Rue City Councillors, close to campus yet in the heart of downtown Montreal. It was completely renovated and featured a gym, movie theater, and fully furnished apartmentsSony VAIO PCG-3A3L battery. However, the McGill Residence Office decided to forgo use of the building after summer 2009. In April 2009, McGill acquired the Four Points Sheraton Hotel at 475 Sherbrooke Street West. The hotel was converted into a new student residence, which opened in fall 2009. Although it is the newest residence, students either call it Carrefour, or, informally, "C4." Officially, however, the building has been named Carrefour Sherbrooke Residence HallSony VAIO PCG-3A2L battery.
Most second-year students transition to off-campus apartment housing, and apartment hunting is sometimes seen as a rite of passage for McGill students. Many students end up living in the "McGill Ghetto", the neighbourhood directly to the east of the downtown campus. In recent years, finding affordable housing has been challenging because of the city's tight housing marketSony VAIO PCG-3A1L battery, particularly in neighbourhoods close to the McGill campus. Students have begun moving out to other areas because of rising rent prices.
McGill has begun an ambitious process to lay the groundwork for future development. A Task Force on Campus Planning has been created to study the issue. It has begun to consult widely within the McGill and greater community on a broad range of issues including community life, physical development plans, and other issuesSony VAIO PCG-394L battery. Its recommendations include how McGill can develop in a way that supports the University’s mission and goals, and continues to benefit and bring value to the surrounding areas and the greater Montreal community. Among the guiding principles of the Task Force’s work are commitment to community, responsible stewardship, maintenance of green space and the integrity of the mountain, and the preservation of heritage architectural assetsSony VAIO PCG-393L battery.
One recent initiative turned McGill into a car-free campus.
Redevelopment plan, McGill University Health Centre
In 2006, the Quebec government initiated a $1.6 billion LEED redevelopment project for the McGill University Health Centre (MUHC). The project will expand facilities to two separate campuses and consolidate the various hospitals of the MUHC on the site of an old CP rail yard adjacent to the Vendôme metro stationSony VAIO PCG-391L battery. This site, known as Glen Yards, comprises 170,000 square metres (1,800,000 sq ft) and spans portions of Montreal's Notre-Dame-de-Grâce neighbourhood and the city of Westmount. The Glen Yards project has been controversial due to local opposition to the project, environmental issues, and the cost of the project itself. The project, which has received approval from the provincial governmentSony VAIO PCG-384L battery, was, in 2003, expected to be complete by 2010. The new 'campus' is now expected to open in 2014 or 2015.
Main article: Macdonald Campus
Macdonald Campus under construction in 1906
The Macdonald Campus coat of arms
A second campus, the Macdonald Campus, in Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue houses the Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Science, the School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition, the Institute of Parasitology, and the McGill School of Environment. The Morgan Arboretum and the J. S. Marshall Radar Observatory are nearbySony VAIO PCG-383L battery.
The Morgan Arboretum was created in 1945. It is a 2.5-square-kilometre (0.965 sq mi) forested reserve with the aim of 'teaching, research, and public education'. Its mandated research goals are to continue research related to maintaining the health of the Arboretum plantations and woodlands, to develop new programs related to selecting species adapted to developing environmental Sony VAIO PCG-382L batteryconditions and to develop silvicultural practices that preserve and enhance biological diversity in both natural stands and plantations.
In 2007, McGill premiered its Office of Sustainability and added a second full-time position in this area, the Director of Sustainability in addition to the Sustainability Officer. Recent efforts in implementing its sustainable development plan include the new Life Sciences Center which was built with LEED-Silver certification and a green roofSony VAIO PCG-381L battery, as well as an increase in parking rates in January 2008 to fund other sustainability projects. Other student projects include The Flat: Bike Collective, which promotes alternative transportation, and the Farmer's Market, which occurs during the fall harvest. The Farmer's Market and many other initiatives came out of student collaboration during the Rethink Conference 2008Sony VAIO PCG-7185L battery.
McGill's Bellairs Research Institute, located in St. James, Barbados 13°10′N 59°35′W, is Canada's only teaching and research facility in the tropics. The institute has been in use for over 50 years. Its facilities are regularly utilized by the Canadian Space Agency for research.
The laboratories of the Huntsman Marine Science Centre are located in St. Andrews, N.B., on 300,000 square metres (3,200,000 sq ft) Sony VAIO PCG-7184L battery of land at the estuary of the St. Croix River. It hosts the Atlantic Reference Centre, which is known throughout the Maritimes for its extensive marine biology collections. The HMS is a research facility "committed to the advancement of the marine sciences through basic and applied research" and acts as a field facility for research and teaching by McGill and other member universitiesSony VAIO PCG-7183L battery.
McGill's Gault Nature Reserve 45°32′N 73°10′W spans over 10 square kilometres (3.9 sq mi) of forest land, the largest remaining remnant of the primeval forests of the St. Lawrence River Valley. The first scientific studies at the site occurred in 1859. The site has been the site of extensive research activities: "Today there are over 400 scientific articlesSony VAIO PCG-7182L battery, 100 graduate theses, more than 50 government reports and about 30 book chapters that are based on research at Mont St. Hilaire."
In addition to the McGill University Health Centre, McGill has been directly partnered with many teaching hospitals for decades, and also has a history of collaborating with many hospitals in Montreal. These cooperations allow the university to graduate over 1,000 students in health care each yearSony VAIO PCG-7181L battery. McGill's contract-affiliated teaching hospitals include: Montreal Children's Hospital, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal Neurological Hospital, Montreal Chest Institute and Royal Victoria Hospital which are all now part of the McGill University Health Centre. Other hospitals that health care students may use include: Sir Mortimer B. Davis – Jewish General Hospital, Douglas Hospital and St. Mary's Hospital Center. Sony VAIO PCG-7174L battery
University identity and culture
McGill’s coat of arms
The McGill coat of arms is derived from an armorial device assumed during his lifetime by the founder of the University, James McGill. The University's patent of arms was granted by England's Garter-King-at-Arms in 1922 and registered in 1956 with Lord Lyon King of Arms in Edinburgh and in 1992 with the Public Register of Arms, Flags and Badges of CanadaSony VAIO PCG-7173L battery. In heraldic terms, the coat of arms is described as follows: "Argent three Martlets Gules, on a chief dancette of the second, an open book proper garnished or bearing the legend In Domino Confido in letters Sable between two crowns of the first. Motto: Grandescunt Aucta Labore." The coat of arms consists of two parts, the shield and the scroll. The University publishes a guide to the use of the University's arms and mottoSony VAIO PCG-7172L battery.
The university's symbol is the martlet, stemming from the presence of the mythical bird on the official arms of the university. The school's official colours are red and white. McGill's motto is Grandescunt Aucta Labore, Latin for "By work, all things increase and grow" (literally, "Things grown great increase by work," that is, things that grow to be great do so by means of work) Sony VAIO PCG-7171L battery.
The official school song is entitled "Hail, Alma Mater."
Though McGill allowed students to write graduation theses in French as early as 1835, McGill never became a Francophone or officially bilingual university. Today, McGill is one of only three English-language universities in Quebec; fluency in French is not a requirement to attend. The Faculty of Law does, however, require all students to be "passively bilingual"Sony VAIO PCG-7162L battery, meaning that all students must be able to understand written and spoken French—or English if the student is Francophone—since English or French may be used at any time in a course. Though the University allowed some students to write theses in French from the time the University was founded, since 1964 students in all faculties have been able to write exams and papers in either English or FrenchSony VAIO PCG-7161L battery, provided that the objective of the class is not to learn a particular language.
The 1960s were a period of profound social and political change in Quebec, when English was seen as the privileged language of commerce. McGill, where Francophones comprised only three percent of the students, could be seen as the force maintaining economic control by Anglophones of a predominantly French-speaking provinceSony VAIO PCG-7154L battery.
The McGill français movement began in 1969, demanding that McGill become Francophone, pro-nationalist, and pro-worker. The movement was led by Stanley Gray, a political science professor (and possibly unaware of government plans after the recent (1968) legislation founding the Université du Québec). It argued that, since McGill received the lion's share of government fundingSony VAIO PCG-7153L battery, paid by a taxpayer base that was largely Francophone, the university should be equally accessible to that segment of the population. Gray led a demonstration of 10,000 trade unionists, leftist activists, CEGEP students, and even some McGill students, at the university's Roddick Gates on March 28, 1969. Protesters shouted "McGill français", "McGill aux Québécois"Sony VAIO PCG-7152L battery, and "McGill aux travailleurs" (McGill for workers). However, the majority of students and faculty opposed such a position, and many of the protesters were arrested. The McGill français protest was, at the time, the second-largest protest in the history of Montreal. Francophone students, whether from Quebec or overseas, now make up approximately 18 percent of the student body, a goal set by the administration partially in the wake of the movement.Sony VAIO PCG-7151L battery The totally Francophone Université du Québec à Montréal had by 2011 an enrolment of 40,000.
The campus has an active students' union represented by the undergraduate Students' Society of McGill University (SSMU) and the Post-Graduate Students' Society of McGill University (PGSS). SSMU was one of the first student societies in Canada to use an online voting system for campus elections. Due to the large postdoctoral populationSony VAIO PCG-7148L battery, the PGSS also contains a semi-autonomous Association of Postdoctoral Fellows (APF). In addition, each faculty has its own student governing body. There are hundreds of clubs and student organizations at the university. Many of them are centred around McGill's student union building, the University Centre. In 1992, students held a referendum which called for the University Centre to be named for actor and McGill alumnus William Shatner. Sony VPCW21M2E/WI battery The university administration refused to accept the name and did not attend the opening. Traditionally, the administration names buildings in honour of deceased members of the university community or for major benefactors—Shatner is neither.
McGill has three English-language student-run newspapers: the McGill Daily, the McGill Tribune and the The Bull & Bear. The McGill Daily was first published in 1911Sony VPCW21C7E battery. The Daily is currently is published twice weekly. The Délit français is the Daily's French-language counterpart. The combined circulation of both papers is over 28,000. The McGill Foreign Affairs Review is a student-run journal about international affairs. Since 1988, The Red Herring has been the main satire magazine of McGill University. CKUT (90.3 FM) is the campus radio stationSony VPCW12S1E/WZ battery. TVMcGill is the University TV station, broadcasting on closed-circuit television and over the internet. The McGill University Faculty of Law is also home to three student-run academic journals, including the world renowned McGill Law Journal, founded in 1952Sony VPCW12S1E/W battery.
While fraternities and sororities are not a large part of student life at McGill, some, including fraternities Alpha Delta Phi, Sigma Chi, Alpha Epsilon Pi, Delta Upsilon, and Zeta Psi, and sororities Gamma Phi Beta, Kappa Kappa Gamma, Kappa Alpha Theta, and Alpha Omicron Pi, have been established for many years at the university. Phi Kappa PiSony VPCW12S1E/T battery, Canada's only national fraternity, was founded at McGill and the University of Toronto in 1913 and continues to be active to this day. Events including Greek week, held annually during the first week of February, have been established to promote Greek life on campus. With just over 2% of the student body population participating, involvement is well below that of most American universities, but on par with most Canadian schoolsSony VPCW12S1E/P battery.
McGill has had a student club supporting lesbian, bisexual, gay, and transgender students since 1972. The group, originally named "Gay McGill", was renamed "Queer McGill" in 1998 to better identify with the diversity of its members. Queer McGill supports both students and non-student members of the McGill community. Membership in 2002 was over 400Sony VPCW11S1E/W battery.
The three oldest a cappella groups on campus are Tonal Ecstasy, Effusion and Soulstice. These groups perform multiple times during the year at on- and off-campus events.
Student organizations at McGill are internationally recognized in a variety of ways. Many larger organizations and NGOs have a local presence on campus. The International Relations Students Association of McGill (IRSAM) Sony VPCW11S1E/T battery currently has consultative status with the UN's Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Since 1990, IRSAM has hosted an annual Model United Nations, McMUN, for university students and since 1993 it has hosted an annual Model United Nations, SSUNS, for high school studentsSony VPCW11S1E/P battery.
Numerous other humanitarian groups can be found: UNICEF McGill, Oxfam McGill, End Poverty Now, Right to Play McGill, and Free the Children are just a few. Numerous student interest groups enhance university life while representing a variety of interests and perspectivesSony VPCYA1S1E/B battery.
McGill is represented in Canadian Interuniversity Sport (CIS) by the McGill Redmen (men's) and the McGill Martlets (women's). Following a major restructuring of the varsity programme for the fall semester of 2010, McGill is currently home to 28 varsity teams. McGill's unique mascot, Marty the Martlet, was introduced during the 2005 Homecoming gameSony VPCYA1V9E/B battery,
The downtown McGill campus sport and exercise facilities include: the McGill Sports Centre (which includes the Tomlinson Fieldhouse and the Windsor Varsity Clinic), Molson Stadium, Memorial Pool, Tomlinson Hall, McConnell Arena, Forbes Field, many outdoor tennis courts and other extra-curricular arenas and faculties. Sony VPCY21S1E/SI battery The Macdonald Campus facilities, include an arena, a gymnasium, a pool, tennis courts, fitness centres and hundreds of acres of green space for regular use. The university's largest sporting venue, Molson Stadium, was constructed in 1914. Following an expansion project completed in 2010, it now seats just over 25,000, and is the current home field of the Montreal AlouettesSony VPCY21S1E/L battery.
The inventions of North American football, hockey, and basketball are all related to McGill in some way, with rugby rules providing the foundation for the others. Even the introduction of cross-country skiing has a McGill connection.
In 1868, the first recorded game of rugby in North America occurred in Montreal, between British army officers and McGill students, giving McGill the oldest university-affiliated rugby club in North America. Other McGill-originated sports evolved out of rugby rulesSony VPCY21S1E/G battery: football, hockey, and basketball. The first game of North American football was played between McGill and Harvard on May 14, 1874, leading to the spread of American football throughout the Ivy League. One of the world's first organized hockey clubs, made up of McGill students, played their first game on January 31, 1877. Very soon thereafter, those McGill students wrote the first hockey rule bookSony VPCY11S1E/S battery. McGill alumnus James Naismith invented basketball in early December 1891. Norwegian Herman "Jackrabbit" Smith-Johannsen popularized cross-country skiing in North America from McGill's Gault Estate in Mont St. Hilaire. Johannsen also helped coach Canada's 1932 Olympic team.
There has been a McGill alumnus or alumna competing at every Olympic Games since 1908. Swimmer George Hodgson won two gold medals at the 1912 Summer OlympicsSony VPCY11S1E battery, ice hockey goaltender Kim St-Pierre won gold medals at the 2002 Winter Olympics and at the 2006 Winter Olympics. Other 2006 gold medalists are Jennifer Heil (women's freestyle mogul) and goaltender Charline Labonté (women's ice hockey).
In 1996, the McGill Sports Hall of Fame was established to honour its best student athletes. Notable members of the Hall of Fame include James Naismith and Sydney PierceSony VPCZ11X9E/B battery.
A 2005 hazing scandal forced the cancellation of the final two games in the McGill Redmen football season. In 2006, McGill's Senate approved a proposed anti-hazing policy to define forbidden initiation practices.
The McGill University song book, compiled by a committee of graduates and undergraduates, was published in Montreal by W.F. BrownSony VPCZ11Z9E/B battery, circa 1896. Notable among a number of songs commonly played and sung at various events such as commencement and convocation, and athletic games are:
'Alma Mater McGill,' with words by J. McDougall;
'L'Enfant du McGill,' with words by Louis-Honoré Fréchette, and music by Guillaume Couture;
'God Save McGill,' with words by W.M. Mackeracher, tune 'God Save the Queen';
'A Health to Old McGill,' with words by R.W. Huntingdon, and music by Mrs W.C. Baynes;
'McGill,' with words by C.W. Colby, sung to the tune 'The Gay Cavalier'Sony VPCZ12M9E/B battery;
'McGill Revisited,' with words by John Cox,
'McGill Students' with words by W.N. Evans;
'The Student of McGill,' with words by R.D. McGibbon
This section does not cite any references or sources. (November 2011)
McGill maintains an academic and athletic rivalry with Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario. Animosity between rowing athletes at the two schools has inspired an annual boat race between the two universities in the spring of each year since 1997Sony VPCZ12X9E/X battery, inspired by the famous Oxford-Cambridge Boat Race. The football rivalry, which started in 1884, ended after Canadian university athletic divisions were re-organized in 2000; the Ontario-Quebec Intercollegiate Football Conference was divided into Ontario University Athletics and Quebec Student Sports FederationSony VPCZ12Z9E/X battery. The rivalry returned in 2002 when it transferred to the annual home-and-home hockey games between the two institutions. Queen's students refer to these matches as "Kill McGill" games, and usually show up in Montreal in atypically large numbers to cheer on the Queen's Golden Gaels hockey team. In 2007, McGill students arrived in bus-loads to cheer on the McGill Redmen, occupying a third of Queen's Jock Harty ArenaSony VPCZ138GA battery.
The school also competes in the annual "Old Four (IV)" soccer tournament, with Queen's University, the University of Toronto and the University of Western Ontario.
McGill and Harvard also maintain their historical rivalry, represented by the biennial Harvard-McGill rugby games, alternately played in Montreal and Cambridge, MA. McGill is often regarded as being Canada's HarvardSony VPCZ13M9E/B battery. This can also be seen when McGill is mentioned as "The Harvard of Canada" by Marge in The Simpsons, to which Lisa rebuffs. In addition, a popular student t-shirt sold at McGill spoofs this by displaying "Harvard - America's McGill".
McGill in fiction
In fiction, characters from movies and television shows have also been portrayed as McGill students, professors, or researchers. Fictional alumni from McGill include Lieutenant Alan McGregor, played by Gary Cooper in the movie Lives Of the Bengal Lancers (1935) Sony VPCZ13M9E/X battery, and Major Donald Craig, a Canadian commando serving with British special forces during World War II, portrayed by Rock Hudson in the 1967 war movie Tobruk (though the film was loosely based on real events, it is not clear whether or not Hudson's character was based on a real person: most likely he was a pastiche character, given a Canadian background as cover for Hudson's inability to emulate a British accent) Sony VPCZ13V9E battery. In the Fox Network television drama House, James Wilson, an oncologist at the Princeton-Plainsboro Teaching Hospital is also a McGill alumnus. On the animated sitcom The Simpsons, the school was referenced by Marge as "The Harvard of Canada." Walter Langkowski, a researcher from the Marvel Comics Canadian superhero series Alpha Flight, is portrayed as a McGill-based biophysicist researching the gamma radiation accident which created the HulkSony VPCZ13V9E/X battery. Langkowski's discoveries transformed him into the superhero known as Sasquatch. McGill is also referenced in several of Kathy Reichs' Temperance Brennan novels.
The University of Glasgow, one of four ancient Scottish universities and member of the British Russell Group. Founded in 1451, the original benefactor of McGill College, James McGill, studied here in the 1750s before his family worked as merchants in the city. Sony VPCZ13Z9E/X battery The two universities continue this link today as part of Universitas 21, an international student exchange programme.
The University of Edinburgh, one of four ancient Scottish universities and member of the British Russell Group. The University was founded as a civic institution in 1583 and has maintained a strong reputation in the study of medicine, among other disciplines. McGill's first (and, for several years, its only) faculty, Medicine, was founded by four physicians/surgeons who had trained in Edinburgh. Sony VPCZ21M9E battery In common with Glasgow, Edinburgh shares an international exchange link with McGill through Universitas 21.
As a public university, McGill is not as dependent on its endowment for operating revenue as some of its international peers. The McGill endowment only provides approximately 10 per cent of the school's annual operating revenues. Nonetheless, McGill's endowment rests within the top 10 percent of all North American post-secondary institutions' endowments. Sony VPCZ21Q9E battery While McGill's conservative investment policy has protected it from the more substantial losses experienced at many other universities during the market crisis of 2008–2009, it still faced a 20% endowment decline from approximately $920 million to $740 million. Valued at $21,633 per student, the university maintains one of the largest endowments among Canadian universities on a per-student basisSony VPCZ21V9E battery.
In an open letter to faculty and students, Heather Munroe-Blum wrote: "The next few years do not promise to be easy. But in facing this challenge, McGill has a unique advantage in addition to that of the fundamental progress we have made. This university has lived with restricted resources and uncertainty for almost two hundred years – it is part of our cultureSony VPCEH3T9E battery. And yet, against this backdrop of hardship, we have always retained our commitment to excellence. We are one of the world’s great universities. This will not change. In my installation speech in the spring of 2003, I said McGill "punches above its weight." We will continue to do so. In order to stay the course, we must now move with confidenceSony VPCEH3N6E battery, pride, excitement and discipline to seize every opportunity to put McGill in an ideal position to leap forward with the inevitable recovery."
Campaign McGill: History in the Making is a five-year comprehensive campaign that began in October 2007, with the goal of raising over $750 million for the purpose of further "attracting and retaining top talent in Quebec, to increase access to quality education and to further enhance McGill's ability to address critical global problems." Sony VPCEH3N1E battery The largest goal of any Canadian university fundraising campaign in history, within the first six months, McGill had accumulated over $400 million towards its efforts. Support to McGill’s annual fund has actually increased during the market crisis. According to Principal Heather Munroe-Blum, she is confident that Campaign McGill will reach its $750 million goal by 2012. Sony VPCEH3D0E battery
Tuition fees vary significantly between in-province, out-of-province, and international students, with full-time Quebec students paying around $2,167.80 per year, Canadian students from other provinces paying around $5,858.10 per year, and international students paying $14,461.80–$24,840 per year. Students must also pay housing costsSony VPCEH3B1E battery, though Montreal has some of the least expensive housing among large North American cities.
Since 1996, McGill, in accordance with the Ministère de l'Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport (MELS), has had eight categories that qualifies certain international students to be excused from paying international fees. These categories include: students from France, a quota of students from select countries which have agreements with MELS, which include AlgeriaSony VPCEH2Z1E battery, China, and Morocco, students holding diplomatic status, including their dependents, and students enrolled in certain language programs leading to a degree in French.
Scholarships and financial aid
Scholarships at McGill are relatively difficult to attain, compared to other Canadian universities. This is predominantly due to the number of high academic achievers at the school. For out-of-province first year undergraduate studentsSony VPCEH2S9E battery, a high school average of 95% is required to receive a guaranteed one-year entrance scholarship. To be considered for the same scholarships, Quebec CEGEP students need a minimum r-score of 35.5, United States high school students need a minimum A average as well as at least 700 in each SAT or 33 in the ACT, and French Baccalaureate students need an average of 15.5 plus a minimum score of 14 in each courseSony VPCEH2Q1E battery; similarly, students in the British education system need As in both GCSE Level and predicted Advanced Level results, and International Baccalaureate students need to attain a minimum overall average of 6.9 on predicted grades or a score of 42 on exam results. In general, entrance scholarship recipients rank in the top 1–2% of their classSony VPCEH2P0E battery.
For renewal of previously earned scholarships, students generally need to be within the top 10% of their faculty. For in-course scholarships in particular, students must be within the top 5% of their faculty. McGill itself outlines scholarship considerations as follows: "Competition for basic and major scholarships is intense at McGillSony VPCEH2N1E battery. An extraordinary number of exceptional applications are received each year and therefore we cannot award scholarships to all good candidates."
The university has joined Project Hero, a scholarship program cofounded by General (Ret'd) Rick Hillier for the families of fallen Canadian Forces members.
Main article: List of McGill University people
As chair of physics at McGill, Ernest Rutherford was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1908 for his work in atomic physicsSony VPCEH2M9E battery.
In the arts, McGill students include three Pulitzer Prize winners, Templeton Prize winner Charles Taylor, essayist and novelist John Ralston Saul, a Companion of the Order of Canada along with Charles Taylor, Juno Award winner Sam Roberts, Singer-Songwriter Prita Chhabra and William Shatner, best known for his portrayal of Captain Kirk on Star Trek and winner of several Emmy Awards. Nine Academy Award winners studied at McGill. Sony VPCEH2M1E batteryBillboard charting musician and vocalist Mary Fahl also attended McGill University.
In the sciences, students include doctors, inventors, three astronauts and scientist Dr. Mark J. Poznansky, a member of the Order of Canada. On October 16, 2009, the 42nd American president, Bill Clinton accepted an Honorary Doctorate from McGill University.
Charles Taylor studied at the University of Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar from McGillSony VPCEH2L9E battery.
Some politicians and government officials both within Canada and abroad are McGill alumni, including two Canadian prime ministers and eleven justices of the Supreme Court of Canada. Progressive Conservative MP Robert Layton and his son, New Democratic Party leader and Leader of the Opposition Jack Layton, also attended McGill. Sony VPCEH2J1E battery Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga completed her Ph.D. at McGill and was elected as president of the Republic of Latvia in 1999 as the first female president in Eastern Europe after Turkey's Tansu Çiller. Ahmed Nazif also completed a Ph.D. at McGill in 1983 and has served as the youngest prime minister of Egypt since the republic's founding 1953. In the 2011 Canadian election, five McGill students—undergraduates Charmaine Borg, Matthew Dubé, Mylène FreemanSony VPCEH2H1E battery (graduating shortly after the election) and Laurin Liu plus graduate student Jamie Nicholls—were elected as NDP MPs. In the United States, 2006 McGill graduate Ilya Sheyman is a Democratic candidate for the U.S. House of Representatives.
Corporate leaders and media personalities have also studied at McGill. Leading Canadian philanthropist and entrepreneur Seymour Schulich donated $20 million, the highest donation to any music school in CanadaSony VPCEH2F1E battery, to the newly-named Schulich School of Music. Henry Mintzberg, a professor at McGill's Desautels Faculty of Management is an acclaimed management thinker and contributes to The New York Times and The Economist. Mintzberg is an Officer of the Order of Canada. Co-founder and president of Matrox Electronic Systems Ltd., which innovates globally in graphics, video editing, and image processing, Lorne Trottier has donated $10 million towards services in information and technology at McGillSony VPCEH2E0E battery. The new engineering building is called Trottier, named after Lorne Trottier. Conrad Black, a major media magnate and convicted fraudster, also studied at McGill.
McGill students are also recognized as athletes, including various members of Canadian national teams and twenty-eight Olympic medalists. Since the Olympics began, McGill has produced 112 Olympians who have won a total of eight gold medals, nine silver, and eleven bronze. Sony VPCEH2D0E battery
Jacob Viner, who would later go on to form the beginnings of the modern day Chicago School of Economics, earned his undergraduate degree from McGill. William Osler, one of the founders of the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, and the originator of the concept of medical residency, received his medical degree from McGillSony VPCEH2C0E battery.
Professors at McGill have won 26 Prix du Québec, 14 Prix de l'Association francophone pour le savoir and 21 Killam Prizes. Eleven Nobel Laureates have studied or taught at McGill.
Since 1902, Canadian undergraduate students have been eligible for Rhodes Scholarships to study at the University of Oxford. More than any other university, McGill students have won 132 Rhodes Scholarships. Sony VPCEH1Z1E batteryThese students include parliamentary and cabinet ministers David Lewis (1932), Alastair Gillespie (1947), and Marcel Massé (1963), the political philosopher Charles Taylor (1952), and the U.S. political advisor and inventor Jack Phillips (1978).